The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.

The development and structure of the chimpanzee mandible. (1/2159)

The sites of growth and remodeling, and the associated changes in cortical bone structure, have been studied in the chimpanzee mandible and compared with those previously reported in the human and macaque mandibles. The location of the principal sites of growth, and the distribution of the areas of deposition and resorption in the ramus, were found to be similar in all three species. In the chimpanzee, unlike Man, the bone being deposited at the condyle, posterior border of the ramus and coronoid process was plexiform in nature, indicating very rapid growth. The pattern of remodeling in the mandibular body, on the other hand, showed marked species differences at the chin and on the submandibular lingual surface, which account for the contrasts seen in the adult morphology of these regions. Although the pattern of distribution of cortical densities differed from that of surface remodeling, the information they give is complementary in analysing bone growth. The densest regions were found to coincide with sites of consistent lamellar deposition, while the least dense regions were those where plexiform bone was formed. Areas where remodeling led to the greatest reorientation of bone tissue within the cortex showed the greatest disparity between the two patterns.  (+info)

Third component, HBeAg/3, of hepatitis B e antigen system, identified by three different double-diffusion techniques. (2/2159)

A third component, HB(e)AG/3, of the hepatitis B e antigen system has been detected, and it was consistently detected in three variations of the double-diffusion technique.  (+info)

In vivo analysis of the 3' untranslated region of the hepatitis C virus after in vitro mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone. (3/2159)

Large sections of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were deleted from an infectious cDNA clone, and the RNA transcripts from seven deletion mutants were tested sequentially for infectivity in a chimpanzee. Mutants lacking all or part of the 3' terminal conserved region or the poly(U-UC) region were unable to infect the chimpanzee, indicating that both regions are critical for infectivity in vivo. However, the third region, the variable region, was able to tolerate a deletion that destroyed the two putative stem-loop structures within this region. Mutant VR-24 containing a deletion of the proximal 24 nt of the variable region of the 3' UTR was viable in the chimpanzee and seemed to replicate as well as the undeleted parent virus. The chimpanzee became viremic 1 week after inoculation with mutant VR-24, and the HCV genome titer increased over time during the early acute infection. Therefore, the poly(U-UC) region and the conserved region, but not the variable region, of the 3' UTR seem to be critical for in vivo infectivity of HCV.  (+info)

Experimental transmission of hepatitis C virus-associated fulminant hepatitis to a chimpanzee. (4/2159)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was transmitted from a patient with fulminant hepatitis C to a chimpanzee. The patient had developed two episodes of fulminant hepatitis C, each occurring after a separate liver transplantation. Serial serum and liver samples from the patient and the chimpanzee were analyzed for HCV replication, genotype, quasispecies heterogeneity, and antibodies. In the patient, the levels of HCV replication in serum and liver correlated with the degree of hepatocellular necrosis and the clinical expression of fulminant hepatitis. The same HCV strain, genotype 1a, was recovered from both episodes of fulminant hepatitis. An unusually severe acute hepatitis was also observed in the chimpanzee. The viruses recovered from the patient and the chimpanzee were almost identical and displayed relatively little quasispecies heterogeneity. Thus, the same HCV strain induced two episodes of fulminant hepatitis in a single patient and severe hepatitis in a chimpanzee, suggesting that the pathogenicity or virulence of a specific HCV strain may be important in the pathogenesis of fulminant hepatitis C.  (+info)

Specific binding of recombinant foamy virus envelope protein to host cells correlates with susceptibility to infection. (5/2159)

The interaction of simian foamy viruses (FVs) with their putative cellular receptor(s) was studied with two types of recombinant envelope protein (Env). Transient expression of full-length Env in BHK-21 cells induced syncytia formation. However, selected stable transfectants fused with naive cells but not with each other. A soluble fusion protein of the Env surface domain with the Fc fragment of a human IgG1 heavy chain (EnvSU-Ig) was produced in the baculovirus expression system, purified to homogeneity, and used for binding and competition analyses. EnvSU-Ig but not unrelated Ig fusion proteins bound to cells specifically. Neutralizing serum blocked binding of EnvSU-Ig and, vice versa, serum-mediated neutralization was abrogated by the chimeric protein. Concomitant reduction of EnvSU-Ig binding and FV susceptibility was seen in Env-expressing target cells. Although EnvSU-Ig did not inhibit FV infection, very likely due to its displacement by multivalent virus-cell interactions, this divalent ligand should help to characterize functionally and to identify the ubiquitous FV receptor.  (+info)

Long-term follow-up of chimpanzees inoculated with the first infectious clone for hepatitis C virus. (6/2159)

Two chimpanzees (Ch1535 and Ch1536) became infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) following intrahepatic inoculation with RNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA clone of the virus. Both animals were persistently infected and have been followed for 60 weeks. They showed similar responses to infection, with transient liver enzyme elevations and liver inflammatory responses, which peaked at weeks 17 (Ch1535) and 12 (Ch1536) postinoculation (p.i.). Antibody responses to structural and nonstructural proteins were first detected at weeks 13 (Ch1535) and 10 (Ch1536) p.i. Serum RNA titers increased steadily during the first 10 to 13 weeks but decreased sharply in both animals following antibody and inflammatory responses. Despite direct evidence of humoral immune responses to multiple viral antigens, including hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), both animals remained chronically infected. Detailed sequence analysis of serum HCV RNA revealed no change in the majority HVR1 sequence in Ch1535 and a single-amino-acid mutation in Ch1536, with very little clonal variation in either animal. Full-length genome analysis at week 60 revealed several amino acid substitutions localized to antigens E1, E2, p7, NS3, and NS5. Of these, 55.6 and 40% were present as the majority sequence in serum RNA isolated at week 26 p.i. (Ch1535) and week 22 p.i. (Ch1536), respectively, and could represent immune escape mutations. Mutations accumulated at a rate of 1.57 x 10(-3) and 1.48 x 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Ch1535 and Ch1536, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that establishment of a persistent HCV infection in these chimpanzees is not due to changes in HVR1; however, the possibility remains that mutations arising in other parts of the genome contributed to this persistence.  (+info)

Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus bearing a deletion of either the NS2 or SH gene is attenuated in chimpanzees. (7/2159)

The NS2 and SH genes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been separately deleted from a recombinant wild-type RSV strain, A2 (M. N. Teng and P. L. Collins, J. Virol. 73:466-473, 1998; A. Bukreyev et al., J. Virol. 71:8973-8982, 1997; and this study). The resulting viruses, designated rA2DeltaNS2 and rA2DeltaSH, were administered to chimpanzees to evaluate their levels of attenuation and immunogenicity. Recombinant virus rA2DeltaNS2 replicated to moderate levels in the upper respiratory tract, was highly attenuated in the lower respiratory tract, and induced significant resistance to challenge with wild-type RSV. The replication of rA2DeltaSH virus was only moderately reduced in the lower, but not the upper, respiratory tract. However, chimpanzees infected with either virus developed significantly less rhinorrhea than those infected with wild-type RSV. These findings demonstrate that a recombinant RSV mutant lacking either the NS2 or SH gene is attenuated and indicate that these deletions may be useful as attenuating mutations in new, live recombinant RSV vaccine candidates for both pediatric and elderly populations. The DeltaSH mutation was incorporated into a recombinant form of the cpts248/404 vaccine candidate, was evaluated for safety in seronegative chimpanzees, and can now be evaluated as a vaccine for humans.  (+info)

Generation of transmissible hepatitis C virions from a molecular clone in chimpanzees. (8/2159)

Multiple alignments of hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyproteins from six different genotypes identified a total of 22 nonconsensus mutations in a clone derived from the Hutchinson (H77) isolate. These mutations, collectively, may have contributed to the failure in generating a "functionally correct" or "infectious" clone in earlier attempts. A consensus clone was constructed after systematic repair of these mutations, which yielded infectious virions in a chimpanzee after direct intrahepatic inoculation of in vitro transcribed RNAs. This RNA-infected chimpanzee has developed hepatitis and remained HCV positive for more than 11 months. To further verify this RNA-derived infectivity, a second naive chimpanzee was injected intravenously with serum collected from the first chimpanzee. Infectivity analysis of the second chimpanzee demonstrated that the HCV infection was successfully transmitted, which validated unequivocally the infectivity of our repaired molecular clone. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that our repaired infectious clone had 4 mismatches with the isogenic clone reported by Kolykhalov et al. (1997, Science 277, 570-574) and 8 mismatches with that reported by Yanagi et al. (1997, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 8738-8743). At the RNA level, more mismatches (43 and 67, respectively) were identified; most of them were synonymous substitutions. Further comparisons with 16 isolates from different genotypes demonstrated that our repaired clone shares greater consensus than the reported isogenic clones. This approach of generating infectious HCV RNA validates the importance of amino acid sequence consensus in relation to the biology of HCV.  (+info)

Define Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Pan troglodytes troglodytes synonyms, Pan troglodytes troglodytes pronunciation, Pan troglodytes troglodytes translation, English dictionary definition of Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Noun 1. Pan troglodytes troglodytes - black-faced chimpanzees of central Africa; closely related to eastern chimpanzees central chimpanzee chimp,...
I chose to read an article about the classification of chimpanzees population status. It discussed how chimpanzees are currently classified as an endangered species as of September 14, 2015 under the Endangered Species Act which was put in place in 1873 in order to protect and recover any specie that is at risk of being instinct or that our ecosystem depends on. Since chimpanzees are an officially endangered species, scientists are now required to have a specific permit before they can preform any biomedical experiments on chimpanzees. The article goes on to describe the tedious process of qualifying for a chimpanzee experiment permit; you must prove that your research would benefit the survival of the species. But besides research that directly pertains to the expansion of chimp population, no future experiments will be conducted on chimpanzees any time in the near future. Also, laboratories that previously privately owned chimpanzees are now in search of sanctuaries and other places to put ...
The discovery that viruses related to HIV were found naturally in healthy African primates was first made in the mid-1980s, and in 1989 came the first publication (by Martine Peeters group) demonstrating that SIVs that were related to HIV-1 were found in common chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. (The actual genetic sequences were published by Simon Wain-Honbsons group in 1990.) Given this sound start, it is rather surprising that so little progress was made in SIV research in central Africa during the next nine years. Early in 1999, the Hahn/Sharp group claimed that they had found the most closely related SIV to HIV-1 in Pan troglodytes troglodytes (Ptt), a chimpanzee subspecies found in Congo Brazzaville, Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, and drew a distinction between these SIVs, and others SIVs found in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii (Pts), the chimp subspecies that is located further east, in the DRC, Uganda and Tanzania. Superficially, this seemed reasonable, in that those Ptt SIVs that ...
The potential of human activities, including research, to alter parasite transmission ecology in wildlife is unknown. We examined gastrointestinal parasitism in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Budongo Forest, Uganda. Trail use and time spent on the ground was recorded during 10 months of observations in four sites with differing human disturbance. Disturbance was quantified using transect plots (n = 320). Fecal (n = 435) samples were examined for helminth eggs, larvae, and for protozoan cysts. Individuals that spent more time on the ground had more infections and higher intensity infections. Prevalence of 13 parasite species was similar across sites, but percentage of multiple infections and infection intensity differed, as did ground use. Chimpanzees at the long-term research site spent more time on the ground or on human trails. We hypothesize that researcher presence and trail creation may influence ground use, and thereby parasite burden, by altering trade-offs between foraging and
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3.0.CO;2-8. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! The chromosome numbers of nine chimpanzees (Pani troglodytes) have been determined by the bone marrow technique. So, mom and dad each contribute 23 chromosomes-the haploid number… Protein knowledgebase. Sequence archive. Solution for Give the Haploid Number of Chromosomes for a Varietyof Organisms (see below) Common Name Scientific Name… Statistics: Number of protein genes: 21522 Number of RNA genes: 3382. Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee) Status. The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the chimpanzee genome.It is expected that by comparing the genomes of humans and other apes, it will be possible to better understand what makes humans distinct from other species from a genetic perspective. 3. Sequence archive. 26. Application: Use of karyograms to deduce sex and diagnose Down syndrome in humans. The chromosome numbers of nine chimpanzees ( Pani troglodytes ) have been determined by ...
Another view is that until the Upper Paleolithic, humans were frugivores (fruit eaters) who supplemented their meals with carrion, eggs, and small prey such as baby birds and mussels. Only on rare occasions did they manage to kill and consume big game such as antelopes.[34] This view is supported by studies of higher apes, particularly chimpanzees. Chimpanzees are the closest to humans genetically. They share more than 96% of their DNA code with humans, and their digestive tract is functionally very similar.[35] Chimpanzees are primarily frugivores, but they could and would consume and digest animal flesh, given the opportunity. In general, their actual diet in the wild is about 95% plant-based, with the remaining 5% filled with insects, eggs, and baby animals.[36][37] In some ecosystems, however, chimpanzees are predatory, forming parties to hunt monkeys.[38] Some comparative studies of human and higher primate digestive tracts do suggest that humans have evolved to obtain greater amounts of ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Dominance rank in female chimpanzees correlates positively with reproductive success. Although a high rank obviously has an advantage for females, clear (linear) hierarchies in female chimpanzees have not been detected. Following the predictions of the socio-ecological model, the type of food competition should affect the dominance relationships among females. We investigated food competition and relationships among 11 adult female chimpanzees in the Taï National Park, Côte dIvoire (West Africa). We detected a formal linear dominance hierarchy among the females based on greeting behaviour directed from the subordinate to the dominant female. Females faced contest competition over food, and it increased when either the food was monopolizable or the number of competitors increased. Winning contests over food, but not age, was related to the dominance rank. Affiliative relationships among the females did not help to explain the absence of greetings in some dyads. However comparison post hoc ...
ATLANTA - Researchers at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, have shown chimpanzees have a significant bias for prosocial behavior. This, the study authors report, is in contrast to previous studies that positioned chimpanzees as reluctant altruists and led to the widely held belief that human altruism evolved in the last six million years only after humans split from apes. The current study findings are available in the online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. According to Yerkes researchers Victoria Horner, PhD, Frans de Waal, PhD, and their colleagues, chimpanzees may not have shown prosocial behaviors in other studies because of design issues, such as the complexity of the apparatus used to deliver rewards and the distance between the animals. I have always been skeptical of the previous negative findings and their over-interpretation, says Dr. de Waal. This study confirms the prosocial nature of chimpanzees with a different test, better adapted to the ...
Recent etho-archaeological studies of stone-tool use by wild chimpanzees have contributed valuable data towards elucidating the variables that influenced the emergence and development of the first lithic industries among Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Such data help to identify potential behaviours entailed in the first percussive technologies that are invisible in archaeological records. The long-term research site of Bossou in Guinea features a unique chimpanzee community whose members systematically use portable stones as hammers and anvils to crack open nuts in natural as well as in field experimental settings. Here we present the first analysis of repeated reuse of the same tool-composites in wild chimpanzees. Data collected over 5 years of experimental nut-cracking sessions at an outdoor laboratory site were assessed for the existence of systematic patterns in the selection of tool-composites, at group and at individual levels. Chimpanzees combined certain stones as hammer and anvil more often than
Hand use in gestural communication was examined in 115 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Hand use was measured in subjects while they gestured to food placed out of their reach. The distribution of hand use was examined in relation to sex, age,
Synonyms for Troglodytes aedon in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Troglodytes aedon. 1 synonym for Troglodytes aedon: house wren. What are synonyms for Troglodytes aedon?
Chimpanzees are great apes and one of our closest living relatives. The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many chimpanzees in its scientific collections. This specimen, USNM 174707 ( http://collections.mnh.si.edu/search/mammals/?irn=7260898 ), is a female chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) from Gabon. It was collected by Richard Garner near Lake Fernan Vaz.
Chimpanzees are great apes and one of our closest living relatives. The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many chimpanzees in its scientific collections. This specimen, USNM 220063 ( http://collections.mnh.si.edu/search/mammals/?irn=7275275 ), is a female chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) from Gabon. This individual was collected by Charles R. Aschemeier in Animba near Lake Fernan Vaz.
Foamy viruses are frequently found in non-human primates and apes in captivity. However, data on simian foamy virus (SFV) infection in apes from the wild are limited. Necropsy specimens were collected from 14 West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) from three communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. PCR analysis revealed SFV-related int- and env-specific sequences in 12/14 chimpanzees. Two young chimpanzees were not infected. Plasma from PCR-positive chimpanzees reacted against Pr71/74gag in Western blot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of all analysed sequences with SFVcpz previously identified from the other P. troglodytes verus, although interestingly the sequences were diverse and no grouping according to a particular animal community was observed. The body compartments of two infected animals were examined and found to contain SFV sequences. Frequent SFV infections in chimpanzees from this area significantly increase the potential risk of
The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the Chimpanzee genome. It is expected that by comparing the genomes of humans and other apes, it will be possible to better understand what makes humans distinct from other species from a genetic perspective. It will also aid in the study of diseases that affect (or, conversely, do not affect) various primate species. Human and chimpanzee chromosomes are very similar. The primary difference is that humans have one fewer pair of chromosomes than do other great apes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes and other great apes have 24 pairs of chromosomes. In the human evolutionary lineage, two ancestral ape chromosomes fused at their telomeres, producing human chromosome 2. There are nine other major chromosomal differences between chimpanzees and humans: chromosome segment inversions on human chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15, 16, 17, and 18. After the completion of the Human genome project, a common chimpanzee genome project ...
THE DIFFERENCE Humans and chimpanzees are easy to tell apart, even though they share a primate ancestor. Jumping genes helped sculpt their distinctions Face-to-face, a human and a chimpanzee are easy to tell apart. The two species share a common primate ancestor, but over millions of years, their characteristics have morphed into easily distinguishable features.…
Processing of faces is really interesting. Its thought to be an evolutionarily ancient system, predating primates (we share the same neurobiological substrate for face processing with sheep, for example, though we cant rule out that there is a preadaptation which permitted convergent evolution). Part of the temporal lobe decomposes the image of a face into a smaller number of dimensions of variation, called face space. These dimensions consist of things like roundness vs. ovalness, square chin vs. pointy chin, distance between the eyes, etc. Each of us seems to carry a template around in our heads of what a default face looks like, and actual faces we see are encoded as differences from the default face. As well as the default face, we also carry a representation of the primary ways that faces deviate from the default face (so-called eigenfaces). The default face together with the eigenfaces describe the basis of face space [1], and everyones personal face space is unique. One possible ...
This study demonstrates that detections on autonomous recording devices, for two types of long-distance acoustic signals produced by chimpanzees, reflected direct and indirect indices of chimpanzee presence collected by field workers. Specifically, we found that the number of hours Taï chimpanzees were observed ranging in a given grid cell strongly predicted the probability of detecting a chimpanzee drum on an ARU located up to 1 km away (Fig. 1). At a second field site in the Issa valley, we also found that ad libitum, indirect observations of chimpanzees predicted detections of pant hoots and screams on SPATUs already within a 500 m radius (Fig. 4). These results are all the more promising since both datasets suffered from technical problems during data collection (typical for innovative solutions to field challenges) that resulted in discontinuous recording effort in their respective study periods. Additionally, the latter dataset came from unhabituated chimpanzees thereby further validating ...
The FWS decision awaits a 60-day public comment period. Once finalized, captive chimpanzees new endangered status will place them alongside their free-living relatives in Africa. As such, research not benefiting the survival of the species would be prohibited, adding yet another barrier to wanton, unnecessary, and non-productive research purportedly to benefit human health. By listing all chimpanzees as endangered, the FWS findings will more consistently promote the conservation of the species as intended by the ESA. Chimpanzees in U.S. labs will be one step closer to being prohibited from indiscriminate use in human-directed research once appropriately listed as endangered, says NEAVS President Theodora Capaldo, EdD. NEAVS Project R&R: Release and Restitution for Chimpanzees in U.S. Labs campaign has focused on several routes to end the use of chimpanzees and all great apes in U.S. research. While we would like to have seen a one-punch knockout to research on chimpanzees, an institution ...
GenEZ™ ORF cDNA clones makes it easy to order customized expression-ready ORF clones from the worlds largest commercial ORF clone database. You can Browse ORF cDNA clones by species Pan troglodytes, letter w, page 1
GenEZ™ ORF cDNA clones makes it easy to order customized expression-ready ORF clones from the worlds largest commercial ORF clone database. You can Browse ORF cDNA clones by species Pan troglodytes, letter m, page 8
Since evolutionists speculate that humans and chimps shared a common ancestor about three to six million years ago, their theory requires a human-chimp DNA similarity of 98 to 99%. The first time they constructed a chimp genome and compared it to humans, they claimed 98.5% DNA similarity based on cherry-picked regions that were highly similar to human. However, an extensive DNA comparison study I published in 2016 revealed two major flaws in their construction of the chimp genome.1. First, many chimp DNA data sets were likely contaminated with human DNA, especially those produced in the first half of the chimpanzee genome project from 2002 to 2005. Second, the chimpanzee genome was deliberately constructed to be more human-like than it really is.2 Scientists assembled the small snippets of chimp DNA onto the human genome, using it as a scaffold or reference. Its much like putting together a jigsaw puzzle by looking at the picture on the box as a guide. Since many chimpanzee data sets likely ...
Definition of Human child in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Human child? Meaning of Human child as a finance term. What does Human child mean in finance?
Since the 1980s, it has been documented that chimpanzees infected with HIV in research studies typically control viral replication and remain asymptomatic. In only a few reported cases have infected chimpanzees developed persistent immune activation, CD4 T-cell loss and opportunistic infections characteristic of AIDS.. Since the 1980s it has been documented that chimpanzees infected with HIV in research studies typically control viral replication and remain asymptomatic. In only a few reported cases have infected chimpanzees developed persistent immune activation, CD4 T-cell loss and opportunistic infections characteristic of AIDS. The reasons for the different outcomes between human and chimpanzee HIV infections have been the subject of much theorizing and even controversy. The discovery that chimpanzees are the source of HIVs closest antecedent, a virus called SIVcpz, led some scientists to hypothesize that chimpanzees alive today may be the descendants of those animals who were able to ...
At this stage I shall attempt a different approach. What I propose to do is to treat Hahns claim that she has found the source of pandemic HIV-1 in south-east Cameroonian source as if it were true, and use it to advance what I believe is a far more viable hypothesis of how AIDS began than the one that she and Paul Sharp propose.. At least this hypothesis will be supported by known historical and scientific facts.. What this will, I hope, demonstrate is that Hahns latest findings are at least as supportive of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) theory of AIDS origin as they are of the bushmeat theory…if not more so.. In order to make this work, I need to tell a story that, though it is moored in factual accuracy, is purely a work of the imagination. For this reason, the following section of this paper appears in italics, in order to underline that it is fiction, not fact.. Imagine that it is 1956. Imagine that five young Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzees have been captured after a successful ...
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Vocal sequences - utterances consisting of calls produced in close succession - are common phenomena in animal communication. While many studies have explored the adaptive benefits of producing such sequences, very little is known about how the costs and constraints involved in their production affect their form. Here, we investigated this issue in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) pant hoot, a long and structurally complex vocal sequence comprising four acoustically distinct phases - introduction, build-up, climax and let-down. We found that in each of these phases, and for the sequence as a whole, there was a negative relationship between the number of calls produced and their average duration. There was also a negative relationship between the total duration of some adjacent phases. Significant relationships between the fundamental frequency of calls and their number or duration were found for some phases of the sequence, but the direction of these relationships differed between
Health, ...THURSDAY Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Like humans chimpanzees are bor...At birth areas of the brain that play an important role in complex co...The scientists also noted that both chimpanzees and humans enjoy close...But they found that baby chimpanzees dont have the same dramatic incr...,Like,Those,in,Humans,,Baby,Chimps,Forebrains,Immature,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
To study the evolution of recombination rates in apes, we developed methodology to construct a fine-scale genetic map from high-throughput sequence data from 10 Western chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. Compared to the human genetic map, broad-scale recombination rates tend to be conserved, but with exceptions, particularly in regions of chromosomal rearrangements and around the site of ancestral fusion in human chromosome 2. At fine scales, chimpanzee recombination is dominated by hotspots, which show no overlap with those of humans even though rates are similarly elevated around CpG islands and decreased within genes. The hotspot-specifying protein PRDM9 shows extensive variation among Western chimpanzees, and there is little evidence that any sequence motifs are enriched in hotspots. The contrasting locations of hotspots provide a natural experiment, which demonstrates the impact of recombination on base composition.
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The mechanisms that underlie the diversification of tropical animals remain poorly understood, but new approaches that combine geo-spatial modeling with spatially explicit genetic data are providing fresh insights on this topic. Data about the diversification of tropical mammals remain particularly sparse, and vanishingly few opportunities exist to study endangered large mammals that increasingly exist only in isolated pockets. The chimpanzees of Cameroon represent a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms that promote genetic differentiation in tropical mammals because the region is home to two chimpanzee subspecies: Pan troglodytes ellioti and P. t. trogolodytes. Their ranges converge in central Cameroon, which is a geographically, climatically and environmentally complex region that presents an unparalleled opportunity to examine the roles of rivers and/or environmental variation in influencing the evolution of chimpanzee populations. We analyzed microsatellite genotypes and mtDNA HVRI
Read original article here.. Your NIH advised to retire most research chimps article (March 15, 2013) gave credence to lab director Christian Abees position that chimpanzees are necessary for research. It failed to note labs have a vested interest in the status quo of warehousing chimpanzees, even if not in active research. Nor did it mention that the public should expect AVMA to support retiring all federally owned chimpanzees because there is lack of scientific need for them - as per the Institute of Medicine and NIHs Council of Councils - and because the veterinary oath requires protection of animal health and welfare. It was also not mentioned that a large, growing number of veterinarians support ending this wasteful, ineffective, and inhumane practice ...
Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n = 11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n = 1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n = 10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n = 5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n = 5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n = 3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n = 6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt
Chimpanzees are animals that, regardless of whether theyre male or female, normally do not have a propensity to kill. In normal, non-threatening situations, they are peaceful animals. As Jane Goodall once said, they are far more peaceable than humans. This can be seen in populations that have not been greatly mucked about by humans, such as Goualougo and Fongoli, two reservations in the Congo and Senegal. However, chimpanzees are also very intelligent and sensitive animals and, once their environment is stressed, either directly by humans or indirectly by humans, can develop many behavioral symptoms. These symptoms have been explored by Margaret Clark (1991). When the population is too large for the area, when there are too many males per female or in one place, when the animals normal pattern of dispersion is disturbed, etc., animals, especially males, are able and do kill one another. The specific reasons for these behaviors are likely to be different in different situations and can be ...
Predatory behavior in wild chimpanzees and other primates has been well documented over the last 30 years. However, as it is an opportunistic behavior, conditions which may promote such behavior are left up to chance. Until now, predatory behavior among captive chimpanzees has been poorly documented. In this paper, we present five instances providing evidence of predatory behavior: four performed by isolated individuals and one carried out in cooperation. The evidence of group predation involved the chimpanzees adopting different roles as pursuers and ambushers. Prey was partially eaten in some cases, but not in the social episode. This study confirms that naturalistic environments allow chimpanzees to enhance species-typical behavioral patterns.
Our current readings on tool use in chimpanzees are three articles by Boesch & Boesch, Alp, and Huffman & Kalunde. All the information comes from data collected in long-term studies. Boesch & Boesch comparatively discuss tool use and creation by wild chimpanzees in three long-term study locations. Alp briefly mentions chimpanzee tool use in the Sierra Leone, as well as cultural variation in wild chimpanzees. Huffman et al reports on the creation and use of a tool for predation by a chimpanzee, and includes some speculations regarding chimpanzee tool use. Boesch & Boesch discuss tool use amongst the Tai chimpanzees, and compare it to Gombe and Mahale chimpanzee tool use, as all three areas are part of long-term studies. To avoid classification of nest-building as tool use, they give the following definition: an object held in the hand, foot, or mouth and used so as to enable the operator to attain an immediate goal. They find that Tai chimps use tools more in feeding contexts than aggressively. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - How old are chimpanzee communities? Time to the most recent common ancestor of the Y-chromosome in highly patrilocal societies. AU - Langergraber, Kevin E.. AU - Rowney, Carolyn. AU - Schubert, Grit. AU - Crockford, Cathy. AU - Hobaiter, Catherine. AU - Wittig, Roman. AU - Wrangham, Richard W.. AU - Zuberbühler, Klaus. AU - Vigilant, Linda. N1 - Funding Information: Thanks to C. Tennie and especially S. C. Bird for useful discussions and advice; the Uganda Wildlife Authority, the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology, and Makerere University Biological Field Station for permission and logistical support of research in Uganda; J. Lloyd for providing Kanyantale samples; E. Otali and M. Muller for Kanyawara samples; J.C. Mitani, D. Watts, J. Lwanga, J. Fenton, A. Magoba, G. Mbabazi, L. Ndagizi, and A. Tumusiime for Ngogo samples and other research assistance; V. Reynolds for Sonso samples; and Z. Zommers for Busingiro, Kaniyo-Pabidi, Kasokwa and Sonso samples. This ...
This study tested whether the human ITB is specialized for elastic energy storage relative to the chimp FL. We conducted detailed anatomical experiments on the largest sample of chimp lower extremities to date, and we analyzed musculoskeletal models of both humans and chimps to test four hypotheses.. First, we asked whether the muscles inserting on the human ITB have a greater force-generating capacity than the muscles inserting on the chimp FL, after accounting for body mass (H1). We found that, in total, the force-generating capacity of the muscles inserting on the ITB is three times greater than the force-generating capacity of the muscles inserting on the FL, suggesting substantially greater forces are transmitted via the ITB compared with the FL. This greater capacity for force primarily stems from the fact that only about 10% of the chimp TFL, GMaxCr and GMaxCd mass inserts in the FL, whereas nearly 60% of the human TFL and GMax mass inserts in the ITB.. Second, we hypothesized that the ...
WASHINGTON, Wed., Aug. 31, 2005 - The first comprehensive comparison of the genetic blueprints of humans and chimpanzees shows our closest living relatives share perfect identity with 96 percent of our DNA sequence, an international research consortium reported today.. In a paper published in the Sept. 1 issue of the journal Nature, the Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, which is supported in part by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), describes its landmark analysis comparing the genome of the chimp (Pan troglodytes) with that of human (Homo sapiens).. The sequencing of the chimp genome is a historic achievement that is destined to lead to many more exciting discoveries with implications for human health, said NHGRI Director Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. As we build upon the foundation laid by the Human Genome Project, its become clear that comparing the human genome with the genomes of other organisms is an ...
Here, I compare NCC and chimpanzees on 22 modes of tool use [25] (the electronic supplementary material, table S2 gives definitions). Chimpanzees show all 22 modes, but two of these (cut, hang) have been seen only in captivity.. Absorb. Wild chimpanzees use crushed leaves as sponges to extract drinking water from tree holes [54,55]. This is a chimpanzee universal, found in all populations subject to long-term study [30].. Affix, apply, drape. Wild chimpanzees apply faeces to surfaces, such as buttress roots of trees, in order to extract passed seeds for re-ingestion (W. C. McGrew et al. 1976-1979, unpublished data). Wild chimpanzees drape themselves around the neck with vines or animal skins while walking quadrupedally [54]; in one case, a strip of colobus skin was knotted, creating a necklace [56]. No case of apes affixing with adhesive an object is known.. Bait, entice. Wild chimpanzees, especially juveniles, use objects to attract the attention of potential playmates [54]. More ...
Observations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide valuable comparative data for understanding the significance of conspecific killing. Two kinds of hypothesis have been proposed. Lethal violence is sometimes concluded to be the result of adaptive strategies, such that killers ultimately gain fitness benefits by increasing their access to resources such as food or mates1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Alternatively, it could be a non-adaptive result of human impacts, such as habitat change or food provisioning6, 7, 8, 9. To discriminate between these hypotheses we compiled information from 18 chimpanzee communities and 4 bonobo communities studied over five decades. Our data include 152 killings (n = 58 observed, 41 inferred, and 53 suspected killings) by chimpanzees in 15 communities and one suspected killing by bonobos. We found that males were the most frequent attackers (92% of participants) and victims (73%); most killings (66%) involved intercommunity attacks; and attackers ...
A novel drug developed by Gilead Sciences and tested in an animal model at the Texas Biomedical Research Institute in San Antonio suppresses hepatitis B virus infection by stimulating the immune system and inducing loss of infected cells. In a study conducted at Texas Biomeds Southwest National Primate Research Center, researchers found that the immune modulator GS-9620, which targets a receptor on immune cells, reduced both the virus levels and the number of infected liver cells in chimpanzees chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Chimpanzees are the only species other than humans that can be infected by HBV. Therefore, the results from this study were critical in moving the drug forward to human clinical trials which are now in progress. The new report, co-authored by scientists from Texas Biomed and Gilead Sciences, was published online on February 14, 2013 in Gastroenterology. Gilead researchers had previously demonstrated that the same therapy could induce a cure of hepatitis ...
Human sera from the United States, Thailand, and sub-Saharan Africa and chimpanzee sera were tested for neutralizing antibodies to 3 chimpanzee adenoviruses. Antibodies were more common in humans residing in sub-Saharan Africa than in humans living in the United States or Thailand. This finding suggests cross-species transmission of chimpanzee adenoviruses ...
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the publics understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the publics commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165) watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1) a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2) commercials containing entertainment chimpanzees or 3) control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched ...
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the publics understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the publics commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165) watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1) a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2) commercials containing entertainment chimpanzees or 3) control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched ...
One of the major contributions of recent personality psychology is the finding that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy. To date, however, researchers have yet to investigate this hierarchy in nonhuman primates. Such investigations are critical in confirming the cross-species nature of trait personality helping to illuminate personality as neurobiologically-based and evolutionarily-derived dimensions of primate disposition. Investigations of potential genetic polymorphisms associated with hierarchical models of personality among nonhuman primates represent a critical first step. The current study examined the hierarchical structure of chimpanzee personality as well as sex-specific associations with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A), a gene associated with dispositional traits, among 174 chimpanzees. Results confirmed a hierarchical structure of personality across species and, despite differences in early rearing experiences,
Legal advocates for chimpanzees are making progress in a New York case seeking to have them recognized as legal persons and freed
Brain asymmetries, particularly asymmetries within regions associated with language, have been suggested as a key difference between humans and our nearest ancestors. These regions include the planum temporale (PT) - the bank of tissue that lies posterior to Heschls gyrus and encompasses Wernickes …
In 1974, a U.S.-based research organization set up a laboratory in Liberia, Africa and began experimenting on chimpanzees. For the next three decades, more than 400 chimps were held in barren laboratory cages while being used for painful and invasive hepatitis B and blood cleansing experiments.. In the early 2000s, the laboratory began phasing out experiments on chimpanzees and started moving them to nearby islands. The islands did not provide sufficient food or fresh water, so the chimpanzees were reliant on humans to survive. There was no infrastructure built on the islands to support the chimpanzees care before they were moved there.. In 2015, funding from the laboratory was withdrawn and HSI and the HSUS stepped in to provide emergency care to the roughly 60 chimpanzees who were still alive. Since then, HSI and the HSUS have taken on responsibility for the lifetime care of these animals, some of whom could live for another 50+ years.. ...
A novel drug developed by Gilead Sciences and tested in an animal model at the Texas Biomedical Research Institute in San Antonio suppresses hepatitis B virus infection by stimulating the immune system and inducing loss of infected cells. In a study conducted at Texas Biomeds Southwest National Primate Research Center, researchers found that the immune modulator GS-9620, which targets a receptor on immune cells, reduced both the virus levels and the number of infected liver cells in chimpanzees chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Chimpanzees are the only species other than humans that can be infected by HBV. Therefore, the results from this study were critical in moving the drug forward to human clinical trials which are now in progress. The new report, co-authored by scientists from Texas Biomed and Gilead Sciences, was published online on February 14, 2013 in Gastroenterology. Gilead researchers had previously demonstrated that the same therapy could induce a cure of hepatitis ...
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine publishes original research findings, clinical observations, and case reports in the field of veterinary medicine.
Roger Ailes, President of Fox News Channel couldnt take his moronic morning hosts anymore, so he fired them late last night. Ailes wanted to hire Rick Sanchez to host Fox & Friends, but realized that Sanchez doesnt have friends anymore.. Ailes came up with yet another brilliant casting idea… he hired 3 chimpanzees to take the place of the three fired hosts.. I decided we should stick to our brand and hire hosts with underdeveloped frontal lobes, Ailes said.. Ailes did a test show with the three chimps in front of a live audience. The audience couldnt tell the difference. The audience thought the chimps had more intelligent things to say than Doocy, Kilmeade and Carlson - combined, said Ailes.. To promote the new show with the three chimp hosts, Fox is bringing out the heavy guns this morning to sit on the Fox & Friends couch. Bill OReilly will discuss his new book, Foxes on Fox, Sean Hannity will be discussing President Obamas bathing habits and Glenn Beck will explain to the ...
U.S. lawmakers proposed bills on Wednesday that would ban medical researchers from using chimpanzees in the U.S.. Scientists worldwide have halted chimpanzee experiments, because these intelligent creatures suffer immensely and are poor models for researching human diseases, Elizabeth Kucinich, director of government affairs for the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, said in a statement. Her research ethics group has campaigned for the bills now being pushed in the Senate and the House of Representatives. Democratic Senator Maria Cantwell of Washington, Independent Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont and Susan Collins, a Republican senator, are sponsoring the Great Ape Protection and Cost Savings Act, which would put an end to experiments on chimpanzees. The bill would mandate the release of sanctuaries of chimps owned by the government and bar the breeding of chimpanzees for experiments. Representative Roscoe Bartlett, a Republican who worked with some of the first chimpanzees in ...
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the closest living relatives of humans, but the two species show distinct behavioral and physiological differences, particularly regarding female reproduction. Despite their recent rapid decline, the demographic histories of the two species have been different during the past 1-2 Myr, likely having an impact on their genomic diversity. Here, we analyze the inferred functional consequences of genetic variation across 69 individuals, making use of the most complete data set of genomes in the Pan clade to date. We test to which extent the demographic history influences the efficacy of purifying selection in these species. We find that small historical effective population sizes (Ne) correlate not only with low levels of genetic diversity but also with a larger number of deleterious alleles in homozygosity and an increased proportion of deleterious changes at low frequencies. To investigate the putative genetic basis for phenotypic ...
Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of familiar and unfamiliar chimpanzee faces (Experiment 1) and human faces (Experiment 2). The ERPs evoked by chimpanzee faces differentiated unfamiliar individuals from familiar ones around midline areas centered on vertex sites at approximately 200 ms after the stimulus onset. In addition, the ERP response to the image of the subjects own face did not significantly diverge from those evoked by familiar chimpanzees, suggesting that the subjects brain at a minimum remembered the image of her own face. The ERPs evoked by human faces were not influenced by the familiarity of target individuals. These results indicate that chimpanzee neural
The brain of modern humans is an evolutionary and developmental outlier: At birth, it has the size of an adult chimpanzee brain and expands by a factor of 2 during the first postnatal year. Large neonatal brain size and rapid initial growth contrast with slow maturation, which extends well into adolescence. When, how, and why this peculiar pattern of brain ontogeny evolved and how it is correlated with structural changes in the brain are key questions of paleoanthropology. Because brains and their ontogenies do not fossilize, indirect evidence from fossil hominin endocasts needs to be combined with evidence from modern humans and our closest living relatives, the great apes. New fossil finds permit a denser sampling of hominin endocranial morphologies along ontogenetic and evolutionary time lines. New brain imaging methods provide the basis for quantifying endocast-brain relationships and tracking endocranial and brain growth and development noninvasively. Combining this evidence with ever-more ...
A subsequent paper published by Pääbo and his team in May of 1999, show that the range (1-81) for chimp/bonobo substitutions (in certain regions of mtDNA) are even wider than previously thought. In other words, if one chose a chimp at random, this chimp might be as many as 81 substitutions different from the chimp swinging on the branches right next to him. This is interesting because this same chimp might be only 78 substitutions different from a given modern human. This more recent paper also points out that the range between humans (1-35) is also wider than was reported in the first paper. The range between humans and the Neanderthal sequence was also altered in the updated paper to (29-43). This second paper seems to make it even more clear that substitution differences in a given variable region cannot be used to absolutely measure the boundary between different species. In fact, using this method of reason, it seems like some chimps might be more closely related to certain humans ...
Acts as a tumor suppressor in many tumor types; induces growth arrest or apoptosis depending on the physiological circumstances and cell type. Involved in cell cycle regulation as a trans-activator that acts to negatively regulate cell division by controlling a set of genes required for this process. One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression.
Hi there, I am researching chromosome 2 fusion theory. The theory that chromosome 2 and 3 was fused by a Robertsonian Translocation in two human-chimp common ancestors which mated giving us our chromosome 2 and 46 chromosomes instead of the other higher primates 48.. I was attempting to understand what the odds of this occurring were, to which end I want to know the odds that a chimp baby will be born with this mutation. I understand that 1 in 1000 human babies are born with a Robertsonian Translocation, is it the same for chimps?. ...
Isnt the 99% genetic similarity between humans and chimps evidence for evolution?. When I speak on science-faith issues, I am almost always asked this question. The inquiry rarely takes me by surprise, but my reply often catches people a bit off-guard. The biblical creation accounts readily accommodate the human-chimpanzee genetic likenesses. In fact, they predict them.. This unexpected agreement comes from an examination of relevant scriptural passages and from recent studies showing the genetic basis for the differences between human and chimpanzee brains. First, the biblical data.. Genesis 2:7 describes the creation of Adam and states that God formed the man from the dust of the ground. The verb formed is translated from the original Hebrew verb yasar, which means to form, to fashion, or to produce. Genesis 2:19 uses yasar to describe Gods work to form out of the ground all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air. Together, these verses indicate that both man and ...
My project is trying to understand the morbidity associated with ageing in captive chimpanzees. Much like humans, chimp populations housed in zoos have longer life spans due to veterinary care, food availability and a lack of predation, but they are also prone to sedentism. Consequently they suffer the same age and motility associated diseases as we do, namely osteoarthritis. I will collect data on the activity of elderly chimps across European zoos, and in their home ranges of Africa, in order to quantify the differences in locomotor patterns between them. I will also analyse cadavers to learn more about the diseases onset and progression, and finally will assess how increasing natural locomotor behaviour in captive individuals can act to reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal disease in our ageing populations of chimps.. ...
This is a list of nonhuman apes of encyclopedic interest. It includes individual apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos, orangutans and gibbons) which are in some way famous or notable. Bam Bam, an orangutan, played Precious on the soap opera Passions. Çarli (born 1993), a chimp, starred in the live-action movie The Jungle Book (1994) and in the Turkish television series Çarli before retiring to Monkey World in Dorset, UK. Manis, an orangutan, played Clyde in the Clint Eastwood action-comedy film Every Which Way But Loose (1978), but not in the 1980 sequel Any Which Way You Can, as the child actor had outgrown his part. His successor died shortly after the film. C.J., an orangutan, played in the 1981 film Tarzan the Ape Man. Clara, a chimp, played Livingston in the movie comedy Delicatessen (1991). Evie (short for Evolution), a chimp, played robot dog Muffit II in the original 1978 Battlestar Galactica television series. J. Fred Muggs (a chimp born 1952) was a co-host with Dave Garroway on ...
By Christophe Boesch. Philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists and others have been addressing the question of What makes us humans? for centuries. However, we have always been limited in our ability to answer that question by the fact that in most comparative studies either humans and/or chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, have been placed in speciesunnatural conditions or have been tested in species untypical situations. Thereby, either species were facing a systematic disadvantage that has hampered our ability to understand What makes us humans?. In theory, the solution to this quandary is rather straightforward, as it would only require to select some natural tasks that are performed by both species and to compare them in situ. My goal in this project is to do exactly this and compare humans with chimpanzees solving two similar natural tasks: Finding food producing trees in their natural environment and cracking wild nuts.. By making the human / chimpanzee comparison with ...
The aim of the present study was to explore the overlap between molecular changes observed in a disorder affecting human cognitive abilities and evolutionary changes observed on the human lineage in order to gain novel insights into the functional mechanisms underlying human cognition. We indeed find such an overlap at the mRNA expression level, and the vast majority of over-lapping changes relate to energy metabolism. We then measured metabolite concentrations in post mortem brain tissue from healthy human controls, human schizophrenia patients, chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. Again, we find that metabolic processes altered in the schizophrenia brain evolved rapidly on the human, but not on the chimpanzee, evolutionary lineage. In contrast, we find no such difference between the two lineages for the metabolic processes not affected by the disease. Further, we found that genes associated with fast evolving metabolic processes also show greater divergence between humans and chimpanzees at both ...
Primates must solve complex spatial problems when foraging, such as finding patchy resources and navigating between different locations. However, the nature of the cognitive representations supporting these types of behaviors is currently unclear. In humans, there has been great debate concerning the relative importance of egocentric representations (which are viewer-dependent) versus allocentric representations (which are based on aspects of the external environment). Comparative studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial cognition are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. The current studies therefore examined spatial cognitive development in one of our closest living relatives, bonobos (Pan paniscus) across contexts. The first study assessed how younger bonobos encode locations in a place-response task in which apes first learn that one of two locations is consistently baited with a reward, and then must approach the two locations from
1. Inter-male relationships were compared between two groups of bonobos at Wamba, Zaire, and a group of chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. 2. Although distribution of females is much different between the two species, frequencies of affinitive interactions between males (inter-individual proximity and grooming) were similar between the species. 3. By contrast, marked inter-species differences were found in agonistic aspects of male relationships. Such differences could be related to the different estrus patterns of females. 4. Male relationships of both species may have been reflecting the male-bonded strategy which was taken by a common ancestor. Within this framework, males of each species seem to have developed differentiated social tactics for the access to females showing different patterns of distribution and estrus. ...
There is substantial interest in the evolutionary forces that shaped the regulatory framework in early human development. Progress in this area has been slow because it is difficult to obtain relevant biological samples. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide the ability to establish in vitro models of early human and non-human primate developmental stages. Using matched iPSC panels from humans and chimpanzees, we comparatively characterize gene regulatory changes through a four-day time course differentiation of iPSCs into primary streak, endoderm progenitors, and definitive endoderm. As might be expected, we find that differentiation stage is the major driver of variation in gene expression levels, followed by species. We identify thousands of differentially expressed genes between humans and chimpanzees in each differentiation stage. Yet, when we consider gene-specific dynamic regulatory trajectories throughout the time course, we find that at least 75% of genes, including nearly all
Because of the promiscuous mating behavior of female bonobos, there is a great deal of paternal uncertainty. If a male cannot be sure which offspring are his, he is less likely to invest any time or energy caring for them. It is because of this lack of certainty that the entirety of parental care in bonobos is assumed by the mothers (de Waal 1997). That is not to say that adult males are not attentive to infants in the unit-group, in fact, there is very little aggression directed towards bonobo infants by adult males in the group and infanticide has never been recorded (Kuroda 1989; de Waal 1997). Like all primates, bonobos exhibit a prolonged maturation period that is necessary for behavioral plasticity, strong mother-offspring relationship, and social development (Kuroda 1989). Bonobos, though, when compared to chimpanzees, have a particularly slow rate of development, and it is reported that bonobo mothers are more attentive to their offspring than chimpanzee mothers. In their first years, ...
"Pan troglodytes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link ... "Pan paniscus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 2012-11-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) ...
The eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) is a subspecies of the common chimpanzee. It is native to the Central ... Plumptre, A.; Hart, J.A.; Hicks, T.C.; Nixon, S.; Piel, A.K. & Pintea, L. (2016). "Pan troglodytes ssp. schweinfurthii". IUCN ... DiscoverChimpanzees.org Chimpanzee Genome resources Primate Info Net Pan troglodytes Factsheets U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service ... Groves, C.P. (2005). "Geographic variation within eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes cf. schweinfurthii Giglioli, 1872)". ...
"Genome: Pan troglodytes". The Genome Institute at Washington University. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. ...
"Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. "U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Proposes Protection for ...
Pan troglodytes); bald uakaris (Cacajao rubicundus); and stump-tailed macaques (Macaca speciosa and M. arctoides). Of these, ...
Young WJ, Merz T, Ferguson-Smith MA, Johnston AW (June 1960). "Chromosome number of the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes". Science. ...
Noon, Carole (1996). The resocialization of chimpanzees, "Pan troglodytes". George A. Smathers Libraries University of Florida ...
... troglodytes/latest_assembly_versions/GCF_002880755.1_Clint_PTRv2". ftp.ncbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-11-30. "Pan troglodytes (ID ... "Index of /genomes/refseq/vertebrate_mammalian/Pan_ ...
Beran MJ, Savage-Rumbaugh ES, Pate JL, Rumbaugh DM (March 1999). "Delay of gratification in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)". ... Pan troglodytes)". Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior Processes. 21 (1): 82-6. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.21.1.82. ...
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are smart, social animals. In the wild they cooperate to hunt, dominate rival groups, and defend ... Hirata, S.; Fuwa, K. (2007). "Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) learn to act with other individuals in a cooperative task". ... Bullinger, Anke F.; Melis, Alicia P.; Tomasello, Michael (2011). "Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, prefer individual over ... Melis, Alicia P.; Tomasello, Michael (2013). "Chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) strategic helping in a collaborative task". ...
381-404 Gardner, R. A.; Gardner, B. T. (1984). "A vocabulary test for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)". Journal of Comparative ...
Pan troglodytes troglodytes, 10 sequences; Western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, 6 sequences; Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee ... Pan troglodytes ellioti, 4 sequences; and Eastern chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, 4 sequences. They were all ... "Chimpanzee genome database (Genome Data Viewer Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee))". Caswell JL, Mallick S, Richter DJ, Neubauer J, ...
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are smart, social animals. In the wild they cooperate to hunt, dominate rival groups, and defend ... Bueno-Guerra, N.; Völter, C. J.; de las Heras, Á; Colell, M.; Call, J. (2019). "Bargaining in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): ... Pan troglodytes". Animal Behaviour. 79 (6): 1229-1237. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.02.019. PMC 4801319. PMID 27011389. Brosnan, ... Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are social animals that live in hierarchical structures, though not as hierarchical as chimpanzees. ...
The virus infects chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) leukocytes. The glycoprotein B (gB) gene of the chimpanzee Lymphocryptovirus is ...
The current primate exhibit features chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Following renovation, the primate exhibit will include Red ...
A vocabulary test for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology (Washington, D.C.: 1983). 98: 381-404. ...
... see Neanderthal Genome Project Common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes; see Chimpanzee Genome Project Wooly mammoth, Mammuthus ...
Pruetz, Jill D.; Bertolani, Paco (2007). "Savanna Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, Hunt with Tools". Current Biology. 17 (5 ... and a 2012 study from the site of Kathu Pan in South Africa suggests that hominids, possibly Homo heidelbergensis, may have ...
Pan troglodytes) console a bereaved mother?". Primates. 61 (1): 93-102. doi:10.1007/s10329-019-00752-x. ISSN 0032-8332. PMC ... Anderson, James R.; Gillies, Alasdair; Lock, Louise C. (April 2010). "Pan thanatology". Current Biology. 20 (8): R349-R351. doi ...
Pan troglodytes]". NCBI. Retrieved May 10, 2013. "PREDICTED: alpha-1B-glycoprotein [Pan paniscus]". Retrieved May 11, 2013. " ...
Chimpanzees at Fongoli, Senegal navigate a burned landscape (JD Pruetz and N Herzog) Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus ... Pruetz, J. D., & Bertolani, P. (2007). Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, hunt with tools. Current biology, 17(5), 412 ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Pan troglodytes - Endangered". IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Retrieved 2008-03- ... Pan troglodytes verus) in the 1980s. In 1995, Marchesi et al. estimated the total number of chimpanzees in Tai to be 4,507, ...
Pruetz, J.D.; Bertolani, P. (2007). "Savanna Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, Hunt with Tools". Current Biology. 17 (5): 412 ...
Custance, Deborah M.; Whiten, Andrew; Bard, Kim A. (1995). "Can Young Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes) Imitate Arbitrary Actions? ... Pan troglodytes)". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 110 (1): 3-14. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.110.1.3. PMID 8851548. Stoinski, ...
He named the species Troglodytes schweinfurthii Species:Pan troglodytes. After his death, Giglioli's collection, together with ...
Pan troglodytes] - Protein - NCBI". "WD repeat-containing protein 75 [Rattus norvegicus] - Protein - NCBI". "WD repeat- ...
Pan troglodytes)". Pathobiology of Aging & Age-Related Diseases. 3: 21073. doi:10.3402/pba.v3i0.21073. PMC 3679521. PMID ...
Povinelli, D.J.; Nelson, K.E.; Boysen, S.T. (1990). "Inferences about guessing and knowing by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)". ... Itakura, S.; Tanaka, M. (1998). "Use of experimenter-given cues during object-choice tasks by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), an ... Itakura, S. & Tanaka, M. (1998). "Use of experimenter-given cues during object-choice tasks by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), ... Beran, M.J. (2001). "Summation and numerous judgments of sequentially presented sets of items by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ...
Povinelli, D.J.; Nelson, K.E.; Boysen, S.T. (1990). "Inferences about guessing and knowing by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)". ... Melis, A.P.; Call, J.; Tomasello, M. (2006). "Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) conceal visual and auditory information from others ... Pan troglodytes) and children showed that all three species understood the difference between accidental and intentional acts. ... Pan troglodytes), and human children (Homo sapiens)". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 112 (2): 192-206. doi:10.1037/0735- ...
Povinelli, D.J.; Nelson, K.E.; Boysen, S.T. (1990). "Inferences about guessing and knowing by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)". ... Pan troglodytes), and human children (Homo sapiens)". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 112 (2): 192-206. doi:10.1037/0735- ...
Group and kin recognition via olfactory cues in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Stefanie Henkel ja Joanna M. Setchell, The Royal ...
rod šimpanz - Pan. *Pan sp. (fosílne nálezy). *šimpanz bonobo - Pan paniscus. *šimpanz učenlivý - Pan troglodytes ...
Pan troglodytes 1.008323292×10. ^. 9 Arabidopsis thaliana 1.144226616×10. ^. 9 Canis lupus familiaris 951,238,343 ...
1999). "Origin of HIV-1 in the Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes". Nature 397 (6718): 436-441. doi:10.1038/17130. பப்மெட் ...
1999). "Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes". Nature 397 (6718): 436-41. Bibcode:1999Natur.397..436G ... que infecta aos chimpancés salvaxes da subespecie Pan troglodytes troglodytes.[192][193] O parente máis próximo do VIH-2 é o ...
Genus Pan *Chimpanzee (common chimpanzee), Pan troglodytes *Central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes ... Ang mga gorilya ay humiwalay sa linya na tumutungo sa Pan(chimpanzee at bonobo) at tao noong mga 10 milyong taong nakakalipas.[ ... Ang linyang Pan(chimpanzee at bonobo) ay humiwalay sa linya na tumutungo sa tao noong mga 6 hanggang 7 milyong taong ... Pan troglodytes verus. *Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti. *Eastern chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ...
Larger apes, such as Pongo (orangutans), Gorillas (gorillas), Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy), and Pan troglodytes ( ...
Gaur egun bizirik dauden espezierik gertuenak Pan generoko bi animalia dira: Pan paniscus (Bonoboa) eta Pan troglodytes ( ... Gizakiaren eboluzioan aldaketa morfologiko eta fisiologiko garrantzitsuak egon dira Homo eta Pan berezitu zirenetik. Lehenengo ...
Use of experimenter-given cues during object-choice tasks by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and ... Call, J.. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and children (Homo sapiens). „ ... Recognizing facial cues: Individual discrimination by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). „ ... Gruber, T., Clay, Z. and Zuberbühler, K.. A comparison of bonobo and chimpanzee tool use: evidence for a female bias in the Pan ...
The closest surviving relatives of the human species are the two species of Pan: the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and ... bonobos (Pan paniscus). Common chimpanzees have an omnivorous diet that includes troop hunting behaviour based on beta males ...
Genus Pan *Chimpanzee (common chimpanzee), Pan troglodytes *Central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes ... There is evidence there was interbreeding of Gorillas and the Pan-Homo ancestors until right up to the Pan-Homo split.[15] ... the genus Pan is sometimes considered to belong to its own third tribe, Panini. Homininae comprises all hominids that arose ... represented only by the genus Pan, which includes common chimpanzees and bonobos)―and 2) the tribe Gorillini (gorillas). ...
Pan troglodytes) - so much so that it should be classified as a member of the genus Pan and be given the taxonomic name Pan ... However, later discoveries and analyses revealed that Pan and Homo are closer genetically than are Pan and Gorilla; thus, Pan ... Speciation between Pan and Homo occurred over the last 9 million years. The Ardipithecus probably branched off of Pan in the ... Thus the estimated date of the divergence between Pan (chimpanzee) and Homo is 10-13 MYBP and that between Gorilla and the Pan/ ...
Pan. Bonobo (P. paniscus) · Sokwe Mtu wa Kawaida (P. troglodytes). Pongo. Orangutanu wa Sumatra (P. abelii) · Orangutanu wa ...
Pan troglodytes)". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 113 (4): 365-75. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.113.4.365. PMID 10608560.. ...
Pan paniscus), orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), rat (Rattus norvegicus), tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus ... Zhang B, Pan X (February 2009). "RDX induces aberrant expression of microRNAs in mouse brain and liver". Environmental Health ...
Pan troglodytes, on Rubondo Island, Tanzania". The Journal of Parasitology. 91 (6): 1314-7. doi:10.1645/GE-569R.1. PMID ...
... a variety of Pan troglodytes verus),[6][8] Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)[9] and a variety of birds, some of which ...
Genus Pan *Chimpanzee (common chimpanzee), Pan troglodytes *Central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes ... Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and their extinct relatives (e.g., the ... genus Pan) split off from the line leading to the humans. Human DNA is approximately 98.4% identical to that of chimpanzees ... Pan). The current, 21st-century meaning of "hominid" includes all the great apes including humans. Usage still varies, however ...
Pan troglodytes) are all important model animals in medical research.[22]. A rough draft of the human genome was completed by ...
Pan troglodyte troglodyte. Sedangkan, HIV-2 merupakan spesies virus hasil evolusi strain SIV yang berbeda (SIVsmm), ditemukan ... Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pantroglodytes troglodytes. Nature 397, 436-441 PMID 9989410 ...
Genre Pan *Chimpanzé (chimpanzé comun), Pan troglodytes *Chimpanzé central, Pan troglodytes troglodytes ... ChimpanzÉ occidental, Pan troglodytes verus. *Chimpanzé de Nigeria-Cameron, Pan troglodytes ellioti ...
Pan troglodytes) do not develop contingent reciprocity in an experimental task". Animal Cognition. 12 (4): 587-597. doi:10.1007 ...
... henus Pan), mga gorilya (henus Gorilla), mga orangutan (henus Pongo), at mga gibbon (apat na henera ng pamilyang Hylobatidae: ... troglodytes. Linnaeus, 1758. wadjakensis. Dubois, 1921 Para sa ibang gamit, tingnan ang Tao (paglilinaw).. Mga nilalaman. ... henus Pan). Ang petsang paghihiwalay sa pagitan ng mga liping tao at chimpanzee ay inilagay sa mga 4 hanggang 8 milyong taon ...
1999) Origin of HIV-1 in the Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Nature 397, 436-441 PMIID 9989410 ...
Müasir insanın nəsli tükənməmiş ən yaxın qohumları adi şimpanzelər (Pan troglodytes) ve bonobolardır (cırtdan şimpanze, Pan ...
Pan troglodytes, chimpanzee (2005[94]). *Pan paniscus, bonobo (2012[95]). *Family Callitrichidae *Callithrix jacchus, marmoset ... Wan QH, Pan SK, Hu L, Zhu Y, Xu PW, Xia JQ, et al. (September 2013). "Genome analysis and signature discovery for diving and ... Zhan X, Pan S, Wang J, Dixon A, He J, Muller MG, et al. (May 2013). "Peregrine and saker falcon genome sequences provide ...
Young WJ, Merz T, Ferguson-Smith MA, Johnston AW (June 1960). "Chromosome number of the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes". Science ...
Chimpansi (genus Pan) - Aphrikapi kawsaq *Hatun chimpansi (Pan troglodytes) - Aphrikapi kawsaq. *Uchuy chimpansi (Pan paniscus) ...
The genus Homo is placed in the tribe Hominini alongside Pan (chimpanzees). The two genera are estimated to have diverged over ... troglodytes.[37] ... An even more radical view rejects the division of Pan and Homo ... The introduction of Australopithecus as a third genus, alongside Homo and Pan, in the Hominini tribe is due to Raymond Dart ( ... A subtribe of uncertain validity, grouping archaic "pre-human" or "para-human" species younger than the Homo-Pan split is ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
TSA: Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee_0043094 mRNA sequence TSA: Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee_0043094 mRNA sequence. gi,410262113,gb, ...
TSA: Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee_0082785 mRNA sequence TSA: Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee_0082785 mRNA sequence. gi,410300327,gb, ...
Pan troglodytes verus); the Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee (P. t. ellioti); the Central Chimpanzee (P. t. troglodytes); and the ... 2015). Pan t. verus and P. t. ellioti separated from one another much earlier than P. t. troglodytes from P. t. schweinfurthii ... Pan troglodytes is listed on Appendix I of CITES and as Class A under the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and ... Although Pan troglodytes is the most abundant and widespread of the great apes, and many populations exist in protected areas, ...
Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures ... Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee). Papio anubis (Olive baboon). Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Western lowland gorilla). Macaca ... Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee). Chlorocebus sabaeus (Green monkey) (Cercopithecus sabaeus). Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque). ... tr,Q9TUA3,Q9TUA3_PANTR Olfactory receptor OS=Pan troglodytes PE=3 SV=1 ...
Pan troglodytes endogenous retrovirus-1 (PtERV1), or chimpanzee endogenous retrovirus-1 (CERV1), is a retrovirus that ...
Pan troglodytes troglodytes synonyms, Pan troglodytes troglodytes pronunciation, Pan troglodytes troglodytes translation, ... English dictionary definition of Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Noun 1. Pan troglodytes troglodytes - black-faced chimpanzees of ... Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to Pan troglodytes troglodytes: Pan ... Pan troglodytes troglodytes - definition of Pan troglodytes troglodytes by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary. ...
Laterality Effect for Faces in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Christoph D. Dahl, Malte J. Rasch, Masaki Tomonaga, Ikuma Adachi ... Laterality Effect for Faces in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Christoph D. Dahl, Malte J. Rasch, Masaki Tomonaga, Ikuma Adachi ... Laterality Effect for Faces in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Christoph D. Dahl, Malte J. Rasch, Masaki Tomonaga and Ikuma ... Laterality Effect for Faces in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Pancreatic secretion - Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , ...
... Nature. 1999 Feb 4;397(6718):436-41. doi: 10.1038/17130. ... Viruses related to HIV-1 have been isolated from the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), but only three such SIVcpz infections ... We find that two chimpanzee subspecies in Africa, the central P. t. troglodytes and the eastern P. t. schweinfurthii, harbour ... These results, together with the observation that the natural range of P. t. troglodytes coincides uniquely with areas of HIV-1 ...
Part of the NBL Cell Line Collection. This cell line is neither produced nor fully characterized by ATCC. We do not guarantee that it will maintain a specific morphology, purity, or any other property upon passage.
Genus: Pan. Species: P. troglodytes. Subspecies: P. t. schweinfurthii, P. t. troglodytes, P. t. vellerosus, P. t. verus. ... Pan troglodytes. ,Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology, , Behavior , Conservation , References , Links , AV. Other versions ... Pan troglodytes Chimpanzees are found across a west-east belt in equatorial Africa. Their range spans 22 countries: Angola, ... They have a more robust build than bonobos (Pan paniscus) and are slightly sexually dimorphic with males, on average, weighing ...
Historically, a small number of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) living in accredited North American zoos have been confirmed with ... Fatal Shigellosis in a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in the Jos... Fatal Case of Salmonellosis (Salmonella pullorum) in a ... SUSPECTED LYME BORRELIOSIS IN A CAPTIVE ADULT CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES) HEART RATE AND INDIRECT BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONSES TO ... PROSPECTIVE POPULATION MANAGEMENT FOR HEPATITIS B IN THE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES) SSP® POPULATION. ...
Pan troglodytes). Hand use was measured in subjects while they gestured to food placed out of their reach. The distribution of ... Hand use in gestural communication was examined in 115 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Hand use was measured in subjects ...
Regional and Hemispheric Variation in Cortical Thickness in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). William D. Hopkins, Brian B. Avants ... Regional and Hemispheric Variation in Cortical Thickness in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). William D. Hopkins, Brian B. Avants ... Regional and Hemispheric Variation in Cortical Thickness in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). William D. Hopkins and Brian B. ... Regional and Hemispheric Variation in Cortical Thickness in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
View Name Sources Download CSV Download BibTeX Bibliography for Pan troglodytes by Page ...
Matrix Metalloproteinases (Pan troglodytes). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 08:35, 12 February 2010 by Thomas (Talk , ...
Matrix Metalloproteinases (Pan troglodytes). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 18:43, 8 July 2013 by MaintBot (Talk , contribs) ...
SARDI, Marina L et al. Covariación ontogénica en el endocráneo de pan troglodytes. Rev Arg Antrop Biol [online]. 2014, vol.16, ... The goal of this study is to assess endocranial ontogenetic covariation in Pan troglodytes, another encephalized primate. Fifty ...
Pan Troglodytes , Mahale Mountains National Park , Tanzania ... Chimpanzee , Pan Troglodytes , Mahale Mountains National Park ...
DFFA ( XM_001161941.4 ) cDNA ORF clone, Pan troglodytes(chimpanzee) -, XP_001161941.1 Pan troglodytes DNA fragmentation factor ... DFFA ( XM_001161941.3 ) cDNA ORF clone, Pan troglodytes(chimpanzee) -, XP_001161941.1 Pan troglodytes DNA fragmentation factor ... Pan troglodytes DNA fragmentation factor subunit alpha (DFFA), mRNA.. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector. 7-9. $174.30. $ ... Pan troglodytes DNA fragmentation factor subunit alpha (DFFA), mRNA.. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector. 7-9. $174.30. $ ...
MRPS16 ( XM_508171.4 ) cDNA ORF clone, Pan troglodytes(chimpanzee) -, XP_508171.3 Pan troglodytes mitochondrial ribosomal ... Pan troglodytes mitochondrial ribosomal protein S16 (MRPS16), mRNA.. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector. 7-9. $104.30. $ ... ORF cDNA Clones and Custom Clones » Species Summary » Pan troglodytes » MRPS16 cDNA ORF clone ... Pan troglodytes Annotation Release 105 Annotation Version :: 105 Annotation Pipeline :: NCBI eukaryotic genome annotation ...
McGrew, W. C., Baldwin, P. J., & Tutin, C. E. G. (1988). Diet of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Mt. Assirik, ... Watts, D. P., Potts, K. B., Lwanga, J. S., & Mitani, J. C. (2012a). Diet of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at ... Watts, D. P., Potts, K. B., Lwanga, J. S., & Mitani, J. C. (2012b). Diet of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at ... Pruetz, J. D. (2006). Feeding ecology of savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal. In G. Hohmann, M. M. ...
Pan-Africa News 2004, 11, 10-12. [Google Scholar]. *Pruetz, J.D.; Marshack, J.L. Savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) ... Pan-Africa News 2009, 16, 15-17. [Google Scholar]. *Pruetz, J.D.; Bertolani, P. Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, ... Pan troglodytes) capture West African wood-owls (Ciccaba woodfordi) but not to eat. Pan-Africa News 2010, 17, 6-9. [Google ... Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the Ndoki Forest, Northern Congo. Primates 1996, 37, 253-259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ...
Planum temporale grey matter asymmetries in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), rhesus ( ...
Influenza A - Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee) [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , Image (png) file ...
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction - Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee) [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Imura, T., & Tomonaga, M. (2009). Moving Shadows Contribute to the Corridor Illusion in a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Journal ...
... common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes - X6M-1499943 from age fotostocks photo library of over 50+ million high resolution stock ... Stock Photo - common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes Image Code: X6M-1499943 Photographer: Mikel Bilbao Collection: age fotostock ...
  • Pan troglodytes endogenous retrovirus-1 (PtERV1), or chimpanzee endogenous retrovirus-1 (CERV1), is a retrovirus that putatively infected chimpanzees about 4 million years ago, and may have been involved in the process of speciation, making the chimpanzee and human lines diverge. (wikipedia.org)
  • The closest relatives of HIV-1 are simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), specifically SIVcpz and SIVgor in chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), respectively, from west-central Africa (2,3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Historically, a small number of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) living in accredited North American zoos have been confirmed with positive hepatitis B serology consistent with exposure. (bioone.org)
  • Hand use and gestural communication in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hand use in gestural communication was examined in 115 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hunting Activity Among Naturalistically Housed Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at the Fundació Mona (Girona, Spain). (mdpi.com)
  • Effect of solar eclipse on the behavior of a captive group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (docme.ru)
  • Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and wild Zanzibar red colobus monkeys (Procolobus kirkii). (nextbio.com)
  • Comprehension of cause-effect relations in a tool-using task by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Five chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were tested to assess their understanding of causality in a tool task. (semanticscholar.org)
  • limits on understanding a trap-tube task by young chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Processing of ordinality and transitivity by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Descriptive epidemiology of fatal respiratory outbreaks and detection of a human-related metapneumovirus in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Mahale Mountains National Park Western Tanzania. (docme.ru)
  • The chromosome numbers of nine chimpanzees (Pani troglodytes) have been determined by the bone marrow technique. (nmwatchman.com)
  • Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies ( Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii ), and no data exist for Central chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ), the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Personality in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Exploring the Hierarchic" by Dr. Robert D. Latzman, William D. Hopkins et al. (gsu.edu)
  • Latzman RD, Hopkins WD, Keebaugh AC, Young LJ (2014) Personality in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Exploring the Hierarchical Structure and Associations with the Vasopressin V1A Receptor Gene. (gsu.edu)
  • Background: A high incidence of heart disease, especially idiopathic cardiomyopathy (IC), is seen in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (uthscsa.edu)
  • Two species of chimpanzees, which shared an ancestor about 2 million years (myr) ago, have been officially recognized: namely, the common chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes , or Patr ) and the bonobo ( Pan paniscus , Papa ) ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, common chimpanzees have been divided into at least four subspecies designated P. t. verus ( Ptv ), P. t. troglodytes ( Ptt ), P. t. schweinfurthii ( Pts ), and P. t. vellerosus ( 4 , 5 ), although the status of the latter two remains unclear ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Adopting the approach taken with New Caledonian crows ( Corvus moneduloides ), we present evidence of design complexity in one of the termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) and orang-utans ( Pongo abelii ) have long been held as the most sophisticated tool users in the natural world. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine potential relationships between ECG characteristics and echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) and humans ( Homosapiens ) are each other's closest living relatives and yet the two primates differ enormously in many characteristics in physiology, anatomy, and pathology [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Like most emerging infectious disease viruses, HIV is SIVcpz and SIVgor in chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes also of zoonotic origin. (cdc.gov)
  • Kyoto University Research Information Repository: Eco-Geographical Diversification of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes (TAS2Rs) among Subspecies of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have region-specific difference in dietary repertoires from East to West across tropical Africa. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • Tool-composite reuse in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): archaeologically invisible steps in the technological evolution of early hominins? (ox.ac.uk)
  • Limited data are available on hemodynamic responses to anesthetic protocols in wild-born chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (cardiffmet.ac.uk)
  • Objective: To comprehensively characterize cardiac structure and function, from infancy to adulthood, in male and female wild-born captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) living in sanctuaries. (cardiffmet.ac.uk)
  • Here, we investigate the use of two novel passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems used to capture long-distance sounds produced by the same species, wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ), living in two different habitats: forest (Taï, Côte d'Ivoire) and savanna-woodland (Issa valley, Tanzania). (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this work were used 22 adult chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ), 11 males and 11 females , kept in captivity in three different institutions. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2013), suggest that the subspecies form two distinctive groups: one group includes P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti and the other group includes P. t. troglodytes and P. t. schweinfurthii (Fünfstück et al . (iucnredlist.org)
  • 2015). Pan t. verus and P. t. ellioti separated from one another much earlier than P. t. troglodytes from P. t. schweinfurthii . (iucnredlist.org)
  • Here, we analyze 9 common chimpanzee (representing three subspecies: Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, Pan troglodytes ellioti, and Pan troglodytes verus) and two bonobo (Pan paniscus) male whole-genome sequences to assess Y ampliconic copy-number diversity across the Pan genus. (nmwatchman.com)
  • The West African, or masked, chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes verus ) is a critically endangered subspecies of chimpanzee. (britannica.com)
  • Recent efforts have attempted to describe the population structure of common chimpanzee, focusing on four subspecies: Pan troglodytes verus, P. t. ellioti, P. t. troglodytes, and P. t. schweinfurthii. (elsevier.com)
  • They have a more robust build than bonobos ( Pan paniscus ) and are slightly sexually dimorphic with males, on average, weighing 40 to 60 kg (88.2 to 132 lb) and females, on average, weighing 32 to 47 kg (70.5 to 104 lb) (Rowe 1996). (wisc.edu)
  • We find that two chimpanzee subspecies in Africa, the central P. t. troglodytes and the eastern P. t. schweinfurthii, harbour SIVcpz and that their respective viruses form two highly divergent (but subspecies-specific) phylogenetic lineages. (nih.gov)
  • 3.2.A3 Comparison of diploid chromosome numbers of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Canis familiaris, Oryza sativa, Parascaris equorum. (nmwatchman.com)
  • Despite a large number of Homo fossil finds, chimpanzee fossils (genus Pan ) were not described until 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the primate that is phylogenetically most closely related to humans (Homo sapiens). (kent.ac.uk)
  • Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing shows that Pan is a sister taxon to the human lineage and is humans' closest living relati… Genomes Pages - Pan troglodytes chromosome 2a Ordered segments from the CON entry CM000315 (expanded version). (nmwatchman.com)
  • This would indicate that both humans and members of the Pan clade were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene . (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess the risk for cross-species troglodytes ) and gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla ), respectively, transmission of simian immunodefi ciency viruses (SIVs) from west-central Africa ( 2,3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses related to HIV-1 have been isolated from the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), but only three such SIVcpz infections have been documented, one of which involved a virus so divergent that it might represent a different primate lentiviral lineage. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of this study is to assess endocranial ontogenetic covariation in Pan troglodytes, another encephalized primate. (scielo.org.ar)
  • We dissected the superficial, deep and sphenomandibularis portions of the temporalis muscle in five adult P. troglodytes and quantified the expression of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC isoforms in each portion using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. (kent.ac.uk)
  • The chimpanzee and the closely related bonobo (sometimes called the "pygmy chimpanzee") are classified in the genus Pan. (nmwatchman.com)
  • Transmission of SIV from one subspecies of chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ) to hunters (through cuts) occurred repeatedly, but rarely, over hundreds of years. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although Pan troglodytes is the most abundant and widespread of the great apes, and many populations exist in protected areas, the declines that have occurred are expected to continue, satisfying the criteria for an Endangered listing (Oates 2006). (iucnredlist.org)
  • The common chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ), also known as the robust chimpanzee , is a species of great ape . (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing shows both species of the genus Pan are the sister taxon to the modern human lineage . (wikipedia.org)
  • The species name troglodytes is a reference to the Troglodytae (literally "cave-goers"), an African people described by Greco-Roman geographers . (wikipedia.org)
  • The differential expression patterns of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC isoforms in the temporalis muscle in P. troglodytes may be related to the functional differences that have been observed in electromyographic studies in other species of primates. (kent.ac.uk)
  • 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/743399/all/Pan_troglodytes_troglodytes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Pan troglodytes DNA fragmentation factor subunit alpha (DFFA), mRNA. (genscript.com)
  • Pan troglodytes mitochondrial ribosomal protein S16 (MRPS16), mRNA. (genscript.com)
  • To identify each Cebus apella and Pan troglodytes chromosome pair, metaphases were stained using Wrightâ s stain to produce G bands [Seabright, 1972] and subsequently treated to obtain sequential C bands [Sumner, 1972, with some modifications]. (nmwatchman.com)
  • Genomes Pages - Pan troglodytes chromosome 7 Ordered segments from the CON entry CM000321 (expanded version). (nmwatchman.com)
  • Chromosome number of the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes. (nmwatchman.com)
  • The current assembly covers about 97 percent of the Pan troglodytes genome and contains … Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) have 24 chromosomes and a genome size of 950 million bp, but possess ~32,000 genes Chickens ( Gallus gallus ) have 78 chromosomes and a genome size of 1.2 billion bp, but possess only ~17,000 genes The examples of genome and chromosome number have been selected to allow points of interest to be raised. (nmwatchman.com)
  • Lorenz Oken moved it to the new genus Pan in 1816. (wikipedia.org)
  • The yield of chromosomal aberrations induced by exposure to X-irradiation in vitro was studied in the lymphocytes of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes),… A. UniProtKB. (nmwatchman.com)
  • All HIV-1 strains known to infect man, including HIV-1 groups M, N and O, are closely related to just one of these SIVcpz lineages, that found in P. t. troglodytes. (nih.gov)
  • These results, together with the observation that the natural range of P. t. troglodytes coincides uniquely with areas of HIV-1 group M, N and O endemicity, indicate that P. t. troglodytes is the primary reservoir for HIV-1 and has been the source of at least three independent introductions of SIVcpz into the human population. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. (biomedcentral.com)
  • common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes, Stock Photo, Picture And Rights Managed Image. (agefotostock.com)
  • A young Common Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) swinging around the zoo exhibit at the Singapore Zoo. (deepseaimages.com)
  • This study adds to growing evidence of ecological and behavioral adaptability of Pan troglodytes in response to anthropogenic habitat alteration. (springer.com)
  • Serum concentrations of relaxin, chorionic gonadotropin, estradiol-17 beta, and progesterone during the reproductive cycle of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). (anthropogeny.org)
  • The chimpanzee Pan troglodytes ellioti is endemic to Nigeria and Cameroon, and occupies an ecologically diverse range of habitats from forests to forest-savannah mosaic in Mbam-Djerem National Park (MDNP) in Cameroon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Mbam-Djerem National Park (MDNP) in Cameroon offers an excellent opportunity to assess ecological factors shaping the abundance and distribution of the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ellioti ) over a small geographic extent in the core zone of the protected area, which includes both dense forest, colonizing forest and savannah ecosystems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Butch is a male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who was used as a photographers' prop in Spain. (monkeyworld.org)
  • Buxom is a male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who arrived from Windsor Safari Park, when it closed down, on 31/05/93 and was born on 29/01/82. (monkeyworld.org)
  • Çarli (pronounced Charlie) is a male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who arrived at Monkey World on 24/05/02 and was born on 20/11/93 in the United States. (monkeyworld.org)
  • Freddy is a male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who was found wandering alone in a park in Austria. (monkeyworld.org)
  • Jestah is a male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who arrived from Windsor Safari Park on 31/05/93 and was born on 28/12/81. (monkeyworld.org)
  • Pacito is a male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who was rescued from a garden shed in Barcelona. (monkeyworld.org)
  • Paco is a male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who was going to be used as a photographer's prop in Spain. (monkeyworld.org)
  • SE-51 Chimpanzee - mother carrying one year old infant tropical forest - Western Uganda - Africa Pan troglodytes Suzi Eszterhas Please note that prints are for personal display purposes only and may not be reproduced in anyway. (ardeaprints.com)
  • The chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ), also known as the common chimpanzee, or simply chimp, is a species of great ape native to the forest and savannah of tropical Africa. (wildlifeafrica.org)
  • The chimpanzee and the closely related bonobo are classified in the genus Pan. (wildlifeafrica.org)
  • On an evolutionary scale, the chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) is the closest living relative of humans ( Homo sapiens ), both shared a common ancestor sometime between 5-8 million years ago. (greencorridor.info)
  • The Robust Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) is an omnivorous ape found in a variety of wooded habitats across equatorial Africa. (greencorridor.info)
  • These exhibit mutually exclusive geographical ranges and include: The Western Chimpanzee ( P. t.verus ), which is the sub-species most endangered with extinction, second to the Nigerian Chimpanzee ( P.t.vellerosus ), and the Central African Chimpanzee ( P.t.troglodytes ) and finally the Eastern Chimpanzee ( P.t.shweinfurthii ). (greencorridor.info)
  • Adult female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) feeding on a fig (Ficus sansibarica), a fruit that needs to be deal with with care, doubtless because of its excessive concentrations of condensed tannins. (weightloss-diet.net)
  • Next, in a brief paper published in 2010, Sonya Kahlenberg of Bates College and Richard Wrangham of Harvard University presented the first evidence of wild male and female primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) in the Kanyawara chimpanzee community of Kibale National Park, Uganda, interacting differently with play objects. (animalwise.org)
  • Sex Differences in the Corpus Callosum of Macaca fascicularis and Pan troglodytes , by Douglas C. Broadfield. (wordpress.com)
  • A before-and-after study in 1993 at Los Angeles, USA (Wood 1998) found that foraging time and object use among chimpanzees Pan troglodytes presented with new food and environmental enrichment was greater with small viewing crowds than with large ones. (conservationevidence.com)
  • Twenty-nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were presented with both desirable (a banana) and undesirable food (commercial primate chow). (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) both knuckle-walk in adulthood but have been argued to develop their locomotor strategies differently in terms of timing and in positioning of the manus. (mendeley.com)
  • The distribution, status and ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthi) within the Hunting Reserves surrounding the Garamba National Park (preliminary phase of work, highly needed but not funded). (fieldmuseum.org)
  • Peering back over the last 120,000 years, scientists have uncovered where chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) rode out past periods of global change, providing insights into how they might be affected by future climate change. (odat.xyz)
  • Chimpanzees, or Pan troglodytes , are a species or great ape found across equatorial Africa, a place that at one time was full of dense forests but is now being regularly logged and burned down for agricultural purposes. (endangeredliving.com)
  • In this first in a series of papers reviewing the great ape holdings of the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, we describe the Pan troglodytes skeletal collection. (bioone.org)
  • Over the past two centuries it has become a pan-human trait that may not be solely the product of it being beautiful. (columbia.edu)
  • Intentionality as measured in the persistence and elaboration of communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodyes). (sussex.ac.uk)