A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
12-Carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A long-chain fatty acid ester of carnitine which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acids from cytoplasm into mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
A 20-carbon branched chain fatty acid. In phytanic acid storage disease (REFSUM DISEASE) this lipid may comprise as much as 30% of the total fatty acids of the plasma. This is due to a phytanic acid alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Covalent attachment of LIPIDS and FATTY ACIDS to other compounds and PROTEINS.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.
A positively charged protein found in peripheral nervous system MYELIN. Sensitive immunological techniques have demonstrated that P2 is expressed in small amounts of central nervous system myelin sheaths of some species. It is an antigen for experimental allergic neuritis (NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC), the peripheral nervous system counterpart of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 5th ed, p133)
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Amidohydrolases that are specific for the cleavage of the N-acyl linkage of CERAMIDES. Ceramidases are classified as acidic, neutral or basic according to the optimal pH with which they function.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (1/1352)

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

The synthesis and hydrolysis of long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A thioesters by soluble and microsomal fractions from the brain of the developing rat. (2/1352)

1. The specific activities of long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase (EC6.2.1.3) and of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA hydrolase (EC3.1.2.2) were measured in soluble and microsomal fractions from rat brain. 2. In the presence of either palmitic acid or stearic acid, the specific activity of the ligase increased during development; the specific activity of this enzyme with arachidic acid or behenic acid was considerably lower. 3. The specific activities of palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and of stearoyl-CoA hydrolase in the microsomal fraction decreased markedly (75%) between 6 and 20 days after birth; by contrast, the corresponding specific activities in the soluble fraction showed no decline. 4. Stearoyl-CoA hydrolase in the microsomal fraction is inhibited (99%) by bovine serum albumin; this is in contrast with the microsomal fatty acid-chain-elongation system, which is stimulated 3.9-fold by albumin. Inhibition of stearoyl-CoA hydrolase does not stimulate stearoyl-CoA chain elongation. Therefore it does not appear likely that the decline in the specific activity of hydrolase during myelogenesis is responsible for the increased rate of fatty acid chain elongation. 5. It is suggested that the decline in specific activity of the microsomal hydrolase and to a lesser extent the increase in the specific activity of the ligase is directly related to the increased demand for long-chain acyl-CoA esters during myelogenesis as substrates in the biosynthesis of myelin lipids.  (+info)

Studies on the influence of fatty acids on pyruvate dehydrogenase interconversion in rat-liver mitochondria. (3/1352)

1. The effect of fatty acids on the interconversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase between its active (nonphosphorylated) and inactive (phosphorylated) forms was measured in rat liver mitochondria respiring in state 3 with pyruvate plus malate and 2-oxoglutarate plus malate and during state 4 to state 3 transition in the presence of different substrates. The content of intramitochondrial adenine nucleotides was determined in the parallel experiments. 2. Decrease of the intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio with propionate and its increase with palmitoyl-L-carnitine in state 3 is accompanied by a shift of the steady-state of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system towards the active or the inactive form, respectively. 3. Transition from the high energy state (state4) to the active respiration (state3) in mitochondria oxidizing 2-oxoglutarate or plamitoyl-L-carnitine causes an increase of the amount of the active form of pyruvate dehydrogenase due to the decrease of ATP/ADP ratio in the matrix. 4. No change in ATP/ADP ratio can be observed in the presence of octanoate in mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate or 2-oxoglutarate in state 3 or during state 4 to state 3 transition. Simultanelusly, no significant change in phosphorylation state of pyruvate dehydrogenase occurs and a low amount of the enzyme in the active form is present with octanoate or octanoate plus 2-oxoglutarate. Pyruvate abolishes this effect of octanoate and shifts the steady-state of pyruvate dehydrogenase system towards the active form. 5. These results indicate that fatty acids influence the interconversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase mainly by changing intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio. However, the comparison of the steady-state level of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system in the presence of different substrates in various metabolic conditions provides some evidence that accumulation of acetyl-CoA and high level of NADH may promote the phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. 6. Pyruvate exerts its protective effect against phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the presence of fatty acids of short, medium or long chain in a manner which depends on its concentration. It is suggested that in isolated mitochondria pyruvate counteracts the effect of acetyl-CoA and NADH on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.  (+info)

Histone-hydrocarbon interaction. Partition of histones in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(ethylene glycol)-bound hydrocarbons. (4/1352)

The hydrophobic properties of histones have been examined with help of the two-phase partition technique using dextran-poly(ethylene glycol)-water systems. We have found that different fatty acid esters of poly(ethylene glycol) interact with total histones in a manner similar to proteins of the type beta-lactoglobulin and serum albumins. Thus the maximum interaction occurs when the fatty acid contains 16-18 carbon atoms. With less than eight carbon atoms in the polymer-bound fatty acid, no histone-hydrocarbon interaction is observed. The interaction of the five individual histone fractions with palmitate depends on the type of salt used and on its concentration. We suggest that the histones can be divided into three groups with decreasing hydrophobic properties: H3, H2a greater than H4, H2b greater than H1.  (+info)

Stereochemistry of the alpha-oxidation of 3-methyl-branched fatty acids in rat liver. (5/1352)

The stereochemistry of the alpha-oxidation of 3-methyl-branched fatty acids was studied in rat liver. R- and S-3-methylhexadecanoic acid were equally well alpha-oxidized in intact hepatocytes and homogenates. Subcellular fractionation studies showed that alpha-oxidation of both isomers is confined to peroxisomes. Dehydrogenation of 2-methylpentadecanal, the end-product of the peroxisomal alpha-oxidation of 3-methylhexadecanoic acid, to 2-methylpentadecanoic acid, followed by derivatization with R-1-phenylethylamine and subsequent separation of the stereoisomers by gas chromatography, revealed that the configuration of the methyl-branch is preserved throughout the whole alpha-oxidation process. Metabolism and formation of the 2-hydroxy-3-methylhexadecanoyl-CoA intermediate were also investigated. Separation of the methyl esters of the four isomers of 2-hydroxy-3-methylhexadecanoic acid was achieved by gas chromatography after derivatization of the hydroxy group with R-2-methoxy-2-trifluoromethylphenylacetic acid chloride and the absolute configuration of the four isomers was determined. Although purified peroxisomes are capable of metabolizing all four isomers of 2-hydroxy-3-methylhexadecanoyl-CoA, they can only form the (2S,3R) and the (2R,3S) isomers. Our experiments exclude the racemization of the 3-methyl branch during the alpha-oxidation process. The configuration of the 3-methyl branch does not influence the rate of alpha-oxidation, but determines the side of the 2-hydroxylation, hence the configuration of the 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA intermediates formed during the process.  (+info)

Anandamide activates human platelets through a pathway independent of the arachidonate cascade. (6/1352)

Anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide, AnNH) is shown to activate human platelets, a process which was not inhibited by acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). Unlike AnNH, hydroperoxides generated thereof by lipoxygenase activity, and the congener (13-hydroxy)linoleoylethanolamide, were unable to activate platelets, though they counteracted AnNH-mediated stimulation. On the other hand, palmitoylethanolamide neither activated human platelets nor blocked the AnNH effects. AnNH inactivation by human platelets was afforded by a high-affinity transporter, which was activated by nitric oxide-donors up to 225% of the control. The internalized AnNH could thus be hydrolyzed by a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), characterized here for the first time.  (+info)

Crystal structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-ACP reductase, InhA, in complex with NAD+ and a C16 fatty acyl substrate. (7/1352)

Enoyl-ACP reductases participate in fatty acid biosynthesis by utilizing NADH to reduce the trans double bond between positions C2 and C3 of a fatty acyl chain linked to the acyl carrier protein. The enoyl-ACP reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, known as InhA, is a member of an unusual FAS-II system that prefers longer chain fatty acyl substrates for the purpose of synthesizing mycolic acids, a major component of mycobacterial cell walls. The crystal structure of InhA in complex with NAD+ and a C16 fatty acyl substrate, trans-2-hexadecenoyl-(N-acetylcysteamine)-thioester, reveals that the substrate binds in a general "U-shaped" conformation, with the trans double bond positioned directly adjacent to the nicotinamide ring of NAD+. The side chain of Tyr158 directly interacts with the thioester carbonyl oxygen of the C16 fatty acyl substrate and therefore could help stabilize the enolate intermediate, proposed to form during substrate catalysis. Hydrophobic residues, primarily from the substrate binding loop (residues 196-219), engulf the fatty acyl chain portion of the substrate. The substrate binding loop of InhA is longer than that of other enoyl-ACP reductases and creates a deeper substrate binding crevice, consistent with the ability of InhA to recognize longer chain fatty acyl substrates.  (+info)

Cysteine 29 is the major palmitoylation site on stomatin. (8/1352)

The 31 kDa membrane protein stomatin was metabolically labeled with tritiated palmitic acid in the human amniotic cell line UAC and immunoprecipitated. We show that the incorporated palmitate is sensitive to hydroxylamine, indicating the binding to cysteine residues. Stomatin contains three cysteines. By expressing a myc-tagged stomatin and substituting the three cysteines by serine, individually or in combination, we demonstrate that Cys-29 is the predominant site of palmitoylation and that Cys-86 accounts for the remaining palmitate labeling. Disruption of Cys-52 alone does not show any detectable reduction of palmitic acid incorporation. Given the organization of stomatin into homo-oligomers, the presence of multiple palmitate chains is likely to increase greatly the affinity of these oligomers for the membrane and perhaps particular lipid domains within it.  (+info)

The development of palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous fatty acid amide, as an FDA-approved prescription drug in the USA has started by a small company, Prismic. This is a result of recent data confirming that palmitoylethanolamide demonstrate a clinical entourage or synergistic effect when administered in combination or concomitantly with certain analgesics such as THC, oxycodone, morphine,…
De vraag naar hoe veilig een capsule is die gevuld is met palmitoylethanolamide is een belangrijke vraag. Kan ik zonder problemen deze capsule gedurende een jaar innemen? Zijn er bijwerkingen van d… Source: Over de veiligheid van palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) en waarom dat belangrijk is.
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Slater, C., Hardieck, M., Preston, T. and Weaver, L.T. (1998) Analysis of tert.-butyldimethylsilyl [1-13C]palmitic acid in stool samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation: comparison with combustion isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 716(1-2), pp. 1-6. (doi:10.1016/S0378-4347(98)00280-1) ...
Our study aimed to examine both the gastrointestinal handling and metabolism of emulsified [1-13C]palmitic acid esterified into a triglyceride in healthy children and patients with cystic fibrosis by measuring excretion of the label in the stool and on the breath as 13CO2. This is the first time that 13C labelled tripalmitin, orally administered as an emulsion, has been used to measure the digestion and absorption of dietary triglycerides in healthy children and patients with cystic fibrosis on habitual pancreatic enzyme replacement treatment by measuring directly the excretion of 13C label in the stool. In healthy children, only a small proportion of the 13C label was excreted in the stool, which is consistent with total stool lipid losses within the normal range of , 5 g/day.1Almost a quarter of the 13C label appeared in stools from patients with cystic fibrosis, with as much as 64% in one child, and there were substantially greater amounts of lipid in the stool when compared with healthy ...
ACME SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS - Exporter, Manufacturer, Supplier, Trading Company of Palmitic Acid - Manufacturer based in Mumbai, India
[138 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Palmitic acid (CAS 57-10-3) Market Insights 2020, Global and Chinese Analysis and Forecast to 2025 report by Prof Research. Palmitic Acid (CAS 57-10-3) Market Insights 2020, Global...
The importance of either carbohydrate or energy restriction in initiating the metabolic response to fasting was studied in five normal volunteers. The subjects participated in two study protocols in a randomized crossover fashion. In one study the subjects fasted for 84 h (control study), and in the other a lipid emulsion was infused daily to meet resting energy requirements during the 84-h oral fast (lipid study). Glycerol and palmitic acid rates of appearance in plasma were determined by infusing [2H5]glycerol and [1-13C]palmitic acid, respectively, after 12 and 84 h of oral fasting. Changes in plasma glucose, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, insulin, and epinephrine concentrations during fasting were the same in both the control and lipid studies. Glycerol and palmitic acid rates of appearance increased by 1.63 +/- 0.42 and 1.41 +/- 0.46 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively, during fasting in the control study and by 1.35 +/- 0.41 and 1.43 +/- 0.44 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively, in the lipid ...
Palmitoylation of V2R was investigated by immunoprecipitation of receptor proteins expressed transiently in COS.M6 cells and detection of incorporated [3H]palmitic acid. In cells expressing the wild-type glycosylated V2R, [3H]palmitic acid incorporation resulted in the appearance of a broad radioactive band at 45-55 kDa, which is the expected size for the mature receptor form. Deglycosylation with PNGase F produced a sharp band at 40 kDa. As seen in Fig. 2, this band was identical to the band obtained from cells expressing nonglycosylated receptor (17, 18). These results demonstrated that the V2R is palmitoylated and that protein glycosylation was not required to observe palmitoylation.. Analogous to other G protein-coupled receptors, the palmitoylation site was expected to be located 10-12 amino acids downstream of the seventh transmembrane region. Some receptors, such as the α2- and β2-adrenoceptors, contain only one palmitoylated cysteine; others, like rhodopsin and the LH/hCG receptor, ...
To study the mechanism of ether lipid accumulation which is characteristic of many tumors, we have compared the metabolism of lipids in primary rat tracheal epithelial cells and in a cell line derived from a benzo(a)pyrene-induced tumor. Growth of the primary epithelial cells in vitro resulted in the accumulation of alkyldiacylglycerols at levels (10% of total lipid) comparable to those found in the tumor cell line (B2-1). This class of ether lipids could not be detected in normal rat tracheal epithelium in vivo. A double isotope labeling method using [3H]- and [14C]palmitic acid was used to study metabolic stability of lipid classes in the cell cultures. Primary cells and B2-1 cells labeled with palmitic acid showed the greatest loss of label from triacylglycerols and free fatty acids during incubation in unlabeled media. A slight loss of label from the ester linkages of the alkyldiacylglycerols was observed in the primary epithelial cells but not the B2-1 cells. No label was lost from the ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 628-97-7 PALMITIC ACID, ETHYL ESTER (PALMITATE-U-13C16, 98%+) 95%+ PURE. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
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I have been suffering SUFFERING, with arthritis, neuropathy in my feet, nerve pain that goes from my back down my groin and right leg and fibromyalgia. I have been getting about 8 minute increments of sleep because the pain in my hips and leg keeps waking me up. My life has been miserable to the point that there is no quality of life and I just kept thinking about dying. I went to my yearly check up to my eye doctor and struggled to walk in his office with a walker, and for the 3rd year in a row he recommended that I take this product. The first couple of years he recommended the product that you could only get from the Netherlands . At the time I thought it was too expensive and did not buy it. Now the pain has gotten so much worse and when he said that he had the product (Vitalitus) in his office and was selling it to patients. I jumped at the chance. I cannot believe this product. It started to work within a couple of days. Its been a little over 2 weeks. I no longer have the pain that kept ...
palmitin definition: The glyceryl ester, C3H5(OOC16H31)3, of palmitic acid, found in palm-oil and animal fats and always produce soap. Also referred to as tripalmitin.; an excellent crystallizable fat,…
OK, that sounds plausible, although Id say that there are so many differences between growing up on a farm vs. in a city that its going to be hard to persuade me that exposure to Bacterium X is the crucial variable. The only way to find out is to read the original paper. So I did.. This particular paper does no evolutionary testing. It doesnt compare farm kids to city kids. It doesnt look at human stress disorders at all. It tests the effects of a molecule found in cell bacteria on cells from mice isolated in culture. Basically, they synthesized and purified 1,2,3-tri [Z-10-hexadecenoyl] glycerol, 10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid and tested it on cells loaded with receptor and recorder constructs so they could determine its mechanism of action - the bottom line is that this molecule under these conditions seems to have a potent effect in reducing activation of an inflammatory pathway. Heres their summary of the results:. ...
Kalium Diklofenak Dexa Medica is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Kalium Diklofenak Dexa Medica is available on the Drugs.com website.
Tamás VÁRKONYI *, Anna KÖREI, Zsuzsanna PUTZ, Tímea MARTOS, Katalin KERESZTES, Csaba LENGYEL, Szabolcs NYIRATY, Alin STIRBAN, György JERMENDY, Péter KEMPLER. Minerva Medica 2003 February;94(1):19- ...
Formula: C14H18N2O8MW: 342. 31CAS: 23646-68-6MDL: MFCD01457171TNP: TNP004214-NITROPHENYL PALMITATE (4-NITROPHENYL HEXADECANOATE; LogP: 2....
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Researchers say a "stress response" mechanism used by normal cells to cope with harsh or demanding conditions is exploited by cancer cells, which transmit the same stress signal to surrounding cells, triggering an inflammatory response in them that can aid tumor growth.
Yunifiar M, Muhammad Qushai; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Indriati, Dwi Wahyu; Meilani, Meilani; Yeheskiel, Tigor; Ueda, Shuhei; Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Kameoka, ...
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Mornex, Jean-Francois;Martinet, Yves;Yamauchi, Kohei;Bitterman, Peter B.;Grotendorst, Gary R.;Chytil-Weir, Anna;Martin, George R.;Crystal, Ronald G ...
Mornex, Jean-Francois;Martinet, Yves;Yamauchi, Kohei;Bitterman, Peter B.;Grotendorst, Gary R.;Chytil-Weir, Anna;Martin, George R.;Crystal, Ronald G ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it.Ok ...
Yunifiar M, Muhammad Qushai; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Indriati, Dwi Wahyu; Meilani, Meilani; Yeheskiel, Tigor; Ueda, Shuhei; Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Kameoka, ...
Six months of breastfeeding instead of four significantly reduces the probability of respiratory illnesses in babies, as a study has proved.
Fornire salute visiva, attraverso unassistenza medica e diagnostica al massimo livello, con costante attenzione allaspetto umano e alle necessità di ogni singolo Paziente.
50 µCi quantities of [1-14C]-Palmitic Acid are available for your research. Application of [14C]Palmitic Acid can be found in: myristic acid (unlike palmitic acid) rapidly metabolizing in cultured rat hepatocytes, palmitic acid following a different metabolic pathway than oleic acid in human skeletal muscle cells, metabolic fate of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids and their effects on palmitic acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis, phenotype of palmitic acid transport and of signalling in alveolar type II cells from E/H-FABP double-knockout mice, fatty acid-binding site environments of serum vitamin D-binding protein vs. albumin, etc. ...
Palmitic acid (PA) has been for long time negatively depicted for its putative detrimental health effects, shadowing its multiple crucial physiological activities. PA is the most common saturated fatty acid accounting for 20-30% of total fatty acids in the human body and can be provided in the diet or synthesized endogenously via de novo lipogenesis (DNL). PA tissue content seems to be controlled around a well-defined concentration, and changes in its intake do not influence significantly its tissue concentration because the exogenous source is counterbalanced by PA endogenous biosynthesis. Particular physiopathological conditions and nutritional factors may strongly induce DNL, resulting in increased tissue content of PA and disrupted homeostatic control of its tissue concentration. The tight homeostatic control of PA tissue concentration is likely related to its fundamental physiological role to guarantee membrane physical properties but also to consent protein palmitoylation, palmitoylethanolamide
Anyhoo. Half a pound of doner meat down and you are now just ravenous. You fight the hunger off for another 10 minutes, but you know you are on to a looser. You blow another £3.20 on a second portion. Sitting in Mothercares car park, finishing your second kebab, you promise yourself that now you will just drive home and stop eating, and you actually turn on the ignition before the palmitic acid driven hunger breaks your will like a matchstick and you go back for a third portion. This time you dont leave the shop and wolf down your fourth portion, an extra large one, which gets you up to well over the two pounds of meat mark, and you need more. After that its a race within the family to spent the weeks food budget on Friday night doner kebabs. With five or six pounds of meat eaten you hopefully run out of money and the palmitic acid pusher mercilessly and mercifully kicks you out on the street, half a sheep in your stomach and ravenous from the palmitic acid flooding your brain. That hunger ...
Exposure of human islets cultivated at 5.5 mmol/l glucose to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mmol/l palmitic acid for 4 days induced a 2.12-, 2.51-, and 3.59-fold increase, respectively, of the number of TUNEL-positive β-cells (Fig. 1). Exposure to 33.3 mmol/l glucose induced a 3.3-fold increase of the number of TUNEL-positive β-cells relative to islets at 5.5 mmol/l glucose (Fig. 1B). Glucose (33.3 mmol/l) together with 0.1-0.5 mmol/l palmitic acid had no additive effect (Fig. 1B). In contrast, the monounsaturated palmitoleic acid (0.5 mmol/l) and oleic acid (0.1-0.5 mmol/l) did not induce β-cell DNA fragmentation (Fig. 1). When added together with the corresponding concentration of palmitic acid, 0.5 mmol/l palmitoleic acid and 0.25-0.5 mmol/l oleic acid reduced the palmitic acid effect on β-cell death (Fig. 1B). Furthermore, 0.5 mmol/l palmitoleic acid and 0.25-0.5 mmol/l oleic acid prevented the β-cells from 33.3 mmol/l glucose-induced apoptosis and limited the apoptotic effect of both, increased ...
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has been suggested to have useful analgesic properties and to be devoid of unwanted effects. Here, we have examined critically this contention, and discussed available data concerning the pharmacokinetics of PEA and its formulation. Sixteen clinical trials, six case reports/pilot studies and a meta-analysis of PEA as an analgesic have been published in the literature. For treatment times up to 49days, the current clinical data argue against serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) at an incidence of 1/200 or greater. For treatment lasting more than 60days, the number of patients is insufficient to rule out a frequency of ADRs of less than 1/100. The six published randomized clinical trials are of variable quality. Presentation of data without information on data spread and nonreporting of data at times other than the final measurement were among issues that were identified. Further, there are no head-to-head clinical comparisons of unmicronized vs. micronized ...
16:0 hexadecanoic, palmitic fatty acid is a nutrient present in many other foods. The below table lists foods high in 16:0 hexadecanoic, palmitic fatty acid other than Butter, without salt. ...
The third area of focus relates to chronic pain, a condition that affects 100 million Americans. Recent data indicates that palmitoylethanolamide may have both a solo mechanism of action and a potentiating or synergistic effect when combined with narcotics and certain other drugs used for the treatment of severe chronic pain. Prismic plans to undertake proof-of-concept clinical studies to demonstrate the potentiating effect of our formulation of palmitoylethanolamide when administered concomitantly with drugs such as morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, and pregabalin. The studies will assess the effect of concomitant administration of palmitoylethanolamide in terms of potentiating (enhancing) the effectiveness of these drugs, allowing for lower doses of the drugs to be used while achieving the desired therapeutic effect. Such results would also be expected to demonstrate a consequent lessening or avoidance of adverse events/side effects and, in the case of opiates/narcotics, potentially, a ...
The erythrocyte Rh antigens contain an Mr = 32,000 integral protein which is thought to contribute in some way to the organization of surrounding phospholipid. To search for possible fatty acid acylation of the Rh polypeptide ...
S-palmitoylation consists in the covalent attachment of a 16-carbon chain palmitic acid to a cysteine residue of a target protein through a thioester bond, regulating thus the localization and/or function of the modified protein because of the consequent change in hydrophobicity (18, 19). Although several Palmitoyl-proteome analyses have been described in the last years, only few have been using protozoan parasites (12, 53⇓-55). Interestingly, in all parasites where the role of palmitoylation has been described, it appears to be involved in vital processes such as invasion and motility (12, 53⇓-55). In this context, here we performed the first large-scale description of palmitoylated proteins of the extracellular human pathogen T. vaginalis, identifying 363 putative palmitoylated proteins. Among the isolated proteins, 8 TvPAT-like molecules were identified. Interestingly, only one of them contain the classical DHHC-CRD domain whereas the remaining seven contain variants of the DHHC-CRD ...
The main finding of the present study was that myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects expressed a primary reduced complete palmitate oxidation with a concomitant increase in the esterification of palmitic acid into phospholipids. Palmitic acid incorporation into DAG and TAG did not differ between the groups, whether under basal conditions or acute insulin stimulation, and TAG content in myotubes established from control and type 2 diabetic subjects did not differ significantly. These results indicate that the reduced lipid oxidation in diabetic muscle observed in vivo may be of genetic origin and that TAG metabolism may not be primarily affected in diabetic muscles under basal physiological conditions.. Previously, it has been described that intracellular TAG is increased (7,9,10) and that oxidation of lipids is reduced in muscle fibers from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects (4,6,27,31); however, the mechanism responsible for these changes has not yet been identified. To gain ...
Final thought: Do we need omega 3 PUFA at anything above the most minimal levels if we are in saturated fat based ketosis? Of course I dont know. But the signal to cope with starvation is palmitic acid (physiological insulin resistance), not DHA. I live in starvation mode, not on a mixed diet with only intermittent access to healthy ruminant fat. I have long wanted to look at the selective release of FFAs from adipocytes in extended starvation. My suspicion is that in the early days after glycogen depletion palmitic acid is preferentially released over other lipids, PUFA are not needed/wanted. By a few weeks all the palmitate is gone and whatever is left then gets released. People like David Blaine suddenly start to feel weak, wobbly and are probably hypoglycaemic once they run out of palmitate and have to release less saturated fats. Two to four weeks if you carry some spare weight. Sauers rats had only ever been fed a low fat omega 6 based diet and had no serious palmitate reserves, PUFA ...
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I am Petro Dobromylskyj, always known as Peter. Im a vet, trained at the RVC, London University. I was fortunate enough to intercalate a BSc degree in physiology in to my veterinary degree. I was even more fortunate to study under Patrick Wall at UCH, who set me on course to become a veterinary anaesthetist, mostly working on acute pain control. That led to the Certificate then Diploma in Veterinary Anaesthesia and enough publications to allow me to enter the European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia as a de facto founding member. Anaesthesia teaches you a lot. Basic science is combined with the occasional need to act rapidly. Wrong decisions can reward you with catastrophe in seconds. Thinking is mandatory. I stumbled on to nutrition completely by accident. Once you have been taught to think, its hard to stop. I think about lots of things. These are some of them ...
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Palmitic acid-induces production of reactive oxygen species in RINm5F insulin-producing cells that overexpress catalase in the cytosol (Cat) or in the mitochond
Fatty acid activation occurs in the _______. Beta oxidation occurs in the ____________. Explain the transport system that shuttles fatty acids between these two cellular locations ...
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Gian P. CAVIGLIA *, Maria L. ABATE, Silvia GAIA, Elisa PETRINI, Caterina BOSCO, Antonella OLIVERO, Chiara ROSSO, Alessia CIANCIO, Rinaldo PELLICANO, Giorgio M. SARACCO, Mario RIZZETTO, Antonina SMEDILE. Panminerva Medica 2017 June;59(2):157- ...
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Kolkata headquartered Medica Hospitals has launched the Medica Centre for Liver Disease in association with the renowned South Asian Liver Institute (SALi), a Tom Cherian initiative.
柔潤劑、乳化劑,飽和性脂肪酸,棕櫚油中之主要成份,與強鹼類皂化後即形成肥皂。 柔潤劑, 乳化劑 ...
Alireza Sharifian, Abbas Abdollahi, Ghodratollah Maddah, Fakhryalsadat Anaraki, Mina Alvandipour, Mehdi Abbasi Sahebi, Noora Bigdeli, Ali Mohammad Hasanzadeh ...
KINDERHOOK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / August 14, 2019 / American Bio Medica Corporation (OTC PINK:ABMC) today announced financial results for the three and six months
... oleic acid; 5-11% linoleic acid; 7.5-10% palmitic acid; 1.5-3% stearic acid - the ratios are similar to that found in wild ... Another analysis of several cultivars found : 82-84% unsaturated acids of which 68-77% oleic acid; and 7-14% polyunsaturated ... Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan (2016), "Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid ... "Fatty acid composition of Camellia oleifera oil", Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 6 (11): 9-12, doi: ...
"palmitic acid - C16H32O2 - PubChem". Kalmanzon, E., Aknin-Herrman, R., Rahamim, Y., Carmeli, S., Barenholz, Y. & Zlotkin, E. ( ... Pahutoxin is a choline chloride ester of 3-acetoxypalmitic acid that behaves similarly to steroidal saponins found in ...
... a peripheral membrane protein with covalently bound palmitic acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (3): 1300-4. doi: ...
It is high in oleic and palmitic fatty acids (table). Açai oil is widely used for cooking and as a salad dressing. In cosmetics ... syringic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and ferulic acid as well as (+)-catechin and numerous procyanidin ... The oil is rich in phenolic compounds similar in profile to the pulp itself, such as vanillic acid, ...
... palmitic and myristic acids; nyctanthic acid; 3,4-secotriterpene acid; and a water-soluble polysaccharide composed of D-glucose ... nyctanthic acid, tannic acid, ascorbic acid, methyl salicylate, an amorphous glycoside, an amorphous resin, trace of volatile ... Leaves: The leaves contain D-mannitol, β-sitosterol, flavanol glycosides, astragalin, nicotiflorin, oleanolic acid, ... oil, carotene, friedeline, lupeol, mannitol, glucose, fructose, iridoid glycosides, and benzoic acid.[citation needed] Flowers ...
... is the ester of isopropyl alcohol and palmitic acid. It is an emollient, moisturizer, thickening agent, and ...
... has an especially high concentration of saturated fat, specifically the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid ... Excessive intake of palmitic acid, which makes up 44% of palm oil, increases blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and ... Consequently, research has focused on the deleterious effects of palm oil and palmitic acid consumption as sources of saturated ... This super stearin contains ∼90% of saturated fatty acids, predominantly palmitic ... "FAO data - dimension-member - Oil, palm ...
May 1998). "Identification of a palmitic acid-modified form of human Sonic hedgehog". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 ...
Synthesis Palmitic acid Coenzyme A Brady, R.N.; DiMari, S.J.; Snell, E.E. (1969). "Biosynthesis of sphingolipid bases. 3. ... The full oxidation of palmitic acid (or palmitoyl-CoA) results in 8 acetyl-CoA's, 7 NADH, 7 H+ , and 7 FADH2. The full reaction ... It is an "activated" form of palmitic acid and can be transported into the mitochondrial matrix by the carnitine shuttle system ... Palmitoyl CoA formed from palmitic acid, in the reaction below. Palmitate + CoA − SH + ATP ⟶ Palmitoyl − CoA + AMP + ...
Palmitate Palmitic acid Merck Index, 11th Edition, 2020. "Hexadecan-1-ol_msds". M. Raneft, D.; Eaker, H.; W. Davis, R. (2001 ... Modern production is based around the reduction of palmitic acid, which is obtained from palm oil. Cetyl alcohol is used in the ...
The most present saturated fat is palmitic acid. It has been reported that Digitaria exilis is an optimal food for people ... These two amino acids, however, are lacking in wheat, rice, maize, and other cereal crops. Moving from the amino acid level to ... The remaining fatty acids in the hulled grain are mainly unsaturated fats like linoleic and oleic acid. ... Fonio is closer to sorghum and rice than to wheat, and therefore it does not contain the sequence of amino acids that cause ...
1998). "Identification of a palmitic acid-modified form of human Sonic hedgehog". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (22): 14037-45. doi: ...
Its main fatty acids are palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and octadecanoic acid. The main phospholipids are ...
... is monounsaturated fat as oleic acid (table). Other predominant fats include palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The saturated fat ... palmitic acid). Although costly to produce, nutrient-rich avocado oil has a multitude of uses for salads or cooking and in ... Avocado leaves contain a toxic fatty acid derivative, persin, which in sufficient quantity can cause colic in horses and ... DV in pantothenic acid) and vitamin K (20% DV), with moderate contents (10-19% DV) of vitamin C, vitamin E, and potassium. ...
N-Palmitoylethanolamine (PEA: C18H37NO2; 16:0) is the amide of palmitic acid (C16H32O2; 16:0) and ethanolamine. It is a ligand ... and heptadecanoic acid (C17H34O2; 17:0), elevated palmitoleic acid (POA; C16H30O2; 16:1, n-7), a conjugate acid of a ... where n-7 fatty acids are precursors for the production of omega-4 fatty acids like palmitolinoleic acid (16:2), and a ... The hydrolysis of NAE to free fatty acid (FFA) and ethanolamine (MEA) in animals, is catalyzed by fatty acid amide hydrolase ( ...
... is monounsaturated fat as oleic acid. Other predominant fats include palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The saturated fat content ... palmitic acid). Stradley, Linda (2004). "All About Avocados: History of the Hass Avocado". What'sCookingAmerica.net. Newberg, ...
Palmitoleic can subsequently be used to create a number of other fatty acids. Palmitic acid is also used to synthesize ... ISBN 978-1-4292-8360-1. "Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, in Cell Culture". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 2016-02-29. Zhang, ... Further, palmitic acid, which is created by the beta-ketoacyl-synthases on type I FAS, is used in a number of biological ... Type I FAS catalyzes all the reactions necessary to create palmitic acid, which is a necessary function in animals for ...
Some of these different fats include oleic acids, found in canola oil, animal tallow, and yellow grease; palmitic acid found in ... It contains levels of both essential amino acids as well as branched that are above those of soy, meat, and wheat. "Diafiltered ... This protein is commonly used in protein bars, beverages and concentrated powder, due to its high quality amino acid profile. ... Diets are formulated to meet the dairy cow's energy and amino acid requirements for lactation, growth, and/or reproduction. ...
The most prevalent fatty acids include: palmitic acid, 17.3% of total fatty acids; stearic acid, 7.16%; oleic acid, 40.27%; and ... There are 4.46 g of organic acids per 100 g of dry mushrooms, including oxalic acid (0.78 g), malic acid (2.71 g), citric acid ... The proportion of fatty acids (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids) are 28.78% saturated, 41.51% monounsaturated, ... 0.55 g), and fumaric acid (0.23 g). Mushrooms have 22.6 mg/100 g dw of the phenolic compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 15.8 mg ...
Saturated fatty acids include palmitic acid (10% of total) and stearic acid (2%). Oleic acid is the most common monounsaturated ... fatty acid (51% of total fat) and linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is 31% of total fat. Relative to other tree nuts ... Okay Y (2002). "The comparison of some pistachio cultivars regarding their fat, fatty acids and protein content". Die ...
SMP is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial esters of sorbitol treated with palmitic acid. SMP is a ... SMP is metabolized to sorbitol and palmitic acid, without any apparent side effects. The use of animal fats, like pork, in the ...
The palmitic acid (C16) chains form the nonpolar hydrophobic tails; these are oriented towards the outer side. The synthesis of ... Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is a phospholipid (and a lecithin) consisting of two C16 palmitic acid groups attached to ... formed by two nonpolar palmitic acid (C16) chains. This trait allows DPPC to easily and spontaneously form micelles, monolayers ...
Chemically, ethyl palmitate is the ethyl ester of palmitic acid. Ethyl palmitate is used as a hair- and skin-conditioning agent ...
The oil contains palmitic and stearic acids (7-8%) and oleic acid (5-8%). Indian Niger oil is reportedly higher in oleic acid ( ... The oil is rich in linoleic acid (75-80%) and other essential nutrients, with a fatty acid composition comparable to safflower ... 25%) and lower in linoleic acid (55%). There was an extended declining period of Niger seed oil production, due to the import ...
Furthermore, the plant also contains curcasin, arachidic, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids and curcin. Genome: the whole ... The seeds contain around 20% saturated fatty acids and 80% unsaturated fatty acids, and they yield 25-40% oil by weight. In ... It is made by adding sulfuric acid to pure Jatropha oil. It was the first synthetic detergent after ordinary soap, as this ... Transesterification is a simple chemical reaction that neutralizes the free fatty acids present in any fatty substances in ...
... is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and ... Palmitates are the salts and esters of palmitic acid. The palmitate anion is the observed form of palmitic acid at physiologic ... Palmitic acid strongly boosts metastasis in mouse models of human oral cancer cells. Among all fatty acids, it has the ...
... oleic acid), and 6% omega-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid); the seeds contain 9% saturated fat, including 5% as palmitic acid. ... Flaxseed oil contains 53% 18:3 omega-3 fatty acids (mostly ALA) and 13% 18:2 omega-6 fatty acids. One study of research ... As a percentage of total fat, flaxseeds contain 54% omega-3 fatty acids (mostly ALA), 18% omega-9 fatty acids ( ... p-coumaric acid glucoside, and ferulic acid glucoside - are present in commercial breads containing flaxseed. After crushing ...
Palmitoylation Palmitic acid Putilina T, Wong P, Gentleman S (May 1999). "The DHHC domain: a new highly conserved cysteine-rich ... However this short sequence is embedded in a larger region of about fifty amino acids in length that shares many more conserved ... A third motif towards the C-terminus of many proteins has been identified that contains a conserved aromatic amino acid, a ... Conserved motifs within protein sequences point towards the most important amino acid residues for function. In the DHHC domain ...
... is a triglyceride derived from the fatty acid palmitic acid. Lide, David R., ed. (2009). CRC Handbook of Chemistry ... Van Langevelde, A.; Van Malssen, K.; Hollander, F.; Peschar, R.; Schenk, H. (1999). "Structure of mono-acid even-numbered β- ... ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0. Hong, Jindui (2010). "Solid−Liquid−Gas Equilibrium of the Ternaries Ibuprofen + Myristic Acid + CO2and ...
It found myristic acid, lauric acid, decanoic acid (capric acid), palmitic acid and methyl ester.[citation needed] As most ...
Palmitic acid is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and ... Palmitates are the salts and esters of palmitic acid. The palmitate anion is the observed form of palmitic acid at physiologic ... Palmitic acid strongly boosts metastasis in mouse models of human oral cancer cells. Among all fatty acids, it has the ...
Sigma-Aldrich Co., Palmitic acid. Retrieved on 2014-06-02. CID 985 from PubChem Palmitic acid at Inchem.org "Palmitic acid". ... Palmitic acid is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a ... The word "napalm" is derived from the words naphthenic acid and palmitic acid. Palmitic acid was discovered by Edmond Frémy in ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and ...
Hexadecanoic acid, DMTBS; Hexadecanoic acid, TBDMS; Palmitic acid, TBDMS; tert-Butyl(dimethyl)silyl palmitate; Palmitic acid, ... Palmitic Acid, TBDMS derivative. *Formula: C22H46O2Si ... Other names: Hexadecanoic acid, tert-butyldimethylsilyl ester; ...
Palmitic acid is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a ... Palmitic acid at Inchem.org *^ a b c d "Palmitic acid".. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and ... Palmitates are the salts and esters of palmitic acid. The palmitate anion is the observed form of palmitic acid at physiologic ...
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As fatty acids are naturally stored in the form of triacylglycerols primarily within fat tissue until they are used for energy ... A fish bioaccumulation study is available for the analogue substance C12 fatty acid-sodium laurate which showed negligible ... considered that there will be no risk to aquatic organisms from potential bioconcentration/biomagnification of fatty acids. ...
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... was 0 Euros. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does Cyprus rank in Export of Palmitic and Stearic Acid, Their Salts and Esters?. #. 27 Countries. Euros. Last. YoY. 5‑ ... At €0 in 2018, the country was ranked number 27 among other countries in Export of Palmitic and Stearic Acid, Their Salts and ... Cyprus - Export of Palmitic and Stearic Acid, Their Salts and Esters Euros - 2009 to 2018 ...
PA is the most common saturated fatty acid accounting for 20-30% of total fatty acids in the human body and can be provided in ... PA is the most common saturated fatty acid accounting for 20-30% of total fatty acids in the human body and can be provided in ... balance may be crucial an optimal intake of PA in a certain ratio with unsaturated fatty acids, especially PUFAs of both n-6 ... balance may be crucial an optimal intake of PA in a certain ratio with unsaturated fatty acids, especially PUFAs of both n-6 ...
Palmitic acids explanation free. What is Palmitic acids? Meaning of Palmitic acids medical term. What does Palmitic acids mean? ... Looking for online definition of Palmitic acids in the Medical Dictionary? ... 10 (c) C4:0 butyric acid, C16:0 palmitic acid, C16:1 palmitoleic acid C18:0 stearic acid, C18:1 oleic acid, C18:2 linoleic acid ... palmitic acid. (redirected from Palmitic acids). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. palmitic acid. [pal-mit´ik ...
We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 57-10-3 Palmitic acid. ... Palmitic Acid is a common fatty acid found in plants and animals. The body converts excess carbohydrates into Palmitic Acid, ... B20322) Palmitic acid, 95% 57-10-3. 2500g. 587.0CNY. Detail Alfa Aesar. (B20322) Palmitic acid, 95% 57-10-3. 500g. 250.0CNY. ... thus Palmitic Acid is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synt hesis as well as a precursor for longer fatty acids ...
Palmitic acid and DGAT1 deficiency enhance osteoclastogenesis, while oleic acid-induced triglyceride formation prevents it.. ... Palmitic Acid and DGAT1 Deficiency Enhance Osteoclastogenesis, while Oleic Acid-Induced Triglyceride Formation Prevents It ... Palmitic Acid and DGAT1 Deficiency Enhance Osteoclastogenesis, while Oleic Acid-Induced Triglyceride Formation Prevents It ... Palmitic Acid and DGAT1 Deficiency Enhance Osteoclastogenesis, while Oleic Acid-Induced Triglyceride Formation Prevents It ...
... palmitic acid, and palmitic acid/insulin lanes were run on the same gel but were noncontiguous, and oleic acid and oleic acid/ ... we infused palmitic acid, oleic acid, or vehicle i.c.v. Similar to gavage, i.c.v. palmitic acid increased the membrane content ... palmitic acid, 419 ± 39 μmol/l; oleic acid, 392 ± 51 μmol/l), implying that changes in palmitic acid concentrations in the CNS ... Palmitic acid attenuates insulin signaling in vitro. Hypothalamic IVB cells (36) were exposed to 100 μmol/l palmitic acid, 100 ...
palmitic acid - NBD , 810105. [16-[(7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino] palmitic acid. 810105P. Powder. 810105P-. 1mg ...
Palmitic Acid Hydroxystearic Acids Activate GPR40, Which Is Involved in Their Beneficial Effects on Glucose Homeostasis.. Syed ... Palmitic Acid Hydroxy Stearic Acids Activate GPR40 Which is Involved in Their Beneficial Effects on Glucose Homeostasis ... Palmitic Acid Hydroxy Stearic Acids Activate GPR40 Which is Involved in Their Beneficial Effects on Glucose Homeostasis ... Palmitic Acid Hydroxy Stearic Acids Activate GPR40 Which is Involved in Their Beneficial Effects on Glucose Homeostasis ...
palmitic acid - lissamine rhodamine , 810104. [16-N-(lissamine rhodamine ß sulfonyl)amino] palmitic acid. 810104P. Powder. ...
Palmitic Acid can be found in: myristic acid (unlike palmitic acid) rapidly metabolizing in cultured rat hepatocytes, palmitic ... phenotype of palmitic acid transport and of signalling in alveolar type II cells from E/H-FABP double-knockout mice, fatty acid ... metabolic fate of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids and their effects on palmitic acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis, ... 50 µCi quantities of [1-14C]-Palmitic Acid are available for your research. Application of [14C] ...
Achetez Palmitic Acid(RG) - Numéro CAS 57-10-3 de LGC Standards. Sidentifier ou senregistrer pour permettre lachat de ... Palmitic Acid(RG). 10 mg. CDX-00016051-010. Ajouter au panier Palmitic Acid(RG). 100 mg. CDX-00016051-100. Ajouter au panier ...
Highest conversion of ~ 96.6% was observed in 50 min at 1:1 molar ratio of palmitic acid to n-butanol, 70 °C temperature, 4% w/ ... Enzyme-catalysed production of n-butyl palmitate using ultrasound-assisted esterification of palmitic acid in a solvent-free ... The effect of acid-alcohol molar ratio, enzyme dose, temperature, power and duty cycle on the reaction kinetics was studied. ... Chen HC, Chen JH, Chang C, Shieh CJ (2011) Optimization of ultrasound-accelerated synthesis of enzymatic caffeic acid phenethyl ...
... Exp Dermatol. 2000 Apr;9(2):138-45. doi: ... Palmitic and oleic acid inhibit 14C-labelled acetate incorporation into sterols in a similar manner to sterols. However, unlike ... The inhibition of acetate incorporation into sterols in human keratinocytes by 50 microM palmitic and 50 microM oleic acid is ... The addition of 50 microM oleic acid to 25-hydroxycholesterol results in an enhancement of the inhibitory effect of the sterol ...
What is palmitic acid 14COOH? Meaning of palmitic acid 14COOH medical term. What does palmitic acid 14COOH mean? ... Looking for online definition of palmitic acid 14COOH in the Medical Dictionary? palmitic acid 14COOH explanation free. ... palmitic acid 14COOH. palmitic acid (CH3(CH2)14COOH). [palmit′ik] Etymology: L, palma ... Palmitic acid 14COOH , definition of palmitic acid 14COOH by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
Palmitic acid hydroxystearic acids (PAHSAs) are endogenous lipids with anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. PAHSA ... Palmitic Acid Hydroxystearic Acids Activate GPR40, Which Is Involved in Their Beneficial Effects on Glucose Homeostasis Cell ... Palmitic acid hydroxystearic acids (PAHSAs) are endogenous lipids with anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. PAHSA ... Keywords: FAHFA; GLP-1 receptor; GPR40; glucose-insulin homeostasis; human islets; insulin secretion; palmitic acid ...
Palmitic acid. Description. Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid, is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in ... Palmitic acid is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a ... The word "napalm" is derived from the words naphthenic acid and palmitic acid (Wikipedia). Palmitic acid is also used in the ... Aluminium salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were combined during World War II to produce napalm. ...
Palmitic acid) - CAS Number 57-10-3 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check availability and place ... 1,2-Di-O-Dodecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidic acid (Na-salt). 50 mg. LA 38-1265-8. Add to basket ... cis-12,13-Epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid ((±)-Vernolic aci. 1 mg. LA 14-1802-16A-1. Add to basket ... cis-9,10-Epoxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid ((±)-Coronaric ac. 1 mg. LA 14-1802-16D-1. Add to basket ...
In the present study we show that n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) treatment to culture medium of H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts ... Recent evidence indicates that saturated fatty acids induce cell death through apoptosis and this effect is specific for ... On the other hand, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated in the protection against cardiovascular ... Antiapoptotic and Antiautophagic Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Cardiac Myoblasts Exposed to Palmitic Acid ...
Wang, M.; Wu, W. W.; Wang, S. S.; Shi, X. Y.; Wu, F. A.; Wang, J. Preparation and Characterization of a Solid Acid Catalyst ...
5-palmitic acid hydroxy stearic acid (5-PAHSA), which is a member of the fatty acid hydroxy fatty acid class of lipids that are ... measurements of insulin release dynamics from single islets of Langerhans in response to 5-palmitic acid hydroxy stearic acid ... measurements of insulin release dynamics from single islets of Langerhans in response to 5-palmitic acid hydroxy stearic acid B ... in murine islets compared to chronic incubation without the lipid or in the presence of palmitic acid (PA). The studies were ...
Recent evidences indicated that adipocytes can secrete fatty acid metabolites, such as palmitic acid methyl ester (PAME), which ... Palmitic Acid Methyl Ester Induces G2/M Arrest in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the p53/p21 Pathway. ... R. H. C. Lee, A. Couto e Silva, H. L. E. Possoit et al., "Palmitic acid methyl ester is a novel neuroprotective agent against ... N. Wang, A. Kuczmanski, G. Dubrovska, and M. Gollasch, "Palmitic acid methyl ester and its relation to control of tone of human ...
The supplementation of saturated palmitic acid with the monounsaturated oleic acid reversed the negative effects of palmitic ... Our findings have shown the protective action of oleic acid against palmitic acid on beta cell lipotoxicity through promotion ... In addition, palmitic acid caused: (1) oxidative stress through a mechanism involving increases in ROS production and MMP-2 ... In addition, palmitic acid caused: (1) oxidative stress through a mechanism involving increases in ROS production and MMP-2 ...
  • Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • n-Hexadecanoic acid in Linstrom, Peter J. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also called hexadecanoic acid . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid, is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals, plants, and microorganisms. (hmdb.ca)
  • Investigations are carried out to identify the mode of inhibition of phospholipase A(2) by the n-hexadecanoic acid. (isharonline.org)
  • The enzyme kinetics study proved that n-hexadecanoic acid inhibits phospholipase A(2) in a competitive manner. (isharonline.org)
  • In 100 g (Grams) of Butter, without salt there is 21.697 g of 16:0 hexadecanoic, palmitic fatty acid. (pinkbird.org)
  • 16:0 hexadecanoic, palmitic fatty acid is a nutrient present in many other foods. (pinkbird.org)
  • The below table lists foods high in 16:0 hexadecanoic, palmitic fatty acid other than Butter, without salt. (pinkbird.org)
  • Palmitic Acid - Manufacturer (CAS No.57-10-3) is also known as Hexadecanoic Acid. (acmesynthetic.com)
  • Acme Synthetic Chemicals is one of the reputed organizations engaged in providing superior quality Palmitic Acid - Manufacturer (Hexadecanoic Acid, CAS No.57-10-3) to our esteemed clients. (acmesynthetic.com)
  • The offered product Palmitic Acid - Manufacturer (Hexadecanoic Acid, CAS No.57-10-3) is formulated using supreme class ingredients, superior quality of raw materials and modern techniques by our team of skilled professionals as per the set industry norms at our state-of-the-art processing unit. (acmesynthetic.com)
  • We are engaged in offering our clients a highly effective range of Palmitic Acid - Manufacturer (Hexadecanoic Acid, CAS No.57-10-3). (acmesynthetic.com)
  • The palmitate anion is the observed form of palmitic acid at physiologic pH (7.4). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cetyl ester of palmitic acid (cetyl palmitate) occurs in spermaceti. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent evidence indicates that saturated fatty acids induce cell death through apoptosis and this effect is specific for palmitate. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present study we show that n -3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) treatment to culture medium of H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts protects cells against palmitate-induced apoptosis, as well as counteracts palmitate-mediated increase of autophagy. (mdpi.com)
  • Wang, J. Preparation and Characterization of a Solid Acid Catalyst from Macro Fungi Residue for Methyl Palmitate Production. (alfa.com)
  • It has been observed that many of the physiological benefits of breast milk are attributable to beta-palmitic acid or beta-palmitate, a natural fatty acid found in human milk. (medindia.net)
  • Palmitic acid is the major fatty acid found in human milk and 60% of the palmitic acid is beta-palmitate (bound to the sn-2 or beta position of glycerol). (medindia.net)
  • The particular position of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position in beta-palmitate is immune to the enzyme and therefore, is absorbed. (medindia.net)
  • This is due to the fact that beta-palmitate does not form insoluble soaps with calcium, unlike other forms of palmitic acid (sn-1 or sn-3), which leads to softer stools and avoid constipation in infants . (medindia.net)
  • In human myotubes, palmitate promoted interleukin-6 expression whereas unsaturated fatty acids even abolished inflammation ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • one of the most prevalent saturated fatty acids in body lipids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Palmitic acid hydroxystearic acids (PAHSAs) are endogenous lipids with anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. (nih.gov)
  • We also investigate the regulation of cholesterol synthesis by fatty acids, which are another important constituent of the stratum corneum lipids. (nih.gov)
  • We have applied this system to determine the acute and chronic effects of a recently-identified lipid, 5-palmitic acid hydroxy stearic acid (5-PAHSA), which is a member of the fatty acid hydroxy fatty acid class of lipids that are upregulated in healthy individuals. (rsc.org)
  • Therefore, we studied the effect on serum lipids and lipoproteins of diets rich in lauric, palmitic, or oleic acids. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Temme EH, Mensink RP, Hornstra G. Comparison of the effects of diets enriched in lauric, palmitic, or oleic acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy women and men. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Esterified fatty acids were hydrolyzed from lipids such as triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesteryl esters using sequential treatment with acid then base. (cdc.gov)
  • Argan oil contains several beneficial lipids and fatty acids for skin. (paulaschoice.com)
  • Study coauthor John Rawls of Duke and his group are studying the biological mechanisms underlying the absorption of lipids-fatty acids and related fat molecules-in the guts of zebrafish. (theallineed.com)
  • The test meal is mashed potatoes with 1g/Kg of weight of lipids with 39% of saturated fat with 32% of palmitic acid. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The results show that there was a significant increase in tissue cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids in STZ diabetic rats. (isharonline.org)
  • Palmitic acid is prepared by treating fats and oils with water at a high pressure and temperature, leading to the hydrolysis of triglycerides. (silverfernchemical.com)
  • As medium-chain triglycerides, the goat fatty acids increase ketone production. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Lauric acid is not as directly ketogenic as the "goaty" medium-chain triglycerides. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Milk fat is mostly composed of triglycerides (composed of glycerol and three fatty acids). (medindia.net)
  • Dietary palmitic acid results in lower serum cholesterol than does a lauric-myristic acid combination in normolipemic humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Myristic acid is a perplexing one. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • The odor of myristic acid draws the newborn to the breast [14] and helps trigger the appetite for mother's milk. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Myristic acid in milk also possesses anti-listeria activity [15] . (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Eating 1-2% of calories as myristic acid-about what you'd get from including a little coconut or moderate amounts of full-fat dairy in your daily diet- improves red blood cell membrane fluidity and lipid profile [16] . (marksdailyapple.com)
  • High-fat dairy is consistently linked to better cardiovascular health [17] despite being one of the best sources of myristic acid. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Myristic acid in the blood isn't so much "dangerous" as it is indicative of metabolic dysfunction. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • For instance, the most reliable way to reduce blood levels of myristic acid is to reduce your carbohydrate intake. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • N-terminal myristoylation refers to the covalent attachment of myristic acid (C14:0) by an amide bond to the N-terminal glycine of many eukaryotic and viral proteins. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Chronic incubation (48 h) with 5-PAHSA significantly increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in murine islets compared to chronic incubation without the lipid or in the presence of palmitic acid (PA). (rsc.org)
  • You may have heard that palmitic acid is bad for you and that omega 7 supplements from sea buckthorn are not safe because of the presence of palmitic acid. (sibu.com)
  • Results: Rat pancreatic islets or insulinoma cells (RIN) were co-cultivated with concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated rat lymph node cells (LNC), or they were treated with cell-free supernatants (Sn) obtained from ConA-stimulated spleen cells or from activated CD3(+) cells, in the absence or presence of palmitic acid (PA). (ac.rs)
  • Palmitic acid is a kind of common saturated fatty acid of a 16-carbon backbone, which is contained in fats and waxes. (lookchem.com)
  • a saturated fatty acid that commonly occurs in animal and vegetable fats and oils. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Excessive levels of dietary saturated fatty acids or an imbalance of saturated versus unsaturated fats have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Palm oil, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids , esterified with glycerol . (wikipedia.org)
  • Palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid that occurs in natural fats and oils, tall oil, and most commercial grade stearic acid. (silverfernchemical.com)
  • Today, I'm writing the Definitive Guide to Saturated Fatty Acids-a guide to all the individual fatty acids that make up the saturated fats we eat, store, and burn. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • The caloric content of palmitic acid is typical of fats in general. (numerade.com)
  • Along with stearic acid, it is the most widely distributed saturated fatty acid in nature, occurring as an ester of glycerol in nearly all the known natural fats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Palmitic acid is usually isolated by rectification or fractional recrystallization from acid mixtures that are obtained through the saponification of fats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plant fats and even cow's milk have very low beta-palmitic acid content as most of the palmitic acid in them are bound to sn-1 or sn-3 positions. (medindia.net)
  • It leads to a better absorption of fats in breastfed infants while non-breastfed infants who are administered milk formulas containing palmitic acid in sn-1 or sn-3 position show poor absorption. (medindia.net)
  • Stearic acid is a long-chain saturated fatty acid that can be derived from either animal fats or vegetable oils. (thomassci.com)
  • Palmitates are the salts and esters of palmitic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • At €0 in 2018, the country was ranked number 27 among other countries in Export of Palmitic and Stearic Acid, Their Salts and Esters. (nationmaster.com)
  • Fatty & Aliphatic Acids, Esters, Alcohols & Derivatives;Saturated Fatty Acids 13C & 2H;Alkylcarboxylic Acids;Color Former & Related Compounds;Functional Materials;Monofunctional & alpha,omega-Bifunctional Alkanes;Monofunctional Alkanes;Sensitizer;Biochemistry;Higher Fatty Acids & Higher Alcohols;Saturated Higher Fatty Acids;chemical reagent;pharmaceutical intermediate;phytochemical;reference standards from Chinese medicinal herbs (TCM). (lookchem.com)
  • Fragmentation of PFB-fatty acid esters using negative chemical ionization (NCI) resulted in a reproducible loss of the PFB moiety giving a stable carboxylate anion (mass minus 1 amu). (cdc.gov)
  • Certain palmitic acid esters are used in the manufacture of detergents and cosmetics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 5. A process according to claim 1, wherein said pseudoceramide is selected from the group consisting of 1,3-bis-(N-(2-hydroxyethyl)alkylamino)-2-hydroxypropanes, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-oxo-2-alkyl alkylamides, N-acyl hydroxyamino acid esters and mixtures thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Recent evidences indicated that adipocytes can secrete fatty acid metabolites, such as palmitic acid methyl ester (PAME), which is able to cause vasorelaxation and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Our findings have shown the protective action of oleic acid against palmitic acid on beta cell lipotoxicity through promotion of triglyceride accumulation and insulin secretion and regulation of some effector molecules involved in oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation and apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apoptosis is not the main form of cell death caused by palmitic acid induced Lipotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overexpression of catalase in the peroxisomes and in the cytosol, but not in the mitochondria, significantly reduced H₂O₂ formation and protected the cells against palmitic acid-induced toxicity.The results demonstrate that H₂O₂ formation in the peroxisomes rather than in the mitochondria are responsible for NEFA-induced toxicity.Therefore, we propose a new concept of fatty acid-induced β-cell lipotoxicity mediated via reactive oxygen species formation through peroxisomal β- oxidation. (nih.gov)
  • Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease that is accompanied by elevated levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), which contribute to β-cell dysfunction and β-cell loss, referred to as lipotoxicity. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we propose a new concept of fatty acid-induced β-cell lipotoxicity mediated via reactive oxygen species formation through peroxisomal β- oxidation. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary palmitic acid-supplementation for 2 weeks might suppress GSIS and induce ER stress in pancreatic islets in mice, in the early stage of lipotoxicity. (elsevier.com)
  • In regard to saturated FA species such as palmitic acid , there is evidence that they participate in the synthesis of ceramides, a lipid signaling molecule that is well known to induce apoptosis and cell death [104]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glucose and palmitic acid induce degeneration of myofibrils and modulate apoptosis in rat adult cardiomyocytes," Diabetes, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To address this problem, the oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, apoptosis and their mediator molecules have been investigated in the insulin releasing beta cells exposed to palmitic and/or oleic acid. (frontiersin.org)
  • On the mechanism of palmitic acid-induced apoptosis: the role of a pore induced by palmitic acid and Ca2+ in mitochondria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Palmitic acid (Pal) is known to promote apoptosis (Sparagna G et al (2000) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 279: H2124-H2132) and its amount in blood and mitochondria increases under some pathological conditions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured with 400 μmol/l palmitic acid for 48 hours led to a 69.4% cell apoptosis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Blocking p38 signal by inhibitor significantly attenuated the pro-apoptosis effects of palmitic acid, indicating a pivotal role of p38 pathway in this progression. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In this study, we tried to investigate the effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on hepatoma cell apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • H4IIE liver cells were treated with palmitic acid, linoleic acid, or both with or without the calcium-specific chelator BAPTA-AM after which the expression of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, caspase-3 levels, and calcium flux were measured. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Palmitic or linoleic acid (250 μM) induced H4IIE cell apoptosis, which required calcium flux but not caspase-3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apoptosis was not observed when cells were co-treated with linoleic acid (125 μM) and palmitic acid (250 μM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytoplasm during cell apoptosis was specifically detected only when linoleic acid (125 μM), but not palmitic acid (250 μM), was added to the cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Depletion of intracellular calcium flux by the calcium-specific chelator, BAPTA-AM, abolished linoleic acid-induced apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results suggest that linoleic acid promotes cell apoptosis through the release of cytochrome C, only if the intracellular calcium flux is unperturbed and intact. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results confirm that ER stress contributes to fatty acid-induced liver cell apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, certain saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in rat and human liver cell lines [ 4 - 9 ], leading to inflammation and/or degeneration in the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dietary fatty acids in the liver may provoke ER stress and apoptosis in liver cells, but controversy remains over the differential effects exerted by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with respect to liver damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, in the presence of BAPTA-AM, expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes, CHOP, GRP78, and GRP94, was induced by linoleic acid, but not palmitic acid.The results suggest that linoleic acid promotes cell apoptosis through the release of cytochrome C, only if the intracellular calcium flux is unperturbed and intact.These results confirm that ER stress contributes to fatty acid-induced liver cell apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • for example, the cetyl ester of palmitic acid is the principal constituent of spermaceti wax, and the myricyl ester is the main component of beeswax. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Palmitic Acid Hydroxystearic Acids Activate GPR40, Which Is Involved in Their Beneficial Effects on Glucose Homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we have demonstrated that in cultured 1.1B4 beta cells oleic acid promotes neutral lipid accumulation and insulin secretion, whereas palmitic acid is poorly incorporated into triglyceride and it does not stimulate insulin secretion from human pancreatic islets at physiologically glucose concentrations. (frontiersin.org)
  • The logic to this is that the lipotoxin, palmitic acid (nature's second biggest mistake, the biggest was obviously cholesterol) can no longer keep glucose out of cells and metabolism can run, unimpaired by fat, for ever on glucose. (blogspot.com)
  • The biceps do fine on free fatty acids, the brain dies in a sea of energy without glucose. (blogspot.com)
  • So the rule is, when the body is flooded with free fatty acids, all fat using tissues should stop using glucose. (blogspot.com)
  • They should see those free fatty acids and internalise their GLUT4 transporters so they don't waste brain glucose on dumb muscle. (blogspot.com)
  • As soon as he floods his muscles with palmitic acid he should have internalised his GLUT4 glucose transporters. (blogspot.com)
  • The objective was to clarify whether dietary palmitic acid supplementation affects glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in pancreatic islets in mice. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, mice were fed a diet supplemented with either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and their impact on glucose homeostasis, locomotion, brain activity, and sleep behavior was evaluated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Free fatty acids (FFAs) are essential sources of energy within the cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the natural order of things Jim will, by now, be mobilising enormous amounts of free fatty acids from his 40kg of beer gut. (blogspot.com)
  • These free fatty acids rush to his muscles and provide an almost inexhaustible supply of energy. (blogspot.com)
  • Conclusion: These results imply that stimulated T cells produce cytokines that cooperate with saturated free fatty acids in beta cell destruction during diabetes pathogenesis. (ac.rs)
  • In particular, dietary monounsaturated free fatty acids (MUFAs) prevent or ameliorate measures of the metabolic syndrome. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As an inverse correlation between free fatty acids and insulin sensitivity was demonstrated in offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes ( 9 ), elevated free fatty acids may represent an early step in the progression toward type 2 diabetes, and a fatty acid pattern associated with insulin resistance is characterized by elevated concentrations of SFAs and a low concentration of the unsaturated n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Carta G et al (2017) Palmitic acid: physiological role, metabolism and nutritional implications. (springer.com)
  • Jensen MD et al (1989) Influence of body fat distribution on free fatty acid metabolism in obesity. (springer.com)
  • The gastrointestinal handling and metabolism of [1-13C]palmitic acid given as the free fatty acid was examined in six healthy women by measuring the excretion of 13C-label in stool and in breath as 13CO2. (soton.ac.uk)
  • RATIONALE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) (alpha, gamma, and delta/beta) are nuclear hormone receptors and ligand-activated transcription factors that serve as key determinants of myocardial fatty acid metabolism. (isharonline.org)
  • Coenzyme A is involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of palmitic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It influences fatty acid metabolism and improves mineral balance. (medindia.net)
  • 14 C-palmitic acid is commonly used in lipid metabolism studies. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The effect of oleic and palmitic acid on induction of steatosis and cytotoxicity on rat hepatocytes in primary culture. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The supplementation of saturated palmitic acid with the monounsaturated oleic acid reversed the negative effects of palmitic acid alone regulating insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells through ROS, MMP-2, ATF6, XBP1u, IL8 reduction and SOD2, PTP-1B activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, palmitic acid promoted the secretion of TNF-α, as well as elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Of note, an acute rise in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) is able to increase insulin secretion whereas unsaturated fatty acids were ineffective ( 6 ), and chronically elevated SFAs inhibited insulin secretion and led to an increased rate of apoptotic β-cells in the pancreas ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common, naturally-occurring, plant growth regulator - as a principal auxin of higher plants. (thomassci.com)
  • Trichloroacetic acid is an acetic acid analogue commonly used to precipitate proteins, DNA and RNA. (thomassci.com)
  • Here are Competitive Acetic acid ethyl ester products worldwide. (weiku.com)
  • 1. Acetic acid ethyl ester 2.Large output 3.Competitive price. (weiku.com)
  • Or arachidic acid, which you can get by hydrogenating arachidonic acid or eating a ton of durian. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Effects of palmitic and linoleic acids on the expression of UPR-associated genes in mRNA level. (nih.gov)
  • Most studies investigating the fatty acid uptake into the liver have used isolated hepatocytes with some studies using intact livers ( 26 , 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • Come to think of it, I've had coconut oil that had a "funk" to it, and I bet the capric/caprylic acid was to blame. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Capric acid has been used to inhibit seizures in people with epilepsy [5] , and if you combine it with caprylic acid, the anti-seizure effect seems to increase [6] . (marksdailyapple.com)
  • In fact, caprylic acid is the most ketogenic medium-chain triglyceride of all [7] . (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Octanoylation (O-acylation) typically concerns the formation of an ester bond between octanoic acid (caprylic acid, C8:0) and the side chain of a serine residue of the stomach peptide ghrelin. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid known by the systematic name octanoic acid. (thomassci.com)
  • HDL-cholesterol concentrations with the palmitic acid and the oleic acid diet were the same. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Lauric acid raises total cholesterol concentrations more than palmitic acid, which is partly due to a stronger rise in HDL cholesterol. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Abdelmagid SA et al (2015) Comprehensive profiling of plasma fatty acid concentrations in young healthy Canadian adults. (springer.com)
  • Measurement of concentrations (µmol/L) of 24 fatty acids in a 1,845 sample subset of NHANES 2003-2004 plasma samples. (cdc.gov)
  • was used to measure total fatty acid concentrations in plasma. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we show that palmitic acid (PA, 16:0) enhances receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclastogenesis and is sufficient to induce osteoclast differentiation even in the absence of RANKL. (nih.gov)
  • Gastropods appear to be an excellent source of palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1n-9), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6)eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docoshexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) (Joseph,1982). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • it belongs to one of the two families of essential fatty acids. (mpbio.com)
  • Non-fragrant plant oil that contains gamma linolenic acid and other essential fatty acids for skin. (paulaschoice.com)
  • It also contains several essential fatty acids. (healthline.com)
  • ISBN 978-0849396885 The most common fatty acid is the monounsaturated oleic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palmitic Acid is a common fatty acid found in plants and animals. (lookchem.com)
  • Emerging evidence shows that palmitic acid (PA), a common fatty acid in the human diet, serves as a signaling molecule regulating the progression and development of many diseases at the molecular level. (springer.com)
  • Palmitic acid is a common fatty acid that was first found in saponified palm oil, and it's also present in dairy, meat and vegetable oils. (ah18c.com)
  • Palmitic acid is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body converts excess carbohydrates into Palmitic Acid, thus Palmitic Acid is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synt hesis as well as a precursor for longer fatty acids. (lookchem.com)
  • Hydrogenation of palmitic acid yields cetyl alcohol, which is used to produce detergents and cosmetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palmitic acid salts, along with the salts of certain other carboxylic acids, are classified as detergents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Indole-3-butyric acid is used as plant growth hormone. (thomassci.com)
  • Chen HC, Chen JH, Chang C, Shieh CJ (2011) Optimization of ultrasound-accelerated synthesis of enzymatic caffeic acid phenethyl ester by response surface methodology. (springer.com)
  • Ester bond hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by Phospholipase A(2) and consequent release of fatty acids are the initiating steps of inflammation. (isharonline.org)
  • 7. A process according to claim 1, wherein said pseudoceramide is an N-acyl hydroxyamino acid ester and the anti-irritant is bisabolol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Palmitic acid (16:0, PA) is the most common saturated fatty acid found in the human body and can be provided in the diet or synthesized endogenously from other fatty acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • The distinct mushroom flavor is associated with a high content of free amino acids like glutamic acid, and numerous volatile compounds. (medium.com)
  • citation needed] Because it is inexpensive and adds texture and "mouth feel" to processed foods (convenience food), palmitic acid and its sodium salt find wide use in foodstuffs. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Salt is a vitamin widely distributed in the plant and animal kingdom. (thomassci.com)
  • L-Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Salt is used as an antimicrobial and antioxidant in foodstuffs, a reductant for the isolation of chloroplasts. (thomassci.com)
  • 2016 Factory hot su[pply Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt 139-33-3 with best price! (alibaba.com)
  • Macadamia nuts contain high levels of palmitoleic fatty acids which positively affect blood lipid profiles in healthy, young Japanese women. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Palmitoleic acid may have applications in obesity prevention or treatment. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Purified palmitoleic acid exerted potent anti-inflammatory and lipid-modulating effects compared with placebo. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Caffeine promotes conversion of palmitic acid to palmitoleic acid. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Linoleic and palmitoleic acid are possible new options to combat group A streptococcus invasive diseases. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • To the researchers' surprise, it wasn't omega-7 (palmitoleic acid) that significantly worsened inflammation but rather its saturated counterpart, palmitic acid, which is found in olive oil, butter, cheese, milk, and meat. (theallineed.com)
  • Formic Acid is the smallest of the carboxylic acids. (thomassci.com)
  • Fatty acid acylation of proteins corresponds to the co- or post-translational covalent linkage of an acyl-CoA, derived from a fatty acid, to an amino-acid residue of the substrate protein. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • An increasing number of proteins (enzymes, hormones, receptors, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, proteins involved in signal transduction, eukaryotic and viral structural proteins) have been shown to undergo fatty acid acylation. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Therefore, through the covalent modification of proteins, these saturated fatty acids exhibit emerging specific and important roles in modulating protein functions. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In the presence of SDS Trichloroacetic acid will precipitate proteins which can then be quantified by the Lowry method. (thomassci.com)
  • Palmitic acid is natural fatty acid derived from palm oil. (madaracosmetics.com)
  • Beta-palmitic acid is a natural fatty acid found in human milk and is responsible for several of its physiological positive effects. (medindia.net)
  • Thus, we propose that TNFα mediates saturated fatty acid-induced osteoclastogenesis that can be prevented by DGAT activation or supplementation with OA. (nih.gov)
  • Palmitic acid (PA) has been for long time negatively depicted for its putative detrimental health effects, shadowing its multiple crucial physiological activities. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, the stearic acid content of cocoa butter serves to modify what would otherwise be the cholesterol-raising effects of the palmitic acid found in cocoa butter. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On the other hand, long chain n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in which the first double bond is located between carbon 3 and 4, counting from methyl end ( omega or n ) of the carbon chain, proved to exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying the different effects of palmitic acid and oleic acid on human pancreatic beta cell function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Oleic acid alone had opposite effects due to its different capacity of controlling these metabolic pathways, in particular by reduction of the ROS levels and MMP-2 activity, down-regulation of BiP, eIF2α, ATF6, XBP1u, CHOP, IL6, IL8 and by SOD2 and PTP-1B overexpression. (frontiersin.org)
  • The degree to which different saturated fatty acids exert their cholesterol-raising effects is still unknown. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Anyone with the sort of doner habit I have is well aware of the catastrophic effects of palmitic acid on appetite control. (blogspot.com)
  • Mancini A et al (2015) Biological and nutritional properties of palm oil and palmitic acid: effects on health. (springer.com)
  • However, co-incubation of the cells with oleic acid--and, to a lesser extent, linoleic--prevented the effects induced by palmitic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies seem to indicate that pure palmitic acid has negative health effects, so should we be avoiding palmitic acid-containing foods like butter, meat, or palm oil? (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Some research has suggested that omega-3 fatty acids, abundant in fish oils, can relieve inflammation in Crohn's disease. (theallineed.com)
  • Another unexpected finding was that an omega-6 fatty acid (linoleic acid), which is present in vegetable oils, lessened inflammation in the fish. (theallineed.com)
  • Palmitic acid and DGAT1 deficiency enhance osteoclastogenesis, while oleic acid-induced triglyceride formation prevents it. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, oleic acid (OA, 18:1) does not enhance osteoclast differentiation, leads to increased intracellular triglyceride accumulation, and inhibits PA-induced osteoclastogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Another medium-chain triglyceride, lauric acid is the primary fatty acid in coconut fat (40-50% lauric acid) and palm kernel fat. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Palmitic acid can also be found in meats, cheeses, butter, and other dairy products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quick google shows that butter is only 15% palmitic acid and most of it is oleic acid (monosaturated). (blogspot.com)
  • Palmitic acid (C16H32O2) is a dietary fat found in beef and butter. (numerade.com)
  • Aluminium salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were the gelling agents used with volatile petrochemicals during World War II to produce napalm. (wikipedia.org)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • nonesterified, long-chain fatty acids (hereafter referred to as fatty acids) play a vital role in many cellular processes. (physiology.org)
  • Finally, the nutritional links between these elucidated biochemical mechanisms and the physiological roles of dietary saturated fatty acids are discussed. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • We conclude that both lauric and palmitic acids are hypercholesterolemic compared with oleic acid. (unboundmedicine.com)