Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
Palmitoyl Coenzyme A
Malonyl Coenzyme A
Acyl Coenzyme A
Vitamin A Deficiency
Islets of Langerhans
Fatty Acid Synthases
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Acetyl Coenzyme A
Serum Albumin, Bovine
Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases
Rats, Inbred Strains
Muscle Fibers, Skeletal
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
Correlations in palmitoylation and multiple phosphorylation of rat bradykinin B2 receptor in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (1/811)Rat bradykinin B2 receptor from unstimulated Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the corresponding cDNA has been isolated, and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of multiple phosphorylated species and of the palmitoylation attachment site is described. Bradykinin B2 receptor was isolated on oligo(dT)-cellulose using N-(epsilon-maleimidocaproyloxy)succinimide-Met-Lys-bradykinin coupled to a protected (dA)30-mer. This allowed a one-step isolation of the receptor on an oligo(dT)-cellulose column via variation solely of salt concentration. After enzymatic in-gel digestion, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and electrospray ion trap mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated rat bradykinin B2 receptor showed phosphorylation at Ser365, Ser371, Ser378, Ser380, and Thr374. Further phosphorylation at Tyr352 and Tyr161 was observed. Rat bradykinin receptor B2 receptor is also palmitoylated at Cys356. All of the phosphorylation sites except for Tyr161 cluster at the carboxyl-terminal domain of the receptor located on the cytoplasmic face of the cell membrane. Surprisingly, many of the post-translational modifications were shown by MSn mass spectroscopic analysis to be correlated pairwise, e.g. diphosphorylation at Ser365 and Ser371, at Ser378 and Ser380, and at Thr374 and Ser380 as well as mutually exclusive phosphorylation at Tyr352 and palmitoylation at Cys356. The last correlation may be involved in a receptor internalization motif. Pairwise correlations and mutual exclusion of phosphorylation and palmitoylation suggest critical roles of multiple post-translational modifications for the regulation of activity, coupling to intracelluar signaling pathways, and/or sequestration of the bradykinin receptor. (+info)
Role of the cysteine-rich domain of the t-SNARE component, SYNDET, in membrane binding and subcellular localization. (2/811)Wild-type syndet is efficiently recruited at the plasma membrane in transfected AtT-20 cells. A deletion at the cysteine-rich domain abolishes palmitoylation, membrane binding, and plasma membrane distribution of syndet. Syndet, SNAP-25A, and SNAP-25B share four cysteine residues, of which three, Cys2, Cys4, and Cys5, are absolutely conserved in all three homologs. Mutations at any pair of cysteines within cysteines 2, 4, and 5 shift syndet from the cell surface into the cytoplasm. Thus, at least two cysteines within the conserved triplet are necessary for plasma membrane localization. Syndet C1S/C3S, with substitutions at the pair Cys1 and Cys3, distributes to the plasma membrane, a Golgi-like compartment, and the cytosol. We conclude that Cys1 and Cys3 are not absolutely necessary for membrane binding or plasma membrane localization. Our results show that the cysteine-rich domain of syndet plays a major role in its subcellular distribution. (+info)
Total plasmalogens and O-(acylalkylglycerophosphoryl) ethanolamine from labelled hexadecanol and palmitate during hypoxia and anoxia in rat heart. (3/811)By the use of the Langendorff technique, surviving isolated rat hearts were perfused with [1-14 C] palmitate, [1-14C] hexadecanol or [1-14C,1-3H] hexadecanol under normal or anoxic conditions. After perfusion for 30min with either precursor, when oxygenated or in an hypoxic condition, or when 1mM-KCN was included in the system, the heart tissues showed no significant chemical changes in their content of total lipids, total phospholipids or total ethanolamine-containing phospholipids. Changes were observed in the ratio of alkyl-to alk-1-enyl-glycerophosphorylethanolamine in the tissue perfused with N2+CO1 plus CN-. A slight increase from 4.0+/-0.3 to 4.9+/-0.2% in alkyl derivatives and a decrease from 11.2+/-0.4 to 9.4+/-0.3% in alk-1-enyl derivatives was observed. The incorporation of the [14C] palmitate and the [14C] hexadecanol into the recovered phospholipids and plasmalogens was severely decreased in the tissues perfused with CN-: in the hypoxic state only a mild inhibition was observed compared with the oxygenated systems. Considerable 3H from [1-14C, 1-3H] hexadecanol was retained (25-35%) in the alk-1-enylether chains of plasmalogens under both the oxygenated conditions and with CN-, suggesting that the same mechanism of incorporation is operational at high or low O2 concentrations. The results are consistent with an O2-dependent, CN-sensitive step in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens in the rat heart. (+info)
The glycerol phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and monoacylglycerol pathways of glycerolipid synthesis in rat adipose-tissue homogenates. (4/811)1. Fat-free homogenates from the epididymal fat-pads of rats were used to measure the rate of palmitate esterification with different substrates. The effectiveness of the acyl acceptors decreased in the order glycerol phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, 2-octadecenyl-glycerol and 2-hexadecylglycerol. 2. Glycerol phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate inhibited their rates of esterification in a mutually competitive manner. 3. The esterification of glycerol phosphate was also inhibited in a partially competitive manner by 2-octadecenylglycerol and to a lesser extent by 2-hexadecylglycerol. However, glycerol phosphate did not inhibit the esterification of 2-octadecenylglycerol. 4. The esterification of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 2-hexadecylglycerol was more sensitive to inhibition by clofenapate than was that of glycerol phosphate. Norfenfluramine was more effective in inhibiting the esterification of 2-hexadecylglycerol than that of glycerol phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate. 5 It is concluded that rat adipose tissue can synthesize glycerolipids by three independent routes. (+info)
Hepatic glucose cycling does not contribute to the development of hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. (5/811)Hepatic glucose cycling, whereby glucose is taken up by the liver, partially metabolized, then recycled to glucose, makes a substantial contribution to the development of hyperglycemia in IDDM. This stimulation of glucose cycling appears to be associated with elevated rates of fatty acid oxidation. Whether hepatic glucose cycling also contributes to the development of hyperglycemia in NIDDM is unclear. Using a model of NIDDM, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, we determined whether glucose cycling was enhanced. Hepatocytes from ZDF rats exhibited higher rates of glucose phosphorylation and glycolysis, but there was no increase in the rate of cycling between glucose and glucose-6-phosphate or between glycolytically derived pyruvate and glucose. Despite the increased rates of glycolysis, the production of CO2 in liver cells from ZDF rats was no different from rates measured in cells from control animals. Instead, there was a large increase in the accumulation of lactate and pyruvate in the ZDF liver cells. The addition of 2-bromopalmitate, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation that inhibited glucose cycling in hepatocytes from IDDM rats, had no effect on glucose cycling in cells from ZDF rats. We therefore conclude that, unlike in IDDM, hepatic glucose cycling does not contribute to the development of hyperglycemia in the NIDDM Zucker rat. (+info)
Reactivating tammar wallaby blastocysts oxidize fatty acids and amino acids. (6/811)The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, has a ruminant-like digestive system which may make a significant concentration of amino acids and fatty acids available to the blastocyst via uterine fluids. Fluorescent and radioisotope analyses were performed to determine the rate of glutamine and palmitate use by blastocysts recovered on day 0, 3, 4, 5 and 10 after reactivation induced by removal of pouch young (RPY). Between day 0 and 4 glutamine uptake increased from 15.6 +/- 6.6 to 36.1 +/- 2.7 pmol per embryo h-1 (P < 0.01) and ammonium production increased from 8.2 +/- 4.3 to 26.6 +/- 3.0 pmol per embryo h-1 (P < 0.01). Glutamine oxidation did not increase until day 10 after RPY (P < 0.01), but the percentage of glutamine oxidized increased from 4.5 +/- 3.1% during diapause to 31.2 +/- 12.6% (P < 0.01) by day 5 after RPY and increased further to 51.0 +/- 15.8% (P < 0.01) by day 10 after RPY. Palmitate oxidation also increased from 0.3 +/- 0.1 by day 0 blastocysts to 3.8 +/- 1.7 pmol per embryo h-1 (P < 0.01) by day 4 blastocysts. This increase provides a greater potential for ATP production, possibly to supply increased demand due to the coincident resumption of mitoses. The ATP:ADP ratio within blastocysts had reduced by the time of the first measurement at day 3 (0.5 +/- 0.2 pmol per embryo h-1; P < 0.01) compared with day 0 blastocysts (1.4 +/- 0.3 pmol per embryo h-1). It is likely that metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids contributes to the energy supply during reactivation of tammar wallaby blastocysts after embryonic diapause. (+info)
The mechanism of inhibition of beta-oxidation by aspirin metabolites in skin fibroblasts from Reye's syndrome patients and controls. (7/811)The effects of aspirin metabolites on beta-oxidation were studied in skin fibroblasts from eight typical Reye's syndrome (RS) patients and controls. RS patients' cells did not differ from controls in rates of palmitate oxidation or in the three component activities of the mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme (MTE), indicating no inherited beta-oxidation defect. Aspirin metabolites salicylate, hydroxyhippurate and gentisate, but not aspirin, directly inhibited palmitate oxidation in control and RS cells. RS cells were significantly more sensitive to inhibition than controls at 0.5 to 5 mM salicylate. Inhibition was concentration-dependent and reversible. Inhibition did not occur in fibroblasts lacking activity of the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) activity of MTE. Salicylate was therefore inhibiting beta-oxidation at this step. Hydroxyhippurate and salicylate reversibly inhibited HAD activities in extracts of control and RS cells. Studies with pure short-chain HAD and LCHAD (MTE) showed hydroxyhippurate and salicylate were competitive inhibitors of the former but mixed (not competitive) inhibitors of the latter. Both compounds inhibited the combined, three-step, MTE reaction measured in the physiological direction. We conclude that (1) salicylate and hydroxyhippurate decrease beta-oxidation in intact cells by reversible inhibition of LCHAD activity of the MTE, and (2) beta-oxidation in RS cells is inherently more sensitive to inhibition by low concentrations of salicylate than controls. (+info)
Development and initial evaluation of a novel method for assessing tissue-specific plasma free fatty acid utilization in vivo using (R)-2-bromopalmitate tracer. (8/811)We describe a method for assessing tissue-specific plasma free fatty acid (FFA) utilization in vivo using a non-beta-oxidizable FFA analog, [9,10-3H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate (3H-R-BrP). Ideally 3H-R-BrP would be transported in plasma, taken up by tissues and activated by the enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) like native FFA, but then 3H-labeled metabolites would be trapped. In vitro we found that 2-bromopalmitate and palmitate compete equivalently for the same ligand binding sites on albumin and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, and activation by ACS was stereoselective for the R-isomer. In vivo, oxidative and non-oxidative FFA metabolism was assessed in anesthetized Wistar rats by infusing, over 4 min, a mixture of 3H-R-BrP and [U-14C] palmitate (14C-palmitate). Indices of total FFA utilization (R*f) and incorporation into storage products (Rfs') were defined, based on tissue concentrations of 3H and 14C, respectively, 16 min after the start of tracer infusion. R*f, but not Rfs', was substantially increased in contracting (sciatic nerve stimulated) hindlimb muscles compared with contralateral non-contracting muscles. The contraction-induced increases in R*f were completely prevented by blockade of beta-oxidation with etomoxir. These results verify that 3H-R-BrP traces local total FFA utilization, including oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Separate estimates of the rates of loss of 3H activity indicated effective 3H metabolite retention in most tissues over a 16-min period, but appeared less effective in liver and heart. In conclusion, simultaneous use of 3H-R-BrP and [14C]palmitate tracers provides a new useful tool for in vivo studies of tissue-specific FFA transport, utilization and metabolic fate, especially in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. (+info)
Palmitates are esters of palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid. In the medical field, palmitates are commonly used as emulsifiers, thickening agents, and stabilizers in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. They are also used as a source of energy in some dietary supplements and as a carrier for drugs in some formulations. Palmitates can be derived from natural sources such as palm oil or synthesized in the laboratory.
Palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is commonly found in animal fats and some plant oils. It is a long-chain fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms and is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the human body. Palmitic acid is an important source of energy for the body and is also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as cholesterol and hormones. In the medical field, palmitic acid is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or as a component of certain medications. It has been studied for its potential effects on weight loss, blood sugar control, and other health conditions. However, excessive consumption of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease and other health problems, so it is important to consume it in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is commonly found in animal fats and some plant oils. It is a long-chain fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms and is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the human body. Palmitic acid is an important source of energy for the body and is also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as cholesterol and hormones. In the medical field, palmitic acid is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or as a component of certain medications. It is also sometimes used in the production of medical devices, such as catheters and implants. However, excessive consumption of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease and other health problems, so it is important to consume it in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Fatty acids are organic compounds that are composed of a long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them. They are a type of lipid, which are molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Fatty acids are an important source of energy for the body and are also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as hormones and cell membranes. In the medical field, fatty acids are often studied in relation to their role in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. They are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies.
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for maintaining good health. It is important for vision, immune function, and the growth and development of cells. Vitamin A is found in many foods, including liver, fish, dairy products, and fruits and vegetables. In the medical field, vitamin A deficiency can lead to a variety of health problems, including night blindness, dry skin, and an increased risk of infections. Vitamin A supplements are sometimes prescribed to people who are at risk of deficiency, such as pregnant women and children in developing countries.
Stearates are esters of stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms. They are commonly used in the medical field as emollients, lubricants, and surfactants. In pharmaceuticals, stearates are used as diluents, binders, and lubricants in the production of tablets and capsules. They can also be used as carriers for drug delivery systems. In dermatology, stearates are used as moisturizers and emollients to soften and soothe dry, rough skin. They can also be used as ingredients in skin care products to improve the texture and appearance of the skin. In dentistry, stearates are used as lubricants in dental impressions and as ingredients in toothpaste to improve the texture and flavor of the product. Overall, stearates are a versatile and widely used ingredient in the medical field due to their emollient, lubricant, and surfactant properties.
In the medical field, "Fatty Acids, Nonesterified" refers to free fatty acids that are not bound to glycerol in triglycerides. These fatty acids are found in the bloodstream and are an important source of energy for the body. They can be obtained from dietary fats or synthesized by the liver and adipose tissue. Nonesterified fatty acids are also involved in various physiological processes, such as the regulation of insulin sensitivity and the production of signaling molecules. Abnormal levels of nonesterified fatty acids in the blood can be associated with various medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in plant oils, such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and canola oil. It is a liquid at room temperature and has a melting point of 13.4°C (56.1°F). In the medical field, oleic acid is used in a variety of applications. One of its most common uses is as a lubricant for medical instruments and procedures, such as colonoscopies and endoscopies. It is also used as a component in some medications, such as oral contraceptives and topical creams. Oleic acid has anti-inflammatory properties and has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in a variety of conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. It may also have potential as a natural preservative in food products. However, it is important to note that while oleic acid has some potential health benefits, it is also a type of fat and should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Acylation is a chemical reaction in which an acyl group (a group consisting of a carbonyl group and a hydrocarbon chain) is added to a molecule. In the medical field, acylation is often used to modify proteins or other biomolecules, such as lipids or carbohydrates, by attaching an acyl group to them. This can alter the function or stability of the molecule, and is sometimes used as a way to study or treat diseases. For example, acylation can be used to modify the structure of certain drugs, making them more effective or less toxic. It can also be used to study the role of specific acyl groups in cellular processes or signaling pathways.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.
Palmitoyl Coenzyme A (Palmitoyl-CoA) is a molecule that plays a crucial role in metabolism. It is formed by the attachment of a palmitate (a 16-carbon fatty acid) to the thiol group of Coenzyme A (CoA), which is a molecule that is involved in the metabolism of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Palmitoyl-CoA is an important intermediate in the breakdown of fatty acids through a process called beta-oxidation, which occurs in the mitochondria of cells. During beta-oxidation, palmitoyl-CoA is broken down into two smaller fatty acids, acetyl-CoA, and a molecule called acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Palmitoyl-CoA is also involved in the synthesis of lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesterol, and in the regulation of gene expression. In addition, it plays a role in the production of energy in the form of ATP through the citric acid cycle. In the medical field, Palmitoyl-CoA is often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For example, elevated levels of Palmitoyl-CoA have been associated with insulin resistance, which is a key factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, Palmitoyl-CoA has been shown to play a role in the development of fatty liver disease, which is a common complication of obesity and diabetes.
Triglycerides are a type of fat that are found in the blood and are an important source of energy for the body. They are made up of three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule, and are stored in fat cells (adipocytes) in the body. Triglycerides are transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are complex particles that also carry cholesterol and other lipids. In the medical field, triglycerides are often measured as part of a routine lipid panel, which is a blood test that assesses levels of various types of lipids in the blood. High levels of triglycerides, known as hypertriglyceridemia, can increase the risk of heart disease and other health problems. Treatment for high triglyceride levels may include lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medications.
Caprylates are a group of compounds that are derived from caprylic acid, which is an eight-carbon saturated fatty acid. In the medical field, caprylates are often used as emollients, which are substances that help to soften and moisturize the skin. They are also used as surfactants, which are substances that help to reduce surface tension and improve the spreading and penetration of other ingredients in skincare products. Caprylates are generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated by the skin, and they are commonly used in a variety of skincare products, including lotions, creams, and shampoos.
Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in plant oils, such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and canola oil. It is a liquid at room temperature and has a distinctive nutty flavor. In the medical field, oleic acid has several potential uses. For example, it has been studied as a potential treatment for high blood pressure, as it may help to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow. It has also been studied as a potential treatment for certain types of cancer, as it may help to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. In addition to its potential therapeutic uses, oleic acid is also used in a variety of other applications in the medical field. For example, it is used as a component of some types of lubricants and as a component of certain types of medical devices. It is also used as a food additive, as it has a long shelf life and a neutral flavor that makes it useful in a variety of food products.
Carnitine is a naturally occurring compound that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of fats in the human body. It is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from the amino acids lysine and methionine, and is also found in some foods, such as meat, fish, and dairy products. In the body, carnitine helps transport long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, where they can be broken down and used for energy production. This process is essential for the proper functioning of the heart, muscles, and brain, as these organs rely heavily on fatty acids as a source of energy. Carnitine deficiency is a rare condition that can occur in individuals with certain genetic disorders or as a result of certain medications or medical treatments. Symptoms of carnitine deficiency may include muscle weakness, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, it can lead to liver and kidney damage, as well as heart problems. In addition to its role in metabolism, carnitine has also been studied for its potential health benefits, including improved exercise performance, weight loss, and protection against certain diseases, such as diabetes and Alzheimer's. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the appropriate dosage and safety of carnitine supplementation.
Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase (CPT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of fatty acids in the body. It is responsible for transferring the long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol to the mitochondria, where they can be broken down and used for energy production. There are three different forms of CPT, known as CPT1a, CPT1b, and CPT1c, which are found in different tissues throughout the body. CPT1a is primarily located in the liver and muscle, while CPT1b is found in the heart and kidney. CPT1c is found in the brain and other tissues. CPT is essential for the proper functioning of the body's energy metabolism, and defects in the enzyme can lead to a variety of metabolic disorders. For example, mutations in the CPT1a gene can cause a rare inherited disorder called Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Deficiency (CPTD), which can cause muscle weakness, fatigue, and other symptoms.
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is commonly found in many foods, including vegetable oils, cocoa butter, and beef fat. In the medical field, stearic acid is sometimes used as a pharmaceutical excipient, meaning it is added to medications to help with their stability, solubility, or other properties. It is also used in the production of certain medical devices, such as catheters and implants. In small amounts, stearic acid is generally considered safe for consumption and is not known to cause any harmful side effects. However, in larger amounts, it may have negative effects on heart health and can contribute to the development of certain medical conditions, such as high cholesterol and atherosclerosis.
Myristic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is commonly found in animal fats and oils, as well as in some plant sources such as palm kernel oil. It is a 14-carbon fatty acid with a straight chain and is one of the saturated fatty acids that are commonly used in the production of soaps and detergents. In the medical field, myristic acid has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects. Some studies have suggested that myristic acid may have anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful in the treatment of conditions such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. It has also been studied for its potential role in improving cognitive function and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic effects of myristic acid and to determine its safety and efficacy in the treatment of various medical conditions.
Myristic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is commonly found in animal fats and oils, as well as in some plant sources such as coconut oil. It is a 14-carbon fatty acid with a straight chain and is one of the saturated fatty acids that are commonly used in the production of soaps and detergents. In the medical field, myristic acid has been studied for its potential health effects. Some studies have suggested that myristic acid may have anti-inflammatory properties and may be beneficial for reducing inflammation in the body. However, other studies have suggested that myristic acid may have negative effects on cholesterol levels and may increase the risk of heart disease. Overall, the role of myristic acid in human health is not yet fully understood, and more research is needed to determine its potential benefits and risks.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. It helps the body's cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later use. Insulin is essential for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and preventing conditions such as diabetes. In the medical field, insulin is used to treat diabetes and other conditions related to high blood sugar levels. It is typically administered through injections or an insulin pump.
In the medical field, carbon isotopes are atoms of carbon that have a different number of neutrons than the most common isotope, carbon-12. There are two stable isotopes of carbon, carbon-12 and carbon-13, and several unstable isotopes that are used in medical applications. Carbon-13, in particular, is used in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and positron emission tomography (PET). In MRS, carbon-13 is used to study the metabolism of certain compounds in the body, such as glucose and amino acids. In PET, carbon-13 is used to create images of the body's metabolism by tracing the movement of a radioactive tracer through the body. Carbon-11, another unstable isotope of carbon, is used in PET imaging to study various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and heart disease. Carbon-11 is produced in a cyclotron and then attached to a molecule that is specific to a particular target in the body. The tracer is then injected into the patient and imaged using a PET scanner to detect the location and extent of the disease. Overall, carbon isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and research, allowing doctors and researchers to better understand the functioning of the body and diagnose and treat various diseases.
Glycerides are a type of lipid molecule that consists of a glycerol molecule bonded to three fatty acid molecules. They are an important component of cell membranes and are also found in many foods, including fats and oils. In the medical field, glycerides are often used as a measure of blood cholesterol levels, as elevated levels of triglycerides (a type of glyceride) are a risk factor for heart disease. They are also used in the production of medications, such as cholesterol-lowering drugs.
Malonyl Coenzyme A (Malonyl-CoA) is a molecule that plays a crucial role in fatty acid metabolism. It is synthesized from acetyl-CoA and malate, and is involved in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis and breakdown. Malonyl-CoA is also a key molecule in the process of gluconeogenesis, which is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources. In the medical field, Malonyl-CoA is often studied in relation to metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Acyltransferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group from one molecule to another. In the medical field, acyltransferases play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including fatty acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, and drug metabolism. One example of an acyltransferase enzyme is acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a carboxyl group from bicarbonate to acetyl-CoA, producing malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA is then used as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis. Another example of an acyltransferase enzyme is the cholesterol biosynthesis enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a hydrogen atom from NADPH to HMG-CoA, producing mevalonate. Mevalonate is then used as a substrate for the synthesis of cholesterol. In the field of drug metabolism, acyltransferases are involved in the metabolism of many drugs. For example, the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C9 is an acyltransferase that is involved in the metabolism of several drugs, including warfarin and diazepam. Overall, acyltransferases play important roles in various metabolic pathways and are important targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.
Epoxy compounds are a type of polymer that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are formed by the reaction of an epoxy resin with a curing agent, which results in a strong, durable material with excellent adhesion properties. In the medical field, epoxy compounds are often used as adhesives to bond medical devices to the skin or other tissues. They are also used as coatings on medical equipment and implants to provide a barrier against infection and to improve the durability and longevity of the device. Epoxy compounds are also used in the production of medical implants, such as dental fillings and orthopedic implants. They are used to bond the implant to the surrounding bone or tissue, providing a strong and secure hold. Overall, epoxy compounds are an important tool in the medical field, providing a range of benefits including improved adhesion, durability, and infection control.
Hydroxylamine is a chemical compound with the formula NH2OH. It is a colorless, highly toxic gas that is used in various industrial applications, including the production of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and explosives. In the medical field, hydroxylamine is not commonly used. However, it has been studied for its potential as an antiviral agent against certain viruses, including HIV and influenza. It is also used as a reagent in analytical chemistry for the determination of certain compounds.
Chylomicrons are small, spherical lipoprotein particles that are produced in the intestinal cells of mammals. They are responsible for transporting dietary fats, cholesterol, and other lipids from the digestive system to the liver and other tissues throughout the body. Chylomicrons are composed of a core of triglycerides, which are esters of glycerol and fatty acids, surrounded by a layer of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins called apolipoproteins. The apolipoproteins play a crucial role in the assembly, secretion, and transport of chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are formed in the enterocytes (intestinal cells) and are then transported through the lymphatic system to the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, chylomicrons are taken up by the liver, where they are broken down by lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol. The fatty acids and glycerol are then used by the liver for energy or stored as fat. Abnormalities in the production, secretion, or metabolism of chylomicrons can lead to a variety of health problems, including hypertriglyceridemia (elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood), which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Myristates is a term that is not commonly used in the medical field. It is possible that you may be referring to "myristic acid," which is a saturated fatty acid that is found in many foods, including dairy products, meat, and palm oil. Myristic acid is a component of triglycerides, which are the main type of fat found in the body. It is also used in the production of some cosmetics and personal care products. In the body, myristic acid is broken down into smaller molecules that can be used for energy or stored as fat.
In the medical field, carbon radioisotopes are isotopes of carbon that emit radiation. These isotopes are often used in medical imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET), to visualize and diagnose various diseases and conditions. One commonly used carbon radioisotope in medical imaging is carbon-11, which is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Carbon-11 is then incorporated into various molecules, such as glucose, which can be injected into the body and taken up by cells that are metabolically active. The emitted radiation from the carbon-11 can then be detected by a PET scanner, allowing doctors to visualize and diagnose conditions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and heart disease. Other carbon radioisotopes used in medicine include carbon-13, which is used in breath tests to diagnose various digestive disorders, and carbon-14, which is used in radiocarbon dating to determine the age of organic materials.
Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a simple sugar alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a lubricant, a moisturizer, and a preservative. It is a clear, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is derived from fats and oils. In the medical field, glycerol is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. As a lubricant: Glycerol is used as a lubricant in various medical procedures, such as colonoscopies, cystoscopies, and endoscopies, to reduce friction and discomfort. 2. As a moisturizer: Glycerol is used as a moisturizer in skin care products, such as lotions and creams, to hydrate and soothe dry, irritated skin. 3. As a preservative: Glycerol is used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and nasal sprays, to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. 4. As an antifreeze: Glycerol is used as an antifreeze in some medical equipment, such as dialysis machines, to prevent the equipment from freezing during cold weather. Overall, glycerol is a safe and effective ingredient that is widely used in the medical field for a variety of purposes.
In the medical field, esters are chemical compounds that are formed by the reaction of an alcohol and an acid. They are commonly used in medicine as drugs, solvents, and intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. One example of an ester used in medicine is acetylsalicylic acid, also known as aspirin. Aspirin is an ester of salicylic acid and acetic acid, and it is used as a pain reliever, anti-inflammatory, and anticoagulant. Esters can also be used as carriers for drugs, allowing them to be more easily absorbed into the body. For example, ethyl acetate is often used as a solvent for drugs that are not soluble in water, and it can also be used as a carrier for drugs that are not well absorbed through the digestive system. Overall, esters play an important role in the medical field, and their properties and uses continue to be studied and explored by researchers.
Phospholipids are a type of lipid molecule that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and two hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails, which together form a bilayer structure that separates the interior of the cell from the external environment. Phospholipids are important for maintaining the integrity and fluidity of cell membranes, and they also play a role in cell signaling and the transport of molecules across the membrane. They are found in all types of cells, including animal, plant, and bacterial cells, and are also present in many types of lipoproteins, which are particles that transport lipids in the bloodstream. In the medical field, phospholipids are used in a variety of applications, including as components of artificial cell membranes for research purposes, as components of liposomes (small vesicles that can deliver drugs to specific cells), and as ingredients in dietary supplements and other health products. They are also the subject of ongoing research in the fields of nutrition, metabolism, and disease prevention.
Acyl Coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) is a molecule that plays a central role in metabolism. It is formed when an acyl group (a fatty acid or other long-chain hydrocarbon) is attached to the coenzyme A molecule, which is a small molecule that contains a thiol (-SH) group. Acyl-CoA molecules are involved in a variety of metabolic processes, including the breakdown of fatty acids (beta-oxidation), the synthesis of fatty acids (fatty acid synthesis), and the synthesis of other important molecules such as cholesterol and ketone bodies. In the medical field, acyl-CoA is often measured as a way to assess the activity of certain metabolic pathways, and imbalances in acyl-CoA levels can be associated with a variety of diseases and disorders.
Coenzyme A (CoA) is a small molecule that plays a crucial role in many metabolic pathways in the body. It is a thiol group (a sulfur-containing molecule) attached to a fatty acid molecule, and it serves as a carrier molecule for fatty acids in the body. In the medical field, CoA is involved in a variety of processes, including the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, as well as the synthesis of lipids and cholesterol. It is also involved in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxins. Disruptions in CoA metabolism can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including fatty acid oxidation disorders, which are a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down fatty acids for energy. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, developmental delays, and neurological problems. In addition, CoA is also involved in the metabolism of certain vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin B12 and selenium, and deficiencies in these nutrients can also affect CoA metabolism and lead to health problems.
Vitamin A deficiency is a condition that occurs when the body does not get enough of the vitamin A it needs to function properly. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. It is also important for the growth and development of bones and teeth. Vitamin A deficiency can occur when there is a lack of dietary intake of vitamin A, or when the body is unable to absorb or use vitamin A effectively. This can be due to a variety of factors, including poor nutrition, malabsorption disorders, and certain medical conditions. Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency can include night blindness, dry skin, and a weakened immune system. In severe cases, vitamin A deficiency can lead to blindness, growth retardation, and even death. Treatment for vitamin A deficiency typically involves increasing dietary intake of vitamin A-rich foods, such as liver, sweet potatoes, and carrots, or taking vitamin A supplements. In some cases, medical treatment may also be necessary to address the underlying cause of the deficiency.
In the medical field, acetates refer to compounds that contain the acetate ion (CH3COO-). Acetates are commonly used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including: 1. Hyperkalemia: Acetate is used to treat high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) in the blood. It works by binding to potassium ions and preventing them from entering cells, which helps to lower potassium levels in the blood. 2. Acidosis: Acetate is used to treat acidosis, a condition in which the blood becomes too acidic. It works by increasing the production of bicarbonate ions, which helps to neutralize excess acid in the blood. 3. Respiratory failure: Acetate is used to treat respiratory failure, a condition in which the lungs are unable to provide enough oxygen to the body. It works by providing an alternative source of energy for the body's cells, which helps to support the respiratory system. 4. Metabolic acidosis: Acetate is used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid. It works by increasing the production of bicarbonate ions, which helps to neutralize excess acid in the body. 5. Hyperammonemia: Acetate is used to treat hyperammonemia, a condition in which the blood contains too much ammonia. It works by providing an alternative source of energy for the body's cells, which helps to reduce the production of ammonia. Overall, acetates are a useful tool in the treatment of various medical conditions, and their use is closely monitored by healthcare professionals to ensure their safe and effective use.
Coenzyme A ligases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a coenzyme A (CoA) molecule to a substrate. Coenzyme A is a small molecule that plays a crucial role in many metabolic pathways in the body, including the breakdown of fatty acids and the synthesis of cholesterol and other lipids. Coenzyme A ligases are involved in a variety of biological processes, including the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. They are also involved in the synthesis of certain hormones and other signaling molecules. In the medical field, coenzyme A ligases are of interest because they are involved in a number of diseases and disorders. For example, mutations in certain coenzyme A ligases have been linked to inherited metabolic disorders such as methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia. These disorders are caused by a deficiency in the enzymes responsible for breaking down certain amino acids and fatty acids, leading to the accumulation of toxic byproducts in the body. In addition, coenzyme A ligases are being studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some researchers are investigating the use of coenzyme A ligases as targets for the development of new drugs to treat metabolic disorders and other diseases.
Hypervitaminosis A is a medical condition that occurs when the body has too much vitamin A. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in vision, immune function, and the growth and development of cells. However, excessive intake of vitamin A can be harmful to the body. Symptoms of hypervitaminosis A can include nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, and dry skin. In severe cases, it can lead to liver damage, bone abnormalities, and even death. Hypervitaminosis A can occur due to excessive intake of vitamin A supplements or foods that are high in vitamin A, such as liver, fish liver oil, and some types of vegetables. It is important to consume vitamin A in moderation and to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any vitamin supplements.
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with the atomic number 3 and the symbol T. It is a beta emitter with a half-life of approximately 12.3 years. In the medical field, tritium is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Medical imaging: Tritium is used in nuclear medicine to label molecules and track their movement within the body. For example, tritium can be used to label antibodies, which can then be injected into the body to track the movement of specific cells or tissues. 2. Radiation therapy: Tritium is used in radiation therapy to treat certain types of cancer. It is typically combined with other isotopes, such as carbon-14 or phosphorus-32, to create a radioactive tracer that can be injected into the body and targeted to specific areas of cancerous tissue. 3. Research: Tritium is also used in research to study the behavior of molecules and cells. For example, tritium can be used to label DNA, which can then be used to study the process of DNA replication and repair. It is important to note that tritium is a highly radioactive isotope and requires careful handling to minimize the risk of exposure to radiation.
Ketone bodies are organic compounds that are produced by the liver when there is a lack of glucose available for energy production. They are formed from acetyl-CoA, which is a byproduct of fatty acid metabolism. The three main types of ketone bodies are acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. Ketone bodies are an important source of energy for the brain and other tissues when glucose is not available. They are also used by the liver to produce glucose through a process called gluconeogenesis. In normal physiological conditions, the body produces small amounts of ketone bodies. However, in certain medical conditions such as diabetes, starvation, or prolonged fasting, the production of ketone bodies increases significantly. High levels of ketone bodies in the blood can lead to a condition called ketosis, which can cause symptoms such as fruity breath odor, nausea, vomiting, and confusion. In summary, ketone bodies are organic compounds produced by the liver in response to a lack of glucose and are an important source of energy for the body.
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis in the body. It catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, which is the first committed step in the synthesis of fatty acids from carbohydrates and lipids. In the medical field, ACC is of particular interest because it is a key enzyme in the regulation of energy metabolism and is involved in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic disorders. Inhibition of ACC has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these conditions. Additionally, ACC is also involved in the regulation of gluconeogenesis, the process by which the liver produces glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.
Ceramides are a class of lipids that are important components of the cell membrane and play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the skin barrier. They are synthesized from sphingosine and fatty acids and are found in high concentrations in the outermost layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum. In the medical field, ceramides are often used in skincare products to help moisturize and protect the skin. They have been shown to improve the skin's barrier function, reduce inflammation, and promote wound healing. Ceramides are also used in the treatment of certain skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis (eczema) and psoriasis, as they can help to restore the skin's natural barrier function and reduce inflammation. In addition to their use in skincare, ceramides have also been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in other areas of medicine. For example, they have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, and may be useful in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and colon cancer.
Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Fatty acid synthases (FAS) are a group of enzymes that are responsible for the de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids in the body. These enzymes are found in the cytoplasm of most cells and are composed of multiple subunits that work together to catalyze a series of reactions that convert acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA into palmitate, a 16-carbon fatty acid. Fatty acid synthases play a critical role in the metabolism of lipids, which are essential for the production of energy, the formation of cell membranes, and the synthesis of other important molecules such as hormones and signaling molecules. Dysregulation of fatty acid synthases has been implicated in a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. In the medical field, fatty acid synthases are often studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs and therapies for these and other diseases. For example, drugs that inhibit fatty acid synthases have been shown to have anti-cancer effects in preclinical studies, and are currently being tested in clinical trials for their potential to treat various types of cancer.
Linoleic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid that is essential for human health. It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is a member of the omega-6 fatty acid family. Linoleic acid is a liquid at room temperature and is found in many plant-based oils, such as soybean oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. In the medical field, linoleic acid is considered an essential nutrient because the human body cannot produce it on its own and must obtain it through the diet. It is important for maintaining healthy skin, hair, and nails, and for supporting the immune system. Linoleic acid is also important for brain function and may help to reduce the risk of certain diseases, such as heart disease and cancer. However, it is important to note that while linoleic acid is essential for health, it is also possible to consume too much of it. Consuming excessive amounts of linoleic acid has been linked to an increased risk of certain health problems, such as inflammation and obesity. Therefore, it is important to consume linoleic acid in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
In the medical field, dietary fats refer to the fats that are consumed as part of a person's diet. These fats can come from a variety of sources, including animal products (such as meat, dairy, and eggs), plant-based oils (such as olive oil, canola oil, and avocado oil), and nuts and seeds. Dietary fats are an important source of energy for the body and are also necessary for the absorption of certain vitamins and minerals. However, excessive consumption of certain types of dietary fats, particularly saturated and trans fats, has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Therefore, healthcare professionals often recommend that people limit their intake of saturated and trans fats and increase their consumption of unsaturated fats, such as those found in nuts, seeds, and plant-based oils. This can help to promote overall health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
Linoleic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid that is essential for human health. It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is a member of the omega-6 fatty acid family. Linoleic acid is a liquid at room temperature and is found in many plant-based oils, such as soybean oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. In the medical field, linoleic acid is considered an essential nutrient because the body cannot produce it on its own and must obtain it through the diet. It is important for maintaining healthy skin, hair, and nails, and for supporting the immune system. Linoleic acid is also important for brain function and may help to reduce the risk of certain diseases, such as heart disease and cancer. However, it is important to note that while linoleic acid is essential for health, it is also possible to consume too much of it. Consuming large amounts of linoleic acid can increase the risk of certain health problems, such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, it is important to consume linoleic acid in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Hydroxylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded to an amine group (-NH2). They are commonly used as oxidizing agents in various chemical reactions, including the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and the treatment of wastewater. In the medical field, hydroxylamines have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, hydroxylamine hydrochloride has been used as a vasodilator to treat hypertension and angina pectoris. It works by relaxing blood vessels and improving blood flow to the heart. Hydroxylamines have also been investigated as potential antiviral agents against a variety of viruses, including HIV and influenza. They are thought to work by inhibiting viral replication and preventing the virus from infecting host cells. However, hydroxylamines can also be toxic and have been associated with adverse effects, including respiratory distress, nausea, and vomiting. Therefore, their use in the medical field is carefully regulated and monitored to ensure their safety and efficacy.
Chromatography, Thin Layer (TLC) is a technique used in the medical field to separate and identify different compounds in a mixture. It involves the use of a thin layer of a stationary phase, such as silica gel or aluminum oxide, which is coated onto a glass plate or plastic sheet. A sample mixture is then applied to the stationary phase, and a mobile phase, such as a solvent or a gas, is allowed to flow over the stationary phase. As the mobile phase flows over the stationary phase, the different compounds in the sample mixture are separated based on their ability to interact with the stationary and mobile phases. Compounds that interact more strongly with the stationary phase will be retained longer, while those that interact more strongly with the mobile phase will move more quickly through the system. TLC is a simple and inexpensive technique that can be used to separate and identify a wide range of compounds, including drugs, hormones, and other biological molecules. It is often used as a preliminary step in the analysis of complex mixtures, before more advanced techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas chromatography (GC) are used to further separate and identify the individual compounds.
CD36 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of many different types of cells in the body, including macrophages, monocytes, and endothelial cells. It is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family and is involved in the uptake and metabolism of a variety of molecules, including fatty acids, heme, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In the context of the immune system, CD36 is an antigen-presenting molecule that plays a role in the presentation of antigens to T cells. It is also involved in the regulation of immune responses, particularly those involving T cells and monocytes. CD36 has been implicated in a number of different diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders.
Glycogen is a complex carbohydrate that is stored in the liver and muscles of animals, including humans. It is the primary storage form of glucose in the body and serves as a readily available source of energy when glucose levels in the bloodstream are low. Glycogen is made up of glucose molecules that are linked together by alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 glycosidic bonds. It is stored in the form of granules in the liver and muscle cells, and can be broken down into glucose molecules through a process called glycogenolysis. In the liver, glycogen can be converted into glucose and released into the bloodstream to maintain blood sugar levels. In the muscles, glycogen can be broken down into glucose and used as energy during physical activity. Disorders of glycogen storage, such as glycogen storage disease, can result from mutations in genes that are involved in the synthesis, breakdown, or transport of glycogen. These disorders can lead to a variety of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and liver dysfunction.
Palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of fatty acids. It is responsible for breaking down palmitoyl-CoA, a molecule that is produced when fatty acids are broken down in the body. Palmitoyl-CoA is an important source of energy for the body, and its breakdown by palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase is a key step in the process of fatty acid metabolism. This enzyme is found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. In the medical field, palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase is sometimes studied in the context of diseases that are related to fatty acid metabolism, such as diabetes and obesity.
Beta-carotene is a pigment found in many fruits and vegetables, including carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, and broccoli. It is a type of carotenoid, which is a group of pigments that give plants their yellow, orange, and red colors. In the medical field, beta-carotene is known for its potential health benefits. It is a powerful antioxidant that can help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Beta-carotene is also important for maintaining healthy vision, as it is converted by the body into vitamin A, which is essential for maintaining good vision in low light conditions. In addition, some studies have suggested that beta-carotene may have a role in reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, such as lung cancer and breast cancer. However, it is important to note that while beta-carotene has potential health benefits, it is not a cure-all and should not be relied upon as the sole source of these benefits. A balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits and vegetables is the best way to ensure that you are getting all of the nutrients your body needs to stay healthy.
Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas and helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the body needs to produce more insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels, which can lead to high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and eventually type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats. It can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome. Symptoms of insulin resistance may include fatigue, frequent urination, increased thirst, and blurred vision. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and may also include medication to help regulate blood sugar levels.
Acetyl Coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA) is a molecule that plays a central role in metabolism in all living organisms. It is a key intermediate in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and ketone bodies. In the medical field, Acetyl-CoA is often studied in the context of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and metabolic disorders. For example, in type 2 diabetes, the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels is impaired, which can lead to an accumulation of Acetyl-CoA in the liver. This can cause the liver to produce more fatty acids and triglycerides, leading to the development of fatty liver disease. In addition, Acetyl-CoA is also involved in the production of energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary energy currency of the cell. Therefore, disruptions in Acetyl-CoA metabolism can have significant effects on energy production and overall health.
Acetoacetates are a group of organic compounds that contain the functional group -COOCH3. They are formed as intermediates in the metabolism of fatty acids and are involved in the production of ketone bodies, which are used as a source of energy by the liver and other tissues in the body. In the medical field, acetoacetates are often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the body's ability to produce ketone bodies, which can be an indicator of certain medical conditions such as diabetes, liver disease, and certain types of cancer. They are also used as a precursor in the synthesis of other compounds, such as acetoacetic esters, which have applications in the pharmaceutical industry.
Serum Albumin, Bovine is a type of albumin, which is a type of protein found in the blood plasma of mammals. It is derived from the blood of cows and is used as a source of albumin for medical purposes. Albumin is an important protein in the body that helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of blood and transport various substances, such as hormones, drugs, and fatty acids, throughout the body. It is often used as a plasma expander in patients who have lost a significant amount of blood or as a replacement for albumin in patients with liver disease or other conditions that affect albumin production.
Carboxylic ester hydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic ester bonds. These enzymes are involved in a variety of biological processes, including the breakdown of fats and cholesterol in the body, the metabolism of drugs and toxins, and the regulation of hormone levels. In the medical field, carboxylic ester hydrolases are often studied in the context of diseases related to lipid metabolism, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. They are also important in the development of new drugs and therapies for these conditions, as well as for the treatment of other diseases that involve the metabolism of lipids and other molecules. Carboxylic ester hydrolases are classified into several different families based on their structure and function. Some of the most well-known families include the lipases, esterases, and amidases. Each family has its own specific set of substrates and catalytic mechanisms, and they are often regulated by different factors, such as hormones, enzymes, and cellular signaling pathways.
Aminoimidazole Carboxamide (AICAR) is a compound that has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. It is a synthetic analog of the naturally occurring compound adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. AICAR works by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular enzyme that plays a central role in regulating energy metabolism and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Activation of AMPK leads to increased fatty acid oxidation, glucose uptake, and energy production, while reducing glucose production and fatty acid synthesis. These effects have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce body weight, and improve cardiovascular function in animal models of diabetes and obesity. AICAR has been studied in clinical trials for its potential therapeutic effects in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. While some studies have shown promising results, more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks in humans.
Phloretin is a naturally occurring compound found in many fruits and vegetables, including apples, pears, and cherries. It is also found in some herbal supplements and is used in some over-the-counter products for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the medical field, phloretin has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in a variety of conditions. For example, it has been shown to have anti-cancer properties and may help to prevent the growth and spread of certain types of cancer cells. It has also been studied for its potential to treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity and reducing blood sugar levels. Phloretin has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and may be useful in the treatment of conditions such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, it has been studied for its potential to improve cardiovascular health by reducing blood pressure and improving cholesterol levels. Overall, while phloretin has shown promise in several areas of medical research, more studies are needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and to determine the appropriate dosages and treatment regimens.
Hydroxybutyrates are a class of compounds that contain a hydroxybutyrate functional group. They are commonly used in the medical field as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including epilepsy, anxiety, and depression. Some examples of hydroxybutyrates include valproic acid, which is used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder, and diazepam, which is used to treat anxiety and seizures. Hydroxybutyrates are also used as dietary supplements to promote muscle growth and improve athletic performance.
Lipoproteins are complex particles that consist of a lipid core surrounded by a protein shell. They are responsible for transporting lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, throughout the bloodstream. There are several types of lipoproteins, including low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). LDL, often referred to as "bad cholesterol," carries cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body. When there is too much LDL in the bloodstream, it can build up in the walls of arteries, leading to the formation of plaques that can cause heart disease and stroke. HDL, often referred to as "good cholesterol," helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing and elimination. High levels of HDL are generally considered protective against heart disease. VLDL and IDL are intermediate lipoproteins that are produced by the liver and transport triglycerides to other parts of the body. VLDL is converted to IDL, which is then converted to LDL. Lipoprotein levels can be measured through blood tests, and their levels are often used as a diagnostic tool for assessing cardiovascular risk.
Adipose tissue, also known as body fat or adipose tissue, is a specialized type of connective tissue that is found throughout the body. It is composed of adipocytes, which are cells that store energy in the form of fat. Adipose tissue plays a number of important roles in the body, including insulation, energy storage, and hormone regulation. It is also an important component of the immune system and helps to regulate blood pressure and blood sugar levels. In addition to its physiological functions, adipose tissue also plays a role in the development of certain diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.
In the medical field, starvation refers to a severe lack of nutrition and energy due to a prolonged period of not eating enough food. Starvation can occur as a result of various factors, including malnutrition, illness, and intentional fasting. The body requires a certain amount of nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals, to function properly. When a person does not consume enough of these nutrients, the body begins to break down its own tissues, including muscle and fat, to provide energy. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including weakness, fatigue, dizziness, and weight loss. In severe cases of starvation, the body may also experience more serious complications, such as organ failure, electrolyte imbalances, and even death. Treatment for starvation typically involves providing adequate nutrition and hydration, as well as addressing any underlying medical conditions that may have contributed to the starvation.
Cerulenin is a chemical compound that has been used in the medical field as an antibiotic. It is a blue-green pigment that is produced by certain bacteria, and it has been found to be effective against a variety of gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium. Cerulenin works by inhibiting the production of fatty acids in bacteria, which are essential for the growth and survival of these organisms. This leads to the death of the bacteria, and can be used to treat bacterial infections in humans and animals. Cerulenin has also been studied for its potential use in treating other conditions, such as cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic applications.
3-Hydroxybutyric acid (3-HBA) is a metabolic byproduct of the breakdown of fatty acids in the liver. It is also known as beta-hydroxybutyric acid or beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). In the medical field, 3-HBA is often used as a biomarker for ketosis, a metabolic state in which the body burns fat for energy instead of carbohydrates. When the body is in a state of ketosis, the levels of 3-HBA in the blood and urine increase. 3-HBA is also used as a dietary supplement in the form of ketone esters or ketone salts, which can help to increase the levels of ketones in the body and promote weight loss. However, the use of ketone supplements is not without controversy, and their safety and efficacy have not been fully established. In addition, 3-HBA has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions, including epilepsy, diabetes, and cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases (AMPK) are a family of enzymes that play a critical role in regulating cellular energy metabolism and maintaining cellular homeostasis. They are activated in response to a decrease in the ratio of ATP to AMP, which occurs under conditions of energy stress, such as during exercise or fasting. AMPK acts as a cellular energy sensor, and its activation leads to a variety of metabolic changes that help to restore energy balance. These changes include increasing glucose uptake and metabolism, inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, and stimulating fatty acid oxidation. AMPK also plays a role in regulating cell growth and survival, and has been implicated in the development of a number of diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. In the medical field, AMPK is a target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of metabolic disorders and other diseases. Activation of AMPK has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce body weight, and lower blood pressure, making it a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
Retinol-binding proteins (RBP) are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the transport and storage of vitamin A (retinol) in the body. They are primarily found in the blood plasma and are responsible for binding to retinol and protecting it from degradation and excretion. There are several types of RBP, including retinol-binding protein 1 (RBP1), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP). RBP1 is the most abundant form of RBP in the blood and is primarily produced by the liver. It is responsible for transporting retinol from the liver to other tissues, including the eyes, skin, and immune system. RBP4 is produced by adipose tissue and is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. CRBP is found in the cytoplasm of cells and is involved in the uptake and storage of retinol within the cell. Disruptions in the levels or function of RBP can lead to a variety of health problems, including vitamin A deficiency, which can cause vision problems, night blindness, and other complications. In addition, changes in RBP levels have been associated with a number of diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and certain types of cancer.
In the medical field, "Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated" refers to a type of dietary fat that is liquid at room temperature and has one double bond in its carbon chain. Monounsaturated fatty acids are considered to be a healthier type of fat compared to saturated and trans fats, as they can help to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease when consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet. Some examples of monounsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (found in olive oil and avocados) and palmitoleic acid (found in nuts and seeds).
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- Confirmed cases were defined as those probable cases in which blood, stool or vomitus specimens tested positive for paliperidone palmitate and/or its metabolites. (who.int)
- The poisoning substance was suspected to be paliperidone palmitate based on the patients' symptoms and epidemiological findings. (who.int)
- Discussion: We investigated the household food poisoning outbreak through epidemiological analysis and an environmental investigation and determined that it was caused by paliperidone palmitate. (who.int)
- The source of the paliperidone palmitate was found to be aluminium containers, taken home by the eldest son who worked at a pharmaceutical company. (who.int)
- Emsley R, Kilian S. Efficacy and safety profile of Paliperidone Palmitate injections in the management of patients with schizophrenia: an evidence-based review. (who.int)
- Efficacy and safety of Paliperidone Palmitate in adult patients with acutely symptomatic schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. (who.int)
- A randomized, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of 3 doses of Paliperidone Palmitate in adults with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia. (who.int)
- Ascorbyl Palmitate is a dietary supplement containing fat-soluble Vitamin C for normal immune system and antioxidant support. (acuatlanta.net)
- Ascorbyl Palmitate is recommended for people wishing to increase their intake of vitamin C. (acuatlanta.net)
- Ascorbyl Palmitate is from the Pure Encapsulations Antioxidants product line. (acuatlanta.net)
- Ascorbyl palmitate is a highly bioavailable, fat-soluble derivative of ascorbic acid. (acuatlanta.net)
- The ascorbyl palmitate form of vitamin C is stored in the lipid cell membrane, providing a ready store of this essential nutrient. (acuatlanta.net)
- Ascorbyl palmitate: 450 mg. (acuatlanta.net)
- Ascorbyl Palmitate product is available only from licensed healthcare professionals. (acuatlanta.net)
- Buy Ascorbyl Palmitate Online here at AcuAtlanta.net or our clinic. (acuatlanta.net)
- Our database includes 896 products that contain Ascorbyl Palmitate. (skinsort.com)
- Ascorbyl Palmitate is created by combining pure Vitamin C and palmitic acid. (skinsort.com)
- Ascorbyl Palmitate is a stable version of Vitamin C, meaning it does not disintegrate when exposed to sunlight. (skinsort.com)
- Ascorbyl Palmitate is a rare cosmetic ingredient, with about 3.5% of the products in our database containing it. (skinsort.com)
- Ascorbyl Palmitate is most often found as ingredient number 22 within an ingredient list. (skinsort.com)
- Of the 1 products in our database that have a known concentration of Ascorbyl Palmitate, they all have a concentration of 2% specified within their ingredient lists. (skinsort.com)
- Retinol Palmitate is used as an antioxidant and a source of vitamin A added to low-fat milk and other diary products to replace the vitamin content lost through the removal of milk fat. (foodsweeteners.com)
- Vitamin A Palmitate , also known as Retinol Palmitate, is a yellow crystal or liquid that is the main form of vitamin A in nature. (foodsweeteners.com)
- Vitamin A palmitate, omega-3 fatty acids, and lutein plus zeaxanthin may help slow progression of vision loss. (msdmanuals.com)
- There is no way to reverse damage caused by retinitis pigmentosa, but vitamin A palmitate 15,000 IU orally once a day may help slow disease progression in some patients. (msdmanuals.com)
- Patients taking vitamin A palmitate should have regular liver tests. (msdmanuals.com)
- The sNDA is supported by the landmark P aliperidone Palmitate R esearch I n D emonstrating E ffectiveness study (PRIDE), which is the first prospective, randomized clinical trial to evaluate schizophrenia treatments within the context of many "real world" issues faced by patients in their daily lives, including one of the most challenging circumstances - recent incarceration. (jnj.com)
- Retinyl palmitate, or vitamin A palmitate G Feed Grade, is the ester of retinol and palmitic acid, with formula C H O It is the most abundant form of vitamin A storage in animals. (eklavyabiotech.in)
- An alternate spelling, retinol palmitate, which violates the -yl organic chemical naming convention for esters, is also frequently seen. (eklavyabiotech.in)
- Topical application of retinyl palmitate is a pragmatic strategy for loading the skin with retinol (vitamin A). Cosmetic formulations containing retinyl palmitate are substantially more stable than those containing retinol. (nih.gov)
- Percutaneous absorption of retinyl palmitate in currently marketed cosmetic products may be still greater due to the considerable efforts of cosmetics formulators to maximize the effectiveness of products containing retinyl palmitate and retinol. (nih.gov)
- Studies indicate that absorbed retinyl palmitate is readily hydrolyzed to retinol by cutaneous esterases. (nih.gov)
- In addition, skin contains the enzymes required for further metabolism of retinol to retinaldehyde and retinoic acid, and some studies have shown that levels of retinoic acid in the skin can increase following topical application of retinyl palmitate or retinol. (nih.gov)
- Many of the biochemical and histological alterations in skin elicited by topical application of the pharmacologic agent, retinoic acid, are also observed after treatment of skin with retinyl palmitate and retinol. (nih.gov)
- These cutaneous changes elicited by retinyl palmitate and retinol are similar to biochemical and histological alterations following topical exposure to retinoic acid. (nih.gov)
- The biochemical and histological changes in skin triggered by topical application of retinyl palmitate and retinol may be essential for many of the benefits claimed for these cosmetic products. (nih.gov)
- The effects of topically applied retinol or retinyl palmitate on photocarcinogenesis have not yet been evaluated. (nih.gov)
- Your search for CHLORAMPHENICOL PALMITATE did not return any results. (nih.gov)
- Ascorbyl Palmitate may increase iron bioavailability. (iherb.com)
- Dexamethasone-21-palmitate in lipid microspheres has already demonstrated its efficacy and tolerability with intra-articular injection during the inflammatory phase of osteoarthritis of the knee [ 6 ] and following periarticular administration in acute radial epicondylitis of the humerus. (medscape.com)
- [ 9 ] that the high affinity of the lipid microspheres for phagocytic cells such as macrophages results in highly targeted and rapid flooding of inflamed tissue with dexamethasone-21-palmitate, which could explain its rapid onset of action. (medscape.com)
- PagP is an outer membrane acyltransferase that helps pathogenic bacteria to evade the host immune response by transferring a palmitate chain from a phospholipid to lipid A (endotoxin). (nih.gov)
- In addition, in palmitate‑treated hepatocytes, small interfering RNA‑mediated SIRT1 silencing suppressed the effects of EPO on lipid‑induced ER stress. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride is a water soluble hydrochloride salt of the ester of clindamycin and palmitic acid. (nih.gov)
- The chemical name for clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride is Methyl 7-chloro-6, 7, 8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl- trans -4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L- threo -α-D- galacto -octopyranoside 2-palmitate monohydrochloride. (nih.gov)
- CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC Flavored Granules contain clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride for reconstitution. (nih.gov)
- Retinyl palmitate was selected by the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition for photo- toxicity and photocarcinogenicity testing based on the increasingly widespread use of this compound in cosmetic retail products for use on sun-exposed skin, the biochemical and histological cutaneous alterations elicited by retinyl palmitate, and the association between topical application of retinoids and enhancement of photocarcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
- Although clindamycin palmitate HCl is inactive in vitro , rapid in vivo hydrolysis converts this compound to the antibacterially active clindamycin. (nih.gov)
- Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of All-trans-retinyl Palmitate in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
- The best treatment in this study was a combination of local anaesthetic and dexamethasone-21-palmitate. (medscape.com)
- [ 8 ] This hypothesis appears to have been confirmed by the results of our study, in which treatment with local anaesthetic alone proved to be as effective as combination therapy at 1 hour with regard to pain reduction, whereas 72-hour assessment showed a clear advantage for patients who received dexamethasone-21-palmitate. (medscape.com)
- Conversely, commercially available crystal corticosteroids, which differ galenically from the study preparation dexamethasone palmitate, are reported to have an onset of action after 4 8 hours at the earliest. (medscape.com)
- An overview of Genetic Toxicology Bacterial Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Retinyl palmitate (79-81-2). (nih.gov)
- The continuing demand for these cosmetic products by a population interested in maintaining a youthful appearance will predictably result in a continuing increase in products containing retinyl palmitate. (nih.gov)
- Similar results were obtained for incorporation of palmitate and glycerol. (cdc.gov)