Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Covalent attachment of LIPIDS and FATTY ACIDS to other compounds and PROTEINS.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A symptom complex resulting from ingesting excessive amounts of VITAMIN A.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 3.1.2.2.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.

Correlations in palmitoylation and multiple phosphorylation of rat bradykinin B2 receptor in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (1/811)

Rat bradykinin B2 receptor from unstimulated Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the corresponding cDNA has been isolated, and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of multiple phosphorylated species and of the palmitoylation attachment site is described. Bradykinin B2 receptor was isolated on oligo(dT)-cellulose using N-(epsilon-maleimidocaproyloxy)succinimide-Met-Lys-bradykinin coupled to a protected (dA)30-mer. This allowed a one-step isolation of the receptor on an oligo(dT)-cellulose column via variation solely of salt concentration. After enzymatic in-gel digestion, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and electrospray ion trap mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated rat bradykinin B2 receptor showed phosphorylation at Ser365, Ser371, Ser378, Ser380, and Thr374. Further phosphorylation at Tyr352 and Tyr161 was observed. Rat bradykinin receptor B2 receptor is also palmitoylated at Cys356. All of the phosphorylation sites except for Tyr161 cluster at the carboxyl-terminal domain of the receptor located on the cytoplasmic face of the cell membrane. Surprisingly, many of the post-translational modifications were shown by MSn mass spectroscopic analysis to be correlated pairwise, e.g. diphosphorylation at Ser365 and Ser371, at Ser378 and Ser380, and at Thr374 and Ser380 as well as mutually exclusive phosphorylation at Tyr352 and palmitoylation at Cys356. The last correlation may be involved in a receptor internalization motif. Pairwise correlations and mutual exclusion of phosphorylation and palmitoylation suggest critical roles of multiple post-translational modifications for the regulation of activity, coupling to intracelluar signaling pathways, and/or sequestration of the bradykinin receptor.  (+info)

Role of the cysteine-rich domain of the t-SNARE component, SYNDET, in membrane binding and subcellular localization. (2/811)

Wild-type syndet is efficiently recruited at the plasma membrane in transfected AtT-20 cells. A deletion at the cysteine-rich domain abolishes palmitoylation, membrane binding, and plasma membrane distribution of syndet. Syndet, SNAP-25A, and SNAP-25B share four cysteine residues, of which three, Cys2, Cys4, and Cys5, are absolutely conserved in all three homologs. Mutations at any pair of cysteines within cysteines 2, 4, and 5 shift syndet from the cell surface into the cytoplasm. Thus, at least two cysteines within the conserved triplet are necessary for plasma membrane localization. Syndet C1S/C3S, with substitutions at the pair Cys1 and Cys3, distributes to the plasma membrane, a Golgi-like compartment, and the cytosol. We conclude that Cys1 and Cys3 are not absolutely necessary for membrane binding or plasma membrane localization. Our results show that the cysteine-rich domain of syndet plays a major role in its subcellular distribution.  (+info)

Total plasmalogens and O-(acylalkylglycerophosphoryl) ethanolamine from labelled hexadecanol and palmitate during hypoxia and anoxia in rat heart. (3/811)

By the use of the Langendorff technique, surviving isolated rat hearts were perfused with [1-14 C] palmitate, [1-14C] hexadecanol or [1-14C,1-3H] hexadecanol under normal or anoxic conditions. After perfusion for 30min with either precursor, when oxygenated or in an hypoxic condition, or when 1mM-KCN was included in the system, the heart tissues showed no significant chemical changes in their content of total lipids, total phospholipids or total ethanolamine-containing phospholipids. Changes were observed in the ratio of alkyl-to alk-1-enyl-glycerophosphorylethanolamine in the tissue perfused with N2+CO1 plus CN-. A slight increase from 4.0+/-0.3 to 4.9+/-0.2% in alkyl derivatives and a decrease from 11.2+/-0.4 to 9.4+/-0.3% in alk-1-enyl derivatives was observed. The incorporation of the [14C] palmitate and the [14C] hexadecanol into the recovered phospholipids and plasmalogens was severely decreased in the tissues perfused with CN-: in the hypoxic state only a mild inhibition was observed compared with the oxygenated systems. Considerable 3H from [1-14C, 1-3H] hexadecanol was retained (25-35%) in the alk-1-enylether chains of plasmalogens under both the oxygenated conditions and with CN-, suggesting that the same mechanism of incorporation is operational at high or low O2 concentrations. The results are consistent with an O2-dependent, CN-sensitive step in the biosynthesis of plasmalogens in the rat heart.  (+info)

The glycerol phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and monoacylglycerol pathways of glycerolipid synthesis in rat adipose-tissue homogenates. (4/811)

1. Fat-free homogenates from the epididymal fat-pads of rats were used to measure the rate of palmitate esterification with different substrates. The effectiveness of the acyl acceptors decreased in the order glycerol phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, 2-octadecenyl-glycerol and 2-hexadecylglycerol. 2. Glycerol phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate inhibited their rates of esterification in a mutually competitive manner. 3. The esterification of glycerol phosphate was also inhibited in a partially competitive manner by 2-octadecenylglycerol and to a lesser extent by 2-hexadecylglycerol. However, glycerol phosphate did not inhibit the esterification of 2-octadecenylglycerol. 4. The esterification of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 2-hexadecylglycerol was more sensitive to inhibition by clofenapate than was that of glycerol phosphate. Norfenfluramine was more effective in inhibiting the esterification of 2-hexadecylglycerol than that of glycerol phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate. 5 It is concluded that rat adipose tissue can synthesize glycerolipids by three independent routes.  (+info)

Hepatic glucose cycling does not contribute to the development of hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. (5/811)

Hepatic glucose cycling, whereby glucose is taken up by the liver, partially metabolized, then recycled to glucose, makes a substantial contribution to the development of hyperglycemia in IDDM. This stimulation of glucose cycling appears to be associated with elevated rates of fatty acid oxidation. Whether hepatic glucose cycling also contributes to the development of hyperglycemia in NIDDM is unclear. Using a model of NIDDM, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, we determined whether glucose cycling was enhanced. Hepatocytes from ZDF rats exhibited higher rates of glucose phosphorylation and glycolysis, but there was no increase in the rate of cycling between glucose and glucose-6-phosphate or between glycolytically derived pyruvate and glucose. Despite the increased rates of glycolysis, the production of CO2 in liver cells from ZDF rats was no different from rates measured in cells from control animals. Instead, there was a large increase in the accumulation of lactate and pyruvate in the ZDF liver cells. The addition of 2-bromopalmitate, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation that inhibited glucose cycling in hepatocytes from IDDM rats, had no effect on glucose cycling in cells from ZDF rats. We therefore conclude that, unlike in IDDM, hepatic glucose cycling does not contribute to the development of hyperglycemia in the NIDDM Zucker rat.  (+info)

Reactivating tammar wallaby blastocysts oxidize fatty acids and amino acids. (6/811)

The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, has a ruminant-like digestive system which may make a significant concentration of amino acids and fatty acids available to the blastocyst via uterine fluids. Fluorescent and radioisotope analyses were performed to determine the rate of glutamine and palmitate use by blastocysts recovered on day 0, 3, 4, 5 and 10 after reactivation induced by removal of pouch young (RPY). Between day 0 and 4 glutamine uptake increased from 15.6 +/- 6.6 to 36.1 +/- 2.7 pmol per embryo h-1 (P < 0.01) and ammonium production increased from 8.2 +/- 4.3 to 26.6 +/- 3.0 pmol per embryo h-1 (P < 0.01). Glutamine oxidation did not increase until day 10 after RPY (P < 0.01), but the percentage of glutamine oxidized increased from 4.5 +/- 3.1% during diapause to 31.2 +/- 12.6% (P < 0.01) by day 5 after RPY and increased further to 51.0 +/- 15.8% (P < 0.01) by day 10 after RPY. Palmitate oxidation also increased from 0.3 +/- 0.1 by day 0 blastocysts to 3.8 +/- 1.7 pmol per embryo h-1 (P < 0.01) by day 4 blastocysts. This increase provides a greater potential for ATP production, possibly to supply increased demand due to the coincident resumption of mitoses. The ATP:ADP ratio within blastocysts had reduced by the time of the first measurement at day 3 (0.5 +/- 0.2 pmol per embryo h-1; P < 0.01) compared with day 0 blastocysts (1.4 +/- 0.3 pmol per embryo h-1). It is likely that metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids contributes to the energy supply during reactivation of tammar wallaby blastocysts after embryonic diapause.  (+info)

The mechanism of inhibition of beta-oxidation by aspirin metabolites in skin fibroblasts from Reye's syndrome patients and controls. (7/811)

The effects of aspirin metabolites on beta-oxidation were studied in skin fibroblasts from eight typical Reye's syndrome (RS) patients and controls. RS patients' cells did not differ from controls in rates of palmitate oxidation or in the three component activities of the mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme (MTE), indicating no inherited beta-oxidation defect. Aspirin metabolites salicylate, hydroxyhippurate and gentisate, but not aspirin, directly inhibited palmitate oxidation in control and RS cells. RS cells were significantly more sensitive to inhibition than controls at 0.5 to 5 mM salicylate. Inhibition was concentration-dependent and reversible. Inhibition did not occur in fibroblasts lacking activity of the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) activity of MTE. Salicylate was therefore inhibiting beta-oxidation at this step. Hydroxyhippurate and salicylate reversibly inhibited HAD activities in extracts of control and RS cells. Studies with pure short-chain HAD and LCHAD (MTE) showed hydroxyhippurate and salicylate were competitive inhibitors of the former but mixed (not competitive) inhibitors of the latter. Both compounds inhibited the combined, three-step, MTE reaction measured in the physiological direction. We conclude that (1) salicylate and hydroxyhippurate decrease beta-oxidation in intact cells by reversible inhibition of LCHAD activity of the MTE, and (2) beta-oxidation in RS cells is inherently more sensitive to inhibition by low concentrations of salicylate than controls.  (+info)

Development and initial evaluation of a novel method for assessing tissue-specific plasma free fatty acid utilization in vivo using (R)-2-bromopalmitate tracer. (8/811)

We describe a method for assessing tissue-specific plasma free fatty acid (FFA) utilization in vivo using a non-beta-oxidizable FFA analog, [9,10-3H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate (3H-R-BrP). Ideally 3H-R-BrP would be transported in plasma, taken up by tissues and activated by the enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) like native FFA, but then 3H-labeled metabolites would be trapped. In vitro we found that 2-bromopalmitate and palmitate compete equivalently for the same ligand binding sites on albumin and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, and activation by ACS was stereoselective for the R-isomer. In vivo, oxidative and non-oxidative FFA metabolism was assessed in anesthetized Wistar rats by infusing, over 4 min, a mixture of 3H-R-BrP and [U-14C] palmitate (14C-palmitate). Indices of total FFA utilization (R*f) and incorporation into storage products (Rfs') were defined, based on tissue concentrations of 3H and 14C, respectively, 16 min after the start of tracer infusion. R*f, but not Rfs', was substantially increased in contracting (sciatic nerve stimulated) hindlimb muscles compared with contralateral non-contracting muscles. The contraction-induced increases in R*f were completely prevented by blockade of beta-oxidation with etomoxir. These results verify that 3H-R-BrP traces local total FFA utilization, including oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Separate estimates of the rates of loss of 3H activity indicated effective 3H metabolite retention in most tissues over a 16-min period, but appeared less effective in liver and heart. In conclusion, simultaneous use of 3H-R-BrP and [14C]palmitate tracers provides a new useful tool for in vivo studies of tissue-specific FFA transport, utilization and metabolic fate, especially in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.  (+info)

Figure 8 Palmitate-induced changes in alternative splicing according to GENCODE annotation. A: Palmitate modified the expression of many splicing factors in human islets; upregulated genes are shown in red, downregulated genes in green. B: RNA-seq data of SRSF3 expression in five human islet preparations exposed to palmitate for 48 h. C: SRSF3 mRNA expression assessed by qRT-PCR in independent human islet samples (n = 5) (upper panel) and INS-1E cells (n = 6) (lower panel) exposed or not (CTL) to palmitate (PAL) for 48 and 24 h, respectively. *P , 0.05, **P , 0.01 vs. untreated cells by ratio t test. D: Palmitate exposure led to marked changes in alternative splicing. A total of 1,403 transcripts were significantly upregulated in at least 4 of 5 islet samples and were significantly downregulated in none, and 2,122 transcripts were significantly downregulated using similar criteria. The Venn diagram illustrates the number of genes that have transcripts modified in both directions (intersection) ...
Palmitate decreases insulin secretion. Cell lines of each level of palmitate concentration were exposed to both basal (2.5 mM) and high (16.7 mM) glucose concentrations, after which glucose stimulated insulin secretion was measured. Results of 125I-labelled insulin radioimmunoassay indicated that 0.15 mM and 0.5 mM palmitate culturing significantly decreased insulin secretion rates in response to high glucose levels, though no significant change was seen for the 0.3 mM level (Fig. 1).. Palmitate decreases β-cell proliferation and viability. Contrary to preliminary data, further cell counts showed that all three palmitate cell lines had decreased proliferation compared to controls (data not shown). Similarly, cell counts following treatment with the apoptosis-inducing drug, thapsigargin, showed clear decreases in β-cell viability for all palmitate cell lines compared to controls (Fig. 2).. Palmitate decreases expression of some glycolytic genes. To determine possible mechanisms of action for ...
Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death are central in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Saturated fatty acids cause β-cell failure and contribute to diabetes development in genetically predisposed individuals.. Here we used RNA-sequencing to map transcripts expressed in five palmitate-treated human islet preparations, observing 1,325 modified genes. Palmitate induced fatty acid metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Functional studies identified novel mediators of adaptive ER stress signaling. Palmitate modified genes regulating ubiquitin and proteasome function, autophagy and apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagic flux and lysosome function contributed to lipotoxicity. Palmitate inhibited transcription factors controlling β-cell phenotype including PAX4 and GATA6. 59 type 2 diabetes candidate genes were expressed in human islets, and 11 were modified by palmitate. Palmitate modified expression of 17 splicing factors and shifted alternative splicing of 3,525 transcripts. Ingenuity ...
Clinical trial for Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders | Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders (Pediatric) | schizophrenia disorders | Schizophrenia , A Study to Analyze the Impact of Treatment With Paliperidone Palmitate on Clinical Outcomes and Hospital Resource Utilization in Adult Participants With Schizophrenia in Portugal
In experiment 1, liver slices from multiparous Holstein cows on day -30, -14, 1, 14, and 28 relative to calving were used to determine the effects of far-off and close-up diets on palmitate metabolism in vitro. During the far-off period, d -60 to -25, cows received a low energy control diet fed ad libitum (100NRC) to meet National Research Council (2001) nutrient requirements, a moderate-energy diet fed ad libitum to exceed NRC recommendations for NE L by >50% (150NRC), or the same diet fed at restricted intake to provide 80% NEL of requirements (80 NRC). During the close-up period (day -24 until parturition), cows were fed ad libitum to meet NRC recommendations or in restricted amounts to provide 80% of calculated NEL requirements. The close-up dietary treatments had little effect on palmitate metabolism. Excessive energy intake during the far-off and close-up period promoted decreased hepatic palmitate oxidation and increased esterification of palmitate. In experiment 2, additional liver ...
Chronic insulin treatment in both cell lines (C2C12 and Huh7) causes a decrease in phosphorylation of Akt, which is a hallmark of insulin resistance at the cellular level. The same effect was observed in both cell lines after chronic palmitate treatment. Chronic insulin treatment does not affect viability of (C2C12 and Huh7), while palmitate treatment decreases cell viability in both cell types. Chronic insulin treatment does not affect mitochondrial respiration, at variance with chronic palmitate treatment, which decreases respiration in C2C12 and Huh7 cells. However, chronic insulin treatment causes a decrease in respiratory acceptor control ratio (RCR) in C2C12, as observed with palmitate treatment. This is not the case for Huh7 cells, where RCR is unchanged after insulin treatment, while lowered only after palmitate treatment. Total ROS production does not change significantly in either cell line. Both C2C12 and Huh7 cells showed preserved mitochondrial morphology after chronic insulin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gray matter volumes may predict the clinical response to paliperidone palmitate long-acting in acute psychosis. T2 - A pilot longitudinal neuroimaging study. AU - Altamura, A. Carlo. AU - Delvecchio, Giuseppe. AU - Paletta, Silvia. AU - Di Pace, Chiara. AU - Reggiori, Alessandra. AU - Fiorentini, Alessio. AU - Mirabile, M. Donatella. AU - Paoli, Riccardo A.. AU - Cinnante, Claudia. AU - Triulzi, Fabio. AU - Mauri, Massimo C.. AU - Brambilla, Paolo. PY - 2017/3/30. Y1 - 2017/3/30. N2 - In schizophrenia, paliperidone palmitate (PP) long acting injectable (LAI) has been reported to sustain plasma concentrations and improve clinical symptoms. Moreover, it has also been demonstrated the important role of total gray matter (GM) volumes in predicting the clinical outcome. However, no studies investigating the association between PP-LAI treatment and brain morphometry has been published so far. Therefore, the main aim of our 24 weeks prospective observational exploratory study was to ...
Background: Saturated free fatty acids induce apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, which is implicated in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. MiRNAs are a class of short RNA molecules and they repress their target gene expression and/or protein translation. MiRNAs have been involved in cardiac pathophysiology. This study was to examine whether miR-195 regulates palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting Sirt1, a member of the silent information regulator (Sir2) family.. Methods and Results: In cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes, incubation with palmitate up-regulated miR-195 expression, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induced apoptosis as determined by up-regulation of caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation as well as reduction of Bcl-2. Knockdown of miR-195 by its antagomir decreased ROS production and apoptosis in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes. In contrast, miR-195 mimic enhanced palmitate-induced ROS ...
These results imply that stimulated T cells produce cytokines that cooperate with saturated free fatty acids in beta cell destruction during diabetes pathogenesis.
Transcription factor 4 (TCF-4) was recently identified as a candidate gene for the cause of type 2 diabetes, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that the TCF-4 transgene in macrophages aggravated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and chronic inflammation, characterized by the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood, liver and white adipose tissue, as well as a proinflammatory profile of immune cells in visceral fats in mice. Mechanistically, TCF-4 functioned as a co-activator of p65 to amplify the saturated free fatty acid (FFA)-stimulated promoter activity, mRNA transcription and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in primary macrophages. Blockage of p65 with a specific interfering RNA or inhibitor could prevent TCF-4-enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in FFA/lipopolysaccharide-treated primary macrophages. The p65 inhibitor could abolish macrophage TCF-4 transgene-aggravated systemic ...
Colfosceril palmitate is used in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (immature lungs in preterm baby).get complete information about colfosceril palmitate including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with colfosceril palmitate at 1mg.com
Invega Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia. Common side effects of Invega Sustenna include injection site reaction, weight gain, headache, upper respiratory tract infection, restlessness or difficulty sitting still, stiffness and shuffling walk, tremors, and slow movements. Consult your doctor before taking Invega Sustenna if pregnant or breastfeeding.
Janssen R&D announced that results from a Phase 3 clinical study with three-month paliperidone palmitate have been published in JAMA Psychiatry.
The FDA requires all potential medication risks for INVEGA SUSTENNA (paliperidone palmitate injection) be disclosed to consumers, no matter how rare. Here are the warnings and precautions for INVEGA SUSTENNA.
As this eMedTV page discusses, tell your doctor about any medical issues you have and any medications you are taking before using paliperidone palmitate. Other important safety precautions and warnings for this drug are included in this article.
Differences in the time required for complete turnover of the palmitoyl content in the TAG pool mean that 26% of the cytosolic palmitoyl-CoA pool is oxidized in NTG hearts, whereas 8% of palmitoyl-CoA in this pool is oxidized in MHC-PPARα hearts. Nearly 4 times more of the cytosolic palmitoyl-CoA pool in NTG hearts than MHC-PPARα is oxidized during the time required for complete exchange of the palmitoyl-CoA pool with TAG. Thus, faster TAG turnover, and palmitoyl-CoA exchange with TAG, corresponds to a lower percentage of the palmitoyl-CoA pool being oxidized in the same time period. The distinction between the influence of relative rates of palmitate turnover within TAG and palmitate oxidation and the source of palmitoyl-CoA indicates that palmitate preferentially enters the TAG pool before lipolysis and, ultimately, β-oxidation (Figure 6A) in the MHC-PPARα heart. With such rapid turnover, LCFAs enter the cell, are stored, and then, following lipolysis, are finally oxidized. These findings ...
The role of plasma glucose in the regulation of lipid metabolism in humans, independent of associated changes in hormone concentrations, is controversial. Therefore we examined the role of glucose in the regulation of lipolysis and free fatty acid (FFA) reesterification in six healthy lean male volunteers. Blood glucose concentration was clamped at either 5 or 10 mM during 2-h pancreatic-pituitary clamps. Glycerol and palmitate turnover were measured by isotope dilution ([1-14C]palmitate and [2H5]-glycerol). All hormone concentrations were the same during the euglycemic and hyperglycemic studies. FFA turnover, which represents the difference between lipolysis and FFA reesterification, was reduced 30% by hyperglycemia (29 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 3 mumol.kg fat mass-1.min-1, P less than 0.05). Glycerol turnover, which represents lipolysis only, was reduced to a similar extent (9.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 6.2 +/- 0.7 mumol.kg fat mass-1.min-1, P less than 0.05). We conclude that glucose regulates lipid metabolism, ...
Detailed drug Information for Dalacin C Palmitate Oral. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
This is a prospective (patients are first identified and then followed forward as time passes), multicenter (study conducted at multiple sites), randomized (the study medication is assigned by chance), comparative and open-labeled (all people know the identity of the intervention) study.. The study mainly consists of 3 phases including, the screening phase (14 days before administration of study medication), treatment phase, and the follow-up phase (28 days after the last dose of the study medication). In the treatment phase, patients will be randomly assigned equally in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2), on the basis of known and unknown characteristics. Group 1 (immediate switch group): Patients will be administered with paliperidone palmitate immediately after randomization and will continue throughout the treatment phase. Group 2 (delayed switch group): Patients will remain on current oral antipsychotics until Week 8, and later on will be completely switched to paliperidone palmitate. However, ...
Water, ethanol, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, ethylhexyl triazone, isopropyl palmitate, (lauryl methacrylate / Na methacrylate) crosspolymer, diethylaminohydroxybenzoylhexylbenzoate, hydrogenated polyisobutene, bisethylhexyl oxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine, palmitic acid Dextrin, BG, xylitol, (acrylate / alkyl acrylate
Octanoate and palmitate beta-oxidation in human leukocytes: implications for the rapid diagnosis of fatty acid beta-oxidation disorders.:
Dr Mensink received his MSc in Health Sciences, specialization movement sciences, in 1995, and his medical degree (MD) in 1998 from Maastricht University. He completed his PhD in 2003 at the same university, within the project: Relevance of genetic predisposition and lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Main research question was: Can lifestyle favourably affect the natural history in subjects at high risk for type 2 diabetes (IGT)?, with special attention for the role of skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism. After a post-doc period on muscular fat accumulation and insulin action, he moved in 2008 to Wageningen University, Division of Human Nutrition and Health, chair Nutritional Biology. Dr Mensink is responsible for the research theme Nutrition, Physical activity and Sports and involved in the themes Nutrition and Ageing and Metabolic Health. He coordinates the course Nutrition and Sports and developed the MOOC Nutrition, Physical activity and Sports. Field of ...
Dr Mensink received his MSc in Health Sciences, specialization movement sciences, in 1995, and his medical degree (MD) in 1998 from Maastricht University. He completed his PhD in 2003 at the same university, within the project: Relevance of genetic predisposition and lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Main research question was: Can lifestyle favourably affect the natural history in subjects at high risk for type 2 diabetes (IGT)?, with special attention for the role of skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism. After a post-doc period on muscular fat accumulation and insulin action, he moved in 2008 to Wageningen University, Division of Human Nutrition and Health, chair Nutritional Biology. Dr Mensink is responsible for the research theme Nutrition, Physical activity and Sports and involved in the themes Nutrition and Ageing and Metabolic Health. He coordinates the course Nutrition and Sports and developed the MOOC Nutrition, Physical activity and Sports. Field of ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 408-35-5 SODIUM PALMITATE (1-13C, 99%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
SHREEJI PHARMA International based in Gujarat, India is a manufacturer, exporter & trader of VITAMIN .A PALMITATE 1.7 at the best price.
INVEGA TRINZA® (paliperidone palmitate) Patient Support Supporting Treatment Helping you help your patients get started with the INVEGA TRINZA® treatment you prescribed and supporting them along the way
Formula: C14H18N2O8MW: 342. 31CAS: 23646-68-6MDL: MFCD01457171TNP: TNP004214-NITROPHENYL PALMITATE (4-NITROPHENYL HEXADECANOATE; LogP: 2....
Here you can find all of the regulations and regulatory lists in which this substance appears, according to the data available to ECHA. This substance has been found in the following regulatory activities (directly, or inheriting the regulatory context of a parent substance):. ...
pame651 creó un logotipos personalizado en 99designs. Obtuvieron docenas de ideas originales de diseñadores profesionales y eligieron sus favoritas.
Before the great financial crash of 2007-2008 there was a solid consensus as to the sorts of economic policies governments should pursue. In fact the underlying realities have been changing for some time. These new realities now dominate in developed economies, and yet the political mainstream hasnt caught up. It is one of the reasons that populist politicians, not least Donald Trump, are doing relatively well when they defy the old rules.. What were those rules? First is that GDP growth is a critical indicator of economic wellbeing, and that increased productivity is the driver of this. Politicians should push through supply-side policies that improve productivity, which will allow income per head to grow, and with it individual incomes and wellbeing. With productivity apparently in the doldrums since the crash, especially here in Britain, there is much shaking of heads. Before the crash economists had thought something they referred to as trend growth of about 2% per annum was practically ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of lysophosphatidylcholine-induced hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. AU - Kakisaka, Keisuke. AU - Cazanave, Sophie C.. AU - Fingas, Christian D.. AU - Guicciardi, Maria E.. AU - Bronk, Steven F.. AU - Werneburg, Nathan W.. AU - Mott, Justin L.. AU - Gores, Gregory J.. PY - 2012/1. Y1 - 2012/1. N2 - Isolated hepatocytes undergo lipoapoptosis, a feature of hepatic lipotoxicity, on treatment with saturated free fatty acids (FFA) such as palmitate (PA). However, it is unknown if palmitate is directly toxic to hepatocytes or if its toxicity is indirect via the generation of lipid metabolites such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). PA-mediated hepatocyte lipoapoptosis is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, and a JNK-dependent upregulation of the potent proapoptotic BH3-only protein PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Our aim was to determine which of these mechanisms of lipotoxicity are activated by PA-derived LPC. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimal conditions for palmitate oxidation by rat heart homogenates. AU - Passeron, Susana. AU - Savageau, Michael A.. AU - Harary, Isaac. PY - 1968/10. Y1 - 1968/10. N2 - A study of the oxidation of palmitate-1-C14 to C14O2 by heart homogenates was undertaken and the optimal conditions were determined. The system has an absolute requirement for carnitine, CoA, ATP, and Mg2+. The levels of ATP and Mg2+ for the optimal rate of palmitate oxidation are interdependent. Excess of ATP or Mg2+ inhibits the production of CO2. The amount of fatty acid oxidized is dependent on the molar ratio of fatty acid to albumin in the incubation medium: an optimal ratio of approximately 5 was found for all the concentrations of fatty acid and albumin tested. A tentative mechanism for the albumin effect is presented.. AB - A study of the oxidation of palmitate-1-C14 to C14O2 by heart homogenates was undertaken and the optimal conditions were determined. The system has an absolute requirement for ...
Looking for online definition of cetyl palmitate in the Medical Dictionary? cetyl palmitate explanation free. What is cetyl palmitate? Meaning of cetyl palmitate medical term. What does cetyl palmitate mean?
Endothelial dysfunction, including endothelial hyporesponsiveness to prototypical angiogenic growth factors and eNOS agonists, underlies vascular pathology in many dysmetabolic states. We investigated effects of a saturated free fatty acid, palmitic acid (PA), on endothelial cell responses to VEGF. PA-pretreated endothelial cells had markedly diminished Akt, eNOS, and ERK activation responses to VEGF, despite normal VEGFR2 phosphorylation. PA inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenic cord formation in Matrigel, and PA-treated endothelial cells accumulated early species (C16) ceramide. The serine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor myriocin reversed these defects. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) became more eNOS-associated in PA-treated cells; the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid reversed PA-induced signaling defects. Mice fed a diet high in saturated fat for 2 to 3 weeks had impaired i) aortic Akt and eNOS phosphorylation to infused VEGF, ii) ear angiogenic responses to intradermal adenoviral-VEGF injection, and ...
Vitamin A palmitate 1.5MIU/g is the Corrective Vitamin otherwise known as Retinol Palmitate or Retinyl Palmitate. Retinyl palmitate can be used as an additive in skin care formulations or can be applied directly onto the skin. After its absorption into the skin, retinyl palmitate is converted to retinol, and ultimately to retinoic acid (the active form of vitamin A present in Retin-A). Only retinoids such as retinoic acid have a direct effect on skin and can adjust to help the skin achieve a more youthful look.. ...
Results: In the interim analysis, time to first relapse was significantly different in favor of the paliperidone palmitate group vs the placebo group (hazard ratio = 3.45; 95% CI, 1.73-6.88; P , .001); median time to relapse was 274 days for placebo but not estimable for 3-month paliperidone palmitate. An independent data monitoring committee recommended early study termination due to efficacy. In the DB phase, 183 of 305 patients (62% with 3-month paliperidone palmitate; 58% with placebo) had at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event; those noted more frequently in the group receiving paliperidone palmitate than in the placebo group were headache (9% vs 4%), weight increased (9% vs 3%), nasopharyngitis (6% vs 1%), and akathisia (4% vs 1 ...
Janssen-Cilag International NV (Janssen) today announced the submission of an Extension Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for paliperidone palmitate once-every-three-months formulation for the treatment of schizophrenia. If approved, it will be the first antipsychotic schizophrenia medication to be administered four times a year.
European commission approves trevicta® (paliperidone palmitate a 3-monthly injection), for maintenance treatment of schizophrenia stories around our lives …
Increased aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) and de novo lipogenesis are the 2 most commonly detected metabolic changes in tumors and can be considered the metabolic hallmarks of cancer. Our study to uncover the downstream consequences of mTORC1 activation, a common event in human cancer (5), shows that mTORC1 signaling is sufficient to drive these metabolic processes (2). mTORC1 promotes these metabolic changes through induction of a transcriptional program affecting metabolic gene targets of HIF1α and SREBP1 and 2. Although the glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes encoded by HIF1α are well known to be upregulated in tumors (13), less is known about the expression status of the diverse array of SREBP targets. One notable exception is fatty acid synthase (FASN), which encodes a multifunctional enzyme complex that converts acetyl-CoA to the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitate. Because most normal tissues do not undergo substantial levels of de novo lipid biosynthesis, obtaining ...
Sucrose Palmitate, a fatty acid compound is a skin conditioning agent and surfactant. The compound belongs to a group of Sucrose fatty acid esters. The blend may be found in products such as cosmetics and personal care products for the bath, body, and hair. The ingredient functions as a skin conditioning agent, smoothing and softening the skin. It is also capable of keeping to ingredients separated while allowing them to spread on the skin.. Sucrose is derived from sugar cane and the sugar beet. Fatty acids found in Sucrose Palmitate may be found in vegetable oils, palm or coconut oils, and oils that are found in leafy vegetables and nuts. Sucrose Palmitate has a wide range of applications in skin care and beauty, the ingredient is biodegradable, edible, and neutral in odor and taste.. Products that utilize Sucrose Palmitate are likely to provide users with the benefits of added moisture. When spread on the skin, the ingredients create a protective barrier against environmental stressors while ...
Note that this is just one of the many ways that ATP is used as a energy storage unit: in order to make a high energy acyl phosphate molecule from a low energy carboxylate, the cell must spend the energy of one ATP molecule.. An excellent example of biological activated carboxylic acids is seed in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. In the biologically active form of fatty acids, the carboxylate groups have been converted to thioesters using coenzyme A. For example, the activated form of the C16 fatty acid palmitate is:. ...
S-palmitoylation, the covalent attachment of 16-carbon palmitic acids to a cysteine residue via a thioester linkage, is an important reversible lipid modification that plays a regulatory role in a variety of physiological and biological processes. As the number of experimentally identified S-palmitoylated peptides increases, it is imperative to investigate substrate motifs to facilitate the study of protein S-palmitoylation. Based on 710 non-homologous S-palmitoylation sites obtained from published databases and the literature, we carried out a bioinformatics investigation of S-palmitoylation sites based on amino acid composition. Two Sample Logo indicates that positively charged and polar amino acids surrounding S-palmitoylated sites may be associated with the substrate site specificity of protein S-palmitoylation. Additionally, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD) was applied to explore the motif signatures of S-palmitoylation sites by categorizing a large-scale dataset into subgroups with ...
Isoascorbic acid is a stereoisomer of L-ascorbic acid, and widely used as a food antioxidant. However, its highly hydrophilic behavior prevents its application in cosmetics or fats and oils-based foods. To overcome this problem, D-isoascorbyl palmitate was synthesized in the present study for improving the isoascorbic acids oil solubility with an immobilized lipase in organic media. The structural information of synthesized product was clarified using LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR analysis, and process parameters for high yield of D-isoascorbyl palmitate were optimized by using One-factor-at-a-time experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). The synthesized product had the purity of 95% and its structural characteristics were confirmed as isoascorbyl palmitate by LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis. Results from
China Vitamin A Palmitate Powder 250,000IU with High-Quality, Leading Vitamin A Palmitate Powder 250,000IU Manufacturers & Suppliers, find Vitamin A Palmitate Powder 250,000IU Factory & Exporters.
Dextrin Palmitate Market by Type (Softening Texturing Agents, Thickeners Stabilizers, Emollients) Application (Lip Gloss and Lipstick, Mascara, Eyeliner, etc., Skincare Products, Sunscreen, Pharmaceuticals, Others) - Global Industry Analysis & Forecast to 2027,The Dextrin Palmitate Market has encountered significant development over the recent years and is anticipated to grow tremendously over the forecast period. Dextrin Palmitate protect and enhance skin complexion, and is a smooth and homogenous bright orange mousse/paste which melts into the skin leaving a transparent easy to wear color.
Find the best chloramphenicol palmitate in Achabbal. Justsee provide the top 10 chloramphenicol palmitate Chennai, addresses, phone numbers, contact information.
Detailed Images of Vitamin A: Specification of Vitamin A: 1. Vitamin A Acetate 1.0M / 2.8M 2. Vitamin A Palmitate 1.0M 3. Vitamin A Palmitate 1.7M 4. Vitamin A Acetate Powder 500 CWS/GFP 5.Vitamin A P...
This is a randomized (the study drug is assigned by chance), double blind (neither physician nor patient knows the treatment that the patient receives), parallel group (each group of patients will be treated at the same time), placebo-controlled (an inactive substance is compared with a drug to test whether the drug has a real effect in a clinical trial) multicenter study. The study consists of 4 phases: a Screening Phase (up to 3 weeks); a 17-week flexible dose open-label Transition Phase (open-label phase means that all people know the identity of the intervention); a 12-week fixed dose open-label Maintenance Phase; and a randomized, double-blind, fixed dose, placebo-controlled relapse prevention phase (referred to as the Double-blind Phase). Patients who meet specific stabilization criteria will enter the Double-blind Phase at Week 29. Patients will be randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either a fixed dose of PP3M or placebo. The Double-blind Phase will be of variable duration; ...
Water, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, isopropyl palmitate, polymethylsilsesquioxane, octocrylene, hexyl diethylaminohydroxybenzoylbenzoate, t-butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane, (hydroxyethyl acrylate/acryloyldimethyltaurine Na) copolymer, PG, Glycerin, placenta extract, beet root extract, yeast extract, haberrealodopensis lea
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
This study confirms and adds to findings about hepatic palmitate pharmacokinetics reported by Luxon and colleagues (24-26). The present work differs in four aspects. First, we increased the sampling time from 90 to 210 s to increase the tail of the curve so as to better compare the appropriateness of the different possible physiological models (Fig. 1). The analysis suggested that the slow-diffusion/bound model was superior to other models, a result consistent with the modeling strategy used by Luxon and colleagues (24-26). Second, we used a lower concentration of purified Alb in the perfusate (1 vs. 2% Alb) to increase the extraction of palmitate. The use of this lower concentration led to measurable metabolite levels in the perfusate outflow. Third, we used selective extraction procedures, such as ultrafiltration, to accurately estimate metabolite concentrations in the effluent and a trichloroacetic acid fractionation of [3H]palmitate in the effluent samples to measure unchanged [3H]palmitate. ...
Methods to study protein S‐palmitoylation dynamics have previously relied on metabolic labeling with [14C]palmitate, which requires additional safety precautions and long exposures
Studies of cardiac fuel metabolism in mice have been almost exclusively conducted ex vivo. The major aim of this study was to assess in vivo plasma FFA and glucose utilization by the hearts of healthy control (db/+) and diabetic (db/db) mice, based on cardiac uptake of (R)-2-[9,10-(3)H]bromopalmitate ([3H]R-BrP) and 2-deoxy-D-[U-14C]glucose tracers. To obtain quantitative information about the evaluation of cardiac FFA utilization with [3H]R-BrP, simultaneous comparisons of [3H]R-BrP and [14C]palmitate ([14C]P) uptake were first made in isolated perfused working hearts from db/+ mice. It was found that [3H]R-BrP uptake was closely correlated with [14C]P oxidation (r2 = 0.94, P | 0.001). Then, methods for in vivo application of [3H]R-BrP and [14C]2-DG previously developed for application in the rat were specially adapted for use in the mouse. The method yields indexes of cardiac FFA utilization (R(f)*) and clearance (K(f)*), as well as glucose utilization (R(g)). Finally, in the main part of the study,
Separation of Methyl erucate; Methyl palmitate; Methyl stearate; Methyl linolenate; Methyl eicosenoate; Methyl behenate; Methyl myristate; Methyl oleate; Methyl arachidate
Methyl palmitate Utilised in the synthesis of cosmetics, detergent intermediates, spice, essence, lubricating materials, and so on. I constantly attempt
Download Free Full-Text of an article Determination of Seasonal variations in the liver and muscle fatty acid composition of Benni Fish (Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi) in Shadegan Wetland
355. Richards, J.G., Bonen, A., Heigenhauser, G.F., and Wood, C.M. (2004) Palmitate movement across red and white muscle membranes of rainbow trout. Am. J. Physiol-Reg. I. 286 pp: R46-R53. (PDF). ...
Order Dalacin C (Clindamycin 2-Palmitate Hydrochloride) from Canada, at lower prices to the U.S. Available in 2 %/40 gm, 75 mg/5 ml/100 ml, 150 mg, and 300 mg. Call toll FREE 1(877)745-9217 to talk with our Canadian customer service team in Vancouver, BC.
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Watch our instructional video on how to administer INVEGA TRINZA® (paliperidone palmitate) to your patients. See full prescribing and safety info.
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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major health problem worldwide. Identifying modifiable risk factors is key in decreasing the incidence and associated economic burden...
Miccichè*, F.; Long, G. J.; Shahin, A. M.; Grandjean, F.; Ming, W.; van Haveren, J.; van der Linde, R. The combination of ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and [FeIII3(µ3-O)]7+ as a catalyst for the oxidation of unsaturated lipids. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2007, 360, 535-545 ...
Cetyl palmitate. LAKMOL CP by Lakeland Chemicals acts as a versatile emollient and thickening agent. It improves consistency and thickening for heavy and rich f
Main description: Der Atlas der Standardeingriffe der laparoskopisch-urologischen Chirurgie!. Sie sind Urologe und wollen laparoskopische Operationen durchführen? Hier finden Sie Schritt-für-Schritt-Anleitungen aller laparoskopisch durchgeführten Standardeingriffe in der Urologie: Präoperative Vorbereitung. Indikationen und Kontraindikationen. Operationstechnik. Postoperatives Management und Nachsorge. Die Operationstechnik wird dabei mit vielen detailierten Abbildungen zu jedem Schritt illustriert. Die einheitliche Struktur erleichtert das Einfinden in die verschiedenen OP-Techniken. Ob Nephropexie, Nierenteilresektion oder totale Prostatektomie - hier finden Sie die alle Einzelheiten, die Sie zur erfolgreichen laparoskopisch-operativen Therapie Ihrer Patienten benötigen.. Die praktische Anleitung zur Anwendung des DaVinci-Systems bei Indikationen wie der roboterassistierten radikalen Prostatektomie, Eingriffen an der Niere oder der radikalen Zystoprostatovesiculektomie runden das Buch ab. ...
About 70 million people, including an estimated 250,000 Canadians, are infected with hepatitis C worldwide. The majority could be cured of the liver-damaging virus in 12 weeks at a cost of just $50 US each, researchers say.

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  • Ascorbyl palmitate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and palmitic acid creating a fat-soluble form of vitamin C. In addition to its use as a source of vitamin C , it is also used as an antioxidant food additive ( E number E304). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ascorbyl palmitate is a fat-soluble form of ascorbic acid that exerts the antioxidant activity characteristic of vitamin C on lipids throughout the body. (iherb.com)
  • In the quest to use antioxidant compounds occurring in nature or related compounds, extensive studies have been made on vegetable oils, animal fats, apocarotenal, and vitamin A as substrates with ascorbyl palmitate, tocopherols, and ascorbic acid as antioxidants. (springer.com)
  • Solubility problems with ascorbyl palmitate and other esters of ascorbic acid are discussed. (springer.com)
  • 10 ascorbyl palmitate (and) ascorbic acid(and)citric acid Triethanolamine (TEA) 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The percutaneous absorption of L-ascorbic acid is much higher at a concentration of 15% than such ascorbate derivatives as ascorbyl palmitate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The water-soluble form of vitamin C is known as ascorbic acid‚ while the fat-soluble form of vitamin C is known as ascorbyl palmitate. (pureformulas.com)
  • Biological data on ascorbyl palmitate and stearate are sparse and the safety assessment of them for use as food additives is mainly based on the assumption that ascorbyl palmitate and ascorbyl stearate fully hydrolyse pre-systemically to ascorbic acid and their respective fatty acids. (europa.eu)
  • The Panel considered that the toxicity of ascorbyl palmitate can be extrapolated from data describing the toxicity of ascorbic acid and palmitic acid and further considered that this assumption is also valid for ascorbyl stearate. (europa.eu)
  • Ascorbyl palmitate is a highly bioavailable, fat-soluble derivative of ascorbic acid. (totaldiscountvitamins.com)
  • Ascorbyl Palmitate 500mg 100 Capsules World Organic's Ascorbyl Palmitate 500 MG is a fat (lipid) soluble Vitamin C, which means it is more stable than water soluble Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) supplements. (vitadigest.com)
  • Ascorbyl Palmitate 500mg, 100 Capsules, From World OrganicsAscorbyl Palmitate 500mg 100 Capsules World Organic's Ascorbyl Palmitate 500 MG is a fat (lipid) soluble Vitamin C, which means it is more stable than water soluble Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) supplements. (vitadigest.com)
  • l -ascorbyl palmitate (ASP) is an oil-soluble derivative of ascorbic acid which is used extensively in food, cosmetics industry, and medical hygiene. (springer.com)
  • Enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl palmitate in tert -butyl alcohol was carried out using indigenously immobilized lipase preparation PyCal with ascorbic acid and palmitic acid as starting material. (springer.com)
  • The optimized reaction parameters for ascorbyl palmitate synthesis in the present study can be used as a useful reference for industrial synthesis of fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid by enzymatic route. (springer.com)
  • Ascorbyl Palmitate (AP) and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP), derivatives of ascorbic acid, having the inhibitory effect on skin melanin production and also has anti-inflammatory activity. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Ascorbyl Palmitate (AP), an amphiphilic ascorbic acid derivative, has better stability and ability to penetrate the skin than ascorbic acid [ 7 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Ethyl Palmitate is an ester of ethyl alcohol and palmitic acid. (ewg.org)
  • Retinyl palmitate, or vitamin A palmitate, is the ester of retinol (vitamin A) and palmitic acid, with formula C36H60O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been observed that many of the physiological benefits of breast milk are attributable to beta-palmitic acid or beta-palmitate, a natural fatty acid found in human milk. (medindia.net)
  • Palmitic acid is the major fatty acid found in human milk and 60% of the palmitic acid is beta-palmitate (bound to the sn-2 or beta position of glycerol). (medindia.net)
  • The particular position of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position in beta-palmitate is immune to the enzyme and therefore, is absorbed. (medindia.net)
  • This is due to the fact that beta-palmitate does not form insoluble soaps with calcium, unlike other forms of palmitic acid (sn-1 or sn-3), which leads to softer stools and avoid constipation in infants . (medindia.net)
  • The hydroxy group of the retinol undergoes a chemical reaction with the carboxy group of palmitic acid to form the retinyl palmitate. (differencebetween.net)
  • The formation of retinyl palmitate involves a reaction of palmitic acid with retinol. (differencebetween.net)
  • Clindamycin palmitate HCl is a water soluble hydrochloride salt of the ester of clindamycin and palmitic acid and a lincosamide antibiotic. (adooq.com)
  • Vitamin A palmitate (VAP) contains retinol and palmitic acid which is easily absorbed by body and widely used in skin care products. (scirp.org)
  • Vitamin A palmitate (VAP) is the ester of retinol and palmitic acid which is available in oily or dry forms. (scirp.org)
  • Retinyl Palmitate is the gentlest form of Vitamin A . It's made with retinol and palmitic acid. (beautifulwithbrains.com)
  • We also show that purified wild-type PNPLA3 hydrolyzes retinyl palmitate into retinol and palmitic acid. (escholarship.org)
  • One toxicological analysis determined that "there is no convincing evidence to support the notion that [retinyl palmitate] in sunscreens is carcinogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCHAUMBURG, ILL. - Despite previous concerns about the cancer-causing potential of sunscreens containing retinyl palmitate (vitamin A), an independent analysis published online in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (JAAD) determined that there is no evidence that the inclusion of retinyl palmitate in sunscreens can cause cancer in humans. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the commentary published in JAAD entitled "Safety of retinyl palmitate in sunscreens: A critical analysis," lead investigator and dermatologist Steven Q. Wang, MD, FAAD, director of dermatologic surgery at Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, explains that although retinyl palmitate was selected for testing by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), mere selection does not mean that the chosen compounds are dangerous or unsafe. (healthcanal.com)
  • A few years ago, the Environmental Working Group came out with the idea that retinyl palmitate in sunscreens causes cancer. (beautifulwithbrains.com)
  • Does Invega Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate) cause side effects? (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the important side effects of Invega Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate)? (medicinenet.com)
  • This study will determine the efficacy of oral risperidone (Risperdal) versus long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (Invega Sustenna) in treating people with first-episode schizophrenia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients without previous exposure to paliperidone ER (Invega), paliperidone palmitate (Invega Sustenna), risperidone, or RISPERDAL CONSTA will be given 4 to 6 days of paliperidone ER 6mg/day for tolerability testing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prior to randomization, individuals were first stabilized with Invega Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate) one-month formulation during a 17-week, open-label transition period. (empr.com)
  • In the present issue of Clinical Science , Keane and co-workers show that the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid protects the β-cell against the toxic effects of palmitate. (portlandpress.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of palmitate on caveolin proteins and on endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), a signaling mediator that binds to caveolin-3, the musclespecific caveolae scaffolding protein. (thescipub.com)
  • Invega trinza (paliperidone palmitate) is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia . (medicinenet.com)
  • primarily through the time to relapse) of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate compared to treatment as usual with orally administered antipsychotics in monotherapy over 24 months in the treatment of recently diagnosed (1-5 years since diagnosis) schizophrenia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To review the use of paliperidone palmitate in treatment of patients with schizophrenia. (dovepress.com)
  • Published clinical trial data for the development and utilization of paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia were assessed in this review. (dovepress.com)
  • Four short-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigated the efficacy of paliperidone palmitate in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. (dovepress.com)
  • Paliperidone palmitate was also studied as a maintenance treatment to prevent or delay relapse in stable schizophrenia. (dovepress.com)
  • In the maintenance treatment studies, paliperidone palmitate was found to be more effective than placebo in preventing or delaying the time to first relapse in stable schizophrenia patients. (dovepress.com)
  • This open-label, rater-blinded, parallel-group study was designed to evaluate noninferiority of paliperidone palmitate (PP), a once-monthly injectable atypical antipsychotic, to once-biweekly risperidone long-acting injectable (RIS-LAI) in adult Chinese patients with acute schizophrenia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - A comparative study of paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable therapy in schizophrenia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the mean number of schizophrenia-related hospital admissions, in adult participants with schizophrenia, occurred during 12 months before and 12 months after initiation of Paliperidone Palmitate 1-month formulation treatment. (centerwatch.com)
  • The results of this study were previously submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to support the New Drug Application (NDA) filing for three-month paliperidone palmitate injection to treat schizophrenia in adults. (empr.com)
  • Janssen-Cilag International NV (Janssen) today announced the submission of an Extension Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for paliperidone palmitate once-every-three-months formulation for the treatment of schizophrenia. (ntbinfo.no)
  • Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (marketed as XEPLION ® in the European Union) is an atypical long-acting injection to treat schizophrenia and is now approved in more than 80 countries. (ntbinfo.no)
  • Paliperidone palmitate 3-month (PP3M) is a long-acting injectable formulation of paliperidone that is administered every three months for the treatment of adults with schizophrenia. (psychcongress.com)
  • Paliperidone palmitate aqueous suspension for injection, 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg were TGA registered on 28 July 2010 for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adults. (pbs.gov.au)
  • This study evaluated healthcare utilization before and after initiation of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) among patients with schizophrenia treated in a US integrated healthcare system. (psychcongress.com)
  • Debaveye S, Heirman B, Kavanagh S, De Smedt D, Dewulf J. Human health benefits and burdens of the schizophrenia health care pathway in Belgium : a holistic approach towards paliperidone palmitate long-acting injectable antipsychotic. (ugent.be)
  • Paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic for the acute and maintenance treatment of adults with schizophrenia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a 13-week double-blind trial, 652 subjects with schizophrenia were randomized to paliperidone palmitate 39, 156, or 234 mg (corresponding to 25, 100, or 150 mg equivalents of paliperidone, respectively) or placebo (NCT#00590577). (biomedcentral.com)
  • An alternate spelling, retinol palmitate, which violates the -yl organic chemical naming convention for esters, is also frequently seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals use long-chain esters of vitamin A, most abundantly the palmitate form, as a form of vitamin A storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinyl palmitate is one of the esters that can be formed from vitamin A. It is produced by an esterification reaction. (differencebetween.net)
  • This study will evaluate the efficacy of paliperidone palmitate compared with placebo in the delay of relapse of the symptoms of schizoaffective disorder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients randomized to paliperidone palmitate will first receive oral paliperidone ER once daily for 2 weeks followed by paliperidone palmitate injections at a dose of 150 mg eq. on Day 1, 100 mg eq. on Day 8 both in the deltoid muscle and 75 mg eq. on Day 38 and doses in a dose range of 25 to 150 mg eq. in either the deltoid or the gluteal muscle thereafter. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Subjects randomized to paliperidone palmitate received 234 mg on Day 1, followed by their randomized fixed dose on Day 8, and monthly thereafter, with no oral antipsychotic supplementation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pure Encapsulations' Ascorbyl Palmitate capsules can be used to treat mild vitamin C deficiency. (pureformulas.com)
  • Each bottle of Ascorbyl Palmitate by Pure Encapsulations contains 180 vegetable capsules‚ which is enough to last for up to six months‚ depending on your dosage. (pureformulas.com)
  • One to five Ascorbyl Palmitate capsules daily with meals. (vitasprings.com)
  • Ascorbyl Palmitate Supplemental Facts Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: ascorbyl palmitate 450 mg. vegetarian capsule (cellulose, water) 1-2 capsules per day, with meals. (naturalhealinghouse.com)
  • Vitamin A palmitate is a common vitamin supplement, available in both oral and injectable forms for treatment of vitamin A deficiency, under the brand names Aquasol A, Palmitate A and many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ascorbyl Palmitate from Source Naturals is made without gluten, dairy or artificial flavors. (evitamins.com)
  • Buy Ascorbyl Palmitate 500mg, Vitamin C Ester from Source Naturals at VitaSprings, and we guarantee you a safe, secure online shopping experience! (vitasprings.com)
  • Testosterone palmitate, also known as testosterone hexadecanoate, testosterone 17β-palmitate, and androst-4-en-17β-ol-3-one 17β-palmitate, is an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and an androgen ester - specifically, the C17β palmitate (hexadecanoate) ester of testosterone - which was never marketed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other 133 infants were randomly assigned into two groups to be fed either a formula containing high sn-2 palmitate (n = 66) or low sn-2 palmitate (n = 67). (nutraingredients.com)
  • The composition of the two cow milk-based formulas was comparable, except 46.3% of the PA was esterified to the sn-2 position in the high sn-2 palmitate infant formula group. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The content of the sn-2 PA level in the high sn-2 palmitate IF was increased by adding refined vegetable fat, Betapol B-55 DMX (1,3-Dioleoyl-2-Palmitoy-TAG), produced by Bunge Loders Croklaan Oils. (nutraingredients.com)
  • At week 16 and 24, infants fed the low sn-2 formula had significantly lower Bifidobacteria relative abundance compared to those fed the high sn-2 palmitate formula or those who were breast-fed. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The study design could also limit the generalisability of our results to some extent, as the association of high sn-2 palmitate in a formula with infant neurodevelopment was captured at week 16 after birth and in a population of which the majority had typical neurodevelopment. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Inclusion of high SN-2-palmitate fat blend in infant formulas may have short-term effects on stool consistency but cannot be considered essential. (eur.nl)
  • During the open-label periods, all patients will be treated with paliperidone palmitate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In our trial, retinol palmitate significantly reduced rectal symptoms of radiation proctopathy, perhaps because of wound-healing effects. (nih.gov)
  • In the higher sn-2 palmitate group, infants showed significantly higher ASQ-3 scores for fine motor skills at week 16, compared to the low sn-2 group (p=0.021). (nutraingredients.com)
  • Our investigation was conducted to determine whether vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) supplementation significantly increases circulating RA concentrations of all- trans -, 9- cis -, and 13- cis -RA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on an intention-to-treat analysis, results obtained using linear mixed models showed that supplementation with retinyl palmitate statistically significantly increased concentrations of all three RA isomers from baseline levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Figure S5: Gene set enrichment analysis of significantly altered transcripts in SKBR3 cells after palmitate treatment. (figshare.com)
  • In Trial PSY-3008 there were more nervous system disorders reported for risperidone LAI compared with paliperidone palmitate LAI primarily due to a significantly greater incidence of tremor reported in the risperidone group. (pbs.gov.au)
  • Incubation with palmitate for 48 h did not significantly modify the mRNA expression of insulin (Fig. 1C). (nih.gov)
  • ME1, ME2, and ME3 containing Ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate significantly reduces facial skin melanin and erythema thus could be explored further for the treatment of pigmentation disorders and dermatitis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Prior to a 2-week oral treatment phase, patients will be randomly (by chance) assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive treatment with paliperidone palmitate injection (once-monthly) or oral antipsychotic medication (daily). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants in this open label study will be randomly assigned to receive either orally administered risperidone or long-acting paliperidone palmitate administered via injection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants assigned to long-acting risperidone will receive an injection of paliperidone palmitate once every 4 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, paliperidone palmitate was compared to risperidone long-acting injection for noninferiority in three studies. (dovepress.com)
  • In addition, paliperidone palmitate was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in two studies. (dovepress.com)
  • An initial loading dose of 234 mg (150 mg eq.) of paliperidone palmitate will be given by deltoid injection followed by 156 mg (100 mg eq.) deltoid injection on Day 8. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients who met criteria for clinical stability then received a single three-month paliperidone palmitate injection during a 12-week, open-label maintenance phase. (empr.com)
  • Both prolonged exposure to palmitate and a high-fat diet facilitated PC1/3 expression, as well as the synthesis and release of GLP-1 induced by β cell injury and the generation of pro-α cells. (nih.gov)
  • Prolonged exposure to palmitate increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), partially prevented the detrimental effects induced by palmitate on β cells, resulting in decreased GLP-1 levels. (nih.gov)
  • Nonetheless, both PDX1 mRNA and protein (Fig. 1D) levels decreased after 48 h of exposure to palmitate. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, prolonged exposure to palmitate induces injury to isolated islets. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS- While saturated and monounsaturated fats have similar plasma trafficking and clearance, physical inactivity affects the partitioning of saturated fats toward storage, likely leading to an accumulation of palmitate in muscle fat. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Overdosing preformed Vitamin A forms such as retinyl palmitate leads to adverse physiological reactions (hypervitaminosis A). Retinyl palmitate is used as an antioxidant and a source of vitamin A added to low fat milk and other dairy products to replace the vitamin content lost through the removal of milk fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro studies have shown that ascorbyl palmitate may be more effective as an antioxidant in protecting lipids from peroxidation than water-soluble vitamin C. (iherb.com)
  • As Dr Wang points out "retinyl palmitate operates within the skin as only one component of a complex antioxidant network. (beautifulwithbrains.com)
  • Ascorbyl palmitate acted as an antioxidant and as an anti-inflammatory agent. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): retinol palmitate. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Retinyl palmitate is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in over-the-counter and prescription drugs, and it is also used as a food additive (e.g., to fortify low-fat milk, dairy products and breakfast cereals with vitamin A). When used in sunscreen, retinyl palmitate is not an active drug ingredient (unlike sunscreen filters), but rather a cosmetic ingredient. (healthcanal.com)
  • VitaSprings does not imply any medical claims from the customer reviews on this Ascorbyl Palmitate 500mg, Vitamin C Ester product on this website. (vitasprings.com)
  • Write a Review on this Ascorbyl Palmitate 500mg, Vitamin C Ester product and share your experience or opinion with other customers. (vitasprings.com)
  • We show here that the common plasma FFA palmitate induces high levels of IL-6 in CAECs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Palmitate is a known cardiac lipotoxin that blunts cardiomyocyte contractile function and induces apoptosis, likely via accumulation of the lipotoxic ceramide. (thescipub.com)
  • Palmitate induces injury to isolated mouse islets. (nih.gov)
  • This was supported by an in vitro study reporting near-complete hydrolysis of ascorbyl palmitate in simulated intestinal fluid and by human data. (europa.eu)
  • No significant differences could be seen in the in vitro hydrolysis of chylomicron TAG from animals fed the two fats labelled with [14C]palmitate. (hud.ac.uk)
  • As expected, following hydrolysis, palmitate was released as free fatty acid from chylomicrons isolated from OOP-fed animals but within 2-monoacylglycerol from those fed OPO. (hud.ac.uk)
  • This study identifies PNPLA3 as a lipase responsible for retinyl-palmitate hydrolysis in HSCs in humans. (escholarship.org)
  • Preparation and Characterization of a New Lipid Nano-Emulsion Containing Two Cosurfactants, Sodium Palmitate for Droplet Size Reduction and Sucrose Palmitate for Stability Enhancement. (alfa.com)
  • The ascorbyl palmitate form of vitamin C is stored in the lipid cell membrane, providing a ready store of this essential nutrient. (totaldiscountvitamins.com)
  • Effect of surface-potential modulators on the opening of lipid pores in liposomal and mitochondrial inner membranes induced by palmitate and calcium ions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effect of surface-potential modulators on palmitate/Ca2+-induced formation of lipid pores was studied in liposomal and inner mitochondrial membranes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Different pathways are activated in acute and chronic palmitate induced-repression of Slc2a4 /GLUT4 expression. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic palmitate exposure on insulin pathways, GLP-1 secretion and glucagon synthesis in the GLUTag L-cell line. (nih.gov)
  • For example, when a sunscreen with retinyl palmitate is applied to the skin, a number of antioxidants work together to alleviate the risk of free radical formation seen in these in vitro experiments. (healthcanal.com)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that compounds that are known to promote flux through the electron transport chain independent of phosphorylation (methylene blue, dinitrophenol), or modulate fatty acid (L-carnitine) or Krebs cycle metabolism (propionate) are protective, while antioxidants (idebenone, N-acetyl cysteine, resveratrol) exacerbate palmitate plus lactate-induced cell death. (nih.gov)
  • Ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate are potent antioxidants. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The manufacturer recommends that patients be adequately treated for at least four months with paliperidone palmitate 1-month (PP1M) prior to transitioning to PP3M. (psychcongress.com)
  • Palmitate treatment affected insulin-stimulated GLP-1 secretion, insulin receptor phosphorylation and IRS-1-AKT pathway signaling. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, palmitate caused a substantial reduction in insulin signalling and insulin-stimulated glucose transport, but was unable to antagonize the increase in transport elicited by palmitoleate. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition, exposure of C(2)C(12) myotubes to either tuncamycine or palmitate induced ER stress and altered insulin-stimulated PKB phosphorylation. (inserm.fr)
  • However, alleviation of ER stress by either TUDCA or 4-PBA treatments, or by overexpressing Grp78, did not restore palmitate-induced reduction of insulin-stimulated PKB phosphorylation in C(2)C(12) myotubes. (inserm.fr)
  • Synergistic effects of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate loaded in multiple emulsions on facial skin melanin and erythema content. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate loaded in three multiple emulsion formulations i.e. (alliedacademies.org)
  • An in vitro model was used in which 3T3-L1 adipocytes were preloaded with palmitate (PA) to generate artificial hypertrophy mature adipocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • Since 2002, there have been eight in vitro (test tube) studies using mouse lymphoma cell and human skin Jurkat T-cell cultures demonstrating that retinyl palmitate can produce free radicals, which can disrupt cell function. (healthcanal.com)
  • In vitro experiments showed that exposure of HL-1 cardiomyocytes to palmitate causes translocation of eNOS from the plasma membrane to a per-inuclear location and causes an 80% decrease in Thr495 phosphorylation. (thescipub.com)
  • Here, we investigated the possible role of ER stress in palmitate-induced alterations of insulin action, both in vivo, in gastrocnemius of high-palm diet fed mice, and in vitro, in palmitate-treated C(2)C(12) myotubes. (inserm.fr)
  • Paliperidone palmitate once-every-three-months formulation, which obtained FDA priority review and is currently approved and launched in the U.S. (and marketed as INVEGA TRINZA ® ) for patients previously treated with the once-monthly formulation, contains the same active substance as XEPLION but with an extended dosing interval. (ntbinfo.no)
  • The efficacy and safety data are consistent with other short-term, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone palmitate conducted in similar populations. (dovepress.com)
  • This is a randomized (study drug assigned by chance), double-blind (neither physician nor patient knows the name of the assigned drug), placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate, as monotherapy or as an adjunct to mood stabilizers or antidepressants, relative to placebo in delaying the time to relapse in patients with schizoaffective disorder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This international, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, relapse prevention study randomized patients to either the three-month paliperidone palmitate treatment group (n=160) or to the placebo group (n=145). (empr.com)
  • It seems as if most people prepare the palmitate-BSA solutions themselves with separate sodium palmitate and fatty acid free BSA, but are there any companies that sell the conjugate already made up? (protocol-online.org)
  • This study will also assess the safety and tolerability of paliperidone palmitate in patients with schizoaffective disorder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • RESULTS- In the control group, bed rest increased the cumulative [1- 13 C]oleate and [d 31 ]palmitate appearance in triglycerides (37%, P = 0.009, and 34%, P = 0.016, respectively) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (37%, P = 0.038, and 38%, P = 0.002) and decreased muscle lipoprotein lipase ( P = 0.043) and fatty acid translocase CD36 ( P = 0.043) mRNA expressions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In particular, elevation of SFAs (saturated fatty acids), such as palmitate, has been correlated with reduced insulin sensitivity, whereas an increase in certain MUFAs and PUFAs (mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids respectively) has been suggested to improve glycaemic control, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. (biochemj.org)
  • 2014) Inhibition of macrophage fatty acid β-oxidation exacerbates palmitate-induced inflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses. (systembio.com)
  • Show all 238 recent products that contain CETYL PALMITATE. (ewg.org)
  • 30 (Glyceral stearate (and) ceteareth-20 (and) cetearath-12 (and) cetyl palmitate (and) cetearyl alcohol) Ceraphyl SLK (ISP) 2. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although there are no published human studies on the potential of retinyl palmitate or other retinoids to cause cancer, the commentary concludes that observations from decades of clinical practice do not support the notion that retinyl palmitate in sunscreen causes or promotes skin cancer. (healthcanal.com)
  • During the past 20 years, retinoids including retinol, retinyl palmitate, all- trans , 13- cis -, and 9- cis -retinoic acid (RA) have been evaluated in several chemoprevention trials involving a wide variety of intraepithelial neoplasias ( 2 -8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This long conversion process makes retinyl palmitate more gentle than all other forms of retinoids. (beautifulwithbrains.com)
  • Only when ALL other gentler forms of retinoids (like retinaldehyde and granactive retinoid) irritate your skin too, you should consider trying Retinyl Palmitate. (beautifulwithbrains.com)
  • Again, retinyl palmitate is a retinoid, so it has all the benefits AND side effects of retinoids. (beautifulwithbrains.com)
  • median time to relapse for placebo group: 395 days, and three-month paliperidone palmitate group: not estimable). (empr.com)
  • In the present study, we compare the effects of palmitoleate (a MUFA) and palmitate (a SFA) on insulin action and glucose utilization in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells. (biochemj.org)
  • This is a randomized (study drug assigned by chance), open-label (both physician and patient know the name of the assigned drug), rater-blinded (the person who assesses the condition of the patient does not know the name of the assigned drug), active-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, prospective international study of paliperidone palmitate versus treatment as usual with oral antipsychotic agents in monotherapy in the prevention of relapse (return of symptoms). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, a large animal study testing whether hairless and albino mice developed tumors sooner when coated in retinyl palmitate versus a placebo cream was conducted by the NTP. (healthcanal.com)
  • In both groups, muscle fat content increased by 2.7% after bed rest and negatively correlated with the reduction in [d 31 ]palmitate oxidation ( r 2 = 0.48, P = 0.003). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Quenching mechanisms and kinetics of ascorbyl palmitate for the reduction of photo-sensitized oxidation of oils. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress using chemical chaperones or Grp78 overexpression does not protect muscle cells from palmitate-induced insulin resistance. (inserm.fr)
  • High doses of vitamin A palmitate produces adverse clinical and biochemical alterations in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • During the 24 month treatment phase, investigators will be allowed to flexibly decrease or increase the dose of paliperidone palmitate with one dose level in the range of 25 to 150 mg eq. or the oral antipsychotic in the respective locally approved dose range, all according to the patient's clinical needs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study explores the use of paliperidone palmitate either as monotherapy or as an adjunct to mood stabilizers or antidepressants (MS/AD) because both treatment approaches are commonly used in the clinical management of schizoaffective disorder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Using plasma samples from 41 participants enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of placebo, 25,000, 50,000, or 75,000 IU supplemental retinyl palmitate daily, high-performance liquid chromatography analyses were conducted for concentrations of three RA isomers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Janssen R&D announced that results from a Phase 3 clinical study with three-month paliperidone palmitate have been published in JAMA Psychiatry . (empr.com)
  • 1 The second is a randomised, double-blind non-inferiority clinical trial of paliperidone palmitate once-every-three-months and once-monthly formulations. (ntbinfo.no)

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