The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.
The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.
A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.
Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.
The muscles of the palate are the glossopalatine, palatoglossus, levator palati(ni), musculus uvulae, palatopharyngeus, and tensor palati(ni).
Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the mouth.
Congenital malformation characterized by MICROGNATHIA or RETROGNATHIA; GLOSSOPTOSIS and CLEFT PALATE. The mandibular abnormalities often result in difficulties in sucking and swallowing. The syndrome may be isolated or associated with other syndromes (e.g., ANDERSEN SYNDROME; CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA). Developmental mis-expression of SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene on chromosome 17q and its surrounding region is associated with the syndrome.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
MUCOUS MEMBRANE extending from floor of mouth to the under-surface of the tongue.
A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
Appliances that close a cleft or fissure of the palate.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the maxilla and face or facial bones.
A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.
The process of growth and differentiation of the jaws and face.
Abnormally small jaw.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Conservative contouring of the alveolar process, in preparation for immediate or future denture construction. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A congenital abnormality that is characterized by a blocked CHOANAE, the opening between the nose and the NASOPHARYNX. Blockage can be unilateral or bilateral; bony or membranous.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
Congenital absence of the teeth; it may involve all (total anodontia) or only some of the teeth (partial anodontia, hypodontia), and both the deciduous and the permanent dentition, or only teeth of the permanent dentition. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.
A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the webbing between adjacent fingers or toes. Syndactylies are classified as complete or incomplete by the degree of joining. Syndactylies can also be simple or complex. Simple syndactyly indicates joining of only skin or soft tissue; complex syndactyly marks joining of bony elements.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
'Mouth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions that cause inflammation, infection, or structural changes in any part of the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, cheeks, and teeth, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, discomfort, difficulty in chewing or speaking, and altered aesthetics.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Bleeding from the blood vessels of the mouth, which may occur as a result of injuries to the mouth, accidents in oral surgery, or diseases of the gums.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A family of transcription factors that share an N-terminal HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF and bind INTERFERON-inducible promoters to control GENE expression. IRF proteins bind specific DNA sequences such as interferon-stimulated response elements, interferon regulatory elements, and the interferon consensus sequence.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
A group of muscles attached to the SOFT PALATE (or velum) and the PHARYNX. They include the superior constrictor, the PALATOPHARYNGEUS, the levator veli palatini muscle, and the muscularis uvulae. This sphincter is situated between the oral and nasal cavities. A competent velopharyngeal sphincter is essential for normal speech and swallowing.
A hereditary disorder occurring in two forms: the complete form (Franceschetti's syndrome) is characterized by antimongoloid slant of the palpebral fissures, coloboma of the lower lid, micrognathia and hypoplasia of the zygomatic arches, and microtia. It is transmitted as an autosomal trait. The incomplete form (Treacher Collins syndrome) is characterized by the same anomalies in less pronounced degree. It occurs sporadically, but an autosomal dominant mode of transmission is suspected. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An abnormal passage within the mouth communicating between two or more anatomical structures.
Compounds consisting of three benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions and substituted with chlorine atoms.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.

AhR, ARNT, and CYP1A1 mRNA quantitation in cultured human embryonic palates exposed to TCDD and comparison with mouse palate in vivo and in culture. (1/607)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is developmentally toxic in many species and induces cleft palate in the C57BL/6N mouse embryo. Palatogenesis in mouse and human embryos involves homologous processes at the morphological, cellular, and molecular levels. In organ culture, mouse and human palates respond similarly to TCDD. The present study quantitates the expression of AhR, ARNT, and CYP1A1 mRNA in human embryonic palates in organ culture. Palatal tissues were exposed to 1 x 10(-10), 1 x 10(-9), or 1 x 10(-8) M TCDD or control medium and sampled at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours for quantitative RT-PCR using a synthetic RNA internal standard. Similar measurements of CYP1A1 gene expression were collected for mouse palates cultured in this model. In human palates, AhR expression correlated with ARNT and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. TCDD induction of CYP1A1 was time- and concentration-dependent. The expression of these genes presented a uniform and continuous distribution across the group of embryos, with no subset of either high or low expressors/responders. The ratio of AhR to ARNT was approximately 4:1. AhR mRNA increased during the culture period in both treated and control subjects; however, ARNT expression was relatively constant. TCDD did not alter either AhR or ARNT expression in a consistent dose- or time-related manner. Comparison of human and mouse data showed a high correlation across species for the induction of CYP1A1. Human embryos expressed approximately 350 times less AhR mRNA than the mouse, and in earlier studies it was shown that human palates required 200 times more TCDD to produce the same effects. When the morphological, cellular, and molecular responses to TCDD between mouse and human are compared, it seems highly unlikely that human embryos could be exposed to sufficient TCDD to achieve changes in palatal differentiation that would lead to cleft palate.  (+info)

RT-PCR quantification of AHR, ARNT, GR, and CYP1A1 mRNA in craniofacial tissues of embryonic mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and hydrocortisone. (2/607)

C57BL/6N mouse embryos exposed to hydrocortisone (HC) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) develop cleft palate. An interaction between these agents produces clefts at doses which alone are not teratogenic. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and dioxin receptor (AhR) mediated these responses and their gene expression was altered by TCDD and/or HC in palates examined on gestation day (GD) 14 by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. The present study quantifies AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT), and GR mRNA at 4, 12, 24, and 48 h after exposure (time 0 = dose administration at 8 A.M. on gestation day 12) on GD12 to TCDD (24 micrograms/kg), HC (100 mg/kg) or HC (25 mg/kg) + TCDD (3 micrograms/kg). The induction of CYP1A1 mRNA was also quantified at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h for control and TCDD-exposed samples. Total RNA was prepared from midfacial tissue of 4-6 embryos/litter at each time and dose. An RNA internal standard (IS) for each gene was synthesized, which included the gene's primer sequences separated by a pUC19 plasmid sequence. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on total RNA + IS using a range of 5-7 IS concentrations across a constant level of total RNA. PCR products were separated in gels (mRNA and IS-amplified sequences differed by 30-50 bases), ethidium bromide-stained, imaged (Hamamatsu Photonics Systems, Bridgewater, NJ), and quantified with NIH Image. CYP1A1 mRNA was significantly induced in the TCDD-exposed samples at all time points examined (p = 0.005 at 2 h and 0.001 after 2 h). During palatal shelf outgrowth on GD12, AhR mRNA levels increased significantly and this was not affected by treatment with TCDD or HC + TCDD. A significant increase in GR was detected at 24 h (p < 0.05) and this was unaffected by any of the exposures. Expression of ARNT increased at 12 h (p < 0.001); however, treatment with HC or HC + TCDD blocked this increase (p < 0.05). At 24 h, the TCDD-treated embryos had significantly lower ARNT mRNA compared with controls (p < 0.001). The relative overall expression level of the genes was AhR > ARNT > GR. Within individuals, expression of AhR and/or ARNT was highly correlated with GR level. In conclusion, CYP1A1 mRNA was expressed in developing craniofacial tissue and was highly induced by TCDD exposure. AhR, ARNT, and GR mRNA are upregulated in early palatogenesis, although not on the same schedule. The TCDD-induced decrease in ARNT at 24 h after dosing and the HC and HC + TCDD-induced delay in upregulation of ARNT may affect the dynamics of heterodimer formation between AhR and ARNT. The changes in ARNT mRNA level could also affect availability of this transcriptional regulator to interact with other potential partners, and these effects, separately or in combination, may be involved in disruption of normal embryonic development.  (+info)

Neck soft tissue and fat distribution: comparison between normal men and women by magnetic resonance imaging. (3/607)

BACKGROUND: Obesity and increased neck circumference are risk factors for the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS). SAHS is more common in men than in women, despite the fact that women have higher rates of obesity and greater overall body fat. One factor in this apparently paradoxical sex distribution may be the differing patterns of fat deposition adjacent to the upper airway in men and women. A study was therefore undertaken to compare neck fat deposition in normal men and women. METHODS: Using T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the fat and tissue volumes in the necks of 10 non-obese men and 10 women matched for age (men mean (SE) 36 (3) years, women 37 (3) years, p = 0.7), body mass index (both 25 (0. 6) kg/m2, p>0.9), and Epworth Sleepiness Score (both 5 (1), p = 0.9) were assessed; all denied symptoms of SAHS. RESULTS: Total neck soft tissue volume was greater in men (1295 (62) vs 928 (45) cm3, p<0. 001), but the volume of fat did not differ between the sexes (291 (29) vs 273 (18) cm3, p = 0.6). The only regions impinging on the pharynx which showed a larger absolute volume of fat in men (3.2 (0. 7) vs 1.1 (0.3) cm3, p = 0.01) and also a greater proportion of neck fat in men (1.3 (0.3)% vs 0.4 (0.1)%, p = 0.03) were the anterior segments inside the mandible at the palatal level. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in neck fat deposition between the sexes which, together with the greater overall soft tissue loading on the airway in men, may be factors in the sex distribution of SAHS.  (+info)

The maintenance of rat palatal mucosa in organ culture. (4/607)

Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was maintained under organ culture conditions in a chemically defined medium for periods up to 28 days. The histological state of the cultured palatal mucosa was compared with that of control tissue from growing animals of comparable age. The control tissues showed an increase in epithelial thickness, first noticeable at 17 days. Whilst the general structure of the tissues in organ culture was preserved for the duration of the experiment, some changes in epithelial behavior were evident. There was an increase in epithelial thickness up to 6 days, followed by a reduction in the nucleated cell layer of the epithelium to a thickness comparable with that at the start of the experiment. There was a loss of epithelial glycogen within the first day, with occasional reappearance of patchy and irregular deposits. Whereas the control of epithelial thickness appeared to be restored after 10 days in vitro, disturbances in the maturation of the keratinocytes, manifested as epithelial pearls and dyskeratotic cells, were evident at subsequent stages. Epiboly never occurred. The connective tissue component showed continued development, indicated by an increase in the thickness of collagen fibres. The overall palatal growth seen in vivo did not occur in organ culture. We suggest that the improved maintenance reported is partly the result of explanting tissues in such a way as to minimize trauma, and partly the result of incorporating serum albumin into the chemically defined medium.  (+info)

Cognitive function and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (5/607)

Among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), impairment of cognitive function, i.e. deficits in memory, attention, and visuconstructive abilities are common. We applied different forms of treatment for patients with newly diagnosed OSAS in a randomized study with a one-year follow-up. Patients with BMI > 40 kg/m2 were excluded. After the initial diagnostic work-up, male patients were considered to be candidates for either nasal continuous airway pressure (nCPAP) (27 patients) or surgical treatment (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with or without mandibular osteotomy) (23 patients). Within the groups, the patients were then randomized to active treatment (nCPAP/surgery) or to conservative management. Cognitive function and severity of OSAS were assessed prior to treatment and 3 and 12 months later. At 12 months, all patients on nCPAP had a normal ODI4 index (< 10), and were significantly less somnolent than their controls; 3/11 of the surgically treated patients had a normal ODI4 index. Daytime somnolence was significantly less severe in the surgically treated patients than in their controls. Cognitive function did not correlate importantly with daytime sleepiness or severity of OSAS; the best Pearson pairwise correlation coefficient was between ODI4 and the Bourdon-Wiersma (r = 0.36). Success in treatment of OSAS did not affect neuropsychological outcome. We concluded that the standard cognitive test battery is insufficiently sensitive to identify positive changes in patients with OSAS, especially among those with a high level of overall mental functioning.  (+info)

Ectopic eruption of the maxillary canine quantified in three dimensions on cephalometric radiographs between the ages of 5 and 15 years. (6/607)

The eruption paths of 20 ectopic maxillary canine teeth (10 right, 10 left) were measured in three dimensions on annual lateral and depressed postero-anterior cephalometric radiographs of 15 patients between the ages of 5 and 15 years and compared with the eruption of normal canines. It was found that between the ages of 8 and 12 years ectopic canines on the left side moved more anteriorly than the normally erupting canines and the same was true of the right canines between the ages of 7 and 12 years. While the ectopic canines moved occlusally, their vertical movement was less than normal which accounts for the clinical finding that canines are impacted in the palate at a high level. The average palatally ectopic canine always moves palatally, and never shares in the buccal movement shown by normally erupting canines between the ages of 10 and 12 years. It was interesting to find that the differences between growth of normal and ectopic canines in the lateral plane of space are present as early as 5-6 years.  (+info)

Palatal bone support for orthodontic implant anchorage--a clinical and radiological study. (7/607)

When maximal anchorage is required during orthodontic treatment, additional aids are often needed to support the anchoring teeth. While intra-oral aids may be limited in their anchorage potential, extra-oral anchoring aids are often rejected by the patients. Endosseous implants may therefore be a valuable alternative for stable intra-oral anchorage. However, the possibility of using conventional implants is insufficient, e.g. for treating purely orthodontic patients with full dentition or where extraction sites are to be closed. Therefore, the mid-sagittal area of the palate is an alternative insertion site for the placement of implants for orthodontic anchorage. The limited bone height in this area inspired this comparison between bone thickness in the implantation site as verified by probing during the implantation of Straumann Ortho-system implants, and thickness as measured on the lateral cephalogram. The results suggest that vertical bone support is at least 2 mm higher than apparent on the cephalogram. In none of 12 patients was a perforation to the nasal cavity found. However, in five subjects the implant projected into the nasal cavity on the post-operative cephalogram. These results were supported by the study of the projections of palate and wires in wire-marked skulls where the wires were placed bilaterally on the nasal floor and on the nasal crest. It is therefore concluded that the mid-sagittal area of the palate lends sufficient bony support for the implantation of small implants (4-6 mm endosseous length, diameter 3.3 mm).  (+info)

The robust australopithecine face: a morphogenetic perspective. (8/607)

The robust australopithecines were a side branch of human evolution. They share a number of unique craniodental features that suggest their monophyletic origin. However, virtually all of these traits appear to reflect a singular pattern of nasomaxillary modeling derived from their unusual dental proportions. Therefore, recent cladistic analyses have not resolved the phylogenetic history of these early hominids. Efforts to increase cladistic resolution by defining traits at greater levels of anatomical detail have instead introduced substantial phyletic error.  (+info)

The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals, separating the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. It consists of two portions: the anterior hard palate, which is composed of bone, and the posterior soft palate, which is composed of muscle and connective tissue. The palate plays a crucial role in speech, swallowing, and breathing, as it helps to direct food and air to their appropriate locations during these activities.

Cleft palate is a congenital birth defect that affects the roof of the mouth (palate). It occurs when the tissues that form the palate do not fuse together properly during fetal development, resulting in an opening or split in the palate. This can range from a small cleft at the back of the soft palate to a complete cleft that extends through the hard and soft palates, and sometimes into the nasal cavity.

A cleft palate can cause various problems such as difficulty with feeding, speaking, hearing, and ear infections. It may also affect the appearance of the face and mouth. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the cleft palate, often performed during infancy or early childhood. Speech therapy, dental care, and other supportive treatments may also be necessary to address related issues.

The hard palate is the anterior, bony part of the roof of the mouth, forming a vertical partition between the oral and nasal cavities. It is composed of the maxilla and palatine bones, and provides attachment for the muscles of the soft palate, which functions in swallowing, speaking, and breathing. The hard palate also contains taste buds that contribute to our ability to taste food.

The soft palate, also known as the velum, is the rear portion of the roof of the mouth that is made up of muscle and mucous membrane. It extends from the hard palate (the bony front part of the roof of the mouth) to the uvula, which is the small piece of tissue that hangs down at the back of the throat.

The soft palate plays a crucial role in speech, swallowing, and breathing. During swallowing, it moves upward and backward to block off the nasal cavity, preventing food and liquids from entering the nose. In speech, it helps to direct the flow of air from the mouth into the nose, which is necessary for producing certain sounds.

Anatomically, the soft palate consists of several muscles that allow it to change shape and move. These muscles include the tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, palatopharyngeus, and palatoglossus. The soft palate also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves that provide sensation and help regulate its function.

Palatal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur on the palate, which is the roof of the mouth. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slower growing and less likely to spread, while malignant neoplasms are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and organs.

Palatal neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, environmental exposures, and viral infections. They may present with symptoms such as mouth pain, difficulty swallowing, swelling or lumps in the mouth, bleeding, or numbness in the mouth or face.

The diagnosis of palatal neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical examination, imaging studies, and sometimes biopsy to determine the type and extent of the growth. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or spread of the neoplasm.

The palatal muscles, also known as the musculus uvulae, levator veli palatini, tensor veli palatini, and palatoglossus, are a group of muscles in the back of the roof of the mouth (the soft palate). These muscles work together to help with swallowing, speaking, and breathing.

* The musculus uvulae helps to elevate the uvula during swallowing.
* The levator veli palatini elevates and retracts the soft palate, helping to close off the nasal cavity from the mouth during swallowing and speaking.
* The tensor veli palatini tenses the soft palate and helps to keep the Eustachian tubes open, which connect the middle ear to the back of the throat and help to regulate air pressure in the ears.
* The palatoglossus helps to form the anterior pillars of the fauces (the tonsillar fossae) and elevates the back of the tongue during swallowing.

Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI) is a medical condition that affects the proper functioning of the velopharyngeal valve, which is responsible for closing off the nasal cavity from the mouth during speech. This valve is made up of the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth), the pharynx (the back of the throat), and the muscles that control their movement.

In VPI, the velopharyngeal valve does not close completely or properly during speech, causing air to escape through the nose and resulting in hypernasality, nasal emission, and/or articulation errors. This can lead to difficulties with speech clarity and understanding, as well as social and emotional challenges.

VPI can be present from birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to factors such as cleft palate, neurological disorders, trauma, or surgery. Treatment for VPI may include speech therapy, surgical intervention, or a combination of both.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

In medical terms, a "lip" refers to the thin edge or border of an organ or other biological structure. However, when people commonly refer to "the lip," they are usually talking about the lips on the face, which are part of the oral cavity. The lips are a pair of soft, fleshy tissues that surround the mouth and play a crucial role in various functions such as speaking, eating, drinking, and expressing emotions.

The lips are made up of several layers, including skin, muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and mucous membrane. The outer surface of the lips is covered by skin, while the inner surface is lined with a moist mucous membrane. The muscles that make up the lips allow for movements such as pursing, puckering, and smiling.

The lips also contain numerous sensory receptors that help detect touch, temperature, pain, and other stimuli. Additionally, they play a vital role in protecting the oral cavity from external irritants and pathogens, helping to keep the mouth clean and healthy.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

The uvula is a small, conical piece of soft tissue that hangs down from the middle part of the back of the soft palate (the rear-most portion of the roof of the mouth). It contains muscle fibers and mucous glands, and its function is associated with swallowing, speaking, and protecting the airway. During swallowing, the uvula helps to prevent food and liquids from entering the nasal cavity by blocking the opening between the oral and nasal cavities (the nasopharynx). In speech, it plays a role in shaping certain sounds like "a" and "u."

Transforming Growth Factor-beta 3 (TGF-β3) is a type of cytokine, specifically a growth factor that belongs to the TGF-β family. It plays crucial roles in regulating various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix production.

TGF-β3 has been identified to have significant functions during embryonic development and tissue repair. In particular, it is known to be involved in the regulation of wound healing and scar formation. TGF-β3 can influence the behavior of various cell types, including fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and immune cells.

In some cases, TGF-β3 has been investigated for its potential therapeutic use in reducing fibrosis and promoting tissue regeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms and potential clinical applications.

Mouth abnormalities, also known as oral or orofacial anomalies, refer to structural or functional differences or defects in the mouth and surrounding structures, including the lips, teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and salivary glands. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to injury, disease, or surgery. They can range from minor variations in size, shape, or position of oral structures to more significant anomalies that may affect speech, swallowing, chewing, breathing, and overall quality of life.

Examples of mouth abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, macroglossia (enlarged tongue), microglossia (small tongue), ankyloglossia (tongue-tie), high or narrow palate, bifid uvula (split uvula), dental malocclusion (misaligned teeth), supernumerary teeth (extra teeth), missing teeth, and various oral tumors or cysts. Some mouth abnormalities may require medical intervention, such as surgery, orthodontic treatment, or speech therapy, while others may not necessitate any treatment.

Pierre Robin Syndrome is a congenital condition characterized by a set of distinctive features including:

1. Micrognathia: This is the term for an abnormally small lower jaw (mandible). In Pierre Robin Syndrome, this feature is present at birth and can lead to breathing difficulties due to the tongue falling back and obstructing the airway.

2. Glossoptosis: This refers to the displacement of the tongue towards the back of the mouth. Because of the small jaw, the tongue has limited space and tends to fall back and block the airway, especially during sleep.

3. Cleft Palate: A cleft palate is a birth defect where there is an opening in the roof of the mouth (palate). This occurs because the two sides of the palate do not fuse together properly during fetal development.

The syndrome can vary in severity among individuals, and some may also have other associated conditions such as hearing problems, heart defects, or learning disabilities. The exact cause of Pierre Robin Syndrome is unknown, but it's often associated with genetic syndromes like Stickler syndrome and velocardiofacial syndrome. Treatment typically involves addressing the airway issues first, often through positioning, prone sleeping, or in severe cases, a surgical procedure to bring the jaw forward (distraction osteogenesis). The cleft palate is usually repaired with surgery within the first year of life.

Craniofacial abnormalities refer to a group of birth defects that affect the development of the skull and face. These abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may involve differences in the shape and structure of the head, face, and jaws, as well as issues with the formation of facial features such as the eyes, nose, and mouth.

Craniofacial abnormalities can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Some common examples of craniofacial abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis (premature fusion of the skull bones), and hemifacial microsomia (underdevelopment of one side of the face).

Treatment for craniofacial abnormalities may involve a team of healthcare professionals, including plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, orthodontists, speech therapists, and other specialists. Treatment options may include surgery, bracing, therapy, and other interventions to help improve function and appearance.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

The lingual frenum is a small fold of mucous membrane that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth. It contains muscle fibers and can vary in length, thickness, and attachment level. In some individuals, the lingual frenum may be too short or tight, restricting tongue movement, which is known as being "tongue-tied" or having ankyloglossia. This condition can potentially impact speech, feeding, and oral hygiene, although in many cases, it does not cause any significant problems.

MSX1 (Homeobox protein MSX-1) is a transcription factor that belongs to the muscle segment homebox gene family, also known as the msh homeobox genes. These genes are involved in the development and differentiation of various tissues, including muscle, bone, and neural crest derivatives.

MSX1 plays crucial roles during embryonic development, such as regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It is widely expressed in the developing embryo, particularly in the oral ectoderm, neural crest, and mesenchyme. In the oral region, MSX1 helps control tooth development by interacting with other transcription factors and signaling molecules.

As a transcription factor, MSX1 binds to specific DNA sequences called homeobox response elements (HREs) in the promoter regions of its target genes. This binding either activates or represses gene expression, depending on the context and interacting partners. Dysregulation of MSX1 has been implicated in various developmental disorders and diseases, such as tooth agenesis, cleft lip/palate, and cancer.

A palatal obturator is a type of dental prosthesis that is used to close or block a hole or opening in the roof of the mouth, also known as the hard palate. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as cleft palate, cancer, trauma, or surgery. The obturator is designed to fit securely in the patient's mouth and restore normal speech, swallowing, and chewing functions.

The palatal obturator typically consists of a custom-made plate made of acrylic resin or other materials that are compatible with the oral tissues. The plate has an extension that fills the opening in the palate and creates a barrier between the oral and nasal cavities. This helps to prevent food and liquids from entering the nasal cavity during eating and speaking, which can cause discomfort, irritation, and infection.

Palatal obturators may be temporary or permanent, depending on the patient's needs and condition. They are usually fabricated based on an impression of the patient's mouth and fitted by a dental professional to ensure proper function and comfort. Proper care and maintenance of the obturator, including regular cleaning and adjustments, are essential to maintain its effectiveness and prevent complications.

Maxillofacial abnormalities, also known as craniofacial anomalies, refer to a broad range of structural and functional disorders that affect the development of the skull, face, jaws, and related soft tissues. These abnormalities can result from genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can vary in severity, from minor cosmetic issues to significant impairments of vital functions such as breathing, speaking, and eating.

Examples of maxillofacial abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis (premature fusion of the skull bones), hemifacial microsomia (underdevelopment of one side of the face), and various other congenital anomalies. These conditions may require multidisciplinary treatment involving surgeons, orthodontists, speech therapists, and other healthcare professionals to address both functional and aesthetic concerns.

Retrognathia is a dental and maxillofacial term that refers to a condition where the mandible (lower jaw) is positioned further back than normal, relative to the maxilla (upper jaw). This results in the chin appearing recessed or set back, and can lead to various functional and aesthetic problems. In severe cases, retrognathia can interfere with speaking, chewing, and breathing, and may require orthodontic or surgical intervention for correction.

Maxillofacial development refers to the growth and formation of the bones, muscles, and soft tissues that make up the face and jaw (maxillofacial region). This process begins in utero and continues throughout childhood and adolescence. It involves the coordinated growth and development of multiple structures, including the upper and lower jaws (maxilla and mandible), facial bones, teeth, muscles, and nerves.

Abnormalities in maxillofacial development can result in a range of conditions, such as cleft lip and palate, jaw deformities, and craniofacial syndromes. These conditions may affect a person's appearance, speech, chewing, and breathing, and may require medical or surgical intervention to correct.

Healthcare professionals involved in the diagnosis and treatment of maxillofacial developmental disorders include oral and maxillofacial surgeons, orthodontists, pediatricians, geneticists, and other specialists.

Micrognathism is a medical term that refers to a condition where the lower jaw (mandible) is abnormally small or underdeveloped. This can result in various dental and skeletal problems, including an improper bite (malocclusion), difficulty speaking, chewing, or swallowing, and sleep apnea. Micrognathism may be congenital or acquired later in life due to trauma, disease, or surgical removal of part of the jaw. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and can include orthodontic treatment, surgery, or a combination of both.

Tooth abnormalities refer to any variations or irregularities in the size, shape, number, structure, or development of teeth that deviate from the typical or normal anatomy. These abnormalities can occur in primary (deciduous) or permanent teeth and can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, systemic diseases, or localized dental conditions during tooth formation.

Some examples of tooth abnormalities include:

1. Microdontia - teeth that are smaller than normal in size.
2. Macrodontia - teeth that are larger than normal in size.
3. Peg-shaped teeth - teeth with a narrow, conical shape.
4. Talon cusps - additional cusps or points on the biting surface of a tooth.
5. Dens invaginatus - an abnormal development where the tooth crown has an extra fold or pouch that can trap bacteria and cause dental problems.
6. Taurodontism - teeth with large pulp chambers and short roots.
7. Supernumerary teeth - having more teeth than the typical number (20 primary and 32 permanent teeth).
8. Hypodontia - missing one or more teeth due to a failure of development.
9. Germination - two adjacent teeth fused together, usually occurring in the front teeth.
10. Fusion - two separate teeth that have grown together during development.

Tooth abnormalities may not always require treatment unless they cause functional, aesthetic, or dental health issues. A dentist can diagnose and manage tooth abnormalities through various treatments, such as fillings, extractions, orthodontic care, or restorative procedures.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Oral surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed in the oral cavity and maxillofacial region, which includes the mouth, jaws, face, and skull. These procedures are typically performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons, who are dental specialists with extensive training in surgical procedures involving the mouth, jaws, and face.

Some common examples of oral surgical procedures include:

1. Tooth extractions: This involves removing a tooth that is damaged beyond repair or causing problems for the surrounding teeth. Wisdom tooth removal is a common type of tooth extraction.
2. Dental implant placement: This procedure involves placing a small titanium post in the jawbone to serve as a replacement root for a missing tooth. A dental crown is then attached to the implant, creating a natural-looking and functional replacement tooth.
3. Jaw surgery: Also known as orthognathic surgery, this procedure involves repositioning the jaws to correct bite problems or facial asymmetry.
4. Biopsy: This procedure involves removing a small sample of tissue from the oral cavity for laboratory analysis, often to diagnose suspicious lesions or growths.
5. Lesion removal: This procedure involves removing benign or malignant growths from the oral cavity, such as tumors or cysts.
6. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery: This procedure involves treating disorders of the TMJ, which connects the jawbone to the skull and allows for movement when eating, speaking, and yawning.
7. Facial reconstruction: This procedure involves rebuilding or reshaping the facial bones after trauma, cancer surgery, or other conditions that affect the face.

Overall, oral surgical procedures are an important part of dental and medical care, helping to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions affecting the mouth, jaws, and face.

In medical terms, the face refers to the front part of the head that is distinguished by the presence of the eyes, nose, and mouth. It includes the bones of the skull (frontal bone, maxilla, zygoma, nasal bones, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, and mandible), muscles, nerves, blood vessels, skin, and other soft tissues. The face plays a crucial role in various functions such as breathing, eating, drinking, speaking, seeing, smelling, and expressing emotions. It also serves as an important identifier for individuals, allowing them to be recognized by others.

Teratogens are substances, such as certain medications, chemicals, or infectious agents, that can cause birth defects or abnormalities in the developing fetus when a woman is exposed to them during pregnancy. They can interfere with the normal development of the fetus and lead to a range of problems, including physical deformities, intellectual disabilities, and sensory impairments. Examples of teratogens include alcohol, tobacco smoke, some prescription medications, and infections like rubella (German measles). It is important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant to avoid exposure to known teratogens as much as possible.

Alveoloplasty is a surgical procedure that involves the reshaping and smoothing of the alveolar ridge, which is the bony ridge in the jaw that contains the tooth sockets. This procedure is typically performed after the removal of teeth, such as during a dental extraction or after wisdom tooth removal, to create a more uniform and aesthetically pleasing shape to the jawbone.

Alveoloplasty may be recommended in cases where there are sharp or jagged bony edges that could irritate the gums or other tissues in the mouth, or where the alveolar ridge is uneven or irregular due to tooth loss or other factors. The procedure can help to improve the fit and comfort of dentures or other dental restorations, as well as enhance the overall appearance of the mouth and jaw.

During an alveoloplasty procedure, a dental surgeon will use specialized tools to carefully remove any excess bone tissue and smooth out the remaining bone. The surgical site may be numbed with local anesthesia or sedation may be used for more complex procedures. After the surgery, patients may experience some swelling, bruising, or discomfort, which can typically be managed with over-the-counter pain medications and cold compresses. It is important to follow all post-operative instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and avoid complications.

The mouth mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the mouth, also known as the oral mucosa. It covers the tongue, gums, inner cheeks, palate, and floor of the mouth. This moist tissue is made up of epithelial cells, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. Its functions include protecting the underlying tissues from physical trauma, chemical irritation, and microbial infections; aiding in food digestion by producing enzymes; and providing sensory information about taste, temperature, and texture.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

Choanal atresia is a medical condition where the back of the nasal passage (choana) is blocked or narrowed, usually by bone, membrane, or a combination of both. This blockage can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to various reasons such as infection, injury, or tumor.

Congenital choanal atresia is more common and occurs during fetal development when the nasal passages fail to open properly. It can affect one or both sides of the nasal passage and can be unilateral (affecting one side) or bilateral (affecting both sides). Bilateral choanal atresia can cause breathing difficulties in newborns, as they are obligate nose breathers and cannot breathe through their mouth yet.

Treatment for choanal atresia typically involves surgical intervention to open up the nasal passage and restore normal breathing. The specific type of surgery may depend on the location and extent of the blockage. In some cases, follow-up surgeries or additional treatments may be necessary to ensure proper functioning of the nasal passage.

Cephalometry is a medical term that refers to the measurement and analysis of the skull, particularly the head face relations. It is commonly used in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery to assess and plan treatment for abnormalities related to the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. The process typically involves taking X-ray images called cephalograms, which provide a lateral view of the head, and then using various landmarks and reference lines to make measurements and evaluate skeletal and dental relationships. This information can help clinicians diagnose problems, plan treatment, and assess treatment outcomes.

The facial bones, also known as the facial skeleton, are a series of bones that make up the framework of the face. They include:

1. Frontal bone: This bone forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets.
2. Nasal bones: These two thin bones form the bridge of the nose.
3. Maxilla bones: These are the largest bones in the facial skeleton, forming the upper jaw, the bottom of the eye sockets, and the sides of the nose. They also contain the upper teeth.
4. Zygomatic bones (cheekbones): These bones form the cheekbones and the outer part of the eye sockets.
5. Palatine bones: These bones form the back part of the roof of the mouth, the side walls of the nasal cavity, and contribute to the formation of the eye socket.
6. Inferior nasal conchae: These are thin, curved bones that form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and help to filter and humidify air as it passes through the nose.
7. Lacrimal bones: These are the smallest bones in the skull, located at the inner corner of the eye socket, and help to form the tear duct.
8. Mandible (lower jaw): This is the only bone in the facial skeleton that can move. It holds the lower teeth and forms the chin.

These bones work together to protect vital structures such as the eyes, brain, and nasal passages, while also providing attachment points for muscles that control chewing, expression, and other facial movements.

Anodontia is a medical term that refers to the congenital absence or lack of development of all primary (deciduous) and/or permanent teeth. It is a rare dental condition that affects tooth development and can be isolated or associated with various syndromes and genetic disorders.

In anodontia, the dental tissues responsible for forming teeth, including the dental lamina, dental papilla, and dental follicle, fail to develop properly, resulting in missing teeth. The condition can affect all teeth or only some of them, leading to partial anodontia.

Anodontia is different from hypodontia, which refers to the congenital absence of one or more, but not all, teeth. It is also distinct from oligodontia, which is the absence of six or more permanent teeth, excluding third molars (wisdom teeth).

People with anodontia may experience difficulties in chewing, speaking, and maintaining oral hygiene, leading to various dental and social problems. Prosthodontic treatments, such as dentures or implants, are often necessary to restore oral function and aesthetics.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a group of genetic disorders that affect the development and formation of ectodermal tissues, which include the skin, hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands. The condition is usually present at birth or appears in early infancy.

The symptoms of ED can vary widely depending on the specific type and severity of the disorder. Common features may include:

* Sparse or absent hair
* Thin, wrinkled, or rough skin
* Abnormal or missing teeth
* Nail abnormalities
* Absent or reduced sweat glands, leading to heat intolerance and problems regulating body temperature
* Ear abnormalities, which can result in hearing loss
* Eye abnormalities

ED is caused by mutations in genes that are involved in the development of ectodermal tissues. Most cases of ED are inherited in an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that a child can inherit the disorder even if only one parent (dominant) or both parents (recessive) carry the mutated gene.

There is no cure for ED, but treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and improving quality of life. This may include measures to maintain body temperature, such as cooling vests or frequent cool baths; dental treatments to replace missing teeth; hearing aids for hearing loss; and skin care regimens to prevent dryness and irritation.

The epiglottis is a flap-like structure located at the base of the tongue, near the back of the throat (pharynx). It is made of elastic cartilage and covered with mucous membrane. The primary function of the epiglottis is to protect the trachea (windpipe) from food or liquids entering it during swallowing.

During normal swallowing, the epiglottis closes over the opening of the larynx (voice box), redirecting the food or liquid bolus into the esophagus. In this way, the epiglottis prevents aspiration, which is the entry of foreign materials into the trachea and lungs.

Inflammation or infection of the epiglottis can lead to a serious medical condition called epiglottitis, characterized by swelling, redness, and pain in the epiglottis and surrounding tissues. Epiglottitis can cause difficulty breathing, speaking, and swallowing, and requires immediate medical attention.

In medical and embryological terms, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early stages of embryonic development. It forms between the ectoderm and endoderm during gastrulation, and it gives rise to a wide variety of cell types, tissues, and organs in the developing embryo.

The mesoderm contributes to the formation of structures such as:

1. The connective tissues (including tendons, ligaments, and most of the bones)
2. Muscular system (skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles)
3. Circulatory system (heart, blood vessels, and blood cells)
4. Excretory system (kidneys and associated structures)
5. Reproductive system (gonads, including ovaries and testes)
6. Dermis of the skin
7. Parts of the eye and inner ear
8. Several organs in the urogenital system

Dysfunctions or abnormalities in mesoderm development can lead to various congenital disorders and birth defects, highlighting its importance during embryogenesis.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

The dental arch refers to the curved shape formed by the upper or lower teeth when they come together. The dental arch follows the curve of the jaw and is important for proper bite alignment and overall oral health. The dental arches are typically described as having a U-shaped appearance, with the front teeth forming a narrower section and the back teeth forming a wider section. The shape and size of the dental arch can vary from person to person, and any significant deviations from the typical shape or size may indicate an underlying orthodontic issue that requires treatment.

Syndactyly is a congenital condition where two or more digits (fingers or toes) are fused together. It can occur in either the hand or foot, and it can involve fingers or toes on both sides of the hand or foot. The fusion can be partial, where only the skin is connected, or complete, where the bones are also connected. Syndactyly is usually noticed at birth and can be associated with other genetic conditions or syndromes. Surgical intervention may be required to separate the digits and improve function and appearance.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

Articulation disorders are speech sound disorders that involve difficulties producing sounds correctly and forming clear, understandable speech. These disorders can affect the way sounds are produced, the order in which they're pronounced, or both. Articulation disorders can be developmental, occurring as a child learns to speak, or acquired, resulting from injury, illness, or disease.

People with articulation disorders may have trouble pronouncing specific sounds (e.g., lisping), omitting sounds, substituting one sound for another, or distorting sounds. These issues can make it difficult for others to understand their speech and can lead to frustration, social difficulties, and communication challenges in daily life.

Speech-language pathologists typically diagnose and treat articulation disorders using various techniques, including auditory discrimination exercises, phonetic placement activities, and oral-motor exercises to improve muscle strength and control. Early intervention is essential for optimal treatment outcomes and to minimize the potential impact on a child's academic, social, and emotional development.

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

A dental impression technique is a method used in dentistry to create a detailed and accurate replica of a patient's teeth and oral structures. This is typically accomplished by using an impression material, which is inserted into a tray and then placed in the patient's mouth. The material sets or hardens, capturing every detail of the teeth, gums, and other oral tissues.

There are several types of dental impression techniques, including:

1. Irreversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This is a common type of impression material that is made of alginate powder mixed with water. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth.

2. Reversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This type of impression material is similar to irreversible hydrocolloid, but it can be reused. It is made of agar and water and is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and reheated to be used again.

3. Polyvinyl Siloxane (PVS) Impression Material: This is a two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. PVS is known for its high accuracy and detail.

4. Addition Silicone Impression Material: This is another two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is similar to PVS, but it has a longer working time and sets slower. It is often used for full-arch impressions or when there is a need for a very detailed impression.

5. Elastomeric Impression Material: This is a type of impression material that is made of a rubber-like substance. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. Elastomeric impression materials are known for their high accuracy and detail.

The dental impression technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, including creating crowns, bridges, dentures, and orthodontic appliances. The accuracy and detail of the impression can significantly impact the fit and function of the final restoration or appliance.

Mouth diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the oral cavity, including the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and lining of the mouth. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms. They can also result from injuries, chronic illnesses, or genetic factors.

Some common examples of mouth diseases include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral herpes, candidiasis (thrush), lichen planus, and oral cancer. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, bad breath, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and changes in the appearance of the mouth or teeth. Treatment depends on the specific diagnosis and may involve medications, dental procedures, or lifestyle changes.

The alveolar process is the curved part of the jawbone (mandible or maxilla) that contains sockets or hollow spaces (alveoli) for the teeth to be embedded. These processes are covered with a specialized mucous membrane called the gingiva, which forms a tight seal around the teeth to help protect the periodontal tissues and maintain oral health.

The alveolar process is composed of both compact and spongy bone tissue. The compact bone forms the outer layer, while the spongy bone is found inside the alveoli and provides support for the teeth. When a tooth is lost or extracted, the alveolar process begins to resorb over time due to the lack of mechanical stimulation from the tooth's chewing forces. This can lead to changes in the shape and size of the jawbone, which may require bone grafting procedures before dental implant placement.

Oral hemorrhage, also known as oral bleeding or mouth bleed, refers to the escape of blood from the blood vessels in the oral cavity, which includes the lips, gums, tongue, palate, and cheek lining. It can result from various causes such as trauma, dental procedures, inflammation, infection, tumors, or systemic disorders that affect blood clotting or cause bleeding tendencies. The bleeding may be minor and self-limiting, or it could be severe and life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause and extent of the bleed. Immediate medical attention is required for heavy oral hemorrhage to prevent airway obstruction, hypovolemia, and other complications.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Facial asymmetry refers to a condition in which the facial features are not identical or proportionate on both sides of a vertical line drawn down the middle of the face. This can include differences in the size, shape, or positioning of facial features such as the eyes, ears, nose, cheeks, and jaw. Facial asymmetry can be mild and barely noticeable, or it can be more severe and affect a person's appearance and/or functionality of the mouth and jaw.

Facial asymmetry can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life due to various factors such as injury, surgery, growth disorders, nerve damage, or tumors. In some cases, facial asymmetry may not cause any medical problems and may only be of cosmetic concern. However, in other cases, it may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.

Depending on the severity and cause of the facial asymmetry, treatment options may include cosmetic procedures such as fillers or surgery, orthodontic treatment, physical therapy, or medication to address any underlying conditions.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the regulation of immune responses, particularly in the expression of interferons (IFNs) and other genes involved in innate immunity and inflammation. In humans, there are nine known IRF proteins (IRF1-9), each with distinct functions and patterns of expression.

The primary function of IRFs is to regulate the transcription of type I IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β) and other immune response genes in response to various stimuli, such as viral infections, bacterial components, and proinflammatory cytokines. IRFs can either activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences called interferon-stimulated response elements (ISREs) and/or IFN consensus sequences (ICSs) in the promoter regions of target genes.

IRF1, IRF3, and IRF7 are primarily involved in type I IFN regulation, with IRF1 acting as a transcriptional activator for IFN-β and various ISRE-containing genes, while IRF3 and IRF7 function as master regulators of the type I IFN response to viral infections. Upon viral recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), IRF3 and IRF7 are activated through phosphorylation and translocate to the nucleus, where they induce the expression of type I IFNs and other antiviral genes.

IRF2, IRF4, IRF5, and IRF8 have more diverse roles in immune regulation, including the control of T-cell differentiation, B-cell development, and myeloid cell function. For example, IRF4 is essential for the development and function of Th2 cells, while IRF5 and IRF8 are involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells and macrophages.

IRF6 and IRF9 have unique functions compared to other IRFs. IRF6 is primarily involved in epithelial cell development and differentiation, while IRF9 forms a complex with STAT1 and STAT2 to regulate the transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) during the type I IFN response.

In summary, IRFs are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in various aspects of immune regulation, including antiviral responses, T-cell and B-cell development, and myeloid cell function. Dysregulation of IRF activity can lead to the development of autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

The velopharyngeal sphincter (VPS) is a complex muscle-filled space located at the back of the throat, involving the soft palate (velum), the posterior pharyngeal wall, and the lateral pharyngeal walls. It plays a crucial role in speech by closing off the nasal cavity from the oral cavity during swallowing and speaking, particularly during the production of sounds that require oral pressure. This mechanism prevents the escape of air into the nose, ensuring proper sound formation and resonance. Dysfunction of the VPS can lead to speech disorders such as hypernasality and nasal emission.

Mandibulofacial dysostosis is a genetic disorder that affects the development of the face and jaw. It is characterized by underdevelopment of the lower jaw (mandible) and facial bones, which can result in distinctive facial features such as a small chin, cleft palate, hearing loss, and dental abnormalities. This condition is often associated with other health issues, including respiratory problems and developmental delays. Mandibulofacial dysostosis is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that only one copy of the altered gene is necessary to cause the disorder. It can also occur spontaneously due to a new genetic mutation. The specific symptoms and severity of mandibulofacial dysostosis can vary widely from person to person.

An oral fistula is an abnormal connection or tunnel that links the oral cavity (the mouth) to another structure, usually the skin of the face or the neck. This condition can occur as a result of various factors such as infection, trauma, surgery, or congenital abnormalities. Oral fistulas may cause symptoms like pain, discomfort, difficulty in swallowing or speaking, and leakage of saliva or food from the opening of the fistula. Treatment typically involves surgical closure of the fistulous tract to restore normal anatomy and function.

Polychloroterphenyl compounds, also known as polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs), are a group of synthetic organic chemicals that were widely used as heat transfer fluids in electrical equipment due to their stability and resistance to fire. They are composed of terphenyl molecules that have been chlorinated to varying degrees, resulting in a mixture of different chemical structures.

PCTs have similar chemical and physical properties to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), another group of industrial chemicals that were widely used in the past but are now banned due to their toxicity and environmental persistence. Like PCBs, PCTs can accumulate in the environment and in living organisms, and they have been shown to have harmful effects on human health, including potential developmental and reproductive toxicity, endocrine disruption, and cancer.

However, it's worth noting that polychloroterphenyl compounds are less well-studied than PCBs, and their specific health effects are not as well understood. Their production and use have been largely phased out in many countries due to concerns about their environmental and health impacts.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

The palate is divided into two parts, the anterior, bony hard palate and the posterior, fleshy soft palate (or velum). The ... The hard palate forms before birth. If the fusion is incomplete, a cleft palate results. When functioning in conjunction with ... Palate (Hard and Soft Palate). Wingerd, Bruce D. (1811). The Human Body Concepts of Anatomy and Physiology. Fort Worth: ... "palate (the entry for)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 10 September 2011. palate - late 14c., 'roof of the mouth,' ...
... s are often used between tasting wine or cheese or other strong flavors. Pickled ginger is used as a palate ... ISBN 978-0-7818-1190-3. What Foods Cleanse the Palate Orange Sorbet - A Palate Cleanser v t e (Articles with short description ... "What Foods Cleanse the Palate". Retrieved 2018-07-28. Wolf, Nicki. "What Foods Cleanse the Palate?". LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved ... A palate cleanser is a serving of food or drink that removes food residue from the tongue allowing one to more accurately ...
The primary palate will form the premaxillary portion of the maxilla (anterior one-third of the final palate). This small ... The intermaxillary segment gives rise to the primary palate. ...
It forms the majority of the adult palate and meets the primary palate at the incisive foramen. Secondary palate development ... The secondary palate is an anatomical structure that divides the nasal cavity from the oral cavity in many vertebrates. In ... The first creatures with secondary palates are known from the fossil record starting from the mid-Permian. Dudas et al. (2007 ... The secondary palate is thought to have a significant role in the development of warm-blooded animals, separating the mouth ...
The soft palate is part of the palate of the mouth; the other part is the hard palate. The soft palate is distinguished from ... The soft palate (also known as the velum, palatal velum, or muscular palate) is, in mammals, the soft tissue constituting the ... In humans, the uvula hangs from the end of the soft palate. Touching the uvula or the end of the soft palate evokes a strong ... Soft palate visible in lower right) Wikimedia Commons has media related to Soft palate. Palatine tonsil Velotrace Walker, H. ...
The hard palate is important for feeding and speech. Mammals with a defective hard palate may die shortly after birth due to ... Electropalatograph Head and neck anatomy Maxilla Palate Soft palate Patil, Manashvini S.; Patil, Sanjayagouda B.; Acharya, ... that could lead to the development of a cleft palate. Even though several risk factors have been linked to cleft palates, more ... The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate made up of two bones of the facial skeleton, located in the roof of the mouth. ...
... is a biannual literary magazine published by Binghamton University. It publishes fiction, essays, and poetry. ... and the Harpur Palate Award for Creative Nonfiction with its Winter/Spring issue.[citation needed] List of literary magazines ...
The soft palate only blocks the nasal cavity while swallowing. At rest the soft palate should only stretch caudally from the ... A surgical risk could be removing too much of the soft palate. If the soft palate, then becomes too short, it will no longer be ... Surgical options include: Soft palate resection: a surgical option for shortening the elongated soft palate. The surgery can be ... An elongated soft palate can be treated surgically by resection, meaning the excess soft palate tissue is removed. ...
The hard-palate catfish (Brustiarius solidus), also known as the hard-plate catfish, is a species of sea catfish in the family ... The hard-palate catfish feeds on shrimp in the genus Macrobrachium, algae in the genus Salvinia, insects and nymphs, ...
This forms what is known as the roof of the mouth, or the hard palate. The formation and development of the secondary palate ... Failure of the secondary palate to develop correctly may result in a cleft palate disorder. The formation of the vertical ... with the incisive foramen being the landmark between the primary palate and secondary palate. ... The development of the secondary palate commences in the sixth week of human embryonic development. It is characterised by the ...
... (Indonesian: Aruna & Lidahnya) is an Indonesian drama film based on the novel The Birdwoman's Palate by ... Official website Aruna & Lidahnya on Film Indonesia Aruna & Her Palate at IMDb Aruna & Her Palate at Rotten Tomatoes (Articles ... Aruna and Her Palate' praised for promoting Indonesian cuisine, good storyline". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2020-08-23. ... Wira, Ni Putu (11 August 2018). "'Aruna and Her Palate', Cinema 21 team up to launch fried rice". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved ...
A high-arched palate (also termed high-vaulted palate) is where the palate is unusually high and narrow. It is usually a ... A high-arched palate may result in a narrowed airway and sleep disordered breathing. Examples of conditions which may be ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Palate, Medical signs, Pathology of the maxilla and ... the same phenomenon that leads to cleft palate. It may occur in isolation or in association with a number of conditions. It may ...
"Source details: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal". Scopus Preview. Elsevier. Retrieved 2021-03-02. "The Cleft Palate- ... The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal. It was established in 1964 as the Cleft ... The journal is published by SAGE Publishing on behalf of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. It covers research ... List of medical journals "The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. ...
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 41(6), 622-628. Kim, S., Kim, W.J., Oh, C., & Kim, J.C. (2002). Cleft lip and palate ... Al Omari, F., & Al-Omari, I.K. (2004). Cleft lip and palate in Jordan: Birth prevalence rate. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal ... Cheng, L.L. (1990). Asian-American cultural perspectives on birth defects: Focus on cleft palate. Cleft Palate Journal, 27(3), ... the prevalence for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL +/- P) is 2.2 to 11.7 per 10,000 births. Cleft palate alone (CP) ...
"THE CLEFT LIP AND PALATE ASSOCIATION - Charity 1108160". "OSCR , Charity Details". "About the Cleft Lip and Palate Association ... The Cleft Lip and Palate Association, also known as CLAPA, is a national charity registered in England, Wales, and Scotland ... CLAPA)". CLAPA website Adult Voices CLAPA Community Cleft Lip and Palate Association page on Charity Commission CLAPA page on ... which supports people affected by cleft lip and cleft palate in the United Kingdom. CLAPA was established in 1979 as a ...
... and palate cleft lip and palate (with an intact alveolus) cleft palate Cleft lip with or without palate is classified as the ... Incomplete cleft palate Unilateral complete lip and palate Bilateral complete lip and palate A result of an open connection ... lengthening of the palate, and surgical procedures. Submucous cleft palate can also occur, which is a cleft of the soft palate ... The soft palate is in these cases cleft as well. In most cases, cleft lip is also present. Palate cleft can occur as complete ( ...
According to Klein, the mucous membrane on the nasal surface of the soft palate in the fetus is covered throughout by columnar ... Beneath the mucous membrane on the oral surface of the soft palate is a considerable amount of adenoid tissue. The palatine ... The mucous membrane of the soft palate is thin, and covered with stratified squamous epithelium on both surfaces, except near ...
Veau-I cleft palate: A midline cleft of the velum (soft palate), with the intact hard palate. Veau-II cleft palate: A midline ... In addition to these four types, there exists a submucous cleft palate. In the submucous cleft palate, the palate appears ... Veau-IV cleft palate: A cleft of the velum (soft palate), extending in the midline through the secondary hard palate up to the ... An isolated cleft of the palate (whether Veau-I soft palate only or Veau-II hard and soft palate) is a "midline" cleft. A Veau- ...
Palate Association of Malaysia Smile Train UK Cleft Lip and Palate Association Facing the World Project Harar American Cleft ... This is a list of cleft lip and palate organisations around the world. Transforming Faces Worldwide AboutFace Smile Angel ... Palate-Craniofacial Association Smile Train Operation Smile ReSurge International Shriners Hospitals for Children Smile Network ...
... (Clptm1) is a multi-transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the CLPTM1 ... Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is a common birth defect that is genetically complex. The non-syndromic forms have been ... "Entrez Gene: CLPTM1 cleft lip and palate associated transmembrane protein 1". Takeuchi T, Kuro-o M, Miyazawa H, Ohtsuki Y, ... in a family with cleft lip and palate". Genomics. 54 (2): 231-240. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5577. PMID 9828125. Yamamoto K, ...
Cleft palate short stature vertebral anomalies, also known as Mathieu-De Broca-Bony syndrome, is a very rare multi-systemic ... "Cleft palate with short stature and vertebral anomaly syndrome (Concept Id: C4304704) - MedGen - NCBI". ... "Cleft palate short stature vertebral anomalies - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center". ... "Cleft palate short stature vertebral anomalies - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center". ...
The North Thames Regional Cleft Lip and Palate Service also known as the North Thames Cleft Centre is responsible for treating ... children and adult patients with clefts of the lip and palate the North Thames region. This includes North London, Essex and ...
... palate; etc." (langit = "sky") jari-jari = "spoke; bar; radius; etc." (jari = "finger" etc.) Pragmatic accentuation: Saya bukan ...
Hard palate • Harold Albrecht • Harvard School of Dental Medicine • Head and neck anatomy • Head and neck cancer • Healing of ... Cleft lip and palate • Colgate-Palmolive • Colgate • Commonly used terms of relationship and comparison in dentistry • ... Palate • Palatine uvula • Palmer notation • Parafunctional habit • Parotid gland • Patterson Dental • Paul Beresford • Paul N. ... Soft palate • SoftDent • SOHP • Sonicare • Southern Regional Testing Agency • Sozodont • Speech organ • Squamous odontogenic ...
Smith, J. A. "Oslo Court". Palate. Retrieved 24 April 2022. Rayner, Jay (10 March 2002). "Observer Classic: Oslo Court, London ...
Palate. Încercări de arhitectură românească și clasică. His monumental 1963 Clădiri, construcții, proiecte și studii is an ...
Her poems have appeared in Poetry, ART PAPERS Bloom, Harpur Palate, Indiana Review, Prairie Schooner, Octopus Magazine, Seattle ... ". "Harpur Palate". Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2009-08-19. "Project MUSE - Login". Archived from the ...
American Palate. History Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-62585-027-0. Retrieved June 21, 2015. Frank, John (March 13, 2014). "Pintful ...
American Palate. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. pp. 101-102. ISBN 978-1-62585-810-8. Retrieved March 20, 2018. Kindelsperger ...
American Palate. pp. 121-125. ISBN 9781467137003. Simonson, Robert (December 14, 2012). "Searching for Harvey Wallbanger". ...
The following organizations are good resources for information on cleft palate: ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cleft palate: ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cleft palate:. *American Cleft Palate - Craniofacial ... March of Dimes -- ...
... smokers palate), a lesion of the palatal mucosa, has been described in the literature since 1926. In 1941, Thoma named the ... Nicotine stomatitis affects the oral mucosa of the hard palate posterior to the rugae and the adjacent soft palate. [7, 8] . ... encoded search term (Nicotine Stomatitis (Smokers Palate)) and Nicotine Stomatitis (Smokers Palate) What to Read Next on ... 14] Essentially, it has the same malignant potential as normal hard and soft palate. [15] The exception to this is in ...
The palate is divided into two parts, the anterior, bony hard palate and the posterior, fleshy soft palate (or velum). The ... The hard palate forms before birth. If the fusion is incomplete, a cleft palate results. When functioning in conjunction with ... Palate (Hard and Soft Palate). Wingerd, Bruce D. (1811). The Human Body Concepts of Anatomy and Physiology. Fort Worth: ... "palate (the entry for)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 10 September 2011. palate - late 14c., roof of the mouth, ...
The hard palate is subdivided into the primary and secondary palates. The primary palate is separated from the secondary palate ... and the palate superiorly. The oropharynx begins superiorly at the junction between the hard palate and the soft palate, and ... The hard palate belongs to the oral cavity and separates it from the nasal cavities. The soft palate belongs to the oropharynx ... Tumors of the hard palate are uncommon. Resection of the hard palate may be necessary for the management of benign or malignant ...
... Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Dec;28(6):410-413. doi: 10.1097/MOO. ... Purpose of review: Submucous cleft palate (SMCP) represents an uncommon congenital palatal anomaly with a variable rate of ...
A cleft palate is when a baby is born with a cleft (gap) in the roof of the mouth. Most kids can have surgery to repair them ... What Is a Cleft Palate?. A cleft palate (PAL-it) is when a baby is born with an opening (a cleft) in the roof of the mouth. ... In palate repair surgery, the surgeon will:. *Rearrange and repair the muscles of the soft palate so they work better during ... Sometimes the opening in the palate can connect with an opening in the gums and the lip (cleft lip and palate). These orofacial ...
2023 Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK. All rights reserved. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional. See additional information ...
It consists of an anterior hard palate of bone and, in mammals, a posterior soft palate that has no skeletal support and ... Palate, in vertebrate anatomy, the roof of the mouth, separating the oral and nasal cavities. ... The hard palate, which composes two-thirds of the total palate area, is a plate of bone covered by a moist, durable layer of ... It consists of an anterior hard palate of bone and, in mammals, a posterior soft palate that has no skeletal support and ...
Porters, such as Founders Porter, take your palate on a delectable journey through chocolaty caramel malts, with just a hint of ... the world of beer eagerly invites you to discover and savor your preferred palate. The constantly evolving craft beer industry ...
A look at one of South Carolinas up-and-coming restaurants ... and how it adapted its menu, business model to survive Covid-19 ...
Most kids with cleft lip and palate are treated successfully with no lasting problems. ... A cleft palate with a cleft lip is when a babys lip and palate (roof of mouth) dont form properly during pregnancy. ... both a cleft lip and a cleft palate. A cleft palate (PAL-it) is when a baby is born with an opening (a cleft) in the roof of ... What Is Cleft Lip and Palate?. A cleft of the lip or palate happens when a baby is born with an opening in the upper lip or the ...
Help Leanne Oxtoby raise money to support Cleft Lip And Palate Association ...
Living with soft palate cancer?. Connect with others like you for support and answers to your questions in the Head & Neck ... See a list of publications about soft palate cancer by Mayo Clinic doctors on PubMed, a service of the National Library of ... Doctors and scientists are studying new ways to diagnose and treat soft palate cancer, including research into improving and ... Soft palate cancer, Nasal and paranasal tumors, Skull base tumor, Osteoradionecrosis ...
Living with soft palate cancer?. Connect with others like you for support and answers to your questions in the Head & Neck ... See a list of publications about soft palate cancer by Mayo Clinic doctors on PubMed, a service of the National Library of ... Doctors and scientists in Mayo Clinics Department of Otolaryngology are studying new ways to diagnose and treat soft palate ... Soft palate cancer, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Floor of the mouth cancer, Chondrosarcoma, Paraganglioma, Sarcoma, Oral and ...
... life and elegance to your life with Chef Will the Palate. One of the most inventive American chefs working today, he is as ... Add color, flavor, life and elegance to your life with Chef Will the Palate. One of the most inventive American chefs working ...
This is the perfect time to grab your copy of Colorful Palate: A Flavorful Journey Through a Mixed American Experience. - Next ... In Colorful Palate, author Raj Tawney shares his coming-of-age memoir as a young man born into an Indian, Puerto Rican, and ... Colorful Palate is a tale of the mixed experience, one of the millions that rarely get told, undefined by a single group or ... In Raj Tawneys captivating memoir, Colorful Palate: A Flavorful Journey Through a Mixed American Experience, readers are ...
If you ask an experienced winelover, "What are the greatest Italian red wines?" Its likely their reply would be, "Barolo, Brunello and Amarone!" But how many people can say they have sampled Amarone? Barolo is the celebrated Piedmontese wine made with Nebbiolo grapes. Brunello is made with Tuscan sangiovese grapes ...
Palate Press has selected our top ten stories from 2012 and will publish a 2012 Redux article each weekday until January 4, ...
Well, I had another birthday.When you have the number four in front of your age, birthdays are not quite the same. Its not like youre jumping up and down
Long-term speech outcome after anterior distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla in patients with cleft lip and palate. *Mark ... Advancement of the maxilla may increase the distance between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall in patients with ... Advancement of the maxilla may increase the distance between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall in patients with ... may increase the distance between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall in patients with cleft lip and palate, ...
After what seemed to be a long time, we were informed that our baby had a cleft lip and may also have a cleft palate but they ... Isaac had a plastic plate made by the Orthodontist to act as a palate to assist with feeding but it all worked out and after a ... He was diagnosed as having a bilateral cleft and lip and cleft palate. To be completely honest I didnt know how I would react ... The time then came at about 6 months to have his palate repaired and have grommets fitted, which was just as difficult as the ...
Welcome to Picky Palate!. Welcome to my online kitchen! Picky Palate is where youll find family friendly recipes along with ...
2023 Cleft Lip & Palate Association. All Rights Reserved. Registered Charity in England and Wales (No. 1108160) and Scotland ( ... cleft lip and palate. It is unique. ... What is Cleft Lip & Palate? * Dealing with Diagnosis * What ...
Welcome to Picky Palate!. Welcome to my online kitchen! Picky Palate is where youll find family friendly recipes along with ...
Tablet presents the famous silver palate chicken Marbella recipe. This fantastic chicken Marbella recipe makes a great meal for ... Soon after The Silver Palate Cookbook became a smash hit in 1981, one of its iconic dishes, Chicken Marbella, became a staple ...
African Americans seeking a better life in the North enriched the Akron palate with the unique and southern-inspired dishes of ... Waves of immigrants introduced a global mix of ingredients to the capitals eager palates by opening eateries like the ... ascent as a culinary destination pairs its rich tradition of homegrown bounty with a progressively wider international palate. ...
Artists palate: Landon Metzs recipe for cacio e pepe New York-based artist Landon Metzs recipe for cacio e pepe is a minimal ... Artists palate: Oliver Beers sesame and peanut candy The British artists Korean-inspired fusion of fruit, nuts and seeds is ... Artists Palate: Sean Scullys pancakes Flip through Irish-born artist Sean Scullys dynamic pancake recipe, as featured in our ... Artists Palate: Chiharu Shiotas recipe for okonomiyaki Get tangled up in Chiharu Shiotas recipe for okonomiyaki, from our ...
A trained palate: Understanding complexities of taste, smell could lead to improved diet. Date:. May 30, 2012. Source:. Oregon ... "A trained palate: Understanding complexities of taste, smell could lead to improved diet." ScienceDaily. ... "A trained palate: Understanding complexities of taste, smell could lead to improved diet." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 May ... 2012, May 30). A trained palate: Understanding complexities of taste, smell could lead to improved diet. ScienceDaily. ...
What are the risks of cleft lip and cleft palate repair? The repair of a cleft lip and/or cleft palate is important for your ... Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Repair. Correcting Abnormal Development. Cleft lip and cleft palate repair surgically corrects ...
  • Advancement of the maxilla may increase the distance between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall in patients with cleft lip and palate, implying a risk of velopharyngeal dysfunction. (
  • Eating, breathing, speech and psychological problems are some of the difficulties confronted by the child with a cleft lip or palate. (
  • [ 14 ] Essentially, it has the same malignant potential as normal hard and soft palate. (
  • Palate (Hard and Soft Palate). (
  • How are Cleft Lips and Cleft Palates Treated? (
  • Unresolved cleft palates can cause lifelong issues like chronic ear infections, speech deficits, and malnourishment due to poor feeding. (
  • When a baby with a cleft palate tries to feed, liquids or food may come out of its nose - something that can be addressed with special bottles and extra care until the baby is old enough to undergo surgery. (
  • It consists of an anterior hard palate of bone and, in mammals, a posterior soft palate that has no skeletal support and terminates in a fleshy, elongated projection called the uvula. (
  • However, in tumors with posterior soft palate extension, retropharyngeal nodes may be involved. (
  • Soon after The Silver Palate Cookbook became a smash hit in 1981, one of its iconic dishes, Chicken Marbella, became a staple of New York dinner parties. (
  • The exciting sequel to The Silver Palate Cookbook, this 450-recipe collection--acclaimed PESTO (FROM THE SILVER PALATE COOKBOOK) Add cold water if necessary, 1 Tbsp at a time, to make dough combine. (
  • Common sites of extension include the tonsils, retromolar trigone, inferior or superior alveolar process, hard palate, and base of tongue. (
  • The cleft may vary from involvement of only the soft palate to a complete fissure of the soft and hard palates, the alveolar process of the maxilla, and the lip. (
  • Objective: To evaluate the action of speech-aid palatal obturators in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency due to cleft palate. (
  • Methods: Ten transforamen or post-foramen cleft palate patients with a diagnosis of velopharyngeal insufficiency, based on the analysis of hypernasality and nasal air emission, participated in the study. (
  • Conclusion: These results indicate that the use of speech-aid palatal obturators in cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency increased hypernasality of the vowel /i/ and nasal air emission. (
  • Posterior extension involves the soft palate, with possible velopharyngeal insufficiency and hypernasal speech. (
  • A team experienced in treating children with cleft lip and palate can create a treatment plan tailored to your child's needs. (
  • The repair of a cleft lip and/or cleft palate is important for your child's development and quality of life. (
  • Early treatment, pending surgical repair, depends on the specific abnormality but may include specially designed bottle nipples (to facilitate flow), dental appliances (to occlude the cleft so suckling can occur), a feeder that can be squeezed to deliver formula, taping, and an artificial palate molded to the child's own palate. (
  • Although squamous cell carcinoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the oral cavity, the most common tumors of the hard palate are of minor salivary gland origin. (
  • The indications to perform hard palate resection include excision of malignant and benign tumors, to alleviate complications from tumor burden that compromise the function of the oral cavity, and for facial reconstruction such as in cases of eyelid, lip, and nasal ala deformities. (
  • While elevated, the soft palate creates a vacuum in the oral cavity, which keeps food out of the respiratory tract . (
  • The palate is divided anatomically into the hard palate (part of the oral cavity) and the soft palate (part of the oropharynx). (
  • Although a strong correlation is established between tobacco and alcohol consumption and SCC of the oral cavity and soft palate, the relationship to hard palate cancer is not as clear. (
  • Cleft lip, cleft lip and palate, and isolated cleft palate, are collectively termed oral clefts and are the most common congenital anomalies of the head and the neck, with a total prevalence of 2.1 per 1000 live births. (
  • Some kids with cleft palate may need other surgeries as they get older. (
  • Cleft lip and palate surgeries have greatly improved in recent years. (
  • Depending on the severity of the cleft palate, multiple surgeries may be required over an extended period of time. (
  • The palate has numerous minor salivary glands. (
  • Lesions are not seen on the anterior hard palate, since there are no minor salivary glands present where the rugae are present. (
  • Nonsquamous cell cancers, including minor salivary gland cancers, sarcomas, and melanomas, account for the other half (see the histologic distribution of hard palate malignant neoplasms and the histologic types and frequencies of minor salivary gland neoplasms of the palate below). (
  • Resection of the hard palate may be necessary for the management of benign or malignant tumors or as a donor site for a mucosal graft. (
  • Cleft lip and cleft palate repair surgically corrects abnormal development, restoring function to the lips and mouth and producing a more normal appearance. (
  • Surgically closing a cleft lip is simpler than repairing a cleft palate. (
  • It is difficult to see a cleft palate on a prenatal ultrasound before the baby is born. (
  • Without a cleft lip, a cleft palate is harder to see on ultrasound. (
  • Based on a qualitative approach, we interviewed nine mothers of babies diagnosed with cleft lip and palate when undergoing ultrasound as part of routine examinations to monitor fetal development. (
  • Nicotine stomatitis (smoker's palate), a lesion of the palatal mucosa, has been described in the literature since 1926. (
  • Language Vocal tract Pallet, palette and pellet, objects whose names are homophonous with palate for many English-speakers Palatability Saladin, Kenneth (2010). (
  • Save the date for this year's Palate to Palette Gala. (
  • Planet DELL organized an event at Palate Palette last night. (
  • The artsy (fartsy) décor of Palate Palette. (
  • Oronasal fistula is one of the disappointing expected outcomes of cleft palate surgery. (
  • In this chapter, oronasal fistula, as one of the expected deleterious outcomes of cleft palate surgery, is discussed thoroughly. (
  • 1981) reported on 39 patients with a syndrome characterized by the following frequent features: cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, typical facies, and learning disabilities. (
  • The palate (/ˈpælɪt/) is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals. (
  • The English synonyms palate and palatum, and also the related adjective palatine (as in palatine bone), are all from the Latin palatum via Old French palat, words that like their English derivatives, refer to the "roof" of the mouth. (
  • A cleft palate (PAL-it) is when a baby is born with an opening (a cleft) in the roof of the mouth. (
  • A cleft palate happens when parts of the roof of the mouth do not fuse together completely. (
  • palate , in vertebrate anatomy, the roof of the mouth , separating the oral and nasal cavities. (
  • A cleft palate occurs when there is a direct opening between the palate, or roof of the mouth, and the floor of the nose. (
  • A cleft palate can vary in size from a small crack to a large hole in the roof of the mouth, and will become apparent soon after birth, if not immediately. (
  • Babies born with a cleft lip and palate have an opening between the roof of their mouths and the upper lip. (
  • An oral-facial cleft is a birth defect in which the lip, the roof of the mouth, or both do not close in the midline and remain open, creating a cleft lip and/or cleft palate. (
  • A cleft palate usually is repaired with surgery called palatoplasty (PAL-eh-tuh-plass-tee) when the baby is 10-12 months old. (
  • Cleft palate surgery has greatly improved in recent years. (
  • Some children with cleft palate need this surgery to realign the jaws and teeth when they're older. (
  • It's important to correct a cleft palate with cleft lip with surgery while a child is young. (
  • Doctors and scientists are studying new ways to diagnose and treat soft palate cancer, including research into improving and innovating head and neck surgery techniques. (
  • A cleft palate is a more serious condition than a cleft lip, although both require surgery in order to be corrected. (
  • With a cleft palate, surgery is delayed until the child is one to two years old, when the upper jaw has reached normal growth. (
  • Born in Lebanon, Ali and his family had limited access to healthcare resources, making it challenging for him to get surgery to correct his cleft lip and palate. (
  • The palate is divided into two parts, the anterior, bony hard palate and the posterior, fleshy soft palate (or velum). (
  • Rearrange and repair the muscles of the soft palate so they work better during speech. (
  • The soft palate is composed of muscle and connective tissue , which give it both mobility and support. (
  • See a list of publications about soft palate cancer by Mayo Clinic doctors on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine. (
  • Living with soft palate cancer? (
  • Is there a place for thermocautery of the soft palate? (
  • Level of evidence Five studies were identified that investigated the effects of thermocautery of the soft palate [1-5]. (
  • The largest studies ([1] n = 187 and [3] n = 110) did not include any horses with a definitive diagnosis of dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP). (
  • The oropharynx begins superiorly at the junction between the hard palate and the soft palate, and inferiorly behind the circumvallate papillae of the tongue. (
  • Cancer of the soft palate accounts for approximately 2% of head and neck mucosal malignancies. (
  • However, in the soft palate, 80% of cancers are SCCs. (
  • Soft palate carcinomas are staged as oropharyngeal cancers according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (see Staging). (
  • Almost half of patients present with extension of the tumor beyond the soft palate. (
  • The cleft lip, nose, and soft palate are repaired during infancy (at age 3 to 6 months). (
  • The prevalence of isolated cleft palate is 1 in 2000 live births [ 2 ]. (
  • Tumors of the hard palate are uncommon. (
  • Contraindications to hard palate resection include inability to tolerate general anesthesia , extensive lesions that may require more radical surgical intervention, and tumors that may be more appropriately treated with local irradiation and/or chemotherapy. (
  • Half of all hard palate cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) as seen in the image below. (
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate. (
  • Lost Palate is a New England IPA brewed by Goose Island Beer Company with a 6.3 percent alcohol content. (
  • The Lost Palate IPA features a 6.3 percent alcohol content in a 12-ounce can and 14 IBU since its flavor is mostly sweet. (
  • A biopsy is also indicated in a patient with a symptomatic lesion, even if it appears consistent with a benign smoker's palate, or if the patient reports that he or she is a reverse smoker. (
  • In the human abnormality of cleft palate , the separation between the nose and mouth is incomplete, allowing food to enter the nose and interfering with speech. (
  • Help create a palate that works well for speech. (
  • Children can develop speech problems even after the palate has been repaired. (
  • A cleft palate interferes with feeding and speech development and increases the risk of ear infections. (
  • Porters, such as Founders Porter, take your palate on a delectable journey through chocolaty caramel malts, with just a hint of hop bitterness to keep things interesting. (
  • Sometimes the opening in the palate can connect with an opening in the gums and the lip ( cleft lip and palate ). (
  • Palate Wizards $1M Palate Wizards, the intelligence SaaS platform for retailers and brands in the alcohol industry to connect and track has raised an additional $1M in funding according to a recent SEC filing. (
  • The most common type of palate cleanser is the one with the most neutral flavor possible, which is used to sort of reset the taste buds. (
  • The flavor of the Lost Palate IPA follows the aroma, with the main taste being cinnamon and mango . (
  • For a cleft palate, a 2-stage procedure is often done. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Dominantly inherited syndrome of microcephaly and cleft palate. (
  • The varied array of clefting syndromes - the failure of the lip or palate to fuse properly Cleft lip with or without cleft palate ( CL / P ) NIDCR grantees have mapped the gene for Van der Woude syndrome, the most common form of syndromic clefting, to a narrow band on chromosome 1. (
  • They may involve only a single, specific site (eg, cleft lip, cleft palate, clubfoot) or be part of a syndrome of multiple. (
  • In Colorful Palate , author Raj Tawney shares his coming-of-age memoir as a young man born into an Indian, Puerto Rican, and Italian-American family, his struggles with understanding his own identity, and the mouthwatering flavors of the melting pot from within his own childhood kitchen. (
  • People who eat for fun and profit use palate cleansers to help them more easily distinguish between flavors. (
  • Lost Palate is a delicious NEIPA bursting with mango flavors and cinnamon. (
  • The area under the curve ( AUC ) statistic was generated to assess model performance, and separate predictive models were built and validated for infants with cleft lip and cleft palate alone. (
  • Infants with cleft-palate. (
  • Palates similar to those in humans occur only in birds and some mammals. (
  • Nasal floor involvement may occur by direct extension through the palate. (
  • The hard palate provides space for the tongue to move freely and supplies a rigid floor to the nasal cavity so that pressures within the mouth do not close off the nasal passage. (
  • The Lost Palate IPA features a medium body that fills up your mouth and light carbonation that presents itself as a fizzy feeling at the back of your tongue. (
  • The hard palate, which composes two-thirds of the total palate area, is a plate of bone covered by a moist, durable layer of mucous-membrane tissue, which secretes small amounts of mucus. (
  • Isaac had a plastic plate made by the Orthodontist to act as a palate to assist with feeding but it all worked out and after a while he fed much better and it all became much easier. (
  • Produce realistic elk sounds on your next hunt with these Rocky Mountain® Palate Plate Diaphragm Elk Calls. (
  • Raj Tawney's Colorful Palate is a delicious, charming, and winning coming-of-age story that is authentically American in exploring the messy, beautiful, painful, and ultimately rewarding contradictions of trying to expand stifling boundaries to accommodate and celebrate the multi-hyphenated experiences of those who are often relegated to the margins. (
  • The mechanism of action of nicotine stomatitis (smoker's palate) is heat and chemical irritation from a tobacco product that acts as a local irritant, stimulating a reactive process, including inflammation, hyperplasia, and epithelial keratinization. (
  • When used as donor grafts, hard palate tissue offers the advantages of an epithelial lining, minimal postoperative graft shrinkage, and ready availability compared to other donor sites/materials. (
  • Cleft lip and palate are among the most common birth defects in the craniofacial region [ 1 ]. (
  • A restaurant family's second venture, Penn & Palate hopes to do for Herron-Morton what its older sibling did for Irvington. (
  • When you're eating spicy food, milk and sometimes bread are recommended as palate cleansers. (
  • SCC extension beyond the hard palate occurs in up to 70% of lesions. (
  • Management of children born with a cleft lip and/or palate necessitates long-term and multidisciplinary involvement and multidisciplinary to obtain the most satisfactory results [ 3 ]. (
  • The surgeon may need to make two incisions (cuts) on each side of the palate behind the gums to ease tension on the palate repair. (
  • Cleft palate repair requires general anesthesia and takes about 2-3 hours. (
  • This is so your baby can't put any fingers or hard objects into the mouth, which could make the cleft palate repair come open. (
  • What are the risks of cleft lip and cleft palate repair? (
  • In many lower vertebrates the hard palate bears teeth . (
  • If the fusion is incomplete, a cleft palate results. (
  • A cleft lip and palate is the most common facial birth defect in the UK. (
  • Doctors usually find a cleft palate when they examine the inside of a baby's mouth during this exam. (
  • Doctors usually find a cleft palate when they look and feel inside a baby's mouth during the first newborn exam . (
  • The study aimed to know the experience of mothers from the prenatal diagnosis of cleft lip and palate to the birth of their children. (
  • The Lost Palate is a NEIPA brewed by Goose Island Beer Co . The beer is based on Jonny Coffman, the brand ambassador facing a cancer diagnosis. (