Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Mononeuropathies: Disease or trauma involving a single peripheral nerve in isolation, or out of proportion to evidence of diffuse peripheral nerve dysfunction. Mononeuropathy multiplex refers to a condition characterized by multiple isolated nerve injuries. Mononeuropathies may result from a wide variety of causes, including ISCHEMIA; traumatic injury; compression; CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsSciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Intercostal Nerves: The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Spinal DiseasesDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Peripheral Nervous System Agents: Drugs that act principally at one or more sites within the peripheral neuroeffector systems, the autonomic system, and motor nerve-skeletal system. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p75)Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spinal NeoplasmsPain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Infusions, Spinal: The administration of medication by insertion of a tiny needle or catheter into the spinal sac or epidural cavity.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Loperamide: One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Electroacupuncture: A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOptic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.
Observation of Spinal Nerve Root Degeneration." Anesthesia & Analgesia 75.6 (1992): 895-899. ... Is Chloroprocaine Neurotoxic?." Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 9.3 (1984): 135-145. ... Chloroprocaine was developed to meet the need for a short-acting spinal anaesthetic that is reliable and has a favourable ... articaine as spinal anaesthetics for day‐case knee arthroscopy." Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 55.3 (2011): 273-281. ...
The schwannomas develop on cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves. Chronic pain, and sometimes numbness, tingling and weakness. ... Damaged nerves and scar tissue can be a result of surgery and pain can be an ongoing problem. Sometimes, a tumor will reappear ... Schwannomas on sensory nerve axons cause chronic severe pain. Treatment options for schwannomas are to surgically remove them, ... Schwannomatosis can sometimes cause severe, untreatable pain over time. Other than surgery and/or pain management, there are no ...
Saladin, Kenneth S. "Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Somatic Reflexes." Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form ... "Incidence of neuropathic pain after radiofrequency denervation of the third occipital nerve". Journal of Pain Research: 195. ... The bouts of pain are rarely consistent, but can occur frequently depending on the damage to the nerves. The amount of time the ... This pain is typically one-sided, although it can be on both sides if both occipital nerves have been affected. Additionally, ...
Such instability results in nerve damage, spinal deformities, and disabling pain. Spinal deformities may be caused by birth ... It was used at the beginning without performing a spinal fusion but early results proved fusion as part of the procedure was ... Harrington rods were intended to provide a means to reduce the curvature and to provide more stability to a spinal fusion. ... Historically, this rod was implanted along the spinal column to treat, among other conditions, a lateral or coronal-plane ...
The brain sends signals through the spinal cord and nerves to regulate activity in the rest of the body. The pineal body, known ... It is believed amphibians are capable of perceiving pain. The brain consists of equal parts, cerebrum, midbrain and cerebellum ... The nervous system is basically the same as in other vertebrates, with a central brain, a spinal cord, and nerves throughout ...
Symptoms are due to spinal cord damage and are: pain, decreased sensation of touch, weakness and loss of muscle tissue. The ... Syringomyelia causes a wide variety of neuropathic symptoms due to damage of the spinal cord and the nerves inside. Patients ... These include Chiari malformation, spinal arachnoiditis, scoliosis, spinal vertebrae misalignment, spinal tumors, spina bifida ... Physicians specializing in pain management can develop a medication and treatment plan to ameliorate pain. Medications to ...
The formation of the spinal nerve from the posterior and anterior roots Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve. ... Thus GABAA receptors but not glycine receptors can presynaptically control nociception and pain transmission. Anterior root of ... is a cluster of nerve cell bodies (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve. The dorsal root ganglia contain the cell ... The presynaptic regulation of the dorsal nerve ending discharge in the spinal cord can occur through certain types of GABAA ...
12 thoracic nerves, 5 lumbar nerves and 5 sacral nerves. Each of these nerves relays sensation (including pain) from a ... A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve.[1] There are 8 cervical nerves (C1 being an ... Following is a list of spinal nerves and points that are characteristically belonging to the dermatome of each nerve:[2] ... A dermatome is an area of skin supplied by sensory neurons that arise from a spinal nerve ganglion. Symptoms that follow a ...
... into the spinal canal and put pressure on the spinal cord and surrounding nerve roots as it can cause pain and affect nerve ... This can result in pressure being put on the nerves in the spinal column, causing pain and weakness. While not always ... A part of the lamina is removed or trimmed to widen the spinal canal and create more space for the spinal nerves. New ... Spinal laminectomy: A procedure for treating spinal stenosis by relieving pressure on the spinal cord. ...
In addition, lesions may mechanically interfere with the spinal cord or nerve roots, producing neurologic deficits. Pain and ... In contrast to the pain associated with osteoid osteoma, the pain of osteoblastoma usually is less intense, usually not worse ... Spinal lesions can cause painful scoliosis, although this is less common with osteoblastoma than with osteoid osteoma. ... The tumors usually involve the posterior elements, and 17% of spinal osteoblastomas are found in the sacrum. The long tubular ...
Merck Manual: Brain, Spinal Cord and Nerve Disorders Veterinary Neurological Centre - Neurological Signs and Diseases Merck ... Complex regional pain syndrome (a chronic pain condition) Neurological disorders in non-human animals are treated by ... Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can result in a range of symptoms ... The Merck Manual lists brain, spinal cord and nerve disorders in the following overlapping categories: Brain: Brain damage ...
Mechanisms of pain include spinal cord ischemia and traction on the periosteum, dura, nearby soft tissues, and nerve roots.[5] ... 2. Spinal Cord Tumor Presentations. *Pain is the first symptom in ,90% of patients presenting with epidural metastasis and ... 1. Spinal Cord Metastasis. The management of spinal cord metastasis depends on whether or not the metastasis is causing ... If other neurologic symptoms suggestive of myelopathy are present, without pain, the clinician should evaluate for spinal cord ...
... dorsal ramus of spinal nerve). This nerve irritation causes referred pain in a well described tri-branched pattern. The ... Scott-Charlton, W.and Roebuck, D.J. The Significance of Posterior Primary Divisions of Spinal Nerves in Pain Syndrome. The ... Scott-Charlton, W.and Roebuck, D.J. The Significance of Posterior Primary Divisions of Spinal Nerves in Pain Syndrome. The ... Secondly the patient will not usually have spontaneous pain at the offending spinal level. Pain can be provoked by palpation of ...
"Up-regulation of P2X4 receptors in spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury mediates BDNF release and neuropathic pain". ... "P2X4 receptors induced in spinal microglia gate tactile allodynia after nerve injury". Nature. 424 (6950): 778-83. doi:10.1038/ ... receptor upregulation and neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury". Glia. 56 (1): 50-8. doi:10.1002/glia.20591. PMID ... "IFN-gamma receptor signaling mediates spinal microglia activation driving neuropathic pain". Proceedings of the National ...
Injections: Spinal nerve blocks and epidural injections are options available to alleviate pain and neurological symptoms. ... NSAIDs are suggested to be more effective for persistent pain than for acute pain. If pain remains intolerable while taking ... Spinal manipulation, massage, and acupuncture have been used to treat the pain associated with various back injuries, but there ... alleviate pain while steroid injections can be used to reduce the inflammation and swelling surrounding spinal nerves. Surgery ...
... no evidence at all to suggest that standing waves are present in the spinal cord or that pain is stored in the nerves. Other ... The Nerve Assist is based on Scientology's teaching that standing waves of energy can form in nerves and cause pain. The assist ... There are not 12 major nerves in the spinal cord[11]). Unconscious person assist[edit]. This assist is intended for "a person ... even though assists are intended to treat pain, injuries, and even death, modern Church of Scientology publications are careful ...
This loss of function and ataxia of peripheral nerves and spinal cord is the phenomenon of OPIDP. Once the symptoms begin with ... shooting pains in both legs, the symptoms continue to worsen for 3-6 months. In the most severe cases quadriplegia has been ... Experience of nerve agents and acute pesticide poisoning on the effects of oximes". Journal of Physiology. 92: 375-378. doi: ... HuBChe can offer a broad range of protection for nerve agents including soman, sarin, tabun, and VX. HuBChE also possess a very ...
Similar behavior has been observed in laboratory rats in experiments looking at spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries. The ... Autophagia occurs when one is compelled to inflict pain upon oneself by biting and/or devouring portions of one's body. It is ... After testing this mixture on 24 rats with spinal cord injuries, only one rat had chewed its toes after a 2-3 week period. Self ... Frost FS, Mukkamala S, Covington E (2008). "Self-inflicted finger injury in individuals with spinal cord injury: an analysis of ...
... pain radiating along the path of a single spinal nerve (a dermatomal distribution), but without an accompanying rash. This ... Topical lidocaine and nerve blocks may also reduce pain.[54] Administering gabapentin along with antivirals may offer relief of ... The trigeminal nerve is the most commonly involved nerve,[21] of which the ophthalmic division is the most commonly involved ... The short- and long-term pain caused by shingles outbreaks originates from inflammation of affected nerves due to the ...
Adhesions and scarring as epidural fibrosis may occur after spinal surgery that restricts the free movement of nerve roots, ... In women they typically affect reproductive organs and thus are of concern in reproduction or as a cause of chronic pelvic pain ... Adhesion-related twisting and pulling of internal organs may result in complications such as abdominal pain or intestinal ... causing tethering and leading to pain. Peritendinous adhesions[edit]. Adhesions and scarring occurring around tendons after ...
This is a deterioration of nerves in the spinal cord, starting in the posterior part of the cord. Dogs so affected will become ... If no signs of pain can be elicited, surgery should be performed within 24 hours of the incident, to remove the disc material ... This is a microscopic piece of disc material that breaks off and becomes lodged in a spinal artery. Nerves served by the artery ... or rupturing more laterally to press on spinal nerves. A minor rupture may only result in paresis, but a major rupture can ...
The medical literature documents cases of ascending paralysis due to massive encephalopathy and spinal nerve demyelination, ... Serious side effects may include neuropathic pain, lung damage, or low blood white cells. It will likely cause harm to the baby ... The symptoms of this are progressive and enduring tingling numbness, pain and hypersensitivity to cold, beginning in the hands ... Accidental injection of vinca alkaloids into the spinal canal (intrathecal administration) is highly dangerous, with a ...
... which causes pain by stressing the spinal cord or radiating nerves. The traditional open discectomy, or Love's technique, was ... is the surgical removal of herniated disc material that presses on a nerve root or the spinal cord. The procedure involves ... "Back and Leg Pain - Definition List , Resources , HJD Spine Center". Med.nyu.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-08-25. ... Back pain Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion Lumbar disc herniation Degenerative disc disease Failed back surgery ...
Inflammation of the spinal cord's nerve roots can cause shooting pains that may interfere with sleep, as well as abnormal skin ... The associated nerve pain radiating out from the spine is termed Bannwarth syndrome, named after Alfred Bannwarth. The late ... Months to years later, repeated episodes of joint pain and swelling may occur. Occasionally, people develop shooting pains or ... Pain is often mild or moderate, usually with swelling at the involved joint. Baker's cysts may form and rupture. In some cases ...
... a painful condition in which enlarged spine nerves pinch nearby nerves. 2002 St. Mary's opens the first Chest Pain Evaluation ... Mary's Spine Center's invented the X-Stop device to treat patients with spinal stenosis, ... Unit in the city to provide rapid evaluation of patients with chest pain that is of unclear origin. Spine Center surgeons ... a non-invasive procedure for spinal stenosis. ...
Spinal manipulation aims to treat "vertebral subluxations" which are claimed to put pressure on nerves. Chiropractic was ... "Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 46 (6): 887-96. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.02.010. ISSN 1873-6513. PMID 23707384.. ... Complementary therapies are often used in palliative care or by practitioners attempting to manage chronic pain in patients. ... but patients may report improvements in subjective outcomes such as pain and nausea.[117] A 1955 study suggested that a ...
TENS can reduce pain by inhibiting nociceptive receptors at the presynaptic dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Electrical ... Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). As part of our treatment modalities, MedCenter TMJ is pleased to ... stimulation through the skin preferentially activates low threshold myelinated nerve fibers, blocking transmission of pain ... This technology involves the use of controlled low voltage electrical impulses transmitted through the skin for relief of pain ...
Sciatica occurs due to compression or inflammation of the five spinal nerve roots that make up the sciatic nerve, the longest ... Joint pain can be painful and unbearable. If the nerve is compressed and the pain and symptoms are severe, surgery may be ... Sciatica refers to pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve, which branches from your sciatica sos book download ... This disease is caused as a result of compression of the spinal nerve root located in the lower back of a person. Im sure you ...
In 2000 I had a ACDF at level C6-7. Then in 2012, I had a double ACDF done at C4-5 and C5-6. I continued to have pain, so my ... So I have been diagnosed with Cervical Spinal Stenosis and disc degenerative disease. ... Re: Chronic Neck Pain Hi, Sorry to hear you are in pain. could you tell me what kind of a dr. does a nerve block or burn? Thank ... So yesterday I had a Nerve Burn....my question is, What is the difference between a nerve block and a nerve burn? Any ...
The pain originally was on the right side of my neck, down to the middle of the right shoulder blade where it felt like a ... Spinal Cord Disorders. 2. 02-08-2009 02:02 AM. Needling,burning,cramping pain in neck & throat under ear worse when move arm ... Whats happening is, you have a pain from the nerves that are being irritated from the spurs or herniation. Your bodys defense ... Right now the right side just feels weak, no pain. Any ideas? Is it unusual for the pain to move like this? If not, why? Is it ...
... can alleviate pain involving the thoracic paraspinal regions, chest, and abdomen. SNRBs are helpful in determining the cause of ... What is the role of thoracic spinal nerve blocks in pain management?) and What is the role of thoracic spinal nerve blocks in ... What is the role of thoracic spinal nerve blocks in pain management?. Updated: Jun 19, 2018 ... Nutrition of spinal nerve roots: the role of diffusion from the cerebral spinal fluid. Transactions of the 30th Orthopedic ...
Im c5/6/7 and l5/s1 following car crash and am incomplete and walking but with nerve pain, muscle pain and spasm. My new pain ... doctor has put me through for the E stim trial to see if the stimulator will improve my nerve pain. I believe it will be put ... Do you have nerve pain after spinal cord injury?. By Spine Injury Pain Study in forum Clinical Trials ... spinal cord stimulator for nerve pain Hi,. Im fairly new on this forum but was active on another SCI forum as wobbly. Im c5 ...
Need Answers Re: Chronic Permanent & Severe Pain & Nerve Damage - Spinal Injury - Stenosis. Chronic Illness Forums. , ... Its for nerve pain mainly, but Ive found it also helps some with muscle spasms.. Also, regarding your muscle pain, there is ... Need Answers Re: Chronic Permanent & Severe Pain & Nerve Damage - Spinal Injury - Stenosis ... What suggestions do you have and any hints of what I can do, buy, take, etc to treat the pain and help the nerve damage?. • ...
... cervical nerve, chronic back pain, spinal nerve, women icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by Delwar Hossain found in ... Back, back pain, cervical nerve, chronic back pain, spinal nerve, women icon. ...
Nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord sense pain caused by physical insult. ... Although it is known that COX2 in mouse central nervous system cells is crucial for some forms of pain associated with ...
... and pain management. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to ... Transversus Abdominis Plane and Ilioinguinal-Iliohypogastric Nerve Blocks for Postcaesarean Delivery Pain Relief under Spinal ... There are no enough data concerning the efficacy of TAP versus II-IH nerve blocks in the management of postoperative pain in ... A randomized comparative study done in New Zealand showed that the II-IH nerve block reduced the pain score significantly and ...
... and pain management. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to ... Transversus Abdominis Plane and Ilioinguinal-Iliohypogastric Nerve Blocks for Postcaesarean Delivery Pain Relief under Spinal ... While the benefits of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) and ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric (II-IH) nerve blocks on pain after ... The outcome measure was the severity of pain measured using a numeric rating scale. Result. Twenty-four hours after surgery, ...
... model of neuropathic pain. Isolates L5 and L6 spinal nerves. Pain threshold is tested. Model specifications include positive ... Spinal Nerve ligation (SNL) Model of Neuropathic Pain. In the SNL model of peripheral neuropathy, the L5 and L6 spinal nerves ... Two weeks later, pain threshold is tested using Von Frey and continues for length of study. ... Pronounced mechanical Allodynia follows, accompanied by spontaneous pain behaviors, cold Allodynia, which lasts for months with ...
hi i have sever middle back pain when swallong near to spine from one year shoulder stifness chest pain back pain and i had ... Abdomen pain - Mainly after eating barrets esophagus Severe Lower Back Pain Brain freeze back pain chest pain in esophagus ... Chest pains, cramping, pain on left side 6in under armpit. b thorasic mid back pain and breathing Thorasic and neck pain with ... what are the symptoms of thorasic spine nerve damage Neck, shoulder elbow pain. Confusing MRI lump in throat mild lung pain ...
Over the years my back pain increasingl This topic is answered by a medical expert. ... Treatment For Sciatic Nerve Pain Sciatica Exercises to Relieve Pain of the Sciatic Nerve Back pain: Causes, Treatment & Risks ... increased pain following spinal fusion DOES THE PAIN GO AWAY STRAIGHT AWAY AFTER SPINAL FUSION? spinal fusion surgery recovery- ... Smoking pot and spinal fusion Spinal Fusion L4/L5 Severe Lower Back Pain spinal surgery lower back with numbness in left leg ...
Glial activation is a typical response of the central nervous system to nerve injury. In the current investigation, we ... Pain Measurement / methods. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / complications*, pathology*. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Spinal ... There was a close temporal correlation between microglial proliferation in the spinal cord dorsal horn and the abnormal pain ... of cell proliferation in rat spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury and the relationship with neuropathic pain. ...
The L5 transverse process was carefully removed, in order to identify the spinal nerves, and the L5 spinal nerve was ligated ... and astrocytes by spinal nerve ligation and contributes to mechanical allodynia in this neuropathic pain model. Pain. 114:149- ... Chung JM, Kim HK and Chung K: Segmental spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. Methods Mol Med. 99:35-45. 2004.PubMed ... and glia-mediated spinal inflammation in rats with L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). The results of the present study may ...
Spinal nerve ligation (SNL) was used as an experimental model of neuropathic pain in our study. We induced anesthesia with 2-3 ... Although inhibition of spinal PKC and protein tyrosine kinase Src reduces pain hypersensitivity induced by nerve injury (Hua et ... Another salient finding of our study is that CK2 at the spinal level plays a key role in nerve injury-induced pain ... Casein Kinase II Regulates N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Activity in Spinal Cords and Pain Hypersensitivity Induced by Nerve ...
... alleging significant pain as a result of off-label use of the bone graft. ... and spinal nerve pain.. There have also been reports of male sterility, retrograde ejaculation, and excessive or abnormal bone ... The pain was so severe that he had to have a spinal cord stimulator implanted. ... According to the Medtronic Infuse lawsuit, the plaintiff experienced severe pain in his lumbar region (lower spine), which ...
AnAnkle Trial study protocol: a randomised trial comparing pain profiles after peripheral nerve block or spinal anaesthesia for ... AnAnkle Trial study protocol: a randomised trial comparing pain profiles after peripheral nerve block or spinal anaesthesia for ... In this study we will use the IPS with a longitudinal pain measurement in the form of AUC pain score rather than a single pain ... Peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative pain after major knee surgery. Wang X , ed. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ...
... pain,comes,from,affected,nerve,and,spinal,cord,,not,brain,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology ... The war in Iraq has highlighted the issue of chronic neuropathic pain ...,Chronic,neuropathic,,phantom, ... But if the impact is in the nerve we have a b...Devor added that the Alberta team didnt prove that the central nervo... ... Chronic neuropathic, phantom pain comes from affected nerve and spinal cord, not brain ...
Nerve Root Compression Increases Spinal Astrocytic Vimentin in Parallel With Sustained Pain and Endothelial Vimentin in ... Early after nerve root compression spinal astrocytes become activated and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) breakdown occurs in ... Spinal astrocytic vimentin increases by day 7 after nerve root compression, corresponding to when mechanical hyperalgesia is ... expression after a painful nerve root compression to define spinal cellular expression of vimentin in the context of pain. ...
This neuroinflammatory outbreak causes neuronal damage and chronic neuropathic pain. Urinary trypsin inhibitor (ulinastatin, ... Following nerve injury, inflammatory and algesic mediators are released. ... The Role of Uninjured Nerve in Spinal Nerve Ligated Rats Points to an Improved Animal Model of Neuropathic Pain DH Lee et al. ... Eur J Pain 7 (5), 473-9. 2003. PMID 12935800. L5 and L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats leads to behavioral signs of ...
... receptor 4 agonist J-2156 reduces mechanosensitivity of peripheral nerve afferents and spinal neurons in an inflammatory pain ... Mechanosensitivity of peripheral afferents of the saphenous nerve as well as of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) and nociceptive ... Given the high concentration of the compound required to inhibit spinal neurons, it is unlikely that the behavioral effect seen ... We demonstrated that J-2156 dose-dependently reduces peripheral and spinal neuronal excitability in the CFA rat model without ...
But it gives you the idea of how a problem at a certain spinal level will often cause a certain symptom. ... The spinal nerve chart that Im showing is simple and basic. ... pressure on nerve symptoms, spinal nerve chart, spinal nerves ... T.E.N.S stands for Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation. It is often used to treat low back pain and neck pain. Tens ... Neck Pain Support Blog. The Neck Pain Blogger Helps you Find Solutions for Neck Pain Relief, Better Posture, How to choose the ...
... nerve pain, second fusion not stable. Treatment ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Nerve pain, Ask a ... pinched nerve cause pain in palm of hand pinched nerve in arm red spots in armpit pinched nerve in neck tongue pinching feeling ... Spinal fusions, stenosis, grade 2 spondylolisthesis, degenerative discs, nerve pain, second fusion not stable. Treatment ?. ... As in spinal fixations we go away from exiting nerves .. Numbness & pain may be controlled by your current medications ,by ...
  • Sciatica refers to pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve, which branches from your sciatica sos book download lower back through your hips and buttocks and down each leg. (nyscopa.org)
  • Does It Really Work?Pole Tricks Handbook Review - Does it really work?14 day perfect booty Review - Does It Work Or Another Scam?Pure Natural Healing Review - Does It Really Work?Anabolic Running ReviewPrimal Palate Review - Does it really work?Sciatica is a relatively common form of back pain that radiates along the sciatic nerve. (nyscopa.org)
  • The present study aimed to examine the modulation of neuroinflammation by PDE4 subtypes in the spinal cord of a rat model of L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL)‑induced neuropathic pain. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This study evaluated the effect of ulinastatin in a rat model of spinal nerve ligation (SNL). (nih.gov)
  • The research team, including first author Ronen Shechter, used a spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain to investigate the analgesic and electrophysiological effects of SCS in rats. (blogspot.com)
  • To determine if spinal prostaglandins (PG) contribute to tactile allodynia, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with either i.t. microdialysis or drug delivery catheters 3 days before tight ligation of the left lumbar 5/6 spinal nerves. (mun.ca)
  • control) was significantly decreased in affected spinal segments of allodynic rats (8.9x10⁻¹⁵ M). In a separate group of rats and beginning 2 days after ligation, the acute i.t. injection of S(+)-ibuprofen (non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor), SC-51322 (prostaglandin E receptor antagonist), SC-236 (cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor), or SC-560 (cyclooxygenase-1 selective inhibitor) significantly reversed allodynia. (mun.ca)
  • Together, it appears that allodynia resulting from L51L6 spinal nerve ligation is comprised of an initial, time-limited, PG-dependent stage (characterized by brush-evoked increases in [PGE₂]dialysate and sensitivity to COX-2 inhibitors) and long-term, PG-independent allodynia. (mun.ca)
  • Our understanding of how degenerative changes in the disc and the adjacent vertebral structures can lead to pain and dysfunction has evolved significantly, leading to more accurate diagnoses, wider selection of treatment options and better long-term outcomes," said Farshad Ahadian, MD, medical director of the Center for Pain Medicine at UC San Diego Health . (ucsd.edu)
  • As well as osteoarthritis and other degenerative conditions, a number of other pain and problems in the low back may be aggravated by obesity. (sciaticnervepainrelief.info)
  • Caesarean delivery (CD) has been one of the most frequently performed major surgical interventions and causes severe postoperative pain [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the SNL model of peripheral neuropathy, the L5 and L6 spinal nerves are isolated and can either be cut or tightly ligated with surgical silk. (mdbiosciences.com)
  • Today, improved emergency room care with high dose steroids, spinal protocols, immediate transfer to a neuro-intensive care unit, immediate neuro-surgical intervention, and a host of treatment improvements have markedly improved the SCI patient's survival. (discectomy.net)
  • Given their minimally invasive nature, the procedure is often ideal for an outpatient surgical setting, allowing a person with back pain the convenience of a surgery that takes approximately 45 minutes. (elitespinefl.com)
  • However, if the pain is not manageable using these treatment modalities, a surgical procedure might be necessary. (elitespinefl.com)
  • Surgical options can provide some lasting relief for patients who suffer in almost constant pain. (tinyswot.com)
  • Sufferers and their doctors must choose between two surgical procedures performed to relieved the pain of sciatica. (sciaticnervepaintreatment.info)
  • These data are based upon a retrospective review of 672 patients suitable for spinal anaesthesia in surgical procedures less than 60 minutes' duration using 30-40 mg chloroprocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yes, if Timothy is still experiencing severe pain after trying non-surgical treatment, then the conversation can turn to surgery. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies is a disorder that affects peripheral nerves. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In people with this disorder, the peripheral nerves are unusually sensitive to pressure, such as the pressure that occurs when carrying heavy grocery bags, leaning on an elbow, or sitting without changing position, particularly with crossed legs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Intradiscal electrothermal therapy: The doctor uses a needle and catheter to provide heat that relieves the pain caused by spinal disc degeneration or lower-back disc problems. (ohsu.edu)