Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Catastrophization: Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsBupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Facial Neuralgia: Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Spinal DiseasesElectric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Causalgia: A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Pelvic Girdle Pain: Discomfort associated with the bones that make up the pelvic girdle. It occurs frequently during pregnancy.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Joint DiseasesRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neuralgia, Postherpetic: Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS; and HERPES ZOSTER OPHTHALMICUS. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Central Nervous System Sensitization: An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Musculoskeletal Manipulations: Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Breakthrough Pain: Acute pain that comes on rapidly despite the use of pain medication.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Somatosensory Disorders: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Hypnosis: A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.ArthritisSpinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Chiropractic: An occupational discipline founded by D.D. Palmer in the 1890's based on the relationship of the spine to health and disease.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.

Reduction of laparoscopic-induced hypothermia, postoperative pain and recovery room length of stay by pre-conditioning gas with the Insuflow device: a prospective randomized controlled multi-center study. (1/2502)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of Insuflow (Georgia BioMedical, Inc.) filter heater hydrator device in reducing the incidence, severity and extent of hypothermia, length of recovery room stay and postoperative pain at the time of laparoscopy. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled multi-center study. Patients underwent gynecologic procedures via laparoscopy; surgeons, anesthesiologists and recovery room personnel assessed the results. SETTING: Seven North American institutions. PATIENTS: Seventy-two women for safety evaluation and efficacy studies. INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative pre-conditioning of laparoscopic gas with the Insuflow device (treatment) or standard raw gas (control) during laparoscopic surgery and postoperatively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence, severity and extent of hypothermia, postoperative pain perception and length of recovery room stay. RESULTS: The Insuflow group had significantly less intraoperative hypothermia, reduced length of recovery room stay and reduced postoperative pain. Pre-conditioning of laparoscopic gas by filtering heating and hydrating was well tolerated with no adverse effects. The safety profile of the Insuflow pre-conditioned gas showed significant benefits compared to currently used raw gas. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-conditioning laparoscopic gas by filtering heating and hydrating with the Insuflow device was significantly more effective than the currently used standard raw gas and was safe in reducing or eliminating laparoscopic-induced hypothermia, shortening recovery room length of stay and reducing postoperative pain.  (+info)

Primary and secondary hyperalgesia in a rat model for human postoperative pain. (2/2502)

BACKGROUND: Previously, the authors developed and characterized a rat model for postoperative pain to learn more about pain produced by incisions. In this study, the responses to heat and mechanical stimuli were evaluated directly on or adjacent to the incision and at varying distances from the incision. METHODS: Rats were anesthetized with halothane and incisions were made at different locations in the plantar aspect of the foot. The response frequency to a blunt mechanical stimulus, the withdrawal threshold to von Frey filaments (15-522 mN), and the withdrawal latency to radiant heat were measured. Rats were tested before surgery, 2 h later, and then daily through postoperative day 9. RESULTS: After plantar incision, persistent hyperalgesia was observed immediately adjacent to or directly on the incision to punctate and blunt mechanical stimuli, respectively. The withdrawal threshold to punctate stimuli applied 1 cm from the incision was decreased through postoperative day 1. In a transitional area, between the distant and adjacent sites, the withdrawal threshold was intermediate and the duration of hyperalgesia was transient. Heat hyperalgesia was persistent but present when the stimulus was applied to the site of injury but not to a distant site. CONCLUSION: Robust primary hyperalgesia to punctate and blunt mechanical stimuli was present. Hyperalgesia distant to the wound, or secondary hyperalgesia, occurred in response to punctate mechanical stimuli, was short-lived, and required greater forces. These results suggest that the most persistent pain behaviors in this model are largely primary hyperalgesia.  (+info)

Effects of aggressive early rehabilitation on the outcome of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with multi-strand semitendinosus tendon. (3/2502)

To evaluate the effects of aggressive early rehabilitation on the clinical outcome of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using semitendinosus (and gracilis) tendon, 103 of 110 consecutive patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using multistrand semitendinosus tendon (ST) or the central one-third of patellar tendon with bony attachments (BTB) were analyzed prospectively. Subjectively, the Lysholm score was not different among the groups. The Lachman test indicated a trend of less negative grade in the ST men's group than that in the BTB men's group. On the patellofemoral grinding test, only women patients of both groups showed pain, with less positive crepitation in the ST group than in the BTB group. KT measurements at manual maximum showed more patients with more than 5 mm differences in the ST group than in the BTB group. The results of this study suggest that aggressive early rehabilitation after the ACL reconstruction using the semitendinosus (and gracilis) tendon has more risk of residual laxity than with the BTB.  (+info)

The role of fibular length and the width of the ankle mortise in post-traumatic osteoarthrosis after malleolar fracture. (4/2502)

We assessed the role of fibular length and the width of the ankle mortise as risk factors in the occurrence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the ankle joint by comparison of radiographs of the affected and unaffected sides. A shortened fibular malleolus (P < 0.01), a wide ankle mortise (P < 0.01) and Weber type B fracture (P < 0.01) were significantly associated with the development of osteoarthrosis but an elongated fibular (P > 0.05) and a narrowing of the ankle mortise (P > 0.07) were not.  (+info)

The effect of using a tourniquet on the intensity of postoperative pain in forearm fractures. A randomized study in 32 surgically treated patients. (5/2502)

We have analysed the relationship between the intensity of postoperative pain and the use of a pneumatic tourniquet in procedures for operative fixation of fractures of the forearm. Thirty-two patients were divided randomly into two groups as a control (NT) and tourniquet (T). The pain scores in the NT group were significantly lower. Patients over the age of 30 had notably more pain than those younger after the use of a tourniquet. Avoidance of the tourniquet gave better postoperative analgesia in male patients and in those with comminuted fractures. When a tourniquet was used the best results were obtained if it was kept inflated for less than one hour.  (+info)

Morbidity and cost-effectiveness analysis of outpatient analgesia versus general anaesthesia for testicular sperm extraction in men with azoospermia due to defects in spermatogenesis. (6/2502)

The outcome and costs of testicular sperm extraction under outpatient local analgesia or general anaesthesia were compared in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Nineteen consecutive patients were allocated to receive general anaesthesia, while the subsequent 21 consecutive patients received outpatient analgesia in the form of i.v. midazolam sedation, lignocaine spray, scrotal infiltration with local anaesthetic and spermatic cord block. Blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate were determined. Sedation and testicular pain were assessed by subjective scoring. Both groups showed haemodynamic stability with little alteration in blood pressure, pulse rate and oxygen saturation. Toxic symptoms of local anaesthetic were not encountered in the outpatient group. No relationship was found between testicular size and the duration of the operation. The median postoperative pain intensity, sedation scores and analgesic requirements were significantly less in the outpatient group (P < 0.05). These advantages led to a shorter recovery time (P < 0.0001), 3-fold cheaper care and greater patient satisfaction (P < 0.0001) in the outpatient group.  (+info)

Postoperative analgesia and vomiting, with special reference to day-case surgery: a systematic review. (7/2502)

BACKGROUND: Day-case surgery is of great value to patients and the health service. It enables many more patients to be treated properly, and faster than before. Newer, less invasive, operative techniques will allow many more procedures to be carried out. There are many elements to successful day-case surgery. Two key components are the effectiveness of the control of pain after the operation, and the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. OBJECTIVES: To enable those caring for patients undergoing day-case surgery to make the best choices for their patients and the health service, this review sought the highest quality evidence on: (1) the effectiveness of the control of pain after an operation; (2) the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. METHODS: Full details of the search strategy are presented in the report. RESULTS - ANALGESIA: The systematic reviews of the literature explored whether different interventions work and, if they do work, how well they work. A number of conclusions can be drawn. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INEFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS: There is good evidence that some interventions are ineffective. They include: (1) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in acute postoperative pain; (2) the use of local injections of opioids at sites other than the knee joint; (3) the use of dihydrocodeine, 30 mg, in acute postoperative pain (it is no better than placebo). RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF DOUBTFUL VALUE: Some interventions may be effective but the size of the effect or the complication of undertaking them confers no measurable benefit over conventional methods. Such interventions include: (1) injecting morphine into the knee joint after surgery: there is a small analgesic benefit which may last for up to 24 hours but there is no clear evidence that the size of the benefit is of any clinical value; (2) manoeuvres to try and anticipate pain by using pre-emptive analgesia; these are no more effective than standard methods; (3) administering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by injection or per rectum in patients who can swallow; this appears to be no more effective than giving NSAIDs by mouth and, indeed, may do more harm than good; (4) administering codeine in single doses; this has poor analgesic efficacy. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF PROVEN VALUE: These include a number of oral analgesics including (at standard doses): (1) dextropropoxyphene; (2) tramadol; (3) paracetamol; (4) ibuprofen; (5) diclofenac. Diclofenac and ibuprofen at standard doses give analgesia equivalent to that obtained with 10 mg of intramuscular morphine. Each will provide at least 50% pain relief from a single oral dose in patients with moderate or severe postoperative pain. Paracetamol and codeine combinations also appear to be highly effective, although there is little information on the standard doses used in the UK. The relative effectiveness of these analgesics is compared in an effectiveness 'ladder' which can inform prescribers making choices for individual patients, or planning day-case surgery. Dose-response relationships show that higher doses of ibuprofen may be particularly effective. Topical NSAIDs (applied to the skin) are effective in minor injuries and chronic pain but there is no obvious role for them in day-case surgery. RESULTS-POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING: The proportion of patients who may feel nauseated or vomit after surgery is very variable, despite similar operations and anaesthetic techniques. Systematic review can still lead to clear estimations of effectiveness of interventions. Whichever anti-emetic is used, the choice is often between prophylactic use (trying to prevent anyone vomiting) and treating those people who do feel nauseated or who may vomit. Systematic reviews of a number of different anti-emetics show clearly that none of the anti-emetics is sufficiently effective to be used for prophylaxis. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE  (+info)

Effect of i.v. ketamine in combination with epidural bupivacaine or epidural morphine on postoperative pain and wound tenderness after renal surgery. (8/2502)

We studied 60 patients undergoing operation on the kidney with combined general and epidural anaesthesia, in a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Patients were allocated to receive a preoperative bolus dose of ketamine 10 mg i.v., followed by an i.v. infusion of ketamine 10 mg h-1 for 48 h after operation, or placebo. During the first 24 h after surgery, all patients received 4 ml h-1 of epidural bupivacaine 2.5 mg ml-1. From 24 to 48 h after operation, patients received epidural morphine 0.2 mg h-1 preceded by a bolus dose of 2 mg. In addition, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with i.v. morphine (2.5 mg, lockout time 15 min) was offered from 0 to 48 h after operation. Patients who received ketamine felt significantly more sedated at 0-24 h, but not at 24-48 h after operation, compared with patients who received placebo (P = 0.002 and P = 0.127, respectively). There were no significant differences in pain (VAS) at rest, during mobilization or cough, PCA morphine consumption, sensory block to pinprick, pressure pain detection threshold assessed with an algometer, touch and pain detection thresholds assessed with von Frey hairs, peak flow or side effects other than sedation. The power of detecting a reduction in VAS scores of 20 mm in our study was 80% at the 5% significance level. We conclude that we were unable to demonstrate an (additive) analgesic or opioid sparing effect of ketamine 10 mg h-1 i.v. combined with epidural bupivacaine at 0-24 h, or epidural morphine at 24-48 h after renal surgery.  (+info)

*Hyperalgesia

"The clinical role of NMDA receptor antagonists for the treatment of postoperative pain". Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 21 ( ... This occurs where the pain fibres synapse to pain pathway, the periaqueductal grey. Amplification in the spinal cord may be ... July 2008). "Usefulness of antidepressants for improving the neuropathic pain-like state and pain-induced anxiety through ... doi:10.1016/j.pain.2003.12.017. PMID 15109518. Stubhaug A, Romundstad L, Kaasa T, Breivik H (October 2007). "Methylprednisolone ...

*Remifentanil

Influence of intraoperative opioid on postoperative pain and pulmonary function after laparoscopic gastric banding: ... It is given to patients during surgery to relieve pain and as an adjunct to an anaesthetic. Remifentanil is used for sedation ... Remifentanil's short context-sensitive half-life makes it ideal for intense pain of short duration. As such, it has been used ... This leads often to more hemodynamic stability during surgery and a quicker post-operative recovery time. Remifentanil is a ...

*Oliceridine

Subscription required (help)). Staff (1 October 2015). "Acute Postoperative Pain". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News ( ... is an opioid drug that is under evaluation in human clinical trials for the intravenous treatment of severe acute pain. It is a ... for the Treatment of Acute Severe Pain". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 56 (20): 8019-31. doi:10.1021/jm4010829. PMID 24063433 ...

*Doxpicomine

Wang, R. I.; Robinson, N. (1983). "Further efficacy evaluation of doxpicomine for postoperative pain". Journal of Clinical ... Wang, R. I.; Robinson, N. (1981). "Doxpicomine in postoperative pain". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 29 (6): 771-775 ... It is of fairly low potency, with a 400 mg dose of doxpicomine approximately equivalent in pain-killing effect to 8 mg morphine ...

*Nefopam

Phillips G, Vickers MD (October 1979). "Nefopam in postoperative pain". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 51 (10): 961-5. doi: ... Kim, KH; Abdi, S (April 2014). "Rediscovery of nefopam for the treatment of neuropathic pain". The Korean Journal of Pain. 27 ( ... "Comparison of the analgesic dose-effect relationships of nefopam and oxycodone in postoperative pain". Acta Anaesthesiologica ... It is primarily used to treat moderate to severe, acute or chronic pain. It is believed to work in the brain and spinal cord to ...

*Endoscopic vessel harvesting

... less postoperative pain and swelling; and faster recovery with minimal scarring. The reduction in pain allows patients to get ...

*Neosaxitoxin

Wu CL, Raja SN (June 2011). "Treatment of acute postoperative pain". Lancet. 377 (9784): 2215-25. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11) ... "First evidence of neosaxitoxin as a long-acting pain blocker in bladder pain syndrome". Int Urogynecol J. 26: 853-8. doi: ... Then, in cases of severe or prolonged pain, some patients need repeated injections, catheters, pumps and opioids to feel ... Zink W, Graf B (July-August 2004). "Review Articles: Local Anesthetic Myotoxicity". Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 29 ( ...

*Pentamorphone

... for management of postoperative pain. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1991 May;72(5):656-60. PMID 1708214 Kelly WB, ...

*Metamizole

Nonopioid analgesics for postoperative pain management. Curr Opin Anesthesiol. 2014 Oct;27(5):513-9. PMID 25102238 Council of ... It is primarily used for perioperative pain, acute injury, colic, cancer pain, other acute/chronic forms of pain and high fever ... to prevent and treat pain related to surgery or for the treatment of acute pain. It was first introduced into clinical use in ... Brune, K (1997). "The early history of non-opioid analgesics". Acute Pain. 1: 33. doi:10.1016/S1366-0071(97)80033-2. Drugs.com ...

*Inguinal hernia

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Aasvang E, Kehlet H; Kehlet (July 2005). "Chronic postoperative pain: the case ... a minimally invasive open repair may have a lower incidence of post-operative nausea and mesh associated pain. During surgery ... This may include pain or discomfort especially with coughing, exercise, or bowel movements. Often it gets worse throughout the ... Significant pain is suggestive of strangulated bowel (an incarcerated indirect inguinal hernia). As the hernia progresses, ...

*Wrist arthroscopy

... faster recovery of wrist function and less pain postoperative. Overall outcome of arthroscopy is not superior to the outcome in ... To prevent postoperative infections, the amount of pathogens in the operating-room has to be minimized. In order to achieve ... If the pain and instability persists, one could undergo an open surgery to reconstruct the scapholunate ligament. The ... Distal radius fractures might occur when a person falls on an outstretched hand (FOOSH). Immediate pain, swelling and loss of ...

*Oxycodone

... both IV and IM administrations of oxycodone were commonly used for postoperative pain management of Central Powers soldiers. ... The approved indication is for relief of cancer pain, trauma pain, or pain due to major surgery, in children already treated ... Serious side effects of oxycodone include reduced sensitivity to pain (beyond the pain the drug is taken to reduce), euphoria, ... Kalso E (2007). "How different is oxycodone from morphine?". Pain. 132 (3): 227-228. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2007.09.027. PMID ...

*UGT2B7

... morphine's successor for postoperative pain relief?". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 102 (6): 1789-1797. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ...

*Dezocine

... is generally administered intravenously (as Dalgan) to relieve post-operative pain in patients. Because of its high ... Camu, F.; Gepts, E. (1979). "Analgesic Properties of Dezocine for Relief of Postoperative Pain". Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica ... It is a useful drug for the treatment of pain, but side effects such as dizziness limit its clinical application, and it can ... It is not commercially available in either of these countries, nor is it offered as a prescribed analgesic for postoperative ...

*Normorphine

Analgesic potency of normorphine in patients with postoperative pain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. ...

*Deborah Axelrod

"Evaluation of aromatherapy in treating postoperative pain: pilot study". Pain Practice. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 2006 Dec;6(4):273 ... This study compared the analgesic efficacy of postoperative lavender oil aromatherapy in 50 patients undergoing breast biopsy ...

*Tonsillectomy

Post-operative pain relief is subject to change. Traditionally, pain relief has been provided by relatively mild narcotic ... Clinical papers show patients with minimal post-operative pain (no requirement for narcotic pain-killers), zero edema (swelling ... The review also found that these children return to a normal diet more quickly and have less post-operative pain. A recent ... It has been claimed that this technique results in less pain, faster healing, and less post operative care. However, review of ...

*Intact dilation and extraction

Postoperative pain is usually minimal and managed with NSAIDs. In cases of uterine atony and corresponding blood loss, ... The risks of intact D&X are similar to the risks of non-intact D&E and include postoperative infection, hemorrhage, or uterine ... Whether this was a result of the anesthesia or an undeveloped fetal system for pain sensitivity, one thing was clear: There was ... There is no difference in postoperative blood loss, future pregnancy outcomes, or major complications in intact D&E when ...

*Morphine

... morphine's successor for postoperative pain relief?". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 102 (6): 1789-1797. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ... It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain. It is frequently used for pain from myocardial infarction and during ... It is also used for pain due to myocardial infarction and for labor pains. Its duration of analgesia is about three to seven ... the drug is rarely available even for relieving severe pain while dying.[citation needed] Experts in pain management attribute ...

*Ashutosh Tewari

The catheter-less surgery minimizes postoperative pain after prostatectomy. A few of the medical conference and achievement ... Due to the minimally invasive nature of the procedure, they experience minimized pain, minimized blood loss, less scarring and ...

*Moxazocine

"Moxazocine and morphine in patients with severe postoperative pain". Current Therapeutic Research. 22 (4): 469-478. CS1 maint: ...

*Acemetacin

... lower back pain, and relieving post-operative pain. It is manufactured by Merck KGaA under the tradename Emflex, and is ... as well as in post-operative and post-traumatic pain and attack of gout. Application of a single dose of acemetacin for post- ... ISBN 978-3-7741-9846-3. Moore, R. A.; Derry, S; McQuay, H. J. (2009). "Single dose oral acemetacin for acute postoperative pain ... pain relieving) effects. In the body, it is partly metabolized to indometacin, which also acts as a COX inhibitor. The same ...

*Etoricoxib

A Cochrane systematic review assessed the benefits of single-dose etoricoxib in reduction of acute post-operative pain in ... "Single dose oral etoricoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 5 (5): CD004309. doi:10.1002/ ... chronic low back pain, acute pain, and gout. Approved indications differ by country. ... Single-dose oral etoricoxib provides pain relief post-operatively in adults and adverse events are similar to placebo in the ...

*Parecoxib

Intravenous or intramuscular parecoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults. Lloyd R, Derry S, Moore RA, McQuay HJ COX-2 ... valuable options for postoperative pain management". Curr Top Med Chem. 7 (3): 235-49. Kiehl, S. (March 13, 2005), "Secrecy on ... The safety profile of parecoxib for the treatment of postoperative pain: a pooled analysis of 28 randomized, double-blind, ... Journal of Pain Research. 2017:10 2451-2459. Acta Ortop Mex. 2009Nov-Dec;23(6): 342-50. Systematic review to assess the ...

*Bicifadine

"The Oral Analgesic Efficacy of Bicifadine Hydrochloride in Postoperative Pain". Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 22 (4): 160- ... Bicifadine has a non-opioid, non-NSAID mechanism for the treatment of pain, which should have less abuse potential than opioid ... XTL ran a PhaseIIb clinical trial for pain caused by diabetic neuropathy, which failed in 2008; XTL terminated the agreement in ... Jan 07, 2007 XTL licenses development rights to pain therapy Fierce Biotech. December 9, 2008 Tiny XTL cuts costs, jobs XTL ...

*Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty

Long term complications with pain, feeling sick and lesser sleep quality than before the LAUP. In 2008, Dr. Labra, et al., from ... hyoid suspension tongue suspension tongue base reduction genioglossus advancement This approach improves postoperative results ...

*Celecoxib

For postoperative pain, it is more or less equal to ibuprofen. For pain relief, it is similar to paracetamol (acetaminophen). ... Derry, Sheena; Moore, R. Andrew (2013-10-22). "Single dose oral celecoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults". The Cochrane ... Celecoxib is used for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, musculoskeletal pain, painful menstruation, ankylosing ... were effective against postoperative pain," Pfizer was not aware of the fraudulent data. None of the retracted studies were ...
BACKGROUND: Etoricoxib is a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor prescribed for the relief of chronic pain in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, and acute pain. The drug is believed to be associated with fewer upper gastrointestinal adverse effects than conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A number of studies in acute postoperative pain have now been published. OBJECTIVES: To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single oral dose of etoricoxib for moderate to severe postoperative pain. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Oxford Pain Database, and reference lists of articles. Date of the most recent search: December 2008. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of single dose, oral etoricoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion in the review and quality, and extracted data. The
Establishment of an acute pain management programme is considered essential to reduce the incidence and severity of postoperative pain experiences of surgical patients in surgical wards. Several quality assurance standards and practice guidelines on pain management for professionals involved in the treatment of pain have been presented. Assessment of pain, using accepted approaches, should be undertaken at regular intervals at rest, during movements and at an appropriate interval after any intervention. It is essential to document pain scores and also to include assessment of patient satisfaction with the postoperative pain management provided so that pain and its treatment is made clearly visible in the clinical setting. A program for acute pain management should also include assessment of the adherence to the accepted postoperative pain management standards over time within the organization.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of postoperative pain management on immune function after laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer. T2 - A randomized study. AU - Kim, So Yeon. AU - Kim, Nam Kyu. AU - Baik, Seung Hyuk. AU - Min, Byung Soh. AU - Hur, Hyuk. AU - Lee, Jinae. AU - Noh, Hyun Young. AU - Lee, Jong Ho. AU - Koo, Bon Neyo. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - There has been a rising interest in the possible association between perioperative opioid use and postoperative outcomes in cancer patients. Continuous surgical wound infiltration with local anesthetics is a nonopioid analgesic technique that can be used as a postoperative pain management alternative to opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an opioid-based analgesic regimen versus a local anesthetic wound infiltration-based analgesic regimen on immune modulation and shortterm cancer recurrence or metastasis in patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of ...
BACKGROUND: Etodolac is a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, with evidence of efficacy in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Its analgesic efficacy in postoperative pain has not been clearly established. There are no systematic reviews on Etodolacs use in this condition. OBJECTIVES: To assess the analgesic efficacy of etodolac in single oral doses for moderate and severe postoperative pain. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to May 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered etodolac (any formulation) in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which
In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 33 studies, we identified nine preoperative predictors that were negatively associated with pain control after surgery: young age, female sex, smoking, history of depressive symptoms, history of anxiety symptoms, sleep difficulties, higher BMI, presence of preoperative pain and use of preoperative analgesia. The most well-studied predictors were female sex (number of studies, n=20), young age (n=14) and the presence of preoperative pain (n=13). The strongest negative prognostic factors were a history of sleeping difficulties (number of studies, n=2) and depression (n=8), which were independently associated with approximately twofold higher odds of poor postoperative pain control. Our findings are consistent with and extend the results of the previous systematic review by Ip et al.20 In addition to the predictors previously described, we identified six additional preoperative predictors of poor postoperative pain control.20. Previous reports have ...
Remote Ischemic PreConditioning (RIPC) will improve the postoperative pain experience in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Although abdominal surgery can be a lifesaving procedure many people have a significant amount of postsurgical pain. Severe postsurgical pain may lead to chronic pain in some people. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning may reduce the amount of postsurgical pain. Remote ischemic preconditioning is done by inflating a balloon (very similar to a blood pressure cuff) on the leg until it blocks blood flow for a few minutes. The cuff is then deflated and blood flow resumes. The process is repeated up to three times. This procedure causes the body to increase its natural pain relief system that may help to decrease the amount of postsurgical pain ...
Pregabalin was introduced as an antiepileptic drug with analgesic anti-hyperalgesic and anxiolytic properties and was also used to treat neuropathic pain. In recent years it has been used as part of a multimodal management of acute postoperative pain after various types of surgery. We study the effect of pregabalin administered before cardiac surgery on acute and chronic postoperative pain. Post CABG syndrome is well known since 1980 and various analgesic methods have been used from time to time (opioids, regional analgesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). In our research patients will be divided into three groups. The control group will receive a placebo capsule before surgery. The second group will receive 75mg of pregabalin per os before surgery while the third will receive 150mg of pregabalin. After the surgery all patients will be connected to an intravenous PCA morphine pump for 48 hours. The postoperative pain will be assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale (0-10) every day. Total ...
This study revealed that preoperative pregabalin (150mg) exerted no effect on intraoperative remifentanil consumption, post-surgical pain, or consumption of fentanyl in PCA within 24 h of gastrectomy. Pregabalin-related adverse effects, such as dizziness, sedation, and dry mouth, did not differ between the two groups.. A nociceptive stimulus caused by tissue injury during surgery releases multiple inflammatory mediators and neurotransmitters, which leads to peripheral sensitization, and subsequently produces central sensitization through afferent input to the central nervous system[8]. Although the mechanisms underlying progression from acute to chronic pain is not completely understood, controlling acute postoperative pain is critical because it poses a risk of chronic pain [9]. Acute postoperative pain is recognized to have early inflammatory and late neuropathic constituents [10]; therefore, preventing chronic pain involves not only alleviating inflammatory pain but also addressing ...
The Particulars: Previous research found that postoperative pain management did not appear to improve from 1995 to 2002. Since that time, there has been greater attention on pain management in the hospital setting. These efforts have likely led to more encouraging outcomes, but data to confirm this assumption are lacking.. Data Breakdown: For a study, researchers compared the postoperative pain scores of more than 400 surgical inpatients with scores of patients who were involved in a study about 10 years ago. The proportion of patients reporting no pain and being satisfied with their pain medication was similar for both groups. However, the rate of moderate-to-extreme pain was 63% in the earlier study, compared with a 39% rate observed in the current study.. Take Home Pearl: The incidence of moderate-to-extreme postoperative pain appears to have decreased significantly in the last decade.. ...
Purchase Report at: https://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10658319. Scope Post-Operative Pain Pipeline Review Report-. - The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Post-Operative Pain (Central Nervous System).. - The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Post-Operative Pain (Central Nervous System) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources.. - The pipeline guide covers pipeline products based on several stages of development ranging from pre-registration till discovery and undisclosed stages.. - The pipeline guide features descriptive drug profiles for the pipeline products which comprise, product description, descriptive licensing and collaboration details, R&D brief, MoA & other developmental activities.. - The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Post-Operative Pain (Central Nervous System) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor ...
Title: Gabapentin and Pregabalin for the Acute Post-operative Pain Management. A Systematic-narrative Review of the Recent Clinical Evidences. VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):M. Dauri, S. Faria, A. Gatti, L. Celidonio, R. Carpenedo and A. F. Sabato. Affiliation:Department of Anaesthesiology, Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of "Tor Vergata", Via Di S. Eufemia, 11, 00187 Rome, Italy.. Abstract: Background: Gabapentin and pregabalin inhibit Ca2+ currents via high-voltage-activated channels containing the α2δ-1 subunit, reducing neurotransmitter release and attenuating the postsynaptic excitability. They are antiepileptic drugs successfully used also for the chronic pain treatment. A large number of clinical trials indicate that gabapentin and pregabalin could be effective as postoperative analgesics. This systematic-narrative review aims to analyse the most recent evidences regarding the effect of gabapentinoids on postoperative pain treatment. Methods: Medline, The ...
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is a persistent problem after surgery and can delay recovery and develop into chronic pain. Better patient education has been proposed to improve pain management of patients. Serious games have not been previously developed to help patients to learn how to manage their postoperative pain.. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the development of a computer-based game for surgical patients to learn about postoperative pain management and to evaluate the usability, user experience, and efficacy of the game.. METHODS: A computer game was developed by an interdisciplinary team following a structured approach. The usability, user experience, and efficacy of the game were evaluated using self-reported questionnaires (AttrakDiff2, Postoperative Pain Management Game Survey, Patient Knowledge About Postoperative Pain Management questionnaire), semi-structured interviews, and direct observation in one session with 20 participants recruited from the general public ...
The experience of pain is a complex, multifaceted unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. Pain has been recognised as a global burden, and postoperative pain is one of the most common types. Postoperative pain is a complication of surgery, which, in turn, complicates recovery. Lack of appropriate postoperative analgesic management has a significant impact on clinical and economic outcomes. A multimodal approach, that incorporates different drugs and techniques, has been demonstrated as being the most effective way of reducing postoperative pain.
After surgery, pain is a natural. Managing and controlling that pain is crucial to your healing and recovery. More than 80% of patients report pain after surgery. While you should expect some pain after surgery, your physician will take proper precautions and every effort to lessen your pain.. Managing pain after surgery is the most effective way to ensure a healthy recovery. Having a postoperative pain management plan may help reduce the risk of developing complications. When your pain is properly managed, your quality of life will be restored, and important tasks like walking can be resumed normally. ...
Abstract Background Pain after surgery is not uncommon with 30% of patients reporting moderate to severe postoperative pain. Early identification of patients prone to postoperative pain may be a step forward towards individualized pain medicine providing a basis for improved clinical management through treatment strategies targeting relevant pain mechanisms in each patient. Assessment of pain processing by quantitative sensory testing (QST) prior to surgery has been proposed as a method to identify patients at risk for postoperative pain, although results have been conflicting. Since the last systematic review, several studies investigating the association between postoperative pain and more dynamic measures of pain processing like temporal summation of pain and conditioned pain modulation have been conducted. Objectives According to the PRISMA guidelines, the aim of this systematic review was to evaluate whether assessment of experimental pain processing including measures of central pain mechanisms
Global Markets Directs, Post-Operative Pain Pipeline Review, H1 2015, provides an overview of the Post-Operative Pains therapeutic pipeline. This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Post-Operative Pain, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) an
Lets flip the script for a second and look at opioid abuse from the perspective of the patient; more specifically, a patient who has just undergone some sort of operation. First and foremost, that patient is in pain. What will the doctors and nurses administer to numb the pain? Opioids, most likely. What will the doctor prescribe to make sure the patient can adequately manage his pain at home? Opioids, most likely. What will that patient increasingly rely on to get them through the day as pain-free as possible? Opioids, most likely.. Moral of the story: more often than not, patients dont know any better. All they know is that the opioids make them feel better, and they completely trust their health care professional to give them the adequate means to manage their postoperative pain. To make matters worse, regardless of the degree of opioids being administered to a patient, a recent study showed that "most patients who undergo surgical procedures experience acute postoperative pain, but ...
Purchase Regional Analgesia and Acute Pain Management, An Issue of Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 29-2 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9781437724264, 9781455700158
A 39 year old woman, scheduled for elective caesarean section in her second pregnancy, developed thrombocytopenia. Therefore, at the time of surgery, spinal anaesthesia and non-steroidal analgesic drugs were avoided and she was given a standard general anaesthetic procedure including fentanyl 100μg and morphine 10mg. In the early postoperative period she received tramadol 100mg and a further 10mg of morphine. These drugs did not control her pain, but caused side effects - in particular nausea and retching. Acupuncture to LI4 and PC6 on the right side produced dramatic pain relief within minutes. ...
OBJECTIVES: To examine how the severity of postoperative pain affects patients health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at 1 week following surgery and to compare two generic validated HRQoL instruments. METHODS: Patients undergoing general or orthopaedic surgery at the Royal London Hospital were randomly sampled. The following patient outcome data were collected EQ-5D (EuroQoL) pre-operatively and the Revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ-R) at 24 hours postoperation; and EQ-5D, Short-Form-12 (SF-12) and APS-POQ-R at 7 days postoperation. The degree of association between pain and HRQoL was assessed using Pearsons correlation coefficient and multivariate generalized linear regression models. RESULTS: Of the 228 patients included, 166 patients provided data at 7 days. Sixteen percent reported severe pain ≥ 50% of the day at 7 days. The severity of pain on both the APS-POQ-R pain severity and interference and affective impairment domains at 7 days was highly ...
New combinations of postoperative pain treatment decreased both pain and the use of narcotic pain relievers according to two studies presented this week at the 2013 Clinical Congress of the American College of Surgeons ...
The aim of this article is to present a concept of multimodal pain management. Pain causes discomfort and suffering that requires the proper steps to be monitored and treated However, in traditional Thai culture, it was believed that post-operative pain was an inevitable symptom which everyone had to be patient and wait until the pain subsided. Nowadays, the concept of pain management has been changed. Pain is a very important symptom that should be concerned and properly managed to promote a patients quality of life, prevent complications, and reduce the length of stay in the hospital. In a multimodal pain managing approach, multiple drug use, integrated with other non-pharmacology treatments, is one of the most preferable protocols for effectively managing pain and reducing unpleasant side effects. A goal setting for postoperative pain, a non-pharmacological approach would be a patient managing their expectations for the pain through setting individual goals for the pain management process. ...
The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, NC, USA.. Although the elderly compose a significant percentage of the surgical patient population, postoperative pain management for this population has received little attention.1 According to 1990 data, more than 4,000 documents are published annually about pain, but fewer than 1% focus on pain in the older adult.2 Lack of published information and research about geriatric pain results in most patients pain being managed by trial and error.. Considerable evidence suggests that pain is undertreated in older patients. This may be due in part to the misconception that pain sensation diminishes with increasing age or that the elderly patient cannot tolerate narcotic analgesia.3 The perception that older adults have less pain sensitivity than do younger patients is influenced somewhat by the silent myocardial infarctions and emergent painless intra-abdominal surgical events that frequently occur in older adults.4 The research involving pain ...
Acute pain, the pain felt at the moment of injury, results from activation of the nociceptive sensory endings in the affected tissues. This direct nociceptive activation is usually gone within minutes after withdrawal of the noxious stimulus, but the resulting pain often lasts much lon ger-from hours to days. In surgery the nociceptive input (indirect) continues in the presence of extensive chemically sensitized traumatized tissues. In the case of third-molar surgery, this nociception may last for many hours, long after the local anesthetic used for the surgery has worn off. Very often the offset of the local anesthetic coincides with the peak release of important pain mediators such as prostaglandins and bradykinin.. The pain that lasts hours to days after surgery is not a direct result of the initial impact but a later development of a series of changes in the peripheral tissues themselves and the associated trigeminal nucleus (*Generic Tegretol controlling certain types of seizures and ...
The efficacy of perioperative pregabalin treatment for preventing chronic pain remains a matter of debate. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Cochrane, and Clinical Trial Register databases, and other sources, for randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of pregabalin and placebo. Th...
Elderly patients with hip fracture experience high morbidity and mortality, and are often undertreated for pain. Acute pain management in the elderly is challenging, with physiological frailty, medical comorbidities and cognitive impairment commonly compounding pain assessment and treatment. Guidelines outlining current best practice for acute pain management in the elderly now exist, but evidence suggests that practice remains variable and there continues to be scope for improvement. We conducted a narrative review of the literature to examine the challenges of acute pain management in the elderly, and to evaluate evidence for the role of regional nerve blocks for acute pain associated with hip fracture in the elderly ...
The rate of individuals undergoing lumbar surgery in the CPRD-HES linked data doubled over the 15-year study period, fiscal years 1997/1998 to 2011/2012, from 2.5 to 4.9 per 10 000 adults. Over the most recent 5-year period (2007/2008 to 2011/2012), on average 20.8% (95% CI 19.7% to 21.9%) of lumbar surgery patients met criteria for PPP. Rates of healthcare usage were significantly higher for patients with PPP across all types of care. Over 2 years following initial spine surgery, the mean cost difference between patients with and without PPP was £5383 (95% CI £4872 to £5916). Over 5 and 10 years following initial spine surgery, the mean cost difference between patients with and without PPP increased to £10 195 (95% CI £8726 to £11 669) and £14 318 (95% CI £8386 to £19 771), respectively. Extrapolated to the UK population, we estimate that nearly 5000 adults experience PPP after spine surgery annually, with each new cohort costing the UK National Health Service in excess of £70 million ...
Our findings are based on a broadly representative sample of the UK population undergoing lumbar surgery. The mid-2012 population estimate of adults in the UK was 50.2 million.30 Based on our estimates of lumbar surgery, we would predict that approximately 23 592 patients underwent initial lumbar surgery in the UK at the end of our study period. This equates to 4907 adults (20.8%) with PPP following lumbar surgery annually in the UK and that the associated short-term (2 years) costs of caring for PPP amount to approximately £26.4 million for each new annual cohort of PPP patients. Extending our horizon to cover 10 years following index surgery, we would predict that each new annual cohort of lumbar surgery patients experiencing PPP could cost the NHS approximately £70.3 million over the first decade, with costs likely to continue accumulating over the remainder of the lifespan of members of that cohort.. Despite these large and ongoing costs, no formal guidelines to date have been put forward ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High Body Mass Index Is a Potential Risk Factor for Persistent Postoperative Pain after Breast Cancer Treatment. AU - van Helmond, Noud. AU - Timmerman, Hans. AU - van Dasselaar, Nick T. AU - van de Pol, Carmen C. AU - Olesen, Soren S. AU - Drewes, Asbjorn M. AU - Vissers, Kris. AU - Wilder-Smith, Oliver H. AU - Steegers, Monique A. PY - 2017/7. Y1 - 2017/7. N2 - BACKGROUND: Risk factors associated with persistent pain after breast cancer treatment are needed to develop prevention and treatment strategies to improve the quality of life for patients with breast cancer.OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with persistent pain in women undergoing breast cancer treatments.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study.SETTING: Regional hospital in the Netherlands.METHODS: The primary outcome was pain associated with surgery at more than 6 months postoperatively and patients were stratified based on the associated visual analog" scale score they reported: reporting no pain as "no pain," pain ...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether cognitive therapy prior to total knee replacement can prevent the development of persistent post-surgical pain.
This trial will evaluate the effects of pre-emptive single-dose pregabalin on postoperative acute pain and 24-hour opioid consumption in patients who underwent
This device allows patients to control their own pain relief immediately. Using a push button connected to a small programmable pump, a patient causes the release of pain medicine into his/her intravenous (IV). Within 2-5 minutes, the patient will experience relief. The pump can also be programmed to provide a continuous infusion of pain medicine as well (this may actually reduce the number of pushes on the button).. Is it safe? Most studies show patients actually use less medication compared to having a nurse deliver the injection. Because the patient can treat pain as it starts to increase, the pain should never get out of control. Significant delays can occur if the patient has to call the nurse, explain that he/she is in pain, and have the nurse retrieve and then administer the pain medication. The longer the delay, the more pain increases and therefore more pain medicine may be required. PCA avoids this delay.. ...
WHAT SHOULD I KNOW ABOUT POST-OPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT?. BRAIN SURGERY. Pain management is usually not a problem for most Brain Surgery patients. While a "headache" and or incision pain is common, relatively mild analgesics (pain relieving medication) are all that is usually required. Intensive Care Unit Management. In the early post-operative period, particularly during the stay in the Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU), the nursing staff will be conducting frequent Neurological examinations. These examinations BEGIN with an assessment of the LEVEL OF ALERTNESS of the patient. Narcotic analgesics, while generally having the affect of lowering the perception of pain, will cause most patients to become lethargic, stuporous or worse. The nursing and medical staff is then faced with the dilemma to determine if the patient has suffered this neurological deterioration consequent to Brain swelling, an Intracranial Haemorrhage, Hydrocephalus or Intracranial Infection. The cost in additional ...
When evaluating a patient complaining of an unusual amount of pain, or pain that is persistent despite the administration of medication, your first thought should always be that the pain might be the result of a surgical complication. While the most common cause of pain in the immediate postoperative period is inadequate analgesia, this should always be considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Therefore, patients with refractory pain need to be evaluated in person, and orders to increase the dose of narcotics should never be given over the phone. On your way to evaluate this patient you should be thinking of the possibility that bleeding, an anastomotic leak, or a missed bowel injury is responsible for his pain.. Your bedside history and physical exam should therefore focus on ruling out these serious complications. The fact that the patients pain is localized to his incision, rather than the site of the anastomosis (likely the RUQ or RLQ) or diffusely over the entire abdomen, is reassuring, as is ...
The study has demonstrated that in RP patients, age and depression are found to be predictors of postoperative pain. A pain level , VAS 30 mm at one occasion during the three postoperative days was predicted by age, and a pain level , VAS 70 mm was predicted by depression. From a treatment perspective we wanted to predict whether the patient needs treatment in the next future, so that we, in the best case, can give the treatment before the pain has increased above 30 mm on the VAS scale. For that purpose we did not need to make a prediction at baseline or by use of the baseline values. We needed to make a prediction with a time horizon of a few hours only to get the opportunity to treat the patient. By use of logistic regression analysis we found that the only factor that could predict pain was the previous VAS score, except for day two, when we found that patients with EDA reported significantly higher pain scores than the patients with other pain treatments. A surprisingly finding was that as ...
An editorial in the 1980s postulated that (1) a reduction in massive small-fiber input into the CNS during surgery would prevent a central sensitization, and (2) analgesia that is present preoperatively has the potential to render prolonged effects, well beyond the known time frame of drug action.2 Consistent with this proposal were experimental data by Woolf and Wall demonstrating that low doses of opioids, given before a painful stimulus, can effectively prevent central sensitization.3 In contrast, much higher doses of opioids are required to suppress an already sensitized spinal cord. Since Walls editorial, a large number of investigations have been carried out with overall equivocal results. There has been an appreciation for the multiple variables that influence postoperative pain as well as short-term and long-term goals of preemptive analgesia. In the short term, a reduction in pain scores, analgesic consumption (usually opioids) is sought, and in the long run, a quicker return to ...
Antidepressants are known to provide effective pain relief for various chronic pain conditions; however, the jury is still out on their use in treating the millions of patients who suffer from acute or chronic pain following surgery. A first-of-its-kind literature review published in the September issue of Anesthesiology, the official medical journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists® (ASA®), suggests although a majority of studies report positive outcomes, there is currently insufficient evidence to support the clinical use of antidepressants for the treatment of postoperative pain.
Acute postoperative pain remains a major problem. Undertreatment can lead to serious consequences including persistent postoperative pain, impaired rehabilitation, and increased length of hospital stay, sympathetic overdrive and immunosuppression. Overtreatment can lead to serious adverse events related to analgesic use such as sedation and respiratory depression. It is therefore imperative to prevent and treat postoperative pain, but at the same time not to cause harm from our treatment.
A great number of patients still experience a significant amount of post-operative pain: 55% of surgical patients are dissatisfied with their pain management.
TKA is generally regarded as a highly successful procedure to improve pain and function in patients with advanced degenerative joint disease. Perioperative pain management remains a major concern for patients contemplating TKA and residual pain has been associated with dissatisfaction and poor outcome. This study aims to identify … ...
Tramadol has been demonstrated to provide superior analgesia to combined acetaminophen-propoxyphene ie, Darvocet in patients experiencing severe postoperative pain, and similar analgesia, but with greater tolerability, to morphine in patients hospitalized for cancer pain.. I have also taken gabapentin and pregabalin for nerve pain sciatica and would advise reading up on here if these are ever suggested to you, as I came off them 2 years ago and still have memory problems. ...
(EMAILWIRE.COM, October 13, 2017 ) Market Research Future adds new report of Post-operative Pain Management Market - Global forecast to 2023 it contains Company information, geographical data and Table of Content Competitive Analysis: Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (Israel), Eli Lilly...
two adjacent tissue transfers, on the each leg of the patient. The ATT.... He wants to bill 14020 with modifier 50, I dont think that is correct. Help.
This week resident Danica Kindrachuk talks about Post-Operative Pain.. After listening to the podcast learners will be able to:. ...
This trial investigated The Correlation of COX-2 Expression in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes/Macrophages and Postoperative Pain.
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My spinal cord is damaged and dysfunctional. As a result, it regularly sends incorrect signals throughout my body below my level of injury. Adding further dysfunction is a healed wound on my right hip. The nerves at the wound site have grown back but are as damaged and dysfunctional as my spinal cord. Neuropathic pain is thus part of my life. Unlike, post surgical pain, there is not much one can do about neuropathic pain. In my experience, little can be done to ameliorate my pain. The only thing that has helped has been topical cream on the site of my wound, CBD oil and THC found in medical marijuana. It is impossible to describe the pain and spasms I experience. When others think of pain they think post surgical pain. A good example would be orthopedic surgery such as any number of surgeries for injuries an athlete experiences or hip and knee joint replacement. Pain following the extraction of a tooth is equally commonplace. This sort of pain is easily quantifiable. Enter any hospital and on ...
I have a new symptom that Ive never had before. Pain in the ULQ that radiates to the LLQ and sometimes even to the LRQ. There is no pain if I dont move, only if I move or lay on it. Sometimes theres even pain if I breath. It came on slowly over the weekend and by yesterday morning the pain woke me up ...
Renal impairment reduces the clearance of drugs and their metabolites excreted via the kidney. These effects can have an impact on clinical practice if the drug itself is excreted unchanged and/or has active metabolites. Some drugs can also cause or worsen renal impairment. ANZCA chapter 11.6.1. p 414.. ...
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NEW YORK-Pain treatment before surgery can minimize pain after surgery, may reduce anesthetic need during the procedure, and could minimize the risk of chronic pain conditions developing in the long-term, according to pain expert Mark J. Lema, MD, PhD. 1
PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of the extradural tramadol or morphine in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Sixteen female dogs were randomly assigned to...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of monitoring processing style on post-surgical neuropathic pain in women with breast cancer. AU - Sherman, K. A.. AU - Winch, C. J.. AU - Koukoulis, A.. AU - Koelmeyer, L.. PY - 2015/4/1. Y1 - 2015/4/1. N2 - Background Pain is a commonly reported symptom following surgery that is more likely to occur in individuals psychologically distressed prior to surgery. Monitoring processing style, a cognitive tendency to focus on health-related threats, has been associated with increased reporting of somatic symptoms, but no studies have specifically addressed the link between this cognitive style and pain. This prospective clinical study aimed to investigate whether monitoring processing style predicted post-surgical pain in women undergoing breast surgery, controlling for pre-surgical psychological distress. Methods Women scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery (N = 106) completed pre-surgical assessments of monitoring processing style (Miller Behavioral Style Scale) and ...
Results: Whilst in the 24 h postoperatively there was no significant difference in the pain scores between the two groups, the coblator group required less potent analgesia. No statistical difference was identified between the two groups following discharge, except on the sixth postoperative day, when the coblator group had lower pain scores. This may represent chance, rather than a clear difference ...
In this issue of PAIN, Martinez and co-workers publish a systemic review with a meta-analysis of randomized trials on the effect of perioperative pregabalin for the prevention of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP).12 The primary outcome was CPSP after 3 months. Secondary outcomes included CPSP after 6 and 12 months and CPSP with a neuropathic pain component (CPSPNP) after 3, 6, and 12 months. The review comprises 18 studies, of which only 15 studies presented data on the primary outcome. Nine of the 15 studies, accounting for 1492 out of 1884 patients (79%), were unpublished and mainly identified through registry searches and personal communication with the authors. Martinez et al. conclude that there is no evidence to support the use of perioperative pregabalin for the reduction of CPSP. The quality of evidence for reduction of CPSPNP was too low to make any recommendations.. Some methodological issues need to be commented on. First, it can be argued that persistent postoperative pain (PPSP) is a ...
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The American Society of Anesthesiologists is an educational, research and scientific association of physicians organized to raise the standards of the medical practice of anesthesiology and to improve patient care.
Health,According to a study conducted at the University of Rochester there a...A burning throbbing and/or a sharp pain is usually experienced ...In a study published in the September 2006 Journal of Pain lead aut... Women with breast cancer have unique concerns and fears that may be...Few prospective studies have identified the characteristics of patie...,Post-Operative,Pain,in,Breast,Cancer,Surgery,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Metacam Oral Suspension (meloxicam) is a once-a-day dosing for 24 hour relief from acute and chronic pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis in dogs. Also given to reduce post-surgical pain.
Bamigboye, Anthony Akinloye and Hofmeyr, George Justus Caesarean section wound infiltration with local anaesthetic for postoperative pain relief - any benefit?. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j., May 2010, vol.100, no.5, p.313-319. ISSN 0256- ...
Learn about the non-opioid analgesics our team provides to improve relief and reduce side effects for patients undergoing postoperative pain management.
Abstract Even though it is a costly, poorly understood problem, very little effort has been dedicated toward research on the mechanisms of acute postoperative pain. Presumably, if ..
It was a big decision, says Dava White, when the pediatric urologist who was to operate on her 2-month-old son, David, asked if she would object to the use of deep anesthesia followed by
The Grünenthal Group is an independent, family-owned international research based pharmaceutical company headquartered in Aachen, Germany. Building on its unique position in pain, its objective is to become the most patient-centric company to be a leader in therapy innovation.
Je cherche des informations sur la douleur postop{ratoire (posoperative pain) et sur lanalg{sie autocontrôl{e par le patient (pca). Dans le cadre de mon DEA je travail sur les d{terminants psychologiques de la douleur postop{ratoire. Je suis @ l{coute de toutes vos suggestions Merci David Guilbert ...
Low- or no-opioid pain control is possible with EXPAREL EXPAREL® (bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension), is a local analgesic administered at the time of surgery to control pain and reduce or eliminate the use of opioids for acute postsurgical pain. When injected into the surgical site, EXPAREL turns off the bodys pain signals, numbing the area where surgery has occurred for several days following the procedure. To date, EXPAREL has been used in over 3 million patients.1
Background.Health care organizations face pressures from patients to improve the quality of care and clinical outcomes, as well as pressures from managed care to do so more efficiently. Coordination, the management of task interdependencies, is one way that health care organizations have attempted t
Information on this website is obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov. Using this information is subject to ClinicalTrials.govs Terms and Conditions ...
Following recommended pain management guidelines is vital to reducing the risk for adverse events when administering NSAIDs for chronic or surgical pain.
Indicated in dogs for the control of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis, and in cats for the control of postoperative pain ...
Nearly a week has passed since Aster emerged from her transformative surgery. As the postoperative pain recedes and Aster adjusts to her new normal, her progression is right on track. It has been a tough week, but Aster has persevered, Derebe always by her side. Her exceptional journey has proven the adage, it takes a…
Abstract. Background: This study was investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine in combination with fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) on pain attenuation in patients undergoing open gastrectomy in comparison with conventional thoracic epidural patient-controlled analgesia (E-PCA) and IV-PCA.. Methods: One hundred seventy-one patients who planned open gastrectomy were randomly distributed into one of the 3 groups: conventional thoracic E-PCA (E-PCA group, n = 57), dexmedetomidine in combination with fentanyl-based IV-PCA (dIV-PCA group, n = 57), or fentanyl-based IV-PCA only (IV-PCA group, n = 57). The primary outcome was the postoperative pain intensity (numerical rating scale) at 3 hours after surgery, and the secondary outcomes were the number of bolus deliveries and bolus attempts, and the number of patients who required additional rescue analgesics. Mean blood pressure, heart rate, and adverse effects were evaluated as well.. Results: One hundred fifty-three ...
BACKGROUND Children with microtia complain of severe postoperative pain during early postoperative days after rib cartilage harvest for auricular reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of preventive donor site wound analgesia by intercostal nerve block (ICNB) and catheter-based infusion of local analgesics on postoperative pain after rib cartilage graft for auricular reconstruction in children with microtia. METHODS In this prospective randomized study, 66 children underwent postoperative pain control using either preventive ICNB followed by catheter-based infusion (33 patients, study group) or intravenous (IV) analgesia alone (33 patients, control group). ICNB was performed under direct vision by the surgeon by injecting 0.5% bupivacaine into each of the three intercostal spaces before perichondrial dissection. Catheters were placed in three subchondral spaces before wound closure, and 0.5% bupivacaine was infused every 12 h for 48 h postoperatively. Pain degrees were
National surveys continue to document the undertreatment of acute postoperative pain, despite the availability of evidence-based, clinical practice guidelines and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations standards. This article surveys factors that contribute to persistent gaps during the acute pain management process, including deficiencies in providing continuous analgesia, disparities in access to medical care, the acute pain medicine culture itself, a lack of adequate pain assessment, health care provider biases, and limited health care resources. The role of technology in increasing patients control over their own pain management and narrowing these gaps is discussed. Patient-controlled analgesia delivery systems are an example of such technology, and they play a key role in improving the quality of acute pain management and increasing the patients involvement in this process. However, the use of these systems may be limited because of the amount of health care resources
Aim: To assess the effectiveness of combined preincisional local infiltration (at trocar sites) and intraperitoneal instillation of levobupivacaine 0.25% for the management of early postoperative pain following laparoscopic ovarian drilling.. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled observer-blinded study. The study included 106 infertile patients with the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were scheduled to undergo diagnostic laparoscopy and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) during the period from November 2009 to February 2012 at TAIBA Hospital in Kuwait. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups of 53 patients each. Group I comprised patients who received preincisional local infiltration and intraperitoneal instillation levobupivacaine 0.25%. Patients in group II received equal volumes of normal saline 0.9% (NS) at the same sites. The primary outcome measures were visual analog scale pain scores and postoperative analgesic consumption.. Results: ...
article{d5c073d8-0aff-42ef-b4ad-57fe04af9bd8, abstract = {,p,OBJECTIVE:: Early postoperative pain correlates to persisting pain, psychosocial distress, and delayed mobilization with thromboembolic and infectious complications. Electrical pain thresholds (EPT) have shown promising results in being able to predict postoperative pain, but the results are conflicting. The aim of this study was to test whether EPT levels can be used to predict postoperative pain in patients of both genders. METHODS:: One-hundred-and-eighty patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this prospective clinical study. Individual levels of EPT were measured before surgery, and pain intensity was evaluated in the early postoperative period. RESULTS:: There were significant correlations between EPT and maximum postoperative pain intensity (rs=−0.21 P=0.009), time to first rescue opioid (rs=0.26, P=0.006) and total dose of rescue opioid (rs=−0.22, P=0.001). Interaction test showed significant ...
BACKGROUND: Combining two different analgesics in fixed doses in a single tablet can provide better pain relief than either drug alone in acute pain. This appears to be broadly true across a range of different drug combinations, in postoperative pain and migraine headache. Some combinations of ibuprofen and paracetamol are available for use without prescription in some acute pain situations. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of single dose oral ibuprofen plus paracetamol for acute postoperative pain using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library (Issue 4 of 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1950 to May 21st 2013), EMBASE (1974 to May 21st 2013), the Oxford Pain Database, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double-blind clinical trials of single dose
Pain control in children is still a therapeutic dilemma and preschool patients are affected from undesirable effects of postoperative pain more than adults. The aim of this work was to compare the effects of adding of Ketamine to pre-incisional Bupivacaine injection of post-operative pain relief after tonsillectomy. Sixty-three children that classified as ASA class I and II scheduled for adenotonsillectomy and divided into three groups (every group had 21 patients). Group 1: Bupivacaine (0.5%) 2mg/kg, Group 2: Ketamine 0.5 mg/kg and Group 3: Ketamine 0.5mg/kg and Bupivacaine (0.5%) 2mg/kg was injected into tonsillar bed by the surgeon. Side effects were evaluated at 1, 4 and 24 hours after adenotonsillectomy. The correlation between the data was done by Chi-square test and a P,0.05 was considered significant. One hour after surgery, in group 3, pain score was lower than other groups (P,0.05). Besides, after 4 hours in group 3, there was no severe pain in patients and higher percent of patients ...
DISCUSSION Findings indicate that femoral/sciatic nerve blocks in unilateral TKA are an effective method of postoperative pain management.
Efficacy and tolerability of oxymorphone immediate release for acute postoperative pain after abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.
To test the hypothesis that, if the femoral nerve is correctly localized using ultrasound (US) guidance, the type of perineural catheter used has no effect on catheter success. Randomized controlled trial. Post-anesthesia care unit of an
Management of postoperative pain: experience of the Niamey National Hospital, Niger Maman Sani Chaibou,1 Samuila Sanoussi,2 Rachid Sani,2 Nouhou A Toudou,1 Hadjara Daddy,1 Moussa Madougou,1 Idrissa Abdou,1 Habibou Abarchi,2 Martin Chobli31Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, 2Department of Surgery, The Niamey National Hospital, Niamey, Republic of Niger; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Hubert K Maga University Teaching Hospital, Cotonou, BeninObjective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of postoperative pain at the Niamey National Hospital.Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care at the Niamey National Hospital from March to June, 2009. Data collected included age, sex, literacy, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, type of anesthesia, type of surgery, postoperative analgesics used, and the cost of analgesics. Three types of pain assessment scale were used depending on the
Global postoperative pain management market anticipated to witness significant growth in the near future, owing to increasing adoption of opioids and analgesics for relief from post-surgery pain
The International Association for the Study of Pain has referred to pain as the fifth vital sign, and acute pain management after surgery has been shown to be a key factor in quality of recovery. In addition, the establishment of pain management benchmarks by the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations more than a decade ago has resulted in a greater awareness of patients right to optimal pain control by health care practitioners and administrators. Postoperative pain control has become a priority for hospitals across the United States.. Optimization of postoperative pain management has been demonstrated through the implementation of protocols that include multimodal analgesic regimens, surgical-specific treatment pathways, implementation of a 24-hour anesthesiology pain service, and pain-specific training for physicians and nurses involved in postoperative care.1 Importantly, pain as assessed by the numeric rating scale (NRS), for which 0 = no pain and 10 = maximal ...
Patient-Controlled Analgesia Pumps Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a type of pain management that lets you decide when you will get a dose of pain medicine. In some situations, PCA may be a better way of providing pain relief than calling for someone (typically a nurse) to give you pain medicine. With PCA you dont need to wait for a nurse. And you can get smaller doses of pain medicine more often. With this type of pain treatment, a needle attached to an IV (intravenous) line is placed into 1 of ...
Oxycodone is one of the most widely used opioids for pain treatment. Many studies demonstrated good efficacy of oxycodone on postoperative pain. In this study,
Results from previous studies have shown favorable effects from the addition of buprenorphine to local anesthetics used for interscalene or axillary perivascular brachial plexus blocks. The main objective of the current study was to determine whether
An epidural catheter was used to provide perioperative analgesia as part of a multimodal balanced anaesthesia and analgesia in a mare undergoing a bilateral mastectomy. Despite development of severe hypoxaemia during anaesthesia, recovery from anaesthesia was uneventful. Oral administration of a NSAID combined with administration of xylazine and morphine by an epidural catheter resulted in adequate postoperative pain relief, based on assessment of physiological parameters and behaviour. Neither complications nor side effects were observed during hospitalisation. ...
Assessments for the onset of sensory and motor block were performed every 2 min for 20 min by two trained observers working simultaneously and commencing from the time of completion of injection of the total dose of anesthetic for sciatic block. In most cases, both observers had the same assessment, and in cases wherein those assessments were different, the average values of the data were used. Sensory block assessments were performed in the distributions of the superficial peroneal nerve, deep peroneal nerve, posterior tibial nerve, and sural nerve. A three-level scale was used to grade the intensity of sensory block using pinprick stimulation: 0 = normal sensation (pin prick felt as sharp); 1 = blunt sensation (pin prick felt but not sharp); and 2 = no sensation (pin prick not felt at all). Motor block intensity of the foot was graded on a four-level scale: 0 = full movement (no discernible weakness); 1 = decreased movement (moves foot); 2 = diminished movement (moves toes only); and 3 = no ...
Our data offer little encouragement to those who wish to improve cardiac outcome after PVS by providing postoperative epidural analgesia. Within the epidural group, 40% received 3 mg in 10 ml epidural morphine during surgery. Generally, a second bolus was given immediately before catheter removal at 24 h after surgery. Therefore, epidural analgesia would have been expected to be in the range of 36-48 h. This is well into the period when poor cardiac outcome becomes evident. The myocardial infarction rate for the epidural morphine group was 4.9% versus 3.6% and 3.7%, respectively, for the patients who received general or spinal, both with postoperative parenteral opioids. As we pointed out in our discussion of these results, patients undergoing lower extremity PVS probably do not experience the same intensity of postoperative pain as do patients undergoing other types of surgery, such as intraabdominal procedures. Any beneficial effects of postoperative epidural analgesia may, therefore, be ...
In view of the side effects of opioids, especially respiratory depression, altered mental status, and reduced bowel function, regional analgesia utilizing neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks offer significant advantages. The lack of a universally reliable pain assessment tool ("analgesiometer") in the critically ill contributes to the dilemma of adequate analgesia. Many patients in the critical care unit are not able to communicate or use a conventional visual or numeric analog scale to quantify pain. Alternative assessment tools derived from pediatric16-18 or geriatric19 practice that rely on grimacing and other physiologic responses to painful stimuli might be useful, but have been inadequately studied in the intensive care unit (ICU). Changes in heart rate and blood pressure in response to nursing activities, dressing changes, or wound care can also serve as indirect measurements of pain,20 and sedation scores like the Ramsey or Riker and colleagues21,22 scale might be helpful, although not ...
Controlling pain during your recovery is important. PCA allows you to control the amount of pain medication you receive. PCA is short for
Multimodal analgesia: Optimal pain management while avoiding opioids is a key enabler of patient recovery. Furthermore, poor acute pain management is a strong risk factor for the development of chronic pain. A multimodal approach is recommended, using multiple strategies before, during and after surgery.. Postoperatively: patients are prescribed routine (not PRN) acetominophen 1gm q6hours and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs), althought there remains some controversy over whether NSAIDs increase leak rates (1). Opioids are given only if adequate analgesia ...
General anaesthetics activate a heat-sensitive protein found in pain pathways and may exacerbate post-operative pain, according to a new study published online yesterday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Anaesthetics suppress activity of the central nervous system, leading to a reversible loss of consciousness. The suppression of neural activity is thought to…
Dear editor, We would like to give a response to the letter of Dr. Anshuman Sinha concerning our article "23 Gauge versus 20 Gauge System for Pars Plana Vitrectomy: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial". For analysis of postoperative pain we used a simplified verbal rating scale (ranging from 0, meaning no pain, to 3, meaning severe pain). The standardized verbal rating scale reaches from 0 (no pain) to 10 ("the worst pain possible"), which we think is too extensive for our patients and purpose. In literature verbal rating scales are described to be a valid, reliable and appropriate tool for determination of postoperative pain in clinical practice [1,2] Furthermore we believe that the assessment of postoperative pain is not likely to be biased if the assessor is not masked, because the perception of pain is a completely subjective parameter. Regarding the sample size evaluation: The effect size was assumed to be 75% of the standard deviation and the power to be 80%. These assumptions were ...
Most surgical patients have a personal level of pain. Certain procedures are available for reducing postoperative pain (PoP). Prayer is one of the valuable methods that favour patient relaxation and reduce PoP; it is especially valuable because it neither causes additional tasks for hospitals, nor raises financial issues for patients. Purpose of this study was evaluation of the effect of prayer on PoP reduction in gastrointestinal surgical patients. Methods: In this clinical trial we selected 108 patients who were candidates for gastrointestinal elective surgery. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: the case group (n=54), who relied on analgesic plus prayer, and the control group (n=54), who relied on analgesic alone. Case group patients performed a specific prayer, starting 6hrs before surgery began and continuing until 24hrs after the operation. Vital signs, anxiety and PoP intensity were evaluated at 3, 12 and 24hrs after surgery. Applying SPSS, data were analysed utilizing the ...
Thesis, English, POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT AFTER LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERY BY TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS PLANE BLOCK IN COMPARISON TO LUMBAR EPIDURAL BLOCK for Hassan Walaa Mohamed Sayed
A laparoscopic approach is now considered the gold standard in colorectal resection for benign and malignant disease [1]. Laparoscopic surgery is associated with a significant reduction in postoperative pain and opioid consumption, lower morbidity, faster recovery and shorter hospital stay [1]. However, strategies for postoperative pain management after laparoscopic surgery are mainly derived from concepts that have been established for open surgical procedures [2]. As such, patient-controlled epidural and intravenous analgesia are still the most frequently used techniques for postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic colorectal surgery [3]. Epidural analgesia (EA) is known to provide excellent pain control; however, the role of EA in laparoscopic surgery is increasingly being scrutinized [1]. Following laparoscopic colorectal surgery, the use of EA has been shown to result in a prolonged time to mobilization, an increase in hospital costs, length of hospital stay and a higher incidence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In-plane three-step needle insertion technique for ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty. T2 - A retrospective review of 488 cases. AU - Shin, Hyeon Ju. AU - Soh, Jung Sub. AU - Lim, Hyong Hwan. AU - Joo, Bumjoon. AU - Lee, Hye Won. AU - Lim, Hae Ja. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Background: Continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) improves postoperative analgesia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and complications of our in-plane three-step needle insertion technique that was devised to reduce the risk of direct femoral nerve injury during CFNB in anesthetized patients. Methods: This retrospective study included 488 patients who had undergone TKA. Ultrasound (US)-guided CFNB was performed under general or spinal anesthesia using an in-plane, three-step needle insertion technique. The success rate and difficulties of catheter placement, clinical efficacy of analgesia, ...
BACKGROUND: Nerve blocks and infiltration with local anesthetics are commonly employed methods for postoperative pain control. This prospective, randomized trial was conducted to determine whether bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (BSCPB) is effective for reducing acute postoperative pain after robot-assisted endoscopic thyroidectomy (RAET) and to compare its effects with that of local wound infiltration (LWI). METHODS: Ninety-seven patients who were to undergo RAET were randomly assigned to one of three groups to receive BSCPB with either 20 mL of 0.525% ropivacaine (BSCPB group, n=32) or 20 mL of isotonic sodium chloride solution (Control group, n=32) or LWI with 20 mL of 0.525% ropivacaine (LWI group, n=33). Postoperative pain scores were assessed at the postoperative anesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 6, 24, and 48 h postoperatively using a visual analog scale (VAS). Patients with VAS scores of ≥40 were administered rescue analgesics according to a standardized protocol. The main ...
Kulen FT, Duman U, Bayam E, Zaim G. Laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy: A safe and effective alternative surgical technique in difficult cholecystectomies. Turkish Journal of Surgery. DOI: 10.5152/UCD.2015.3086. Mitra S, Khandelwal P, Roberts K, Kumar S, Vadivelu N. Pain relief in laparoscopic cholecystectomy - A review of the current options. Pain Pract 2012;12(6):485-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-2500.2011.00513.x. Ra YS, Kim CH, Lee GY, Han JI. The analgesic effect of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Korean J Anesthesiol 2010;58(4):362-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2010.58.4.362. Rafi AN. Abdominal field block: A new approach via the lumbar triangle. Anaesthesia 2001;56(10):1024-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.2001.2279-40.x, http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2044.2001.02279-40.x. Owen DJ, Harrod I, Ford J, Luckas M, Gudimetla V. The surgical transversus abdominis plane block - A novel approach for performing an ...
Authors: Jessica Booth, M.D. et al. Anesthesiology 7 2017, Vol.127, 50-57.. Background: The addition of opioids to epidural local anesthetic reduces local anesthetic consumption by 20% but at the expense of side effects and time spent for regulatory compliance paperwork. Epidural neostigmine also reduces local anesthetic use. The authors hypothesized that epidural bupivacaine with neostigmine would decrease total hourly bupivacaine use compared with epidural bupivacaine with fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia.. Methods: A total of 215 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II, laboring parturients requesting labor epidural analgesia consented to the study and were randomized to receive 0.125% bupivacaine with the addition of either fentanyl (2 μg/ml) or neostigmine (2, 4, or 8 μg/ml). The primary outcome was total hourly local anesthetic consumption, defined as total patient-controlled epidural analgesia use and top-ups (expressed as milliliters of 0.125% ...
Abstract The aim was to investigate how impacted third molar surgery, as psychophysical and operative trauma; influence the response of blood fibrinolytic system. Examined group included 50 healthy subjects with impacted third molars and 45 subjects, blood donors, as a control group. Influence of the operative interventions over parameters of blood fibrinolytic system (t-Pa and PAI-1) were examined prior the procedures and immediately after. Values of blood pressure and pulse were notified to evident physical reflections of the stress. Clinical outcome after first, second and seventh day included changes like edema, hematoma, pain and dry socket. Impacted third molar surgery, as a stress factor, had influence and affects the fibrinolysis through the effect upon the pro-activators and inhibitors of the fibrinolytic system, and the severity of the clinical outcome after operative third molar surgery. Parameters of fibrinolytic system - t-PA and PAI-1 can be the most sensitive markers of reaction ...
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): Highlights key evidence underpinning clinical techniques Highly illustrated schematic diagrams will assist reader in practicalities of administering TENS Discucsses the current evidence base for the use of TENS Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a technique that delivers mild electrical ...

Postoperative pain. | The BMJPostoperative pain. | The BMJ

Postoperative pain.. Br Med J 1978; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.6150.1499-b (Published 25 November 1978) Cite this as ... Mid Cheshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust: Consultant General Anaesthetics with an interest in Pain Medicine ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/2/6150/1499.3

Ethics of treating postoperative pain.Ethics of treating postoperative pain.

Irk was in the emergency room having considerable wound pain following an above-knee amputation you performed 6 months ago. You ... His last source of pain meds on the street has dried up. You admit him with orders for analgesics. What should your treatment ... You received a call advising that Mr S. H. Irk was in the emergency room having considerable wound pain following an above-knee ... Your examination, clinical lab tests, and X-rays do not reveal any serious problems, but he is writhing in pain and begging for ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Ethics-treating-postoperative-pain/22264808.html

Pressure on acupoints decreases postoperative pain.Pressure on acupoints decreases postoperative pain.

Our objective was to study the analgesic effect of acupoint pressure on postoperative pain in a controlled single-blind study. ... Pain Measurement. Pain, Postoperative / physiopathology, therapy*. Regional Blood Flow. Single-Blind Method. Skin / blood ... Our objective was to study the analgesic effect of acupoint pressure on postoperative pain in a controlled single-blind study. ... Title: The Clinical journal of pain Volume: 12 ISSN: 0749-8047 ISO Abbreviation: Clin J Pain Publication Date: 1996 Dec ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Pressure-acupoints-decreases-postoperative-pain/8969878.html

Browsing  by Subject Pain, PostoperativeBrowsing by Subject "Pain, Postoperative"

Postoperative pain management is nowadays considered an integral part of modern surgical practice. An audit was made in 2010 to ... Postoperative pain is undertreated: results from a local survey at Jordan university hospital  ... assess the status of acute postoperative pain management at Jordan University Hospital. Data ... ...
more infohttps://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/browse?authority=Pain%2C+Postoperative&type=mesh

Management of Postoperative Pain in ChildrenManagement of Postoperative Pain in Children

Pain. 2004;110:49-55. 8. Morton NS. Management of postoperative pain in children. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2007;92:ep14- ... Ketamine and postoperative pain--a quantitative systematic review of randomised trials. Pain. 2005;113:61-70. ... The reliability and validity of the COMFORT scale as a postoperative pain instrument in 0- to 3-year-old infants. Pain. 2000;84 ... Development and preliminary validation of a postoperative pain measure for parents. Pain. 1996;68:307-313. ...
more infohttps://www.uspharmacist.com/article/management-of-postoperative-pain-in-children

Predictors of Postoperative Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govPredictors of Postoperative Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Pain, Postoperative. Pain. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Postoperative Complications. Pathologic ... Expectation about pain [ Time Frame: 24 to 48 hours before surgery ]. *postoperative pain [ Time Frame: within 1-2 hours after ... Predictors of Postoperative Pain. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor ... the ability of pain scores generated from painful stimuli postoperatively in predicting postoperative pain. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01449318

Severity Postoperative Pain Prediction - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govSeverity Postoperative Pain Prediction - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Pain, Postoperative. Pain. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Postoperative Complications. Pathologic ... anticipated pain and the intensity rating of an audio tone to predict level of postoperative pain after surgery. [ Time Frame: ... anticipated pain and the intensity rating of an audio tone to predict level of postoperative pain after surgery. ... using a sliding pain scale from 0 to 100 mm, with 0 being no pain and 100 being the worst pain ever. Information on drug ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00638404

Prediction of postoperative painPrediction of postoperative pain

Pain, Prediction, Age, Gender, Anxiety, Depression, Genetics, Pain threshold, Postoperative. in Current Anaesthesia and ... Postoperative pain is associated with considerable psychological and physiological distress that may impede postoperative ... Postoperative pain is associated with considerable psychological and physiological distress that may impede postoperative ... Postoperative pain is associated with considerable psychological and physiological distress that may impede postoperative ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1142399

Use Hypnotherapy to Treat Postoperative Pain and AnxietyUse Hypnotherapy to Treat Postoperative Pain and Anxiety

... by Steve G. Jones, Ed.S. (NaturalNews) According to the Centers for ... Increased anxiety before surgery leads to more anxiety, pain, and slower recovery time post-operative.. Another study looked at ... Kain, Z.N., Mayes, L.C., Caldwell-Andrews, A.A., Karas, D.E., & McClain, B.C. (2006). Preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain ... The more anxious children consumed more pain medication and had more anxiety and sleep problems post-operative. This study ...
more infohttps://www.naturalnews.com/z026430_pain_surgery_anxiety.html

Multiple options for reducing postoperative pain, inflammationMultiple options for reducing postoperative pain, inflammation

Surgeons have many options for controlling pain and inflammation following refractive surgery, William B. Trattler, MD, said in ... reducing postoperative pain while maintaining pupil size. "We have so many great options. Were all using something different, ... reducing postoperative pain while maintaining pupil size. "We have so many great options. Were all using something different, ... and we dont even need any postoperative meds," he said. "But as we know, we all need postoperative meds in some way to help ...
more infohttps://www.healio.com/ophthalmology/refractive-surgery/news/print/ocular-surgery-news/%7B21093eae-04dc-42e0-b91d-f962cf0b5c29%7D/multiple-options-for-reducing-postoperative-pain-inflammation

Efficacy of rectal ibuprofen in controlling postoperative pain in children | SpringerLinkEfficacy of rectal ibuprofen in controlling postoperative pain in children | SpringerLink

... for postoperative pain was studied in 128 boys and girls, 4 to 12 yr old, having elective surgery. In a double blind... ... Incidence of postoperative pain in children. Pain 1983; 15: 271-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Oxycodone and morphine in postoperative pain treatment. Pain 1990; Suppl 5: S143.Google Scholar ... Ibuprofen in the management of postoperative pain. Br J Anaesth 1986; 58: 1371-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03008781

Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort StudyPostoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

... no pain, 2: mild pain, 3: moderate pain, 4: severe pain and 5: very severe/unbearable pain), which they had seen when they ... After treatment, women reported a higher mean pain intensity than men, 6 h (. (SD) versus (SD), resp., ) and 18 h (. (SD) ... Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study. M. Gotler,1 B. Bar-Gil,2 and M. Ashkenazi1 ... Table 3: Distribution of type of postoperative pain (PEP) after 6 and 18 hours in relation to the different treatment groups. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2012/310467/

Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort StudyPostoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

... M. Gotler,1 B. Bar-Gil,2 and M. Ashkenazi1 ... Within 24 h of treatment, patients were asked to grade their pain at 6 and 18 hours posttreatment, using a 1-5 point scale. ... To evaluate the incidence and severity of postendodontic treatment pain (PEP) subsequent to root canal treatment (RCT) in vital ... No statistical relation was found between type of pain (spontaneous or stimulated) and pulp condition. Conclusion. RCT of teeth ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2012/310467/abs/

Postoperative pain management | Australian PrescriberPostoperative pain management | Australian Prescriber

Dental treatment can result in varying degrees of postoperative pain depending on the nature and extent of the treatment, the ... Acute to chronic pain transition. Acute postoperative pain can develop into chronic pain. This is defined as pain still present ... transition of acute postoperative pain to persistent pain and establishment of chronic postsurgical pain services. ... Pain Med 2010;11:1859-71.. *Strassels SA, Mcnicol E, Wagner AK, Rogers WH, Gouveia WA, Carr DB. Persistent postoperative pain, ...
more infohttps://www.nps.org.au/australian-prescriber/articles/postoperative-pain-management

Sabinet | Postoperative pain : reviewSabinet | Postoperative pain : review

Pain has been recognised as a global burden, and postoperative pain is one of the most common types. Postoperative pain is a ... has been demonstrated as being the most effective way of reducing postoperative pain. ... Lack of appropriate postoperative analgesic management has a significant impact on clinical and economic outcomes. A multimodal ... The experience of pain is a complex, multifaceted unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. ...
more infohttp://journals.co.za/content/mp_sapj/82/2/EJC168741

Postoperative Pain Control Following Vitreoretinal Surgery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govPostoperative Pain Control Following Vitreoretinal Surgery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Mean Pain Score [ Time Frame: Post-Operative Day 1 (Up to 24 hours) ]. The mean pain score assessed by the Visual Analog Pain ... On postoperative day 1, patients will be given a questionnaire to assess pain. Pain levels in the two groups will be compared. ... Pain, Postoperative. Retinal Detachment. Retinoschisis. Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative. Postoperative Complications. ... Postoperative Pain Control Following Vitreoretinal Surgery. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01995045?term=triamcinolone+acetonide&

Pain, Postoperative | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystPain, Postoperative | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Postoperative" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Pain, Postoperative" was a major or minor topic of ... "Pain, Postoperative" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Hollmann MW, Rathmell JP, Lirk P. Optimal postoperative pain management: redefining the role for opioids. Lancet. 2019 04 13; ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Pain, Postoperative" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Pain,%20Postoperative

Postoperative pain management following ambulatory anesthesia: challen | AAPostoperative pain management following ambulatory anesthesia: challen | AA

Provision of appropriate pain relief is still often inadequate in this setting; poor pain control and adverse effects of ... Here, the use of adjuvants is one way to increase the duration of pain relief, but, increasingly, continuous peripheral nerve ... Multimodal analgesia is based on the combined use of multiple medications or techniques for pain control, which have different ... 2Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: Worldwide, there is an ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/postoperative-pain-management-following-ambulatory-anesthesia-challeng-peer-reviewed-article-AA

Dissertations.se: POSTOPERATIVE PAIN DOCUMENTATIONDissertations.se: POSTOPERATIVE PAIN DOCUMENTATION

... about POSTOPERATIVE PAIN DOCUMENTATION. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free. ... postoperative pain management; postoperative pain assessment; postoperative pain documentation; VAS; nurse anaesthetist; acute ... postoperative pain documentation. Showing result 1 - 5 of 6 swedish dissertations containing the words postoperative pain ... Abstract : Postoperative pain management (POPM) has remained an area of concern despite major efforts to improve pain ...
more infohttps://www.dissertations.se/about/postoperative+pain+documentation/

The Role of Parenteral NSAIDs in Postoperative Pain ControlThe Role of Parenteral NSAIDs in Postoperative Pain Control

... acute pain continues to be undertreated or treated ineffectively.1 In particular, postoperative pain that is not adequately ... other studies have focused on postoperative and acute pain control. Efficacy with parenteral NSAIDs has been reported for pain ... The Role of Parenteral NSAIDs in Postoperative Pain Control. Stephanie L. Conway, PharmD, RPh. Assistant Professor. ... Parenteral NSAIDs are used as an analgesic option for postoperative pain, for renal colic, and now for fever in adults.5,6,9,10 ...
more infohttps://www.uspharmacist.com/article/the-role-of-parenteral-nsaids-in-postoperative-pain-control

Postoperative pain and self-management: womens experiences after cardiac surgery.  - PubMed - NCBIPostoperative pain and self-management: women's experiences after cardiac surgery. - PubMed - NCBI

Postoperative pain experiences varied from no pain to pain all the time. Worst pain intensity was recorded as moderate or more ... Cardiac surgery involves several pain-sensitive areas, and untreated postoperative pain may lead to chronic pain. Early ... Pain diaries were used to record postoperative pain experiences 1-2 weeks before the interviews, providing more nuances to the ... Postoperative pain and self-management: womens experiences after cardiac surgery.. Leegaard M1, Nåden D, Fagermoen MS. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18727750?dopt=Abstract

Bupivacaine wound infiltration reduces postoperative pain and analgesic requirement after thyroid surgery | SpringerLinkBupivacaine wound infiltration reduces postoperative pain and analgesic requirement after thyroid surgery | SpringerLink

We conducted a prospective double-blind randomized study assessing bupivacaine end-of-surgery wound infiltration for pain ... Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting and early postoperative pain after ... Bagul A, Taha R, Metcalfe MS et al (2005) Pre-incision infiltration of local anesthetic reduces postoperative pain with no ... Dumlu EG, Tokaç M, Öcal H et al (2015) Local bupivacaine for postoperative pain management in thyroidectomized patients: a ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00405-018-4933-4

Multimodal analgesia for controlling acute postoperative painMultimodal analgesia for controlling acute postoperative pain

Purpose of reviewMultimodal analgesia is needed for acute postoperative pain management due to adverse effects of opioid ... Purpose of reviewMultimodal analgesia is needed for acute postoperative pain management due to adverse effects of opioid ... Recent findingsNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors consistently reduce postoperative ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001503-200910000-00009

Two new approaches to lessen postoperative painTwo new approaches to lessen postoperative pain

... New combinations of postoperative pain treatment decreased both pain and the ... News Two new approaches to lessen postoperative pain ... Pain / Anesthetics News From Medical News Today. Posted on ... Copyright © 2017, PAINWeek. All trademarks, registered or unregistered, are the property of their respective owners. ... Fibromyalgia Pain Triggers: Exploring Explosive Synchronization (ES) * Coated Implants Prevent Infection After Joint ...
more infohttps://www.painweek.org/news_posts/two-new-approaches-to-lessen-postoperative-pain.html

Intraoperative, postoperative pain perception significantly higher with topical anesthesia - American Academy of OphthalmologyIntraoperative, postoperative pain perception significantly higher with topical anesthesia - American Academy of Ophthalmology

This meta-analysis compared clinical outcomes and pain levels for phacoemulsification procedures during which topical ... Intraoperative, postoperative pain perception significantly higher with topical anesthesia Written By: Lisa B. Arbisser, MD, ... Intraoperative and postoperative pain perception was significantly higher in the TA group (P , 0.05), with these patients ... The authors found that while TA does not provide the same high level of pain relief during cataract surgery as RBA/PBA, ...
more infohttps://www.aao.org/editors-choice/intraoperative-postoperative-pain-perception-signi
  • article{b0e070ce-05c4-4a13-bbf4-9b9ff1eeb458, abstract = {Pain is a complex subjective experience with sensory-discriminative, emotional-affective and cognitive-evaluative components. (lu.se)
  • The purpose of the study is to prove that pain scores generated from painful stimuli applied preoperatively may help identify the inter-individual variability in pain perception. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • According to previously published data, pulp therapy and root canal treatment (RCT) induce more frequent and more severe postoperative pain than do other dental operative procedures [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Most studies that investigated the prevalence of postendodontic pain referred to flare-up, which was defined as severe pain and/or swelling after endodontic treatment, requiring an unscheduled appointment and active treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • PEP (not limited to flare-up) is very frequent after endodontic treatment, and more than 50% of those who feel any PEP experienced severe pain [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 7-12 Depending on the level of pain control required, these agents may be sufficient as the sole pharmacologic treatment or may be used adjunctively with opioids or other types of pain control. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Your examination, clinical lab tests, and X-rays do not reveal any serious problems, but he is writhing in pain and begging for relief. (biomedsearch.com)
  • New combinations of postoperative pain treatment decreased both pain and the use of narcotic pain relievers according to two studies presented this week at the 2013 Clinical Congress of the American College of Surgeons. (painweek.org)
  • Teksoz S, Arikan AE, Soylu S et al (2016) Bupivacaine application reduces post thyroidectomy pain: Cerrahpasa experience. (springer.com)
  • Certified, licensed music therapists are able to tailor treatment to each patient's musical preferences and meet their pain level. (painweek.org)
  • 3 A commonly used assessment tool is the Wong-Baker FACES Rating Scale, where children are asked to look at and choose from six different faces that depict expressions associated with no pain to varying levels of pain that may or may not be associated with crying. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative PainAs mentioned earlier, Clark and Spear (1964) found the VAS to be sensitive to changes in self-assessed well-being. (brightkite.com)
  • 619 words - 2 pages Running Head: Week 2Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative Pain[Writer Name][Institute Name] Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative PainIntroductionIndeed, the experience of pain can go beyond the physiological sense of the situation, which is central to the psychogenic perspective, in which diagnostic tests can not reveal any pathology. (brightkite.com)
  • 5 The COMFORT scale, comprised of six behavioral items and two physiologic items, has also been validated for use in the postoperative setting in children 0 to 3 years of age. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Pain, Postoperative" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This study is designed to compare thoracic epidural catheter insertion distances, in order to determine which is the best for pain relief following a thoracotomy. (bioportfolio.com)