Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Causalgia: A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Microvessels: The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Quintuplets: Five individuals derived from five FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.United StatesMethoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Awards and PrizesMetabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Ceremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases. (1/9560)

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. (2/9560)

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

Cannabinoid suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity in wide dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat. (3/9560)

The effects of cannabinoid agonists on noxious heat-evoked firing of 62 spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in urethan-anesthetized rats (1 cell/animal). Noxious thermal stimulation was applied with a Peltier device to the receptive fields in the ipsilateral hindpaw of isolated WDR neurons. To assess the site of action, cannabinoids were administered systemically in intact and spinally transected rats and intraventricularly. Both the aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (125 microg/kg iv) and the bicyclic cannabinoid CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv) suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity. Responses evoked by mild pressure in nonnociceptive neurons were not altered by CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv), consistent with previous observations with another cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2. The cannabinoid induced-suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity was blocked by pretreatment with SR141716A (1 mg/kg iv), a competitive antagonist for central cannabinoid CB1 receptors. By contrast, intravenous administration of either vehicle or the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3 (125 microg/kg) failed to alter noxious heat-evoked activity. The suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity induced by WIN55,212-2 in the lumbar dorsal horn of intact animals was markedly attenuated in spinal rats. Moreover, intraventricular administration of WIN55,212-2 suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity in spinal WDR neurons. By contrast, both vehicle and enantiomer were inactive. These findings suggest that cannabinoids selectively modulate the activity of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn by actions at CB1 receptors. This modulation represents a suppression of pain neurotransmission because the inhibitory effects are selective for pain-sensitive neurons and are observed with different modalities of noxious stimulation. The data also provide converging lines of evidence for a role for descending antinociceptive mechanisms in cannabinoid modulation of spinal nociceptive processing.  (+info)

Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking. (4/9560)

Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking.  (+info)

Ketamine-induced peripheral analgesia in rats. (5/9560)

AIM: To examine whether ketamine may directly act at peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia. METHODS: Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane. As a nociceptive flexion reflex (FR), C responses from the posterior biceps semitendinosus (PBST) muscle was evoked by electrical stimulation (2 ms, 80 V, 2-3 pulses, 0.5 Hz) via a pair of stainless steel needles inserted subcutaneously applied to the two toes of ipsilateral hindpw. RESULTS: Subcutaneous injection of ketamine (36 mmol.L-1, 5 microL) into the ipsilateral hindpaw produced an inhibition of C responses. At 9 min after application of ketamine, injection of naloxone (1%, 5 microL) into the same area annulled ketamine-induced inhibition. CONCLUSION: Ketamine as a dissociate anesthetic acts on peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia, which is related to activity of peripheral opioid receptors.  (+info)

Response surface analysis of synergism between morphine and clonidine. (6/9560)

Graded doses of morphine sulfate and clonidine hydrochloride were administered intrathecally to mice that were then tested for antinociception in the 55 degrees C tail immersion test. The dose-effect relations of each compound were used in calculations that permitted the construction of a three-dimensional plot of the expected additive effect (vertical scale) against the planar domain of dose pairs representing combinations administered simultaneously. This additive response surface became the reference surface for viewing the actual effects produced by three different fixed-ratio combinations of the drugs that were used in our tests. Each combination produced effects significantly greater than indicated by the additive surface, thereby illustrating marked synergism and a method for quantifying the synergism. This quantification, measured by the value of the interaction index (alpha), was found to be dependent on the fixed-ratio combination; accordingly, the actual response surface could not be described by a single value of the index alpha. Furthermore, we found that application of the common method of isoboles gave estimates of the index that agreed well with those obtained from the more extensive surface analysis. These results confirm earlier studies, which found synergism for these drugs while also providing surface views of additivity and synergism that form the basis of isobolographic analysis.  (+info)

Nitrocinnamoyl and chlorocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone: in vivo and in vitro characterization of mu-selective agonist and antagonist activity. (7/9560)

Two 14beta-p-nitrocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone, 14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)-7,8-dihydrocodeinone (CACO) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)- 7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (N-CPM-CACO), and the corresponding chlorocinnamoylamino analogs, 14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino)-7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (CAM) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino) -7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (MC-CAM), were tested in opioid receptor binding assays and the mouse tail-flick test to characterize the opioid affinity, selectivity, and antinociceptive properties of these compounds. In competition binding assays, all four compounds bound to the mu opioid receptor with high affinity. When bovine striatal membranes were incubated with any of the four dihydrocodeinones, binding to the mu receptor was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, wash-resistant manner. Saturation binding experiments demonstrated that the wash-resistant inhibition of mu binding was due to a decrease in the Bmax value for the binding of the mu-selective peptide [3H][D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly(ol)5] enkephalin and not a change in the Kd value, suggesting an irreversible interaction of the compounds with the mu receptor. In the mouse 55 degrees C warm water tail-flick test, both CACO and N-CPM-CACO acted as short-term mu-selective agonists when administered by i. c.v. injection, whereas CAM and MC-CAM produced no measurable antinociception at doses up to 30 nmol. Pretreatment of mice for 24 h with any of the four dihydrocodeinone derivatives produced a dose-dependent antagonism of antinociception mediated by the mu but not the delta or kappa receptors. Long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception lasted for at least 48 h after i.c. v. administration. Finally, shifts in the morphine dose-response lines after 24-h pretreatment with the four dihydrocodeinone compounds suggest that the nitrocinnamoylamino derivatives may produce a greater magnitude long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception than the chlorocinnamoylamino analogs.  (+info)

Activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors inhibits capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in rhesus monkeys. (8/9560)

8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide (capsaicin) was locally applied in the tail of rhesus monkeys to evoke a nociceptive response, thermal allodynia, which was manifested as reduced tail-withdrawal latencies in normally innocuous 46 degrees C water. Coadministration of three kappa opioid ligands, U50,488 (3.2-100 microgram), bremazocine (0.1-3.2 microgram), and dynorphin A(1-13) (3.2-100 microgram), with capsaicin in the tail dose-dependently inhibited capsaicin-induced allodynia. This local antinociception was antagonized by a small dose of an opioid antagonist, quadazocine; (0.32 mg), applied in the tail; however, this dose of quadazocine injected s.c. in the back did not antagonize local U50,488. Comparing the relative potency of either agonist or antagonist after local and systemic administration confirmed that the site of action of locally applied kappa opioid agonists is in the tail. In addition, local nor-binaltorphimine (0.32 mg) and oxilorphan (0.1-10 microgram) antagonist studies raised the possibility of kappa opioid receptor subtypes in the periphery, which indicated that U50,488 produced local antinociception by acting on kappa1 receptors, but bremazocine acted probably on non-kappa1 receptors. These results provide functional evidence that activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors can diminish capsaicin-induced allodynia in primates. This experimental pain model is a useful tool for evaluating peripherally antinociceptive actions of kappa agonists without central side effects and suggests new approaches for opioid pain management.  (+info)

Looking for McGill Pain Questionnaire? Find out information about McGill Pain Questionnaire. at Montreal, Que., Canada; coeducational; chartered 1821, opened 1829. It was named for James McGill, who left a bequest to establish it. Its real... Explanation of McGill Pain Questionnaire
New guidelines for measuring pain in patients with rheumatic conditions recommend that clinicians use the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain) for estimating patients pain intensity and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS) for evaluating pain in the context of overall health status, says an article by Medscape Medical News based on a review published online last month in Arthritis Care & Research. The review, part of the journals special issue titled "Patient Outcomes in Rheumatology, 2011," includes the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), SF-36 BPS, and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). Details on questionnaire content, ease of use, and measurement properties are included in the review of each questionnaire. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each questionnaire.. The authors also recommend the ...
New guidelines for measuring pain in patients with rheumatic conditions recommend that clinicians use the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain) for estimating patients pain intensity and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS) for evaluating pain in the context of overall health status, says an article by Medscape Medical News based on a review published online last month in Arthritis Care & Research. The review, part of the journals special issue titled "Patient Outcomes in Rheumatology, 2011," includes the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), SF-36 BPS, and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). Details on questionnaire content, ease of use, and measurement properties are included in the review of each questionnaire. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each questionnaire.. The authors also recommend the ...
OBJECTIVE: Establishing a research agenda on standardizing pain measurement in clinical trials in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD).. METHODS: Discussion during a meeting at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 2018, prepared by a systematic review of existing core outcome sets and a patient online survey.. RESULTS: Several key questions were debated: Is pain a symptom or a disease? Are pain core (sub)domains consistent across RMD? How to account for pain mechanistic descriptors (e.g., central sensitization) in pain measurement?. CONCLUSION: Characterizing and assessing the spectrum of pain experience across RMD in a standardized fashion is the objective of the OMERACT Pain Working Group. ...
OBJECTIVE: Establishing a research agenda on standardizing pain measurement in clinical trials in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD). METHODS: Discussion during a meeting at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 2018, prepared by a systematic review of existing core outcome sets and a patient online survey. RESULTS: Several key questions were debated: Is pain a symptom or a disease? Are pain core (sub)domains consistent across RMD? How to account for pain mechanistic descriptors (e.g., central sensitization) in pain measurement? CONCLUSION: Characterizing and assessing the spectrum of pain experience across RMD in a standardized fashion is the objective of the OMERACT Pain Working Group.
Home , Papers , Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Norwegian Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 in Low Back-Related Leg Pain. ...
Read this full essay on Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative Pain-week 12. Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative PainAs mentioned earlier, Clark and Spear...
Running Head: Week 5Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative Pain[Writer Name][Institute Name] Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative PainIntroductionA study by Scott and Huskisson (1976) (N = 100) found no significant differences between the distri...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Can Multidimensional Pain Assessment Tools Help Improve Pain Outcomes in the Perianesthesia Setting?. AU - Petti, Emily. AU - Scher, Clara. AU - Meador, Lauren. AU - Van Cleave, Janet. AU - Reid, M. Carrington. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053435757&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053435757&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.jopan.2018.07.010. DO - 10.1016/j.jopan.2018.07.010. M3 - Article. VL - 33. SP - 767. EP - 772. JO - Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. JF - Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. SN - 1089-9472. IS - 5. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pain relief scale is more highly correlated with numerical rating scale than with visual analogue scale in chronic pain patients. AU - Lee, Jae Jin. AU - Lee, Mi Kyoung. AU - Kim, Jung Eun. AU - Kim, Heezoo. AU - Park, Sang Hoon. AU - Tae, Jong Hyun. AU - Choi, Sang Sik. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - The pain relief scale (PRS) is a method that measures the magnitude of change in pain intensity after treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between PRS and changes in pain determined by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and numerical rating scale (NRS), to confirm the evidence supporting the use of PRS. Sixty patients with chronic spinal pain that had a VAS and NRS recorded during an initial examination were enrolled in the study. One week later, the patients received an epidural nerve block, then VAS, NRS, and PRS assessments were performed. Differences between VAS and NRS were compared to the PRS and scatter plots and correlation coefficient were ...
Background: Pain measurement in nonverbal older adults is best based on behavioural observation, e.g. using an observational measurement tool such as Doloplus-2. The purposes of this study were to examine the use ...
in Douleur et Analgésie (2014), 27. This article aims to establish a profile of patients presenting with chronic pain in the algology service of CHU of Liège to identify possible relationships between diagnoses, psychological states and ... [more ▼]. This article aims to establish a profile of patients presenting with chronic pain in the algology service of CHU of Liège to identify possible relationships between diagnoses, psychological states and modes of pain management. Between 2005 and 2010 we monitored 1832 individual chronic pain patients who attended our pain clinic at the University Hospital of Liège. This paper presents the characteristics of these patients and their test scores before the treatment to assess their health status in a biopsychosocial perspective. Demographic and lifestyle as well as occupational factors, pain disability index, pain belief assessment, hospital anxiety and depression scale, SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and pain visual analogue scale are ...
Patients will be assessed for pain using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Scale at set time points after surgery (0,1,2,4,8,12,16,20,24 hours post-operatively). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scale was measured on a scale of 0 - 10 (0 = no pain, 1-3 = mild, 4-6 = moderate, 7-10 = severe). Higher values on the VAS represent a worse outcome. The two rows below report: 1. the average VAS score for the least amount of pain reported per group and 2. the average VAS score of the worst amount of pain reported per group ...
Sixty subjects with diagnostic of facet joint syndrome will be enrolled in the study.. They were randomized into experimental and control groups. The experimental group will be submitted to intra-articular infiltration of six facet joints. The control group will be submitted to intramuscular injection of six lumbar paravertebral points. After the randomization, all subjects will be assessed by an investigator blinded to the groups. The assessment will be taken just before the interventions (T0) and them 7 , 30 , 90 and 180 days after the interventions. The following assessment instruments will be used: pain visual analogical scale (VAS) (0-10cm), pain visual analogical scale during extension of the spine (VAS E) (0-10cm), Likert scale for improving (0-5), percentage scale of subjective improving perception(0-100%), Rolland-Morris questionnaire (0-24), short health survey questionnaire (SF36), accountability of medications taken for back pain: analgesics and non-steroidal antiinflammatories ...
Aim:. To determine the associations of patients documented self-rated pain with self-rated early postoperative physical recovery.. Design:. Observational with repeated measures.. Methods:. General and orthopaedic inpatients (N = 479) were during the period 2012-2015 screened for pain. Individual daily median pain scores at rest and during activity were based on 4-9 self-ratings on postoperative days 1 and 2, using the Numeric Rating Scale. Nine items reflecting physical recovery from the "Postoperative Recovery Profile" were used in a questionnaire.. Results:. Associations between median pain scores on postoperative day 1 and physical recovery (fatigue, sleeping difficulties, bladder function, mobilization, muscle weakness and personal hygiene) the same day were found. Additionally, associations were found between median pain scores on day 1 and physical recovery (fatigue, sleeping difficulties, mobilization and muscle weakness) on day 2.. ...
Brief Pain Inventory©: Cleeland CS. Measurement of pain by subjective report. In: Chapman CR, Loeser JD, editors. Issues in Pain Measurement. New York: Raven Press; pp. 391-403, 1989. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy; Vol. 12.. For further information: The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)© from M. D. Andersons Department of Symptom Research ...
Reference Values of the Pain Disability Index in Patients With Painful Musculoskeletal and Spinal Disorders: A Cross-national Study ...
Are you experiencing spine, neck or back pain? Take our online pain assessment tool to self-diagnose your pain and start finding treatment options.
Objective: To determine the influence of a new intraarticular hyaluronic acid based hydrogel (Hymovis®) injections on the amount of analgesics consumption in patients diagnosed with primary knee OA.. Methods: A prospective, single-center study that included 35 patients, aged 45-80 years was conducted in our orthopaedics department. Patients received two intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (24 mg/3 ml; 500-730 kDa; Hymovis®) at one week apart. Follow-up was scheduled at 2 and 6 months after the injections. Assessment tools included Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and an in-house designed questionnaire regarding analgesic consumption (quantity, period and product) during the follow-up.. Results: Compared to baseline, a significant amelioration in visual analogue scale was observed at six months follow-up (74.2mm ± 11.7 vs. 57.3mm ± 12.1; p ,.0001). 28% (n=10) of the patients reduced their total analgesic consumption at two months after the injections. At final follow-up, the analgesic ...
Background: The guidance of prospective therapists focused on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is most often made by groups of four students. However, learning therapist skills is a sensitive process that will be affected by the processes which occur within the group. Objective: The aim was to examine prospective psychotherapists attitudes to group assessments based on the revised version of the Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R). Method: Participants were 56 students with an average age of 45.65 years (range = 31 - 64). They were recruited from psychotherapy training at the Gothenburg University and the Evidens University College in Sweden. A questionnaire was constructed in which the questions were answered by check on visual analogue scales (VAS). Results: A majority of students consisting of 38 participants (68%) had a very positive approach to group assessments, while a minority of 18 participants (32%) was more negative. Most crucial for how to answer the question of group assessments was whether
Introduction: Perception of pain and the need to treat it is highly variable, even amongst oncologists. Availability of pain specialists is an added advantage. This is an analysis of prescription patterns of pain medication and its outcome in cancer patients. Materials and Methods: The center has 8 oncologists and a pain and palliative care specialist. All the patients presenting to the outpatient department of our institute with a diagnosis of cancer were prospectively analyzed for usage of pain medication using a structured questionnaire. Data on diagnosis, stage, treatment given, and outcomes were analyzed. Pain intensity was recorded on visual analogue scale, types of pain medicines used, and their side effects were noted. The average cost of the pain medication purchased in our pharmacy was calculated. Use of alternative medicines was also noted. Results: A total of 1,098 cancer patients were evaluated. Pain was a prominent complaint in 64.6% of patients. Of these, only 89.5% received pain ...
Has anyone found an effective pain relief for female genital ulcers please? This symptom started about a year ago and I am currently experiencing a severe flair But neither my doctor or specialist...
Methods. We enrolled 62 patients (40 males and 22 females, with mean age of 30.1±9.3 ranging between 17 and 52 years affected by acute muscular injuries of different sites and severity. Fourty-three patients with a mean age of 30.5±9.9 received hyperthermia (group A) and the remaining 19 with a mean age of 28.2±8.2 (group B) ultrasound. Both groups received 8 applications, three times per week with a duration of 30 for the group (A), and 10 for the group (B). All the patients underwent a clinical examination including a pain measurement with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a ultrasound scanner before, at the end and after one month follow-up ...
Aching, stabbing, dull, sharp - pain is difficult to describe, impossible to see, and is frequently treated with opium derivatives that go back to Middle Ages. Pediatric pain has long been under recognized and under treated. In fact, as many as 40% of children and adolescents complain of pain that occurs at least once weekly. One important barrier that leads to under-treatment of pain is inadequate measurement and assessment of pain. Numerical and face-based scales (e.g. Wong Baker Faces Pain Scale, Faces Pain Scale Revised) are most commonly used to assess pain in children. These scales require a certain level of expressive capacity that younger children may not have, and give no information regarding the character of pain that the child is experiencing. In addition, children may have a number of barriers that prevent accurate communication of their pain, ranging from cognitive impairments to developmental differences that make these scales inadequate for the task at hand. By utilizing other ...
A pain management algorithm was developed. The algorithm instructed nurses to assess patients´pain at least once a shift, both at rest and during turning. Further, the algorithm instructed nurses to use valid pain assessment tools. The numeric rating scale was used when patients could self-report pain. For patients not able to self-report pain, the Behavioral Pain Scale was used when patients were receiving mechanical ventilation, and the Behavioral Pain Scale-Non Intubated was used when patients were non-intubated.. Pain treatment actions were chosen based on cutoff points that defined a pain event. The algorithm was implemented in three units. Data was collected a time period after implementing the algorithm, and the same data was collected the same time period the previous year.. ...
Results Low pain group (LPG) consists of 63 (76%) and High pain group (HPG) of 20 (24%) patients respectively. Median for SF-MPQ total index in LPG was 2.0 (IQR 0-5) and HPG 14.5 (IQR 5.5-20.5). Comparative statistical analysis showed a statistical significant difference between LPG and HPG (p≤0.001). The median number of descriptive words used to describe pain for LPG was 2 (IQR 0-4.0) and for HPG 8.5 (IQR 4.0-10.5) words (p≤0.001). Correlation was found between self-reported pain related to SLE on VAS and numbers of describing words (r=0.78, p≤0.001). In both LPG and HPG the most used words to describe moderate and severe pain related to SLE were "aching" and "tender". In HPG "burning" and in LPG "stabbing" also were used frequently. In HPG, 70% reported their present pain (PPI) as distressing. Arthralgia was the most common location of pain due to SLAM in both LPG and HPG.. ...
After approval from the local ethical committee and written informed consent, 80 patients (ASA I-II), scheduled for elective surgery below umbilicus expected to last less than 180 minutes, were included in this prospective double blind study.. The patients were familiarized with the 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain during the pre anesthetic visit and informed of the feeling of tingling, warmth or heaviness that may be felt after the injection. Each patient received 1 mg I/v midazolam in the pre op before shifting to OT where all monitoring (ECG, noninvasive blood pressure and SpO2) was established and preloading done with 10 ml kg-1 ringer lactate over 30 min. A midline spinal puncture at L3/4 space in sitting position with 25-gauge Quincke needle was performed. All patients received a coded intrathecal drug volume of 3.0 ml at a rate of 1 ml/ 5 sec with13.5 mg 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, with saline ± clonidine. The control group (group 1) received bupivacain with saline (0.3ml) ...
Assessment Tools Pain assessment tools are in the public domain and are available to all health care providers to assist them in better understanding the impact of pain on a person. Single-dimensional pain scales Single-dimensional scales only measure pain intensity and are useful in acute pain when the etiology is clear. They provide a baseline and ongoing subjective measurement of a patients pain intensity score over time. Source.
The KOOS self-report questionnaire (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) has 5 sub-scales, assessing knee symptoms and function, and quality of life. It is widely used as it has been found to be a valid and reliable measure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Icelandic translation of KOOS. A total of 145 were recruited for the study and in addition to answering KOOS, knee pain was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS), perception of knee function during activities of daily living on a numerical rating scale, and some were tested with the timed up-and-go test (TUG). Reliability was assessed by observing ICC-values, internal consistency with Cronbachs alpha, and associations between KOOS subscales and other outcome measures with Pearsons correlation coefficient. A one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences between groups of participants with different levels of knee dysfunction. A significant change in all KOOS subscales was ...
Methods TARGET assessed sarilumab 150mg and 200mg added to csDMARDs vs placebo in patients with RA intolerant of or not responding to anti-TNF therapy. MONARCH assessed sarilumab 200mg monotherapy vs adalimumab 40mg monotherapy in patients with RA either intolerant of, inadequate responders to, or considered inappropriate candidates for continued treatment with methotrexate. Treatments were administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks. RAID has 7 single-item domains, each rated by patients on an 11-point numeric rating scale from 0 (absence) to 10 (extreme). A total score from 0 to 10 (with lower scores indicative of less impact of disease) is calculated by weighting responses for each item based on patient assessment of the relative importance of the item. RAID was assessed at baseline (BL), Weeks 12 and 24. Least square mean (LSM) changes from BL in total score (Weeks 12 and 24) and domains (Week 24 only) were analysed with a mixed model for repeated measures, including treatment, region, visit, ...
A total of 225 patients received the Mobi-C TDR device and 105 patients received ACDF. At 24 months only 3.0% of patients were lost to follow-up. On average, patients in both groups showed significant improvements in Neck Disability Index (NDI) score, visual analog scale (VAS) neck pain score, and VAS arm pain score from preoperative baseline to each time point. However, the TDR patients experienced significantly greater improvement than ACDF patients in NDI score at all time points and significantly greater improvement in VAS neck pain score at 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. On average, patients in the TDR group also maintained preoperative segmental range of motion at both treated segments immediately postoperatively and throughout the study period of 24 months. The reoperation rate was significantly higher in the ACDF group at 11.4% compared with 3.1% for the TDR group. Furthermore, at 24 months TDR demonstrated statistical superiority over ACDF based on overall study ...
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The challenges of pain assessment in infants, children and young people are well recognised. As pain is known to be a complex and subjective phenomenon that is influenced by many factors, it is clear that both the intensity and unpleasantness or suffering due to pain can only be expressed accurately by the individual who experiences it. Therefore, self-report of pain is, and is likely to always remain, the gold standard of assessment. Nevertheless, as self-report of pain is impractical in many clinical situations, a number of proxy measures of pain, including facial expressions, behaviours and biomarkers, i.e. changes in physiological or biological parameters, have been investigated and incorporated, where appropriate, into clinical practice. To date, no measure has emerged as superior to others in all situations and consequently they are often combined or included in composite pain measurement scales that require validation for particular groups of patients in specific clinical ...
In just five minutes, capture a pre-treatment profile to use for follow-up comparisons! Measure and document patient perceptions of pain, satisfaction, and quality of care with research-based Outcome Assessment Measures. Other forms include TMJ forms and rehab forms.. Questionnaires include General Pain Disability Index, Roland-Morris Disability Index, Oswestry Low Back Disability Index, Neck Disability Index, and Psychological Assessment-Modified Zung. Spanish Oswestry Disability questionnaires.. ...
Currently used pain assessment tools may be underestimating the pain response in infants according to a study published in the open access journal PLoS Medicine this week. Dr. Slater and colleagues (University College London, UK) studied the association between cortical pain responses in young infants and currently used pain assessment tools which are based on behavioral and physiological measures, such as change in facial expression.
The report gives the research-based overview of on Global Pain Relief Patches Market 2019 size, industry status and forecast, competition landscape and growth opportunity. This research report categorizes the global pain relief patches market by companies, region, type and end-use industry. It also highlights the m...
ABSTRACT Background: Through good communication a relationship between the patient and the nurse can be established, which is essential for an adequate anamnesis and documentation. Pain management of patients seeking acute abdominal pain may be affected if communication and documentation is inadequate. Today there are differences in directives on how pain management of these patients should proceed.. Objective: The aim of the study was to follow patients who searched for acute abdominal pain, from the emergency department on to the surgical ward. The study focused on nurses documentation including assessments, actions and evaluations related to the patients pain problems.. Method: The study had a retrospective quantitative descriptive approach where the sample consisted of 58 patients whose medical records were reviewed.. Results: The majority of patients had a detailed pain medical history while pain assessment according to visual analogic scale (VAS) was performed on almost half of these ...
Many busy clinicians struggle with finding the time to conduct a thorough assessment of the pain patient, especially the patient with chronic pain. This article reviews how to properly assess a patient with chronic pain.
Currently, there is no direct method of quantifying pain; in clinical practice, patients are most commonly asked to verbally rate their pain on a numeric scale. Several issues and limitations arise from qualitative methods of assessment as they are highly subjective, relying on self-reports of pain from conscious and cooperative patients. Anesthetic treatments, which are largely determined by these responses, vary widely in efficacy as a result. Overall, the current methods increase the amount of time needed by clinicians and nurses to monitor individual patients and the risk of complications, resulting in longer hospital stays. The capability of quantifying the measurement of pain, both by degree/extent and physical region, is fundamentally important as it significantly improves over current methods of pain measurement that are not precise due to their subjective nature.. Population: Post-op thoracic and abdominal adult surgical patients with epidurals.. Outcome: Lower complication rates in ...
ers (eg, The FPS-R is a 6-point scale, with 6 differentfaces that represent increasing levels of pain intensity. Respon- dents are asked to select the one expression that best characterizeshis or her pain intensity, from the left-most face (No pain), to the The cold-pressor apparatus used consisted of 4 thermal insu- right-most face (Very much pain). Each illustration corresponds lated containers with 18.1 L of capacity containing water chilled to a numeric score (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10). Research supports the valid- to 4 different temperatures. The apparatus was capable of main- ity of each of the pain measures used in this study as measures of taining water temperatures within ±0.5°C of the desired tempera- pain intensity . Although the FPS-R was ini- tures throughout the experimental procedures. Each container tially developed for use with children, researchers also use the had 2 compartments separated by a metal filter, one of which held measure in samples of individuals with ...
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a program of psychological preparation for invasive procedures in patients with heart disease, candidates for cardiac surgery, to reduce emotional morbidity and improve perception of health related quality of life. Methods: A Quasi-experimental design was used. The study included a non-probabilistic randomized sample of 110 patients treated in the Division of Cardiac Surgery Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS. They were divided in two groups: Experimental group (n = 44) and Control group (n = 66). Instruments: CHIP Coping Questionnaire, HADS Anxiety and Depression Hospital Scale, Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to measure postoperative pain. Results: The experimental group showed an increase in instrumental coping style compared to pre (M = 24.55) and post evaluation (M = 25.93); statistically significant differences were found in the variables of stress (p = 0.042), anxiety
Results A total of 41 patients (16 atorvastatin 10-80 mg/day; 25 simvastatin 10-80 mg/day) were enrolled. On entry the average pain score was 4.7 (range 0-8) and the average CPK was 138.8 (range 34-573 mg/dL). There was no significant baseline correlation between pain score and CPK (lowest versus highest CPK quartile 5.4 versus 4.2 mean pain score; p = NS). There was no significant difference in baseline pain score between atorvastatin versus simvastatin (5 versus 4.5 respectively; p = NS) treated patients and no significant correlation in either group of pain severity with statin choice (correlation coefficients -0.13 atorvastatin, -0.47 simvastatin) or dose. After one month pain scores improved (-3 mean) in 20 patients and remained the same or worsened (+0.7 mean) in 21 patients. There was no relation between the magnitude or direction of change in pain score and the change in the repeat CPK. The mean CPK increased by 15.3 mg/dL in the improved pain group and decreased by 14.7 mg/dL in the ...
Pain rating scales have become a medical standard for excellent reason: They give doctors important information about changing symptoms and have led to better outcomes in clinical trials. The pain intensity numeric scale (PI-NRS) and patients global impression of change (PGIC) contribute to better care but bring a heavy dose of subjectivity to the consulting room. Partly as a result of this subjectivity, doctors may be too quick to prescribe opioid medication when other treatments would be preferable.. Anaesthesiologist Myles Gart proposes an objective way to assess acute pain. The metrics can be remembered with a cheeky mnemonic based on the acronym ORHBP: Opioids Rarely Help Bodily Pain.. Observation. Pain often shows in mood and behavior, but so do symptoms unrelated to pain. By ruling out hypoxemia and other conditions, physicians can assess whether a patients pain is intolerable. Gart suggests that analgesics should only be given to patients who have hit 10 on the PI-NRS ...
Local arm factors: severe spasticity Modified Ashworth scale >1+ in any region, fixed joint contractures or joint replacements, patients with poor skin conditions which would contraindicate repetitive arm training, upper limb pain impeding movements with visual analogue scale (VAS score) >4/10, other conditions ensuing upper limb weakness, skull defect, polydactyly or amputation of fingers, and allergy to electrodes or adhesive gel ...
References: 1. Wang-Gillam A, Li C-P, Bodoky G, et al. Nanoliposomal irinotecan with fluorouracil and folinic acid in metastatic pancreatic cancer after previous gemcitabine-based therapy (NAPOLI-1): a global, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2016;387(10018):545-57. 2. Mercadé TM, Siveke JT, Dean A, et al. Subgroup analysis by baseline pain intensity (BPI) and baseline analgesic use (BAU) in NAPOLI-1, a phase 3 study of liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI)±5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma previously treated with gemcitabine-based therapy. J Clin Oncol (ASCO GI Meeting) 2018;36(Suppl):abstr 379.. ...
Analyzed data on subset of respondents with chronic pain from the National Survey of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS). Results indicated trait and state feelings of positive affect were associated with changes in levels of salivary cortisol.Analyzed GIS and daily diary data from a pilot study of chronic pain. Results indicated that exposure to nearby nature buffered the effects of pain catastrophizing on pain intensity.Examined the relationship of perceived control over daily uplifts and hassles in a sample of individuals with chronic pain. Results indicated that greater control over uplifts was associated with more adaptive pain outcomes and lower control over hassles with poorer functioning ...
The Simple Descriptive Scale (SDS) has been known to be easier to use, but lacks sensitivity when compared to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). In this study, 79 cancer patients quantified the intensity of their pain experience on both the VAS and SDS before receiving pain therapy and on the fifth day after commencing the therapy. High correlations were observed between the two scales in age, sex and types of analgesics. The results demonstrate that the SDS provides a simpler and, perhaps, equally sensitive alternative to the VAS, in measurement of cancer pain among Chinese patients. It would be particularly useful for those with language barriers and/or other factors in understanding the requirements or the VAS ...
Results 159 participants attended the first 12 courses. 156 completed pre and post course questionnaires and 104 completed pre and post course confidence visual analogue scales which were compared. Many of the items suggest improvement from before the course to immediately afterwards, for example, pre course only 6% participants felt that they understood the nature of spiritual assessment very well, 36% quite well, 57% a little or not at all. After the course 57% participants scored the answer as very well, and 40% quite well with only 3% a little. Pre course the mean visual analogue score for confidence in assessing spiritual needs was 4.00 and afterwards 6.76 (where 0 was no confidence) and for assessing religious needs pre course 4.71 and post course 7.07.. ...
7. Temporal summation of mechanical pain - assessed through the repetition of 10 standardised punctuate stimuli at a frequency of 1 Hz, applied to an area of the skin 1cm lateral to the midline of the patella using a 225.1g Von Frey filament. Patients will be asked to rate the pain intensity of the first and last stimuli on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (0 = no pain; 10 = extreme pain). The difference in pain intensity between the last and first stimuli will be calculated to indicate the magnitude of temporal summation ...
Carprieve (Carprofen) is a Rimadyl generic that provides clinically effective pain relief associated with osteoarthritis and post operative pain associated with soft tissue and orthopedic surgeries in dogs. It is non-narcotic, non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory and is available as scored caplets that contain 25 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg per caplet ...
... were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. For research purposes, and for more detailed pain ... There can be a pain with ovulation, pain associated with adhesions, pain caused by inflammation in the pelvic cavity, pain ... pain may get worse over time (progressive pain), also lower back pains linked to the pelvis chronic pelvic pain - typically ... Individual pain areas and pain intensity appear to be unrelated to the surgical diagnosis, and the area of pain unrelated to ...
The Randall-Selitto test or paw pressure test is a technique for the measurement of the pain response in animals. It is used in ... Pain is deemed to be present if the animal starts to exhibit the flight or struggle response. Randall and Selitto exploited the ... basic pain research and to test the effectiveness of analgetics by observing the reaction to gradually increasing pressure on ... fact that inflammation increases pain sensitivity and this sensitivity is modifiable by analgesics. The inflammation may be ...
Razim is the ultimate sociopath who intends to create a unit of measurement for pain. Despite his intelligence, he is shown to ...
68.2% showed a response by measurement of the fat deposit. 81% had mild adverse reactions of bruising, swelling, pain, numbness ... however the procedure has been studied for the pain relief of other ailments, such as tendonitis, tendon calcification, dental ...
The use of FACS has been proposed for use in the analysis of depression, and the measurement of pain in patients unable to ... Facial Action Coding System: A Technique for the Measurement of Facial Movement. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, ... Pain Medicine. 8 (8): 678-689. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00358.x. PMID 18028046. Example and web site of one teaching ... "A Psychophysical Investigation of the Facial Action Coding System as an Index of Pain Variability among Older Adults with and ...
Insulin normally increases after feeding, as well as secondary to cortisol (stress) and epinephrine (pain), so measurement ... Measurement of fasting insulin concentration involves giving a horse a single flake of hay, low in non-structural carbohydrates ... Actively laminitic horses should therefore not undergo testing until their pain and stress have been adequately controlled. ... and echocardiographic measurements in healthy adult horses". American journal of veterinary research. 69 (1): 68-75. doi: ...
... as is done routinely for the measurement of pain in non-verbal humans. Observers score the presence or prominence of "facial ... From the described pain face, The Equine Pain Scale has been developed. Another pain scale has been described (EQUUS-FAP) which ... "mTORC1 inhibition induces pain via IRS-1-dependent feedback activation of ERK". Pain. 154 (7): 1080-1091. doi:10.1016/j.pain. ... Pain. 156 (5): 798-799. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000133. van Rysewyk, S. (2016). "Nonverbal indicators of pain". Animal ...
... depends upon applying to pleasures and pains a "science of measurement". The School of Cyrene provided one of the first ... It was one of the first to advance a systematic view on the role of pleasure and pain in human life. The Cyrenaics argued that ... Whereas negative emotions, such as anger and fear, multiplied pain. Towards the end of Socrates' Protagoras it is reasoned that ...
"Chronic Pain and the Measurement of Personality: Do States Influence Traits?". Pain Medicine. 7 (6): 509-529. doi:10.1111/j. ... Main article: Pain § Classification. The International Association for the study of pain defines chronic pain as pain with no ... Chronic visceral pain: pain originating in an internal organ.. *Chronic musculoskeletal pain: pain originating in the bones, ... Bogduk, N; Merskey, H (1994). Classification of chronic pain: descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain ...
The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale or FLACC scale is a measurement used to assess pain for children between the ... The FLACC scale offered the same evaluation of pain as did the Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI) scale which is ... The scale is scored in a range of 0-10 with 0 representing no pain. The scale has five criteria, which are each assigned a ... FLACC Scale (Extracted from The FLACC: A behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children, by S Merkel and ...
... pain measurement MeSH E01.370.376.550.650 --- reflex MeSH E01.370.376.550.650.650 --- reflex, abdominal MeSH E01.370.376.550. ... lung volume measurements MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750 --- total lung capacity MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.150 --- closing ... nuchal translucency measurement MeSH E01.370.350.925 --- whole body imaging MeSH E01.370.370.050 --- angiography MeSH E01.370. ... nuchal translucency measurement MeSH E01.370.378.850 --- ultrasonography, mammary MeSH E01.370.378.860 --- uterine monitoring ...
... were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. For research purposes, and for more detailed pain ... VAS is the most common pain scale for quantification of endometriosis-related pain and skin graft donor site-related pain. A ... measurement in clinical practice, the review suggested use of VAS or NRS for each type of typical pain related to endometriosis ... It is a measurement instrument for subjective characteristics or attitudes that cannot be directly measured. When responding to ...
... and Pain in Health and Disease: Mechanisms and Assessments: a Wenner-Gren Center International Symposium, 1st Edn, eds J. ... Physiological Measurement. 37 (7): 1074-1088. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/37/7/1074. ISSN 1361-6579. PMID 27321473. Bruns, Patrick; ... and inter-observer reliability of a novel protocol for two-point discrimination in individuals with chronic low back pain". ...
... intensity changes and on-line measurements on retrospective pain evaluations", Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 11 (1): ...
... therefore measurement of these cytokines could be used to diagnose category Ⅲ prostatitis. A 2010 study found that nerve growth ... Pain can range from mild to debilitating. Pain may radiate to the back and rectum, making sitting uncomfortable. Pain can be ... Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a pelvic pain condition in ... Dysuria, arthralgia, myalgia, unexplained fatigue, abdominal pain, constant burning pain in the penis, and frequency may all be ...
Beecher, HK (1959). Measurement of subjective responses. New York: Oxford University Press. cited in Melzack, R; Wall, PD (1996 ... no pain' and 'worst imaginable pain". Cut-offs for pain classification have been recommended as no pain (0-4mm), mild pain (5- ... VAS Pain), Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF- ... Feeling pain and being in pain, Oldenburg, 2001. ISBN 9780262517324. Congenital insensitivity to pain: an update. Pain. 2003; ...
Systematic process of pain assessment, measurement, and re-assessment (re-evaluation), enhances the healthcare teams' ability ... Assessment of a patient's experience of pain is a crucial component in providing effective pain management. Pain is not a ... "Pediatric Pain Assessment In the Emergency Department: A Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Protocol." Pediatric Nursing 41, no. 4 ... Nurses should be aware of the many factors that can influence the patients' overall experience and expression of pain, and ...
... were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. For research purposes, and for more detailed pain ... Pain assessments are often regarded as "the 5th Vital Sign". Alder Hey Triage Pain Score Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) Brief Pain ... for measuring pain in children Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) for measuring pain in premature infants Schmidt Sting Pain ... Pain measurements help determine the severity, type, and duration of the pain, and are used to make an accurate diagnosis, ...
Psychophysical approaches to measurement of the dimensions and stages of pain. In: Turk DC & Melzack R. Handbook of pain ... joint pain, muscle pain, and abdominal pain due to diarrhea or constipation; hormone therapy, which sometimes causes pain ... Antibiotic treatment produced pain relief in all of them within three days. Cancer pain treatment aims to relieve pain with ... Failure to report pain or misguided reluctance to take pain medicine can be overcome by sensitive coaching. Pain is experienced ...
... gain and pain sharing, mutual objectives, performance measurement and continuous improvement. The Unpacking Relational ...
Dolorimetry (dolor: Latin: pain, grief) is the measurement of the pain response in animals, including humans. It is practiced ... The standard measure of pain in humans is how a person reports that pain, (for example, on a pain scale). "Pain" is defined by ... "Can animals feel pain?". PAIN. Retrieved 18 March 2012. Elwood, R.W.; Barr, S.; Patterson, L. (2009). "Pain and stress in ... Non-human animal pain measurement techniques include the paw pressure test, tail flick test, hot plate test and grimace scales ...
March 2002). "Pain measurement tools and methods in clinical research in palliative care: recommendations of an Expert Working ... The Brief Pain Inventory is a medical questionnaire used to measure pain, developed by the Pain Research Group of the WHO ... Brief Pain Inventory article at the Fabry Registry Cleeland CS, Ryan KM (March 1994). "Pain assessment: global use of the Brief ... Brief Pain Inventory entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates public domain material ...
Pronounced asymmetries contribute to the cause or increased risk of back pain. Tensiomyographic measurements address patient- ... Measurement results help determine recovery of functional capacity so the most effective rehabilitation can be safely ... Tensiomyography measurement instrument includes an electrical stimulator and data acquisition subunit (1), mechanical sensor (2 ... "Mc sensor-A novel method for measurement of muscle tension." Sensors 11.10 (2011): 9411-9425. Neamtu, M. C., et al. " ...
Pain measurements help determine the severity, type, and duration of pain. They are also used in diagnosis, to determine a ... Chronic pain has also been described as the pain experienced when the child reports a headache, abdominal pain, back pain, ... Cancer pain can differ from other types of pain. The level of pain experienced by a child with cancer is related to the stage ... Pain management in children is the assessment and treatment of pain in infants and children. Similar to adults, a child's pain ...
Fitzgerald's research has changed clinical perception by showing that pain in infancy requires appropriate measurement and ... Her work has had a major impact on our understanding of how pain perception emerges in early life and how early pain experience ... Pain. 15 (1): 109-130. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(83)90012-X. "Professor Maria Fitzgerald: The neural development of pain processing ... She trained in pain physiology and neuroscience with Patrick David Wall at University College London where she was awarded a ...
PainEdit. Preclinical data support the notion that Substance P is an important element in pain perception. The sensory function ... Bossaller C, Reither K, Hehlert-Friedrich C, Auch-Schwelk W, Graf K, Gräfe M, Fleck E (Oct 1992). "In vivo measurement of ... The symptoms of infection are diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain.[68][69] This protozoan was found to secrete serotonin ... The "P" in substance "P" [SP] is mistakenly thought to signify Pain or Psychiatric substance. Substance P ("P" standing for " ...
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Though complex and multifactorial, it is based on two overarching concepts: qualifying and quantifying pain. In practicality, ... Treatment of pain first requires an accurate measurement of pain. ... Pain measurement Pain scale Visual analog scale Faces rated scale Neonatal pain score Premature pain profile Numeric rating ... Faces pain scale-revised: toward a common metric in pediatric pain measurement. Pain. 2001;93(2):173-83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
The particular location and axes of the motion or activity sensors may be chosen based on the location of the pain being ... The effectiveness of a particular pain management stimulation parameter set is based on the statistics accumulated over a ... Increased levels of exertion are an indication of successful pain management. The patients walking gait smoothness and walking ... gait stability are also graded as indicators of pain management effectiveness. The motion or activity sensors may be part of a ...
How children cope with pain has a lot to do with our role as parents and there is a huge contribution we can make to helping ... to the more terrifying accidents and emergencies one way or another our children will need to learn to deal with pain. ... You never want your child to experience pain but we also need to realize its part of life.. from the ordinary tumbles and ... alleviate not just the physical experience but the anxiety and stress that can certainly increase pain for children. ...
VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale ( ... NRS Pain) for estimating patients pain intensity and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS) for evaluating pain in ... Rheumatologists Issue New Guides for Pain Measurements. New guidelines for measuring pain in patients with rheumatic conditions ... The authors also recommend the ICOAP for assessment of osteoarthritis-related pain. ...
Home , August 2010 - Volume 150 - Issue 2 , 50 years on, Henry Beechers "Measurement of subjective resp... ... 50 years on, Henry Beechers "Measurement of subjective responses". Morley, Stephen1; Vlaeyen, Johan W.S.2 ... PAIN 2019: Global Year Against Pain in the Most Vulnerable. *PAIN 2018: Global Year for Excellence in Pain Education ... PAIN 2017: Global Year Against Pain After Surgery. *PAIN 2016: Global Year Against Pain in the Joints ...
Measurement, & Management in Pain Research (R03) PA-13-117. NINR ... Pain Management The prevalence of pain and inadequate pain ... Differences in care for various types of pain, acute postoperative pain, treatment-related pain, cancer pain, or chronic non- ... of pain measurements that can account for or predict the trajectory or course of pain, as well as the changes in pain over time ... Models of Pain. There are many factors responsible for pain experienced by patients. Current animal models of pain have been ...
Near-infrared Spectroscopic Measurement in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Near-infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of Tissue Oxygen Saturation and the Vascular Occlusion Test in Complex Regional Pain ... A hypothesis for the cause of complex regional pain syndrome-type I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy): pain due to deep-tissue ... Recent clinical investigations have suggested that the cause of abnormal pain in complex regional pain syndrome could be ...
Pain Monitoring Using Plurality of Non-invasive Physiological Measurement. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ...
Measurement of Stress During Anesthesia With Pain Detector on Patients Receiving Atropine. The safety and scientific validity ... Measurement of Stress During Anesthesia With Pain Detector on Patients Receiving Atropine ...
Pain Measurement Completed Phase 4 Trials for Methoxyflurane (DB01028). Back to Pain Measurement ... Safety and Efficacy of Methoxyflurane for Treatment of Incident Pain. Treatment. *Methoxyflurane (DB01028) ...
... and Measurement Tools http://www.chiro.org/research/ABSTRACTS/Assessment_of_Patients_With_Neck_Pain.shtml ... This page contains the article Assessment of Patients With Neck Pain: A Review of Definitions, Selection Criteria, ... Pain questionnaires Table 2 Questionnaires that incorporate assessments of pain include the Extended Aberdeen Spine Pain Scale ... Pain to the front of the cervical spine is usually described as pain in the throat and not as neck pain. [11] Bogduk and ...
It aims to contribute to improve pain measurement, treatment, and the relationship between pain and health care consumption. ... Since pain relief is not always immediate and is sometimes preceded by an increase in pain, we examined whether radiotherapy is ... Nonetheless, in 60% of them the pain remained moderate to severe. The hypothesis that people experience less pain if they are ... J.J. Meeuse: Aspects of pain in measurement, management and health care utilization. ...
Recruitment of patients presenting with chest pain, and results of early measurement of high-sensitivity troponin T levels ... Characteristics of 939 patients presenting with chest pain and no ST-segment elevation who underwent early measurement of ... This early measurement may have failed to identify patients with "minor" infarctions who had only low-level increases in ... and prognostic utility of early measurement with high-sensitivity troponin T assay in patients presenting with chest pain. ...
Is HCAHPS survey pain measurement causing doctors to prescribe narcotics too liberally? Measuring anything in health care can ... Before pain measurement, pain was classified as mild, medium or high and this was clear.. The response of a physician to his ... The Paradox of Pain Measurement. Nevertheless, I dont dispute that simply knowing that pain control is being measured can ... In the discussions of what happened and what to do about it, critics point at measurement of pain in the HCAHPS survey, and ...
Pain relief is the new mantra for optical test and measurement equipment vendors. ... SPECIAL REPORTS: Test, Measurement, and Management With the deployment of 40-Gbit/sec systems pushed back 18-24 months, optical ... measurement, and control of polarized light. Luna expects the acquisition to enhance its existing test and measurement product ... Easing this pain has become the test equipment vendors biggest challenge in the current economy. Their ability to deliver easy ...
Editorial Views / Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems / Pain Medicine Editorial Views , September 2009 Pain Measurement and ... Brain imaging is a very active area of pain research that might afford the possibility of improved pain measurement in the ... Strong agreement with self-report in subjects with experimental pain, acute pain, and chronic pain, under a range of situations ... Pain Measurement and Beechers Challenge: 50 Years Later You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated ...
Longitudinal Measurement of Pain and Other Symptoms of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Following Thoracic Surgery. ... Longitudinal Measurement of Pain and Other Symptoms of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Following Thoracic Surgery ...
Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: recommendations ... Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: recommendations ... Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: recommendations ... from the first International Hip-related Pain Research Network (IHiPRN) meeting, Zurich, 2018 ...
MEASUREMENT OF CHRONIC PAIN RELIEF UTILIZING DOSE RESPONSE OF DEXTROMORAMIDE AGAINST MORPHINE AND PLACEBO. Robert O. Bauer, ... MEASUREMENT OF CHRONIC PAIN RELIEF UTILIZING DOSE RESPONSE OF DEXTROMORAMIDE AGAINST MORPHINE AND PLACEBO. Robert O. Bauer, ... MEASUREMENT OF CHRONIC PAIN RELIEF UTILIZING DOSE RESPONSE OF DEXTROMORAMIDE AGAINST MORPHINE AND PLACEBO. Robert O. Bauer, ... MEASUREMENT OF CHRONIC PAIN RELIEF UTILIZING DOSE RESPONSE OF DEXTROMORAMIDE AGAINST MORPHINE AND PLACEBO ...
Standardised measurement methods of physical capacity of relevance to young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain ... Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: recommendations ... Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: recommendations ... Hip-related pain can significantly impact quality of life, function, work capacity, physical activity and family life. ...
Comparison of paraspinal cutaneous temperature measurements between subjects with and without chronic low back pain.. January 1 ... inequality Low low back pain lumbar Manipulation manual Mechanical methods Muscle neck pain Neurophysiological Orthopedic pain ... Precise measurement of functional leg length inequality and changes due to cervical spine rotation in pain-free students. » ... Effectiveness as a Mechanical Impedance Measurement Tool » Grand Rounds Discussion: Patient with acute low back pain » ...
1. Compare pain measurement between a new electronic device, the Continuous Pain Score Meter (CPSM) and the Verbal Rating Scale ... Pain perception is usually measured using pain scores, where participants are asked to rate their level of pain at certain ... directly after a procedure versus pain measurement and using the Continuous Pain Score Meter (CPSM, CPSM-AUC, CPSM-PPS, CPSM- ... Electronic continuous pain measurement versus Verbal Rating Scale in gynaecology: a prospective observational cohort study ...
... slight pain, mild pain, moderate pain, severe pain). The third level of scale complexity would be the equal interval scale. ... For example, on a 10-point pain scale, a score of 2 represents twice as much pain as a score of 1, and a pain score of 9 ... Pain terms: A list with definitions and notes on usage. Pain 1979; 6: 249-52International Association for the Study of Pain, ... Measurement of Pain in Children: State-of-the-art Considerations You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ...
Low back pain and range of motion: Outcome measurement following Gonstead-Type low back adjustments. *Waagen GN, Haldeman S, ... Short term trial of chiropractic adjustments for the relief of chronic low back pain. Manual Medicine 1986; 2:63-67. (Authors ... Prospective controlled clinical trial of chiropractic manipulation in patients with chronic recurrent low back pain. (Submitted ...
  • The review, part of the journal's special issue titled "Patient Outcomes in Rheumatology, 2011," includes the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), SF-36 BPS, and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). (apta.org)
  • Furthermore, our understanding of how and why individuals transition to a chronic pain state after an acute injury is limited. (nih.gov)
  • Jordan, A & Eccleston, C 2006, ' A systematic review of measurement instruments used with parents of adolescents experiencing chronic pain ', Journal of Pain , vol. 7, no. 4, sup, pp. 82. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Backstory: I've been suffering with chronic pain for the past 5 months which is made worse when I exercise so I've had to severely scale back what I do, so I'm on the Perricone diet to compensate for my now sedentary lifestyle. (wordpress.com)
  • Chronic pain affects more than 50 million Americans per year. (blogspot.com)
  • Chronic pain is widely believed to represent a disease itself, causing long-term detrimental physiologic changes and requiring unique assessments and treatments. (blogspot.com)
  • Proposals that seek to improve the understanding of the causes, costs, and societal effects of both acute and chronic pain and the relationships between the two are highly encouraged. (blogspot.com)
  • Additionally, proposals that link such understandings to the development of better approaches to therapeutic interventions, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions, and management of acute and chronic pain are in keeping with the current translational focus of NIH and are encouraged. (blogspot.com)
  • The areas of research detailed below and the following acute and chronic pain conditions are of special interest but do not comprise a comprehensive or complete listing of research areas relevant to this FOA. (blogspot.com)
  • Although great strides have been made in some areas, such as the neural pathways of pain, chronic pain and the challenge of its treatment have remained uniquely individual and largely unsolved. (blogspot.com)
  • Pain can occur just as symptom , but also have its own illness value - especially in chronic pain . (doccheck.com)
  • Under chronic pain, doctors understand pain that lasts longer than six months. (doccheck.com)
  • Also recurring pain such as migraine is considered chronic pain when it occurs on more than 15 days a month. (doccheck.com)
  • In case of an untreated or insufficiently treated chronic pain, a pain memory develops. (doccheck.com)
  • Hummel P, Puchalski M, Creech SD, Weiss MG. Clinical reliability and validity of the N-PASS: neonatal pain, agitation and sedation scale with prolonged pain. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to inform the scientific community of the pain research interests of the various Institutes and Centers (ICs) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and to stimulate and foster a wide range of basic, clinical, and translational studies on pain as they relate to the missions of these ICs. (nih.gov)
  • Recent clinical investigations have suggested that the cause of abnormal pain in complex regional pain syndrome could be ischemia and inflammation, due to poor blood flow to deep tissues from microvascular pathology. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Classifications according to severity and duration of pain and the establishment of selection criteria seem to play a crucial role in study designs and in clinical settings to ensure homogeneous groups and effective interventions. (chiro.org)
  • He noted the strong bias among clinicians and clinical researchers towards finding "objective" measures of pain, and he cited some problems with pain measurement based on indices of sympathetic activation. (asahq.org)
  • Nevertheless, the results should give considerable caution regarding clinical use of skin conductance fluctuations as a clinical measure of pain in children. (asahq.org)
  • Waagen GN, DeBoer KF, Hansen JM, McGee D, Haldeman S. Prospective controlled clinical trial of chiropractic manipulation in patients with chronic recurrent low back pain. (gonstead.com)
  • Studies in children and adolescents with cancer that aimed to evaluate the clinimetric properties of an existing pain measurement instrument or to develop a new pain measurement instrument and that include at least one relevant outcome (reliability, validity, responsiveness, interpretability, clinical utility) are eligible for inclusion. (eur.nl)
  • Establishing a research agenda on standardizing pain measurement in clinical trials in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD). (jrheum.org)
  • Clinical measurement of the thoracic kyphosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The findings of this immediate test-retest reliability study suggest that the clinical measurement of the thoracic kyphosis using gravity dependent inclinometers demonstrates excellent intra-rater reliability. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Contributors to the May issue explain why each of these statements about pain is true, and explore clinical approaches that lie between the underestimation and overtreatment of pain. (ama-assn.org)
  • In a randomised, controlled clinical trial by Hölmich et al 4 , including patients with long-standing adductor-related groin pain, greater increase in isometric hip adduction muscle strength was documented in patients treated with an active treatment approach than patients treated with a passive approach. (aspetar.com)
  • New clinical testing procedures, such as the squeeze test and strength testing using hand-held dynamometers (HHD), have recently been introduced for athletes with hip and groin pain. (aspetar.com)
  • Separate estimates of experimental pain sensation intensity and pain unpleasantness were obtained by each method, as were estimates of clinical pain. (ovid.com)
  • The stimulus-response function derived from sensory numerical ratings differed from that obtained with M-VAS and did not provide accurate predictions of temperatures perceived as twice intense as 47°C or 48°C. Both M-VAS and numerical rating scales produced reliably different stimulus response functions for pain sensation intensity as compared to pain unpleasantness and both provided consistent measures of experimental and clinical pain intensity. (ovid.com)
  • The ratio scale properties of M-VAS combined with its ease of administration and scoring in clinical settings offer the possibility of a simple yet powerful pain measurement technology in both research and health care settings. (ovid.com)
  • Further study to refine these instruments may increase the clinical feasibility of pain measurements in high-risk infants. (mysciencework.com)
  • The aim of the present study was a clinical evaluation of swelling and pain of two sinus lift different flaps technique measured through visual analogue scale (VAS), verbal rating scale (VRS) and infrared thermal imaging (i.e., thermography). (preprints.org)
  • Clinical Research Assistant Kevin Jackson uses AlgometRx Platform Technology on Sarah Taylor's eyes to measure her degree of pain. (childrensnational.org)
  • A pain biomarker could rapidly advance both clinical practice and pain research, Dr. Finkel adds. (childrensnational.org)
  • Further, while there are many medications used to treat PLP, most have not been tested through rigorous controlled clinical trials, and their efficacies are instead based on positive treatment response for other neuropathic pain conditions ( 7 - 31 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The Numeric Rating Scale for Clinical Pain Measurement: A Ratio Measure? (bionity.com)
  • Clinical researcher also found that the wiry pulse is the most common pulse (62.9%) in patients with pain like headaches and chest pain. (hindawi.com)
  • The objective of this randomized double-blind clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of the systemic administration of betamethasone - through infiltration in the oral mucosa - to control pain and edemas in patients undergoing emergency endodontic treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage investigators to pursue translational activities and clinical trials to treat pain with innovative, targeted, and non-addictive diagnostic and/or therapeutic devices that improve patient outcomes and decrease or eliminate the need to prescribe opioids. (tmj.org)
  • BackgroundCervical radiculopathy (CR) results in significant disability and pain and is commonly treated conservatively with satisfactory clinical outcomes. (edu.au)
  • ABSTRACT: Presents study conducted to determine whether patients with low back or buttock pain had any piriformis muscle abnormalities and to correlate the diagnostic findings with two symptoms and two clinical signs commonly associated with patients who have buttock pain. (naric.com)
  • Osteoarthritis Research Society International-Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials (OARSI-OMERACT) Initiative, New OA Pain Measure: Disease-Specific, Osteoarthritis Pain The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS-11) is an 11-point scale for patient self-reporting of pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • For research purposes, and for more detailed pain measurement in clinical practice, the review suggested use of VAS or NRS for each type of typical pain related to endometriosis (dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia and non-menstrual chronic pelvic pain), combined with the clinical global impression (CGI) and a quality of life scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 Although multiple methods have been described to measure and assess pain in children, most are not well-validated and not applicable to all age groups, and none have been universally accepted. (asahq.org)
  • Previously it has been shown that muscle-strength deficits up to 50%, assessed by quantitative measurement methods (dynamometer), are not identified by MMT. (aspetar.com)
  • Methods: This cross-sectional study design evaluated shoulder ROM, pain, fear-avoidance beliefs, and disability in 60 people (aged 35-70 years, 31 male) with chronic unilateral shoulder dysfunction (mean duration 15.73 weeks). (edu.au)
  • The primary outcome was pain as measured using a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale. (frontiersin.org)
  • The effects of 12 weeks of GEJ treatment on muscle strength of lower limbs were measured by a Biodex dynamometer, with disability evaluated on the Lequesne index and articular pain measured on the visual analog scale (VAS) between the two groups on the baseline and after treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • The piriformis muscle was injected with bupivacaine after pain was assessed on a visual analog scale using the resisted abduction test. (naric.com)
  • The purpose of this literature review was to synthesize the existing literature on various definitions, classifications, selection criteria, and outcome measures used in different studies in patients with neck pain. (chiro.org)
  • A literature search of MEDLINE and CINAHL through September 2008 was performed to gather articles on the reliability, validity, and utility of a wide variety of outcome measurements for neck pain. (chiro.org)
  • One objective of this study is to provide to health care professionals who work with patients with neck pain some useful information about the existing outcome measures and the criteria for selecting the most appropriate ones according to treatment goals. (chiro.org)
  • Standard scales for measurement of functional outcome for cervical pain or dysfunction: a systematic review. (duke.edu)
  • Another harmful outcome of acute pain is an increase in sympathetic effects such as the inability to urinate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 in this issue of Anesthesiology, and we briefly consider the promise of future "objective" pain measures based on brain imaging or brain electrical recording. (asahq.org)
  • Her many educational roles at Johns Hopkins include serving as the associate director of the Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine Residency Program, as well as the director of Pain Management and Regional Anesthesia Education. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Psychometric properties of the non-communicating children's pain checklist-revised. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this review was to summarize studies reporting on the psychometric properties of measures commonly utilized in spinal cord injury (SCI) pain research to better inform clinicians and researchers on the selection of appropriate pain-related instruments. (cosmin.nl)
  • A detailed literature search was completed to extrapolate articles that described the psychometric properties of pain measures specifically used in SCI populations. (cosmin.nl)
  • We propose a call to SCI researchers to consistently apply psychometric analyses to SCI pain data measures. (cosmin.nl)
  • Greater rigor for assessing psychometric information in SCI pain studies will better inform the SCI research community of the applicability of generic measures to SCI pain investigations. (cosmin.nl)
  • Further studies with psychometric measurements, a larger sample size and a female test group should be conducted. (duhnnae.com)
  • The NIH Pain Consortium was established in 1996 to enhance pain research and promote collaboration among researchers across the many NIH ICs that have programs and activities addressing pain. (blogspot.com)
  • Taking up the challenge of measuring prolonged pain in (premature) neonates: the COMFORTneo scale seems promising. (springer.com)
  • Pain in neonates and children has historically been underreported, undertreated, and frequently misunderstood. (asahq.org)
  • Thus, it is vital for a physician to adequately measure a patient's pain to provide effective and timely treatments and to avoid unnecessary medications and procedures. (springer.com)
  • Dr. Finkel, who serves as director of Research and Development for Pain Medicine at the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation at Children's National , says that a key step in addressing the opioid crisis is providing physicians with objective, real-time data on a patient's pain level and type, to safely prescribe the right drug and dosage or an alternate treatment. (childrensnational.org)
  • Spinal disorders are the most frequent cause of pain and lower part of the spine, which is often called Low Back Pain.Straight Leg Raise Test can provide important information to detect the cause ofLBP and conducted by physican with a goniometer required accurately reading angle when your feet up.But this can be overcome with Kinect can detect motion and displays images and depth data. (e-jurnal.com)
  • During the circuitery in the spinal cord, the pain sensation can be reduced by endogenic substances ( endorphines ). (doccheck.com)
  • The goal of the program is to demonstrate treatment using credible neural targets for device-based interventions and/or diagnostics for pain, building upon the latest mechanistic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of central, spinal, and peripheral pathways involved in pain. (tmj.org)
  • The reliability and validity of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability observational tool as a measure of pain in children with cognitive impairment. (springer.com)
  • did you know health practitioners can use up to 40 scales to measure pain? (abc.net.au)
  • 2 attempt to validate a new pain measure for children, namely fluctuations in skin conductance per second. (asahq.org)
  • Being able to effectively measure pain levels during the different parts of a procedure could therefore help better deliver pain relief which could make procedures more successful. (isrctn.com)
  • Evaluations indicated that use of the CAT measure may reduce sample size requirements with 15-25 % compared to using the QLQ-C30 pain scale. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Children's National Medical Center is testing an experimental device that aims to measure pain according to how pupils react to certain stimuli. (childrensnational.org)
  • Pediatric anesthesiologist Julia C. Finkel, M.D. , of Children's National Health System , gazed into the eyes of a newborn patient determined to find a better way to measure the effectiveness of pain treatment on one so tiny and unable to verbalize. (childrensnational.org)
  • A validated measure to show whether or not an opioid is indicated for a given patient could ease the health care system's transition from overreliance on opioids to a more comprehensive and less harmful approach to pain management," says Dr. Finkel. (childrensnational.org)
  • It will take some more time and effort to evolve yet other newer and sophisticated techniques to measure all aspects of pain in human beings. (who.int)
  • The aim of this thesis was to validate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively measure stress and/or pain in cattle. (massey.ac.nz)
  • We will then move on to the question of measurement: what should we measure when assessing the level of Distributive Justice in society? (coursera.org)
  • The search for a quantitative, reliable correlate of the pain experience has not yet produced an adequate 'measure' for pain. (northampton.ac.uk)
  • Prkachin was the first to use the video-based Facial Action Coding System to measure facial expressions while using four different types of pain triggers, identifying a group of facial muscles around the eyes. (duhnnae.com)
  • The HHD is a quantitative measurement method for assessing unilateral muscle strength that has been used since the 1940s. (aspetar.com)
  • The two components have not yet been satisfactorily separated experimentally (XII, B). Pain from the two origins differs greatly in the quantitative representation of the two components (XII, B). It is essential that these diffrences be taken into account when scientific study of pain or pain relief is undertaken. (stonel.info)
  • 11) Quantitative work with pain is possible and rewarding. (stonel.info)
  • Immediately after the procedure, participants are asked to express the experienced average pain during the entire procedure, using the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). (isrctn.com)
  • A review came to the conclusion that VAS and numerical rating scale (NRS) were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, I don't dispute that simply knowing that pain control is being measured can change the way physicians practice - and that this awareness can lead to better care in some patients and worse care in others. (nejm.org)
  • 1-3 Recent investigations show limited improvement in prevailing practices in pain management in children 4 despite efforts to change the purview and practice of clinicians. (asahq.org)
  • Guidelines for the use of controlled substances for the treatment of pain now consider inappropriate treatment, including undertreatment of pain, a departure from an acceptable standard of practice. (ama-assn.org)
  • Because of multidimensionality of chronic neck pain, more than just one index may be needed to gain a complete health profile of the patient with neck pain. (chiro.org)
  • 6 ] Many patients with neck pain visit health care clinics seeking treatment of their problem, and health professionals aim to use the best available evidence for making decisions about therapy. (chiro.org)
  • For this study, we considered neck pain to be a major or minor symptom of disease or disorder that occurs above the shoulder blades. (chiro.org)
  • We excluded articles with neck pain definitions found in the literature associated with serious local pathology or systemic disease. (chiro.org)
  • Manual and Instrument Applied Cervical Manipulation for Mechanical Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (activator.com)
  • During the procedure, patients' perception of pain plays a key role in how well they are able to tolerate the procedure. (isrctn.com)
  • Pain perception is usually measured using pain scores, where participants are asked to rate their level of pain at certain timepoints, however this technique is not always accurate. (isrctn.com)
  • The perception of pain includes a sensory component, involving neural pathway activation in response to noxious stimuli, and an affective response, which involves behavioral and cognitive aspects. (asahq.org)
  • However, there are tight interactions between pain perception and the psyche . (doccheck.com)
  • Hanna MN, González-Fernández M, Barrett AD, Williams KA, Pronovost P. "Does patient perception of pain control affect patient satisfaction across surgical units in a tertiary teaching hospital? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • From these values, the pain degree was calculated from the following formula: (pain perception current value - lowest perceptible current value) ÷ lowest perceptible current value × 100. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although great strides have been made in some areas, such as the identification of neural pathways of pain, the experience of pain and the challenge of treatment have remained uniquely individual and unsolved. (nih.gov)
  • Although great strides have been made in some areas, such as the neural pathways of pain, pain and the challenge of its treatment have remained uniquely individual and largely unsolved. (blogspot.com)
  • Premise 2: Vascular occlusion testing measures microcirculatory dysfunction NIRS measurement of peripheral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), combined with a reproducible ischemia-reperfusion challenge to induce reactive hyperemia (vascular occlusion testing - VOT), has been described as a valid and reliable method for assessing microcirculatory dysfunction (De Backer et al. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This integrated system has provided reliable and reproducible measurements of responses to sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants on more than 100 test occasions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Numerical rating scales and mechanical visual analogue scales (M-VAS) were compared for their capacity to provide ratio scale measures of experimental pain. (ovid.com)
  • The Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS, Schwarzer & Schulz, 2000) were developed based on theoretical considerations and reviews of established measurement instruments for social support. (midss.org)
  • Many pain scales include a use of cartoon faces with different expressions. (bionity.com)
  • In 1999, the Veteran's Administration adopted the slogan "Pain is the fifth vital sign", and encouraged greater use of pain scales in initial diagnoses. (bionity.com)
  • Pain scales are based on trust, cartoons (behavioral), or imaginary data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reliability of Pain Measurements Using C. (regionh.dk)
  • Results: Within-day and between-days reliability of abdominal muscles thickness measurements using US in patients with nonspecific chronic LBP in both rest and contraction state found to be high, ICC = 0.90 for within and ICC=0.85 for between-days of Transversus abdominis muscle in rest state and ICC= 0.82 and 0.86 in contraction state, respectively. (ac.ir)
  • Full-term infants tended to express more distinct pain-like responses to invasive procedures or direct contacts than premature infants did. (mysciencework.com)
  • Somatic pain from disbudding and initial responses to surgical castration included a synchronised drop in eye temperature, increases in catecholamines and changes in HRV indicative of increased sympathetic activity. (massey.ac.nz)
  • These differences in ANS responses to different procedures, detected by IRT and HRV, may be due to the nature of the pain and the relative fear associated with the procedure. (massey.ac.nz)
  • In the discussions of what happened and what to do about it, critics point at measurement of pain in the HCAHPS survey , and express concern that financial incentives for hospitals to improve patient experience are causing doctors to prescribe narcotics too liberally. (nejm.org)
  • Currently, I work for a company, Press Ganey Associates, Inc., that does a great deal of measurement, including measurement of patient experience. (nejm.org)
  • In any case, prescription data demonstrate that the opioid epidemic began in the late 1990s, long before HCAHPS began measuring pain in hospital patients (2006) and even longer before the first financial incentives for patient experience were introduced (2012). (nejm.org)
  • It is a portable measurement device and it has previously been used for assessing hip muscle strength in other patient groups. (aspetar.com)
  • In the hospitalized patient, pain may be associated with increased length of stay, longer recovery time, and poorer patient outcomes, which in turn have health care quality and cost implications. (blogspot.com)
  • Based on these surveys an aggregate statement could not be deduced regarding the correlation between the occurrence of pain and patient factors, disease characteristics, the setting in which care is provided (e.g., primary care or specialized oncology or pain treatment clinics), or specific treatments directed towards the underlying disease and its associated pain. (mendeley.com)
  • 4. The sedation and analgesia system of claim 1 , wherein said electronic controller evaluates said patient parameter measurements against said trends. (google.com)
  • Changes in the pain degree by Pain Vision ® were also found during scale B and C, D CIPN development in the patient evaluation (PNQ) (115.9 ± 112.4 vs. 70.6 ± 56.5, p = 0.005, and 115.9 ± 112.4 vs. 46.3 ± 42.9, p = 0.004). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Child satisfaction was associated with the quality of provider-patient interactions (R = 0.24, p 0.04), adequacy of information provided (R = 0.51, p = 0.003), and resolution of pain (R = 0.25, p = 0.03). (nih.gov)
  • Similar to adults, a child's pain is often tied to emotional and psychological components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assessing a child's pain based on the judgement of their parents or caregivers may lead to underestimation, as there is a widespread tendency for people to underestimate others' pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orofacial pain patients made numerical scale and VAS ratings in response to noxious thermal stimuli (45-51°C) applied for 5 sec to the forearm by a contact thermode. (ovid.com)
  • Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the leading cause of chronic orofacial pain. (tmj.org)
  • Thermovision: a new diagnostic method for orofacial pain? (dovepress.com)
  • Conclusions: We have established an item bank of 16 items suitable for CAT measurement of pain. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions concerning pain threshold must therefore be tentative (X). (stonel.info)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the validity of the facial EMG method for measuring facial pain expression. (duhnnae.com)
  • Specifically, information on the effects of GEJ on muscle strength, articular pain, and disability in elderly men with knee osteoarthritis is scant. (hindawi.com)