Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.
A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.

Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases. (1/9560)

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. (2/9560)

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

Cannabinoid suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity in wide dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat. (3/9560)

The effects of cannabinoid agonists on noxious heat-evoked firing of 62 spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in urethan-anesthetized rats (1 cell/animal). Noxious thermal stimulation was applied with a Peltier device to the receptive fields in the ipsilateral hindpaw of isolated WDR neurons. To assess the site of action, cannabinoids were administered systemically in intact and spinally transected rats and intraventricularly. Both the aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (125 microg/kg iv) and the bicyclic cannabinoid CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv) suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity. Responses evoked by mild pressure in nonnociceptive neurons were not altered by CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv), consistent with previous observations with another cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2. The cannabinoid induced-suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity was blocked by pretreatment with SR141716A (1 mg/kg iv), a competitive antagonist for central cannabinoid CB1 receptors. By contrast, intravenous administration of either vehicle or the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3 (125 microg/kg) failed to alter noxious heat-evoked activity. The suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity induced by WIN55,212-2 in the lumbar dorsal horn of intact animals was markedly attenuated in spinal rats. Moreover, intraventricular administration of WIN55,212-2 suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity in spinal WDR neurons. By contrast, both vehicle and enantiomer were inactive. These findings suggest that cannabinoids selectively modulate the activity of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn by actions at CB1 receptors. This modulation represents a suppression of pain neurotransmission because the inhibitory effects are selective for pain-sensitive neurons and are observed with different modalities of noxious stimulation. The data also provide converging lines of evidence for a role for descending antinociceptive mechanisms in cannabinoid modulation of spinal nociceptive processing.  (+info)

Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking. (4/9560)

Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking.  (+info)

Ketamine-induced peripheral analgesia in rats. (5/9560)

AIM: To examine whether ketamine may directly act at peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia. METHODS: Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane. As a nociceptive flexion reflex (FR), C responses from the posterior biceps semitendinosus (PBST) muscle was evoked by electrical stimulation (2 ms, 80 V, 2-3 pulses, 0.5 Hz) via a pair of stainless steel needles inserted subcutaneously applied to the two toes of ipsilateral hindpw. RESULTS: Subcutaneous injection of ketamine (36 mmol.L-1, 5 microL) into the ipsilateral hindpaw produced an inhibition of C responses. At 9 min after application of ketamine, injection of naloxone (1%, 5 microL) into the same area annulled ketamine-induced inhibition. CONCLUSION: Ketamine as a dissociate anesthetic acts on peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia, which is related to activity of peripheral opioid receptors.  (+info)

Response surface analysis of synergism between morphine and clonidine. (6/9560)

Graded doses of morphine sulfate and clonidine hydrochloride were administered intrathecally to mice that were then tested for antinociception in the 55 degrees C tail immersion test. The dose-effect relations of each compound were used in calculations that permitted the construction of a three-dimensional plot of the expected additive effect (vertical scale) against the planar domain of dose pairs representing combinations administered simultaneously. This additive response surface became the reference surface for viewing the actual effects produced by three different fixed-ratio combinations of the drugs that were used in our tests. Each combination produced effects significantly greater than indicated by the additive surface, thereby illustrating marked synergism and a method for quantifying the synergism. This quantification, measured by the value of the interaction index (alpha), was found to be dependent on the fixed-ratio combination; accordingly, the actual response surface could not be described by a single value of the index alpha. Furthermore, we found that application of the common method of isoboles gave estimates of the index that agreed well with those obtained from the more extensive surface analysis. These results confirm earlier studies, which found synergism for these drugs while also providing surface views of additivity and synergism that form the basis of isobolographic analysis.  (+info)

Nitrocinnamoyl and chlorocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone: in vivo and in vitro characterization of mu-selective agonist and antagonist activity. (7/9560)

Two 14beta-p-nitrocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone, 14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)-7,8-dihydrocodeinone (CACO) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)- 7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (N-CPM-CACO), and the corresponding chlorocinnamoylamino analogs, 14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino)-7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (CAM) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino) -7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (MC-CAM), were tested in opioid receptor binding assays and the mouse tail-flick test to characterize the opioid affinity, selectivity, and antinociceptive properties of these compounds. In competition binding assays, all four compounds bound to the mu opioid receptor with high affinity. When bovine striatal membranes were incubated with any of the four dihydrocodeinones, binding to the mu receptor was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, wash-resistant manner. Saturation binding experiments demonstrated that the wash-resistant inhibition of mu binding was due to a decrease in the Bmax value for the binding of the mu-selective peptide [3H][D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly(ol)5] enkephalin and not a change in the Kd value, suggesting an irreversible interaction of the compounds with the mu receptor. In the mouse 55 degrees C warm water tail-flick test, both CACO and N-CPM-CACO acted as short-term mu-selective agonists when administered by i. c.v. injection, whereas CAM and MC-CAM produced no measurable antinociception at doses up to 30 nmol. Pretreatment of mice for 24 h with any of the four dihydrocodeinone derivatives produced a dose-dependent antagonism of antinociception mediated by the mu but not the delta or kappa receptors. Long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception lasted for at least 48 h after i.c. v. administration. Finally, shifts in the morphine dose-response lines after 24-h pretreatment with the four dihydrocodeinone compounds suggest that the nitrocinnamoylamino derivatives may produce a greater magnitude long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception than the chlorocinnamoylamino analogs.  (+info)

Activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors inhibits capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in rhesus monkeys. (8/9560)

8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide (capsaicin) was locally applied in the tail of rhesus monkeys to evoke a nociceptive response, thermal allodynia, which was manifested as reduced tail-withdrawal latencies in normally innocuous 46 degrees C water. Coadministration of three kappa opioid ligands, U50,488 (3.2-100 microgram), bremazocine (0.1-3.2 microgram), and dynorphin A(1-13) (3.2-100 microgram), with capsaicin in the tail dose-dependently inhibited capsaicin-induced allodynia. This local antinociception was antagonized by a small dose of an opioid antagonist, quadazocine; (0.32 mg), applied in the tail; however, this dose of quadazocine injected s.c. in the back did not antagonize local U50,488. Comparing the relative potency of either agonist or antagonist after local and systemic administration confirmed that the site of action of locally applied kappa opioid agonists is in the tail. In addition, local nor-binaltorphimine (0.32 mg) and oxilorphan (0.1-10 microgram) antagonist studies raised the possibility of kappa opioid receptor subtypes in the periphery, which indicated that U50,488 produced local antinociception by acting on kappa1 receptors, but bremazocine acted probably on non-kappa1 receptors. These results provide functional evidence that activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors can diminish capsaicin-induced allodynia in primates. This experimental pain model is a useful tool for evaluating peripherally antinociceptive actions of kappa agonists without central side effects and suggests new approaches for opioid pain management.  (+info)

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists or recurs for a period of 3 months or longer, beyond the normal healing time for an injury or illness. It can be continuous or intermittent and range from mild to severe. Chronic pain can have various causes, such as nerve damage, musculoskeletal conditions, or chronic diseases like cancer. It can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing limitations in mobility, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased overall well-being. Effective management of chronic pain often involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, physical therapy, psychological interventions, and complementary therapies.

Pain management is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pain and improvement in the quality of life of patients with chronic pain. The goal of pain management is to reduce pain levels, improve physical functioning, and help patients cope mentally and emotionally with their pain. This may involve the use of medications, interventional procedures, physical therapy, psychological therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The definition of pain management can vary depending on the medical context, but it generally refers to a multidisciplinary approach that addresses the complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the experience of pain. Pain management specialists may include physicians, nurses, physical therapists, psychologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with chronic pain.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

Neck pain is discomfort or soreness in the neck region, which can extend from the base of the skull to the upper part of the shoulder blades, caused by injury, irritation, or inflammation of the muscles, ligaments, or nerves in the cervical spine. The pain may worsen with movement and can be accompanied by stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, arms, or hands. In some cases, headaches can also occur as a result of neck pain.

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

In medicine, "intractable pain" is a term used to describe pain that is difficult to manage, control or relieve with standard treatments. It's a type of chronic pain that continues for an extended period, often months or even years, and does not respond to conventional therapies such as medications, physical therapy, or surgery. Intractable pain can significantly affect a person's quality of life, causing emotional distress, sleep disturbances, and reduced mobility. It is essential to distinguish intractable pain from acute pain, which is typically sharp and short-lived, resulting from tissue damage or inflammation.

Intractable pain may be classified as:

1. Refractory pain: Pain that persists despite optimal treatment with various modalities, including medications, interventions, and multidisciplinary care.
2. Incurable pain: Pain caused by a progressive or incurable disease, such as cancer, for which no curative treatment is available.
3. Functional pain: Pain without an identifiable organic cause that does not respond to standard treatments.

Managing intractable pain often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals from various fields, including pain specialists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and physical therapists. Treatment options may include:

1. Adjuvant medications: Medications that are not primarily analgesics but have been found to help with pain relief, such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants.
2. Interventional procedures: Minimally invasive techniques like nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, or intrathecal drug delivery systems that target specific nerves or areas of the body to reduce pain signals.
3. Psychological interventions: Techniques such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness meditation, and relaxation training can help patients cope with chronic pain and improve their overall well-being.
4. Physical therapy and rehabilitation: Exercise programs, massage, acupuncture, and other physical therapies may provide relief for some types of intractable pain.
5. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): Techniques like yoga, tai chi, hypnosis, or biofeedback can be helpful in managing chronic pain.
6. Lifestyle modifications: Dietary changes, stress management, and quitting smoking may also contribute to improved pain management.

Pelvic pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensation in the lower abdominal region, below the belly button, and between the hips. It can be acute (sudden and lasting for a short time) or chronic (persisting for months or even years), and it may be steady or intermittent, mild or severe. The pain can have various causes, including musculoskeletal issues, nerve irritation, infection, inflammation, or organic diseases in the reproductive, urinary, or gastrointestinal systems. Accurate diagnosis often requires a thorough medical evaluation to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Pain perception refers to the neural and psychological processes involved in receiving, interpreting, and responding to painful stimuli. It is the subjective experience of pain, which can vary greatly among individuals due to factors such as genetics, mood, expectations, and past experiences. The perception of pain involves complex interactions between the peripheral nervous system (which detects and transmits information about tissue damage or potential harm), the spinal cord (where this information is processed and integrated with other sensory inputs), and the brain (where the final interpretation and emotional response to pain occurs).

Facial pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain felt in any part of the face. It can result from various causes, including nerve damage or irritation, injuries, infections, dental problems, migraines, or sinus congestion. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent. In some cases, facial pain can also be associated with other symptoms such as headaches, redness, swelling, or changes in sensation. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for effective management of facial pain.

Acute pain is a type of pain that comes on suddenly and can be severe, but it typically lasts for a short period of time. It is often described as sharp or stabbing and can be caused by tissue damage, inflammation, or injury. Acute pain is the body's way of signaling that something is wrong and that action needs to be taken to address the underlying cause.

Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is pain that persists for 12 weeks or longer. Chronic pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including ongoing medical conditions, nerve damage, or inflammation. It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing acute pain that does not improve or becomes severe, as it may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.

Referred pain is a type of pain that is felt in a part of the body other than its actual source. This occurs because the brain incorrectly interprets nerve signals from damaged tissues or organs. In the case of referred pain, the brain misinterprets the location of the pain signal and attributes it to a different area of the body.

Referred pain is often described as a dull, aching sensation rather than a sharp, stabbing pain. It can be difficult to diagnose because the source of the pain may not be immediately apparent. Common examples of referred pain include:

* Heart attack pain that is felt in the left arm or jaw
* Gallbladder pain that is felt in the right shoulder blade
* Kidney stones that cause pain in the lower back and abdomen
* Appendicitis that causes pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen, but can sometimes be referred to the lower left quadrant in pregnant women or those with a longer colon.

Referred pain is thought to occur because the nerves carrying pain signals from different parts of the body converge on the same neurons in the spinal cord before traveling to the brain. If these neurons are stimulated by pain signals from multiple sources, the brain may have difficulty distinguishing between them and may interpret the pain as coming from a single location.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Shoulder pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or hurt in the shoulder joint, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or surrounding structures. The shoulder is one of the most mobile joints in the body, and this mobility makes it prone to injury and pain. Shoulder pain can result from various causes, including overuse, trauma, degenerative conditions, or referred pain from other areas of the body.

The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint made up of three bones: the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). The rotator cuff, a group of four muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint, can also be a source of pain if it becomes inflamed or torn.

Shoulder pain can range from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, swelling, bruising, weakness, numbness, tingling, or reduced mobility in the affected arm. The pain may worsen with movement, lifting objects, or performing certain activities, such as reaching overhead or behind the back.

Medical evaluation is necessary to determine the underlying cause of shoulder pain and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options may include rest, physical therapy, medication, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and nature of the condition.

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... s are a necessity to assist with better assessment of pain and patient screening. Pain measurements help determine ... Alder Hey Triage Pain Score Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI ... were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. For research purposes, and for more detailed pain ... for measuring pain in children Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) for measuring pain in premature infants Schmidt Sting Pain ...
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Dolorimetry (dolor: Latin: pain, grief) is the measurement of the pain response in animals, including humans. It is practiced ... Pain negatively affects the health and welfare of animals. "Pain" is defined by the International Association for the Study of ... "Can animals feel pain?". PAIN. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2012. Elwood, R.W.; Barr, S.; ... "IASP Pain Terminology". iasp-pain.org. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2018. Wright, Andrew. "A ...
Dolorimetry has been defined as "the measurement of pain sensitivity or pain intensity". Dolorimeters apply steady pressure, ... Hot plate test Dol Pain scale Pain threshold Pain tolerance Schmidt sting pain index Stedman's Medical Dictionary 2004 Houghton ... Another pain measurement device uses heat from a 500 watt incandescent heat lamp which is delivered to a small area of skin. ... The Measurement of Pain: Prototype for the Quantitative Study of Subjective Responses, Henry K. Beecher, Pharmacological ...
He wants to create a measurement of pain with a unit called the "Razim". Razim was chosen by Zeljan Kurst to run operation " ... Julius joins Razim's pain projects and captures Alex for Razim, expressing an interest in joining Scorpia (although Razim ... Three who is the world's foremost expert on pain and torture, having written books about it, a Japanese man named Hideo Mikato ...
"Reliability and Usefulness of the Pressure Pain Threshold Measurement in Patients with Myofascial Pain". Annals of ... Fischer7 reported pressure pain thresholds of 3.7 kg/cm2 and 5.4 kg/cm2 in normal adult females. "Pressure in a Champagne ... 10 kPa - the pressure below 1 m of water "Beaufort Scales (Wind Speed)". How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. ... Lee, C.; Wei, X.; Kysar, J. W.; Hone, J. (2008). "Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer ...
Pain measurements help determine the severity, type, and duration of pain. They are also used in diagnosis, to determine a ... Chronic pain has also been described as the pain experienced when the child reports a headache, abdominal pain, back pain, ... Acute pain, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and recurrent pain in children is most often managed with medication. Most of these ... Pain management in children is the assessment and treatment of pain in infants and children. Usually, acute pain has an obvious ...
"Spirometry Measurements During an Episode of Exercise-Related Transient Abdominal Pain". International Journal of Sports ... and the medical term is exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). It sometimes extends to shoulder tip pain, and ... If the pain is present only when exercising and is completely absent at rest, in an otherwise healthy person, it does not ... A side stitch (or "stitch in one's side") is an intense stabbing abdominal pain under the lower edge of the ribcage that occurs ...
Johnston's research focused on the measurement and non-pharmacological management of pain in preterm neonates. She completed a ... Premature infant pain profile: development and initial validation. The Clinical journal of pain, 12(1), 13-22. Johnston, C., ... Johnston was previously the past-President of the Canadian Pain Society, and in 2021 was appointed as an Officer of the Order ... Johnston, C. C., & Stevens, B. J. (1996). Experience in a neonatal intensive care unit affects pain response. Pediatrics, 98(5 ...
The Randall-Selitto test or paw pressure test is a technique for the measurement of the pain response in animals. It is used in ... Pain is deemed to be present if the animal starts to exhibit the flight or struggle response. Randall and Selitto exploited the ... v t e (CS1: long volume value, Pain scales, Animal testing, Laboratory techniques, All stub articles, Bioinformatics stubs). ... basic pain research and to test the effectiveness of analgetics by observing the reaction to gradually increasing pressure on ...
"Skin conductance measurements as pain assessment in newborn infants born at 22-27weeks gestational age at different postnatal ... Measurement. 46 (9): 2993-3001. Bibcode:2013Meas...46.2993O. doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2013.06.024. "What is GSR". iMotions A/S ... Pain. 152 (3): 592-598. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2010.11.032. PMID 21215519. S2CID 15779956. (Webarchive template wayback links, CS1 ... is a custom EDA measurement device. External factors such as temperature and humidity affect EDA measurements, which can lead ...
Systematic process of pain assessment, measurement, and re-assessment (re-evaluation), enhances the healthcare teams' ability ... Assessment of a patient's experience of pain is a crucial component in providing effective pain management. Pain is not a ... "Pediatric Pain Assessment In the Emergency Department: A Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Protocol." Pediatric Nursing 41, no. 4 ... Pain is assessed for its provocative and palliative associations; quality, region/radiation, severity (numerical scale or ...
She has appeared on radio and podcasts to talk about measurement and understanding of infant pain, including Radio 4 pieces " ... She is an advocate for neuroimaging tools for objective measurement of infant pain, and has demonstrated that brain activity ... Her research focuses on infant pain, using non-invasive neuroimaging techniques to improve understanding and measurement of ... "Stroking babies 'provides pain relief'". BBC News. 18 December 2018. Costandi, Moheb. "Is the Baby in Pain? Brain Scans Can ...
March 2002). "Pain measurement tools and methods in clinical research in palliative care: recommendations of an Expert Working ... There are two categories in the Brief Pain Inventory: Pain Intensity and Pain Interference. In Pain Interference two dimensions ... The Brief Pain Inventory is a medical questionnaire used to measure pain, developed by the Pain Research Group of the WHO ... The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) is widely used around the world today to help with measuring a patients' pain intensity and the ...
... depends upon applying to pleasures and pains a "science of measurement". The School of Cyrene provided one of the first ... It was one of the first to advance a systematic view on the role of pleasure and pain in human life. The Cyrenaics argued that ... Whereas negative emotions, such as anger and fear, multiplied pain. Towards the end of Plato's Protagoras it is reasoned that ...
... were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. For research purposes, and for more detailed pain ... VAS is the most common pain scale for quantification of endometriosis-related pain and skin graft donor site-related pain. A ... measurement in clinical practice, the review suggested use of VAS or NRS for each type of typical pain related to endometriosis ... It is a measurement instrument for subjective characteristics or attitudes that cannot be directly measured. When responding to ...
The use of the FACS has been proposed for use in the analysis of depression, and the measurement of pain in patients unable to ... Pain Medicine. 8 (8): 678-89. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00358.x. PMID 18028046. Rosenberg EL. "Example and web site of one ... "A psychophysical investigation of the facial action coding system as an index of pain variability among older adults with and ... A Technique for the Measurement of Facial Movement. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press. Ekman P, Friesen WV, Hager JC ( ...
Insulin normally increases after feeding, as well as secondary to cortisol (stress) and epinephrine (pain), so measurement ... Measurement of fasting insulin concentration involves giving a horse a single flake of hay, low in non-structural carbohydrates ... Actively laminitic horses should therefore not undergo testing until their pain and stress have been adequately controlled. ... and echocardiographic measurements in healthy adult horses". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 69 (1): 68-75. doi: ...
... as is done routinely for the measurement of pain in non-verbal humans. Observers score the presence or prominence of "facial ... From the described pain face, The Equine Pain Scale has been developed. Another pain scale has been described (EQUUS-FAP) which ... "mTORC1 inhibition induces pain via IRS-1-dependent feedback activation of ERK". Pain. 154 (7): 1080-1091. doi:10.1016/j.pain. ... "Supraspinal TRPV1 modulates the emotional expression of abdominal pain" (PDF). Pain. 155 (10): 2153-2160. doi:10.1016/j.pain. ...
... and Pain in Health and Disease: Mechanisms and Assessments: a Wenner-Gren Center International Symposium, 1st Edn, eds J. ... Physiological Measurement. 37 (7): 1074-1088. Bibcode:2016PhyM...37.1074E. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/37/7/1074. ISSN 1361-6579. ... and inter-observer reliability of a novel protocol for two-point discrimination in individuals with chronic low back pain". ...
European Medicines Agency it is the most frequently used measurement tool for multidimensional pain assessment in chronic pain ... The McGill Pain Questionnaire, also known as McGill Pain Index, is a scale of rating pain developed at McGill University by ... Melzack, Ronald; Katz, Joel (2007). "McGill Pain Questionnaire". Encyclopedia of Pain. pp. 1102-1104. doi:10.1007/978-3-540- ... The users are presented with a list of 78 words in 20 sections that are related to pain. The users mark the words that best ...
Aboriginal Australians were subject to medical experiments on how they experienced pain and where body measurements and blood ... and as such are considered as examples of medical torture since the participants had to endure mass amounts of pain. At ... severe abdominal pain, and cervical cancer. Therefore, radiation treatment became the favored choice of sterilization. Specific ...
Scerbo, Thomas; Colasurdo, Joseph; Dunn, Sally; Unger, Jacob; Nijs, Jo; Cook, Chad (April 2018). "Measurement Properties of the ... The other two mechanisms are nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain. Widespread pain and increased pain have been suggested as ... Nociplastic pain is a longterm complex pain, one of three mechanisms of pain, defined by the International Association for the ... Nociplastic pain or central sensitisation is a type of pain which is mechanically different from the normal nociceptive pain ...
May 2000). "The measurement of symptoms in children with cancer". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 19 (5): 363-377. doi: ... "total pain" to describe the heterogenous nature of pain. This is the idea that a patient's experience of total pain has ... Physical pain can be managed using pain medications as long as they do not put the patient at further risk for developing or ... Patients can build a tolerance to drugs and have to take more and more to manage their pain. The symptoms of chronic pain ...
The FLACC scale or Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale is a measurement used to assess pain for children between the ... The FLACC scale offered the same evaluation of pain as did the Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI) scale which is ... The scale is scored in a range of 0-10 with 0 representing no pain. The scale has five criteria, which are each assigned a ... A behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children, by S Merkel and others, 1997, Pediatr Nurse 23(3), p. 293- ...
She attempts to escape, and nearly succeeds, but Razim is merely using her for his "measurement of pain" experiment, and has ... Alex's grief is enough to cause him to black out, and Razim "may even have to create a second scale of measurement" for the ... amount of emotional pain Alex felt. However, Jack is revealed to be alive in the following novel Never Say Die, as her death ...
... may refer to: Pain Suffering The unit of measurement in utilitarianism, see Felicific calculus#Hedons and dolors Dolor ( ...
Measurement, & Management in Pain Research (R03) PA-13-117. NINR ... Pain Management The prevalence of pain and inadequate pain ... Differences in care for various types of pain, acute postoperative pain, treatment-related pain, cancer pain, or chronic non- ... of pain measurements that can account for or predict the trajectory or course of pain, as well as the changes in pain over time ... Models of Pain. There are many factors responsible for pain experienced by patients. Current animal models of pain have been ...
QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF TWO PAIN SENSATIONS OF THE SKIN, WITH REFERENCE TO THE NATURE OF THE HYPERALGESIA OF PERIPHERAL ... STUDIES ON PAIN: QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF TWO PAIN SENSATIONS OF THE SKIN, WITH REFERENCE TO THE NATURE OF THE " ...
... empirical neuro-marker for pain has the potential for developing a new standard in pain assessment, thus giving a voice to pain ... PainQx Completes $1.65 Million Equity Financing and Wins NIDA Grant for Studies in Objective Pain Measurement ... The output is a scaled pain and neurological biomarker that is directly correlated to a patients pain state.. Media and ... Our goal is to provide objective, replicable data on peoples pain," said PainQx CEO and Co-founder Frank Minella. "An agnostic ...
Identifying genetic determinants of inflammatory pain in mice using a large-scale gene-targeted screen. View publications ...
Today on the Doc On the Run Podcast, were talking about pain point measurements that are crucial for recovering runners. ... the most important thing you can track is your pain. Changes in pain level is what tells you whether or not you should move ... Although many doctors will ask you in your initial interview, What is your pain on a scale of one to 10? How much does it hurt ... They very rarely ask you many more specifics about that pain. ... 413 Pain measurement points of runners. Today on the Doc On the ...
CHARRY, Claudia L. E e SILVA, José Aparecido Da. Measurement of remembered pain in school-age children: gender and age ... Future research should consider variables like time interval since the pain event and its measurement in addition to the ... This study aims to examine possible differences in remembered-pain measurement in school-age children, considering gender and ... Palavras-chave : Remembered pain; Children; Differences; Gender; Age. · resumo em Português · texto em Português · Português ( ...
Marking APs, and performing measurements in a rapid sequen … ... Pain Measurement / methods* * Pain Threshold* * Reproducibility ... RESULTS OF RELIABILITY TEST-RETEST: The mean reliability of a single measurement was; 0.758 for a standard measurement protocol ... Marking APs, and performing measurements in a rapid sequence, increases reliability of ESR measurements. Increased reliability ... Reliability of the Prognos electrodermal device for measurements of electrical skin resistance at acupuncture points J Altern ...
Copyright © 2023 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & American Society for Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. ...
The patients low back pain can be determined using the visual analog scale (VAS) as subjective methods. This study aims to ... To test the developed system, 8 low back pain (experimental group) and 8 healthy (control group) subjects were admitted in ... the developed system can be used to objectively determine low back pain by measuring skin resistance. ... design a device used in evaluating low back pain objectively, by measuring skin resistance. ...
Cut-points for the measurement of pain: the choice depends on what you want to study. Pain 2010;149(2):163-164.. Farrar JT. ... In medicine, chronic pain is defined as pain that lasts for months, as opposed to days for acute pain. Most chronic pain is ... Pre-clinical measurement and mechanistic assessment of affective dimensions of pain and pain relief. One of the factors that ... The measurement, analysis, and interpretation of pain clinical trial outcomes. The lack of objective pain measures leads to ...
Management of chronic pain is one of medicines most intractable challenges affecting billions of individuals in the U.S. With ... and transmits pain measurements wirelessly can enable healthcare providers to track and analyze a patients pain level and ... An accurate measurement of pain will enable vast improvements in treatment and all of its repercussions. Health care providers ... Millions of lives will be substantially improved, and many thousands saved, with the advent of accurate pain measurement. ...
Pain measurement; Postoperative pain; Acute pain management ...read more ... She serves as the director of the Acute Pain Service and the chief of the Division of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain ... "Efficacy of bicarbonate in decreasing pain on intradermal injection of local anesthetics: A meta-analysis." Reg Anesth Pain Med ... "Survey of the utilization of regional and general anesthesia in a tertiary teaching hospital." Reg Anesth Pain Med 2009; 34(3): ...
Postoperative rehabilitation is of the utmost importance following total joint replacement in order to ensure pain-free ... Similar measurements have been obtained in other studies; joint reaction forces also have been measured. [16] ... Is the patient suffering from pain at the operative site or from joint pain, periarticular pain, or neuropathic or radicular ... Determination of the cause of pain is a very important aspect of pain treatment. The physician may want to take the following ...
... activity of abdominal muscles in positions with different levels of stability in participants with chronic low back pain (cLBP ... The reliability of US thickness measurements at supine lying and sitting positions (sitting on a chair, sitting on a gym ball ... Although some studies have assessed the reliability of US imaging, no study has assessed the reliability of US measurement of ... The reliability of the measurements was comparable between participants with and without LBP in each position but the SEMs and ...
Prather, H., Van Dillen, L., Metzler, J. P., Riew, K. D., & Gilula, L. A. (2006). Prospective measurement of function and pain ... Prather, H, Van Dillen, L, Metzler, JP, Riew, KD & Gilula, LA 2006, Prospective measurement of function and pain in patients ... Prospective measurement of function and pain in patients with non-neoplastic compression fractures treated with vertebroplasty. ... Prospective measurement of function and pain in patients with non-neoplastic compression fractures treated with vertebroplasty ...
On the importance of baseline pain intensity and measurement methods. September 01, 2023 ... Cannabis Use Disorder in Patients With Chronic Pain How prevalent is cannabis use disorder in patients with chronic pain who ... What should be the entry pain intensity criteria for chronic pain clinical trials? An IMMPACT update. September 01, 2023 ... Recommendations for Terminology and the Identification of Neuropathic Pain in People With Spine-related Leg Pain Should the ...
Beet Retreat Explores Pain Points Of Cross-Platform Measurement w/ Google, Charter, Adobe, Comcast. MIAMI - When the subject is ... "I think well get to the day where its always on, real-time measurement," says Bob Ivins, Chief Data Officer of NCC Media. Not ... Television measurement and analytics provider 605 is doubling its national footprint in a licensing deal with Inscape that ... Thats what the measurement giant just did, taking an investment from Charter Communications, Qurate Retail and Cerberus ...
Pain measurement; Agricultural worker; Ethnic groups; Mexican American; Literacy ... Fifty-five percent of the workers reported pain, with 30% reporting back pain, 21% reporting upper extremity pain, 19% ... reporting lower extremity pain, and 10% reporting neck and shoulder pain. A composite symptom score exhibited acceptable test- ...
Researchers have developed a deep learning method to accurately classify both pain levels and pain-related behaviour. This ... The first author goes on to explain that the method could be used to improve chronic pain measurement and treatment in people ... "People with chronic pain often adapt their movements to protect themselves from further pain or injury. This adaptation makes ... The researchers new method has been tested with the EmoPain database that contains data on pain levels and pain-related ...
Pain) Assessment, measurement and the multidisciplinary approach. 10 credits. Veterinary muscoloskeletal pain (small animal). ... The second year is composed of optional courses such as emergency case management, chronic pain and advanced analgesic ... as well as independent thought or teamwork when addressing intellectual challenges associated with anaesthesia and pain ... Non-pharmacological approaches to pain management. 10 credits. ( ...
Measurement of pain. Lancet 1974;2:1127-31.. OpenUrlPubMedWeb of Science ... were at the patient acceptable symptom state65 for pain (,35 mm on pain VAS) and/or function. Mean pain level was 37.0 mm and ... Patients were symptomatic (constant or intermittent pain) for at least 1 year, with pain being present half of the time at ... pain, stiffness, function), global pain, global handicap, patients overall assessment (table 4) or analgesic/NSAID intake ( ...
14 Huskisson E J. Measurement of pain. Lancet. 1974; II 1027-1031 ...
Perception and pain measurement systems. ・Controller for an artificial respirator for premature infants ...
You cant provide an accurate measurement to pain. Its subjective. Everyones pain tolerances are different; what is ... of pain, but there is however a dol (from the latin word for pain, dolor) which was a proposed name for a unit of measurement ... of pain. Yet at time of giving birth, a mother feels up to 57 Del (units) of pain. This is similar to 20 bones getting ... Because pain is measured in a unit called Dels. And getting hit in the balls is almost 9 times higher on the scale than giving ...
... a measurement of acute chemical pain, was comparable between Runx1F/F; Vglut3Cre/+ mutant mice and control littermates (Fig. 7D ... For acute pain, capsaicin-induced licking behavior and CFA-induced inflammatory pain, data were subjected to the Students t ... Even carrageenan-induced mechanical pain is only modestly impaired. How could we explain the marked loss of this type of pain ... 2000) Spared nerve injury: an animal model of persistent peripheral neuropathic pain Pain, 87:149-158. ...
Pain management can include medications, surgery, acupuncture, massage therapy or a combination of approaches. Read about ... Pain Assessment. There is no absolute measurement of the degree of pain. As we said in the beginning, pain is subjective. ... Modern Theories of Chronic Pain.http://www.spine-health.com/topics/cd/pain/chronic_pain_theories/chronic_pain_theory01.html ... Different types of pain medications act at different places in the pain pathways. The type of medication depends upon the ...
Precise measurement of functional leg length inequality and changes due to cervical spine rotation in pain-free students. ... Measurement of Soft Tissue Strain in Response to Consecutively Increased Compressive and Distractive Loads on a Friction-Based ... Comparison of Leg Length Inequality Measurement Methods as Estimators of the Femur Head Height Difference on Standing X-ray ... Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reliability of prone and supine measurements of leg length inequality and to ...
Vis forfatter(e) (2010). Measurement properties of the Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC): A pain scale for adults ... Measurement properties of the Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC): A pain scale for adults with intellectual and ... Pain behaviour and pain intensity in older persons with severe dementia: reliability of the MOBID Pain Scale by video uptake. ... Vis forfatter(e) (2009). Pain behaviour and pain intensity in older persons with severe dementia: reliability of the MOBID Pain ...
... diagnosis and classification of hip-related pain; (2) patient-reported outcome measures for hip-related pain; (3) measurement ... Of these, adductor-related groin pain is the most common cause of hip and groin pain. The diagnosis of groin pain related to ... Standardised measurement methods of physical capacity of relevance to young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain ... Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: Recommendations ...
  • A recent market research report indicates that more than 1.5 billion people worldwide suffer from chronic pain and that approximately 3- 4.5% of the global population suffers from neuropathic pain. (medicaldesignandoutsourcing.com)
  • A new working group commissioned by the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group suggests an alternative. (medscape.com)
  • TRPM3 as a novel target to alleviate acute oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathic pain. (medscape.com)
  • TRPA1 rare variants in chronic neuropathic and nociplastic pain patients. (medscape.com)
  • The first author goes on to explain that the method could be used to improve chronic pain measurement and treatment in people suffering from conditions such as fibromyalgia, arthritis and neuropathic pain. (europa.eu)
  • These compounds are useful in treating neuropathic pain (chronic pain that comes from injury to the central nervous system). (howstuffworks.com)
  • An inflamed disc can compress a nerve and cause neuropathic pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • It is a type of neuropathic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6 Pain in pediatric patients also occurs in those who have undergone surgery, those with neuropathic pain, and those with chronic conditions such as sickle cell disease (SCD), cancer, juvenile arthritis, fibromyalgia, and inflammatory bowel disease. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The PainQx system is being developed as an assessment tool and will offer an objective measurement that eventually could be used as an endpoint to determine a drug's and/or device's efficacy. (inknowvation.com)
  • An agnostic, empirical neuro-marker for pain has the potential for developing a new standard in pain assessment, thus giving a voice to pain patients suffering from under- treatment as well as potentially reducing the risk of over-treatment which has manifested itself in the U.S. as the opioid epidemic. (inknowvation.com)
  • Without a dependable method for pain assessment, doctors are often thwarted when it comes to patient care. (medicaldesignandoutsourcing.com)
  • Assessment and measurement of the activity pattern of abdominal muscles can provide better understanding of pain behavior in patients with cLBP in the clinical environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deep learning-guided postoperative pain assessment in children. (medscape.com)
  • Physicians also consider a patient's history of pain in their assessment. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Pain: Current Understanding of Assessment, Management, and Treatments. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Development and measurement properties of assessment tools used to examine pain and activity limitation in patients with musculoskeletal and neurological conditions. (uib.no)
  • Learning about your pain, and using self-assessment tools, increases the likelihood of this. (petermac.org)
  • Accurately assessing pain is an integral component of pain management, and clinicians should be familiar with the recommended pain-assessment tools commonly employed and be able to identify and address barriers to effective pain management. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Conclusion: It is suggested that the use of occlusal splint contributes to the amendment of pain symptoms after 3 months of treatment, using the NRS and MGPQ scales as method of pain assessment, giving credibility to this type of treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Knee joint pain is the most common musculoskeletal pain in older adults. (medsci.org)
  • Validated outcome tools, including a visual analog scale, the Oswestry scale, and the Roland-Morris functional activity questionnaire, were used to evaluate changes in pain and functional capabilities. (wustl.edu)
  • This paper describes the development of the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale, a simple questionnaire designed to evaluate osteoarthritis pain symptoms based on qualitative pain descriptors. (medscape.com)
  • The Norwegian pain questionnaire was developed as a Norwegian version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) after collecting Norwegian pain descriptors. (uib.no)
  • The Norwegian Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (NSF-MPQ). (uib.no)
  • Pain acceptance was measured with the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), pain outcomes included pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale, NRS) as well as affective and sensory pain perception (Pain Perception Scale, SES-A and SES-S). Regression analyses controlling for the pre-treatment values of the pain outcomes, age, and gender were performed. (mdpi.com)
  • Objective: To analyze the effect of the use of acrylic occlusal splint in patients with Temporomandibular Dysfunction (TMD) through three subjective pain scales: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MGPQ), before and after 3 and 6 months using the device. (bvsalud.org)
  • Method of measurement: Pelvic Belt Pain Questionnaire. (who.int)
  • Method of measurement: Short form of quality of life questionnaire (sf-36). (who.int)
  • These synthetic cyclooxygenase inhibitors help in pain management of osteoarthritis (OA) for short-term [ 6 , 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The reliability of US thickness measurements at supine lying and sitting positions (sitting on a chair, sitting on a gym ball with both feet on the ground or lifting one foot off the floor) were assessed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • She serves as the director of the Acute Pain Service and the chief of the Division of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Dr. Hanna has been instrumental in developing regional anesthesia and pain management educational programs for residents, fellows and faculty in the U.S. and abroad. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Her many educational roles at Johns Hopkins include serving as the associate director of the Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine Residency Program, as well as the director of Pain Management and Regional Anesthesia Education. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Multimodal hypersensitivity derived from quantitative sensory testing predicts pelvic pain outcome: an observational cohort study. (medscape.com)
  • Mediators of the association between childhood trauma and pain sensitivity in adulthood: a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network analysis. (medscape.com)
  • some cause pelvic pain. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Most functional cysts and benign tumors are asymptomatic, but some cause intermittent dull or sharp pelvic pain or, infrequently, deep dyspareunia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms include severe pelvic pain, often with nausea and vomiting. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A pregnancy test is done to exclude ectopic pregnancy or threatened abortion in a patient with pelvic pain or abnormal uterine bleeding. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Various publications have demonstrated that pediatric pain is often undetected and not always adequately treated. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Examples of some of the most commonly cited reasons for ED visits attributed to pediatric pain include musculoskeletal injuries, abdominal pain, sore throat, otalgia, and headaches. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to inform the scientific community of the pain research interests of the various Institutes and Centers (ICs) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and to stimulate and foster a wide range of basic, clinical, and translational studies on pain as they relate to the missions of these ICs. (nih.gov)
  • What should be the entry pain intensity criteria for chronic pain clinical trials? (medscape.com)
  • Race-based reporting and participation of Black individuals in registered pain clinical trials, United States, 2000 to 2019. (medscape.com)
  • Journal of Clinical Oncology has a wonderful 'art of oncology' piece written by a social worker about the 0-10 pain scale ( free full-text appears to be available ). (pallimed.org)
  • JIA involves multiple organs and in combination with pain, fatigue, and depression ( 3 ), most children with JIA need long-term pharmacological treatment and regular periodic clinical follow-ups ( 4 ), and some serious cases even need to require multiple hospitalizations. (frontiersin.org)
  • The information and analysis presented in this report are based on extensive interviews with senior management of top companies and conference participants (business and clinical) in the pain management market. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • The main clinical signs include colic, weight loss, hypoalbuminemia, acute small intestinal obstruction and pain, occasionally tachycardia and diarrhoea. (helsinki.fi)
  • For this review such interventions were defined as coordinated treatment regimes, given by a team of therapists from at least two clinical professions and consisting of therapies directed at both physical and psychosocial aspects of the pain condition. (sbu.se)
  • As members of the multidisciplinary team of clinicians involved in pain management, pharmacists can be instrumental in patient care by making clinical recommendations based on guidelines to provide safe and effective pain management, improve clinical outcomes, and diminish or prevent adverse events in pediatric patients. (uspharmacist.com)
  • First published in 2002, Clinical Pain Management is a comprehensive textbook for trainee and practicing specialists in Pain Management and related areas, presenting readers with all they need to know to provide a successful pain management service. (routledge.com)
  • from the basic mechanisms underlying the development of pain, to the various treatments that can be applied in different clinical situations. (routledge.com)
  • Written and edited by a large team of acknowledged international aspects, the fully updated second edition of Clinical Pain Management remains an authoritative and comprehensive guide to this growing specialty and is an invaluable addition to the bookshelves of anyone training or working in the field of pain management. (routledge.com)
  • personality and tolerance, cultural and gender differences, emotional resiliency, personal perception, relative experience, and addictive tendencies all affect the way individuals perceive and report their pain. (medicaldesignandoutsourcing.com)
  • Hanna MN, González-Fernández M, Barrett AD, Williams KA, Pronovost P. "Does patient perception of pain control affect patient satisfaction across surgical units in a tertiary teaching hospital? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • They inhibit ascending pathways of pain perception and activate descending pathways. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In extreme cases, surgeons may have to sever pain pathways by altering areas of the brain associated with pain perception -- or performing a rhizotomy (which destroys portions of peripheral nerves) or a chordotomy (destroys ascending tracts in the spinal cord). (howstuffworks.com)
  • During physical activity or joint movements, perception of knee pain is indicative of the deteriorating status of articular cartilage [ 4 , 5 ]. (medsci.org)
  • In this investigation, validated outcome tools were utilized to document the impact of vertebroplasty on pain and function. (wustl.edu)
  • An analysis of covariance Mixed Model for Repeated Measurements with Missing at Random (for missing data) was performed to compare adjusted 3 year JSW changes (primary outcome) and the percentages of 'progressors' (JSW loss≥0.5 mm) between groups. (bmj.com)
  • Responsiveness to change of physical performance measures used to assess outcome in low back pain. (uib.no)
  • In the past few years, many feasible instruments specific to JIA have been developed for outcome measurement. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, as multimodal interventions aim to improve a person's complete life situation rather than a single outcome, we investigated effects on health broadly: physical, psychological, and social function, quality of life and pain. (sbu.se)
  • Studies have shown that pain acceptance is associated with a better pain outcome. (mdpi.com)
  • Acupuncture can relieve pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Adjuvant analgesics (co-analgesics) are primarily used for treating some other condition, but they also relieve pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Massage stimulates blood flow, relieves muscle spasms and increases somatosensory information, which can relieve pain through the gate control theory (see previous page). (howstuffworks.com)
  • Pain relievers are medicines that reduce or relieve pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although many doctors will ask you in your initial interview, "What is your pain on a scale of one to 10? (docontherun.com)
  • Children assessed the intensity of a recent painful experience using two scales: Faces Pain Scale - Revised (FPS-R) and Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS). (bvsalud.org)
  • The patient's low back pain can be determined using the visual analog scale (VAS) as subjective methods. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • Usually patients are asked to rate their pain on a scale of 1-10 (Brief Pain Inventory, BPI) or using pictorial references (Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale). (medicaldesignandoutsourcing.com)
  • Results 399 patients were randomised (345 kept in the FAS), aged 62 (35-84) years, 54% women, mean body mass index 27 (SD 4) kg/m 2 , mean symptom duration 4 (SD 5) years, 0-100 normalised Lequesne Index 30 (SD 9) and global pain visual analogue scale 37 (SD 23) mm. (bmj.com)
  • Numerical rating scales ask patients to judge their pain intensity on a scale from zero (no pain at all) to 10 (unimaginable pain). (howstuffworks.com)
  • The Back Performance Scale (BPS) was developed as a physical performance measure of patients with back pain, and shown to be reliable, valid and responsive to change. (uib.no)
  • Myklebust M, Strand LI, Magnussen L. Back Performance Scale scores in people without back pain: Normative data. (uib.no)
  • Pain was measured using a numeric rating scale before and after each CPM therapy session on postoperative days 1 through 5. (curehunter.com)
  • She has no complaints about her actual pain management - people took her seriously and treated her appropriately - it was the lack of engagement with her about her experience that she felt like the 0-10 scale engendered. (pallimed.org)
  • Monthly measurements were taken of pain intensity (0-10 scale), bothersomeness (days/month), and pain-related absence (days/month). (cdc.gov)
  • Data were collected using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) adapted to four criteria: no pain, mild pain, moderate pain and severe pain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Upon completion of the requisite validation studies, PainQx will seek FDA clearance and, thereafter, will enter the broader physicians market providing practitioners a tool to more effectively assess and treat patients suffering from chronic pain. (inknowvation.com)
  • Management of chronic pain is one of medicine's most intractable challenges affecting billions of individuals in the U.S. With no objective or quantifiable metric for evaluating pain, healthcare providers are forced to rely on patients' self-reported pain levels. (medicaldesignandoutsourcing.com)
  • Some patients - especially children, elderly and non-verbal people - suffer needlessly when their pain is underestimated and under-treated. (medicaldesignandoutsourcing.com)
  • Long-term opiate use for pain management can create addiction in predisposed patients - all because doctors are not able to objectively evaluate their patients' pain levels or the effectiveness of the medications they prescribe. (medicaldesignandoutsourcing.com)
  • Patients had been treated for intractable pain due to osteoporotic compression fracture(s) for at least four weeks. (wustl.edu)
  • Conclusions: Vertebroplasty is an effective treatment for patients with intractable pain due to osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. (wustl.edu)
  • How prevalent is cannabis use disorder in patients with chronic pain who are prescribed medical cannabis? (medscape.com)
  • Relationship, differences, and agreement between objective and subjective sleep measures in chronic spinal pain patients with comorbid insomnia: a cross-sectional study. (medscape.com)
  • To investigate how chronic pain affects different patients' bodies, scientists supported by the EU-funded BODYinTRANSIT project developed a deep learning method to analyse the biometric data of people with chronic conditions. (europa.eu)
  • Pain-management plans involve the participation of doctors, patients, family members and other caregivers. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Do patients' self reported activity limitations due to back problems correspond to ICF Core Sets for Low Back Pain? (uib.no)
  • Dementia and pain in nursing home patients. (uib.no)
  • Biofeedback relaxation for pain associated with continuous passive motion in Taiwanese patients after total knee arthroplasty. (curehunter.com)
  • One study found that eight days after amputation, 72% of patients had phantom limb pain, and six months later, 67% reported it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all patients experience improvement from pain medication and/or interventions alone though. (petermac.org)
  • 2-4 According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines on the Management of Chronic Pain in Children, the management of pain in pediatric patients can be challenging and multifaceted, and there is a lack of high-quality research studies with regard to optimal treatment interventions and management approaches in this patient population. (uspharmacist.com)
  • however, it may be challenging to assess and manage pain in pediatric patients-especially in very young patients-since they are unable to verbalize/articulate their pain. (uspharmacist.com)
  • however, according to the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association, among pediatric patients, pain accounts for an estimated 78% of emergency department (ED) visits, including episodic, acute, or exacerbations of chronic pain. (uspharmacist.com)
  • 6 The IASP indicates that, globally, chronic pain affects approximately 20% to 35% of pediatric patients. (uspharmacist.com)
  • A recent publication in Practical Pain Management indicated that an estimated 33% to 82% of hospitalized pediatric patients experience moderate-to-severe pain, especially post surgery, and an estimated 20% of those patients do not obtain adequate pain relief, which may result in chronic pain. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Multiple barriers to effective pain management in the pediatric patient population, especially in the hospital setting, have been documented in the literature, including difficulty evaluating pain in pediatric patients, inadequate or insufficient prescriber medication orders to meet the needs of pediatric patients, lack of time to administer analgesics before procedures, unawareness and/or underreporting of pain by parents/caregivers, and lack of knowledge about pain management for pediatric patients. (uspharmacist.com)
  • A total of 69 patients with chronic, non-malignant pain (at least 6 months) were treated in a day-clinic for four-weeks. (mdpi.com)
  • Impact of Comorbidity Profiles on Pain Trajectories in Breast Cancer Patients by Using Electronic Health Record Data. (utah.edu)
  • Results: Statistically significant values of improvement in pain symptoms for patients with TMD were found in all scales evaluated, except for the VAS (baseline x 3 months) and MGPQ sensorial subdivision (baseline x 6 months). (bvsalud.org)
  • It can help control pain-related behaviours and tailor treatments to improve patient outcomes. (europa.eu)
  • Multimodal and interdisciplinary interventions are comparable to control interventions - and can be more effective for improving health outcomes in people with long term pain (moderate certainty of evidence). (sbu.se)
  • We analysed the results of 1) all outcomes in combination and 2) groups of outcomes covering different aspects of health divided according to components in International Classification of Function (ICF), quality of life and pain. (sbu.se)
  • The current study explored whether changes in pain acceptance in the very early treatment phase of an interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based treatment program for chronic pain predict pain outcomes. (mdpi.com)
  • To test the developed system, 8 low back pain (experimental group) and 8 healthy (control group) subjects were admitted in Dumlupinar University, Medical Faculty, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation services. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • Postoperative rehabilitation is of the utmost importance following total joint replacement in order to ensure pain-free function of the joint and improve the patient's quality of life (QOL). (medscape.com)
  • We evaluated multimodal and interdisciplinary interventions for rehabilitation of people with long term pain. (sbu.se)
  • Our aim was to provide current evidence for health effects, and to assess health economical aspects, of multimodal and interdisciplinary rehabilitation in people with long term pain. (sbu.se)
  • The output is a scaled pain and neurological biomarker that is directly correlated to a patient's pain state. (inknowvation.com)
  • Behavioral cancer pain intervention dosing: results of a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. (medscape.com)
  • A quasi- experimental design was used to investigate the efficacy of a biofeedback relaxation intervention in reducing pain associated with postoperative continuous passive motion ( CPM) therapy . (curehunter.com)
  • The study results provide preliminary support for biofeedback relaxation, a non-invasive and non-pharmacological intervention, as a complementary treatment option for pain management in this population. (curehunter.com)
  • The effect of strengthening health literacy in nursing homes on employee pain and consequences of pain - a stepped-wedge intervention trial. (cdc.gov)
  • Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of a workplace health literacy intervention on pain intensity, bothersomeness of pain, and sickness absence. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: The quasi-experimental stepped-wedge cluster trial evaluated an intervention with two elements: (i) courses for employees and management to organize a joint foundation of knowledge about pain prevention and management with communication tools, and (ii) structured dialogs between employee and supervisor, to develop action plans to prevent and reduce pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion: This intervention was both feasible and effective in shifting the overall mean pain level downwards for the entire population by 7%, with an accentuated effect among employees with pain levels >3. (cdc.gov)
  • On the importance of baseline pain intensity and measurement methods. (medscape.com)
  • From linear mixed models, pain intensity was reduced by -0.28 [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.52- -0.04] corresponding to a 7% reduction. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary symptoms of JIA are joint pain, stiffness, and lameness ( 5 ), which are associated with daily activities limitation, long-term disability, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The review was limited to multimodal and interdisciplinary interventions for long term pain of relevance for Swedish healthcare. (sbu.se)
  • The report also covers drug delivery methods, pain management devices, and alternate treatment modalities that are influencing the market. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • The acute pain associated with injury or surgery sometimes progresses to become chronic, maladaptive pain (persistently experienced for longer than three months), which is exceedingly difficult to assess and treat. (medicaldesignandoutsourcing.com)
  • A variety of measurement tools have been used by physical therapists to assess abdominal muscle activity in individuals with or without LBP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A common way to assess your pain is to keep a pain diary. (petermac.org)
  • Research on the origins and mechanisms of pain is ongoing, including work to develop new technologies that can provide the information that doctors need. (medicaldesignandoutsourcing.com)
  • This journal is the official publication of the International Association for the Study of Pain and publishes original research on the nature, mechanisms and treatment of pain. (medscape.com)
  • Vaporized cannabis extract-induced antinociception in male vs female rats with persistent inflammatory pain. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Hanna specializes in obstetric anesthesia, as well as regional and acute pain management. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • She recently worked with United Arab Emirates physicians to establish a pain-management education research project there. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The invisible cost of pain management by the current International Classification of Diseases coding system: a study in a tertiary care inpatient setting. (medscape.com)
  • There is a fostering of academic integrity and personal responsibilities as well as independent thought or teamwork when addressing intellectual challenges associated with anaesthesia and pain management. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Pain management can include medications, surgery, alternative procedures (like hypnosis , acupuncture , massage therapy and biofeedback) or combinations of these approaches. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Currently, the pharmacological approach of joint pain management is use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and acetaminophen [ 6 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Therefore, safer and effective knee pain management strategies are warranted to improve knee joint health of elderly adults. (medsci.org)
  • The World Market for Pain Management Drugs and Devices encompasses a wide variety of products that treat and ease pain. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • The future of pain management will likely involve multidisciplinary departments dedicated to finding treatments that manage pain. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • The need is great worldwide for management of pain and there are still many facets of pain management that need to be explored. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • Faced with intensifying competition and increasingly price sensitive markets, manufacturers in the area of pain management therapeutics are trying to differentiate their products to avoid price competition and to increase profits. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • The driving forces for this market include growth and aging of the global population, new products and technology, and increasing interest in multidisciplinary approaches to pain management. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • This report details the various categories of top prescription pain management drugs, describes U.S., European, Japanese and other markets in each of the specific pain areas. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • Key information from published literature was used to conduct interviews with over 45 industry executives and product managers to validate and obtain expert opinion on current and future trends in the pain management market. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • The total market reflects the total revenues of all top products in all of the individual categories, representing approximately 80%-90% of the total prescription pain management pharmaceuticals and pain management devices. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • Pain management strategies include pain medication and/or interventions. (petermac.org)
  • The multi-modal approach to pain management involves a multi-disciplinary team of healthcare professionals. (petermac.org)
  • You are part of the team looking after your pain management. (petermac.org)
  • We recommend that you be an active role player within your pain management team for the best results. (petermac.org)
  • You can take control of the day-to-day management of your pain. (petermac.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Since pain varies in its etiology, degree of severity, and duration, its management warrants an individualized approach to treatment. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Research has indicated that pain management in the pediatric patient population often presents clinicians with various challenges. (uspharmacist.com)
  • 5 Pain management entails a patient-centered approach involving pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures tailored to patient needs. (uspharmacist.com)
  • 8 The authors also indicated that the incidence of unreported pain remains unknown, but this may be the result of various patient and/or parent/caregiver factors, including a lack of awareness about pain-management strategies, apprehension regarding unnecessary medications and adverse effects (AEs), and fear of injectable analgesics. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Towards Patient-Centered Bone Cancer Pain Management Using Machine Learning Techniques. (utah.edu)
  • Anxiety was the most frequently analysed symptom (n=13), followed by pain (n=9), psychological and emotional responses and perceived wellbeing (n=4), stress (n=4), cancer related fatigue (n=3), and crying (n=2). (bmj.com)
  • J Pain Symptom Manage 2016 Dec;52(6):775-82. (ahrq.gov)
  • The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with, or resembling that associated with, actual or potential tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraplegia, the loss of sensation and voluntary motor control after serious spinal cord damage, may be accompanied by girdle pain at the level of the spinal cord damage, visceral pain evoked by a filling bladder or bowel, or, in five to ten per cent of paraplegics, phantom body pain in areas of complete sensory loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that arises from actual or potential tissue damage. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Doctors often use picture scales with children -- they show faces with varying degrees of pain expressions. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The subjective pain scales were applied before and after 3 and 6 months of occlusal splint use. (bvsalud.org)
  • The values of pain recorded by each of the scales were analyzed by descriptive statistics in the program SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 18.0). (bvsalud.org)
  • That's part of the stuff I talk about in the three day Fast Track Challenge that will help you figure out where you are, help you figure out what your real pain baseline is and then help you figure out how to make decisions from there to get back to running as quickly as possible. (docontherun.com)
  • At baseline, mean pain level was 4.0, mean bothersomeness was 3.8 days/month, and mean pain-related absence was 0.6 days/month. (cdc.gov)
  • Hip-related pain is a well-recognised complaint among active young and middle-aged active adults. (researchgate.net)
  • There is no agreement on how to classify, define or diagnose hip-related pain-a common cause of hip and groin pain in young and middle-aged active adults. (researchgate.net)
  • 2) To replicate a previous test-retest reliability study of this device with measurements of electrical skin resistance (ESR) at 24 Jing-well acupuncture points (APs). (nih.gov)
  • Research suggests that acupuncture can help manage certain pain conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, a biofeedback device may show you measurements of your muscle tension. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Biofeedback may help to control pain, including chronic headaches and back pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surprisingly, both acute and chronic mechanical pain was largely unaffected in these Runx1 mutants. (jneurosci.org)
  • This will be an important step forward in treating chronic pain, particularly considering the challenges that the opioid epidemic presents in the U.S. (inknowvation.com)
  • Non-opioid analgesics interfere with the enzymes and reduce inflammation and pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Opioid analgesics are used for higher levels of pain relief -- they include morphine, meripidine (Demerol), propoxyphene (Darvon), fentanyl, oxycodone ( OxyContin ) and codeine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The prevalence of suffering is as staggering as the negative consequences of medicine's attempts to alleviate pain. (medicaldesignandoutsourcing.com)
  • Mental control techniques rely on the ability of the mind and emotions to control and alleviate pain through descending neural pathways. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Although great strides have been made in some areas, such as the identification of neural pathways of pain, the experience of pain and the challenge of treatment have remained uniquely individual and unsolved. (nih.gov)
  • In a recent report in the Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open , the authors noted that untreated pain may have numerous consequences, including physical, emotional, and psychological issues. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Marking APs, and performing measurements in a rapid sequence, increases reliability of ESR measurements. (nih.gov)
  • Although some studies have assessed the reliability of US imaging, no study has assessed the reliability of US measurement of automatic activity of abdominal muscles in positions with different levels of stability in participants with chronic low back pain (cLBP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate within-day and between-days reliability of US thickness measurements of automatic activity of the abdominal muscles in asymptomatic participants and within-day reliability in those with cLBP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The reliability of the measurements was comparable between participants with and without LBP in each position but the SEMs and MDCs was slightly higher in patient group compared with healthy group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It indicates high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all positions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hot applications increase blood flow, and cold applications reduce inflammation, which contributes to pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Consumers are showing increasing interest in natural therapies, in that they offer safe and effective support in inflammation and pain. (medsci.org)
  • Acute pain usually comes on suddenly, because of a disease, injury, or inflammation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It describes her experience being in severe pain in the hospital and, essentially, having her experience of pain, her suffering, erased by her care-providers' insistence on talking only about her pain rating. (pallimed.org)
  • Surgery can sometimes be necessary to treat severe pain, especially when it is caused by back problems or serious musculoskeletal injuries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This study aims to design a device used in evaluating low back pain objectively, by measuring skin resistance. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • As a result of these findings, the developed system can be used to objectively determine low back pain by measuring skin resistance. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints in today's societies, affecting up to 70-80% of the population, at least one episode during their lifetime [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fifty-five percent of the workers reported pain, with 30% reporting back pain, 21% reporting upper extremity pain, 19% reporting lower extremity pain, and 10% reporting neck and shoulder pain. (cdc.gov)
  • As explained in a news item posted on the website of BODYinTRANSIT project coordinator University Carlos III of Madrid (UC3M), the researchers hypothesised that people with chronic lower back pain have variations in their biometric data compared to healthy individuals. (europa.eu)
  • For example, many people suffer back pain from herniated disks between the vertebrae. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Boston International Forum X. Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain, June 14-17, 2009. (uib.no)
  • Magnussen L, Strand LI, Eriksen H. Physical and mental functioning in disability pensioners with back pain. (uib.no)
  • Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain. (uib.no)
  • Magnussen L, Strand LI, Eriksen HR. Functioning of individuals receiving disability pension due to back pain. (uib.no)
  • Objectives: Compare pain, physical activity, quality of life, strength and knee function between adolescents with P. (researchgate.net)
  • Knee joint pain is the most common reason for physical disability which associates with age. (medsci.org)
  • Ninety non-arthritic subjects who experienced knee pain and joint discomfort following a six-minute walk test (SMWT) and Stair climb test (SCT) participated in the present trial. (medsci.org)
  • NXT15906F6 provided substantial relief from knee pain after physical activity and improved joint function in non-arthritic adults. (medsci.org)
  • Globally, around 30% of older adults experience knee pain [ 1 , 2 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The trajectory of chronic or persistent pain differs for everyone. (petermac.org)
  • A systematic review of genome-wide association studies for pain, nociception, neuropathy, and pain treatment responses. (medscape.com)
  • This could help improve chronic pain measurement and treatment. (europa.eu)
  • As with any medical treatment, the source ofpain, pain tolerance, and the potential benefits and risks of treatmen must be considered. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Postexposure prophylactic treatment with a third-generation smallpox vaccine and antiviral agent tecovirimat inhibited local virus spread and alleviated lesion pain. (cdc.gov)
  • A keen awareness of all facets of the industry including barriers will enable manufacturers to effectively challenge these issues and formulate plans to reduce or eliminate barriers in the treatment of pain. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • Pain is common because of cancer or following cancer treatment. (petermac.org)
  • Allodynia is pain experienced in response to a normally painless stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • NEW YORK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / August 21, 2018 / PainQx, Inc., a diagnostic/software company that is developing a next-generation approach to objectively measure and monitor pain in humans, is pleased to announce the completion of a $1.65 million equity financing with accredited investors, several angel investor groups, and institutional investors. (inknowvation.com)
  • PainQx, Inc. is a diagnostic/software company that is developing a next-generation approach to objectively measure and monitor pain in humans. (inknowvation.com)
  • Moreover, it is not always adequately assessed and treated, and this may result in long-term and short-term adverse effects, including exacerbation of pain, anxiety, and fear. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Their willingness to talk about what causes particular types of pain and to evaluate the effects of pain on other areas of my life inform my choices with dignity and integrity. (pallimed.org)
  • The researchers used pain tolerance as a proxy measurement for the amount of endorphins that the body produces. (popsci.com)
  • After adjusting for different fitness levels, the researchers found that people with a larger network of friends could do the wall sit for longer, which the researchers interpreted to mean that they had a higher pain tolerance and more endorphins. (popsci.com)
  • In addition, earlier this month, PainQx received a NIDA/SBIR grant for the development of a medical device utilizing an EEG-based algorithm for the objective quantification of pain. (inknowvation.com)
  • The type of medication depends upon the source of the pain, the level of discomfort and possible side effects. (howstuffworks.com)
  • You probably know that your body releases endorphins when you do exercise-those chemicals are fitting into the same receptors in the brain as morphine does, blocking any feelings of pain or discomfort the physical exertion would have caused. (popsci.com)
  • Because of the side effects and risks of pain relievers, you may want to try non-drug treatments first. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are some non-drug treatments for pain? (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are many non-drug treatments that can help with pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Conflicts hurt: social stress predicts elevated pain and sadness after mild inflammatory increases. (medscape.com)
  • Neural processing of pain-related distress to neck-specific movements in people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Senior author and UC3M Associate Prof. Ana Tajadura-Jiménez explains how this work is relevant to other medical processes: "In addition to chronic pain, altered movement patterns and negative body perceptions have been observed, such as in eating disorders, chronic cardiovascular disease or depression, among others. (europa.eu)
  • People experiencing hip-related disorders commonly report pain and reduced functional capacity, including difficulties in executing activities of daily living. (researchgate.net)
  • Solutions to pain disorders are still elusive but continued human and animal studies will help to further identify the biochemical and neurophysiological factors that influence pain. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • Surgical interventions can be aimed at eradicating the source of the pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Different types of pain medications act at different places in the pain pathways. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Simple pain medications are useful in 20% to 70% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Improvement in pain scores and functional capabilities that were found at one month were maintained at one year. (wustl.edu)
  • Precise measurement of functional leg length inequality and changes due to cervical spine rotation in pain-free students. (activator.com)