Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.
A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
Manner or style of walking.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
Five individuals derived from five FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.

Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases. (1/9560)

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. (2/9560)

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

Cannabinoid suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity in wide dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat. (3/9560)

The effects of cannabinoid agonists on noxious heat-evoked firing of 62 spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in urethan-anesthetized rats (1 cell/animal). Noxious thermal stimulation was applied with a Peltier device to the receptive fields in the ipsilateral hindpaw of isolated WDR neurons. To assess the site of action, cannabinoids were administered systemically in intact and spinally transected rats and intraventricularly. Both the aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (125 microg/kg iv) and the bicyclic cannabinoid CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv) suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity. Responses evoked by mild pressure in nonnociceptive neurons were not altered by CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv), consistent with previous observations with another cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2. The cannabinoid induced-suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity was blocked by pretreatment with SR141716A (1 mg/kg iv), a competitive antagonist for central cannabinoid CB1 receptors. By contrast, intravenous administration of either vehicle or the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3 (125 microg/kg) failed to alter noxious heat-evoked activity. The suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity induced by WIN55,212-2 in the lumbar dorsal horn of intact animals was markedly attenuated in spinal rats. Moreover, intraventricular administration of WIN55,212-2 suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity in spinal WDR neurons. By contrast, both vehicle and enantiomer were inactive. These findings suggest that cannabinoids selectively modulate the activity of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn by actions at CB1 receptors. This modulation represents a suppression of pain neurotransmission because the inhibitory effects are selective for pain-sensitive neurons and are observed with different modalities of noxious stimulation. The data also provide converging lines of evidence for a role for descending antinociceptive mechanisms in cannabinoid modulation of spinal nociceptive processing.  (+info)

Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking. (4/9560)

Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking.  (+info)

Ketamine-induced peripheral analgesia in rats. (5/9560)

AIM: To examine whether ketamine may directly act at peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia. METHODS: Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane. As a nociceptive flexion reflex (FR), C responses from the posterior biceps semitendinosus (PBST) muscle was evoked by electrical stimulation (2 ms, 80 V, 2-3 pulses, 0.5 Hz) via a pair of stainless steel needles inserted subcutaneously applied to the two toes of ipsilateral hindpw. RESULTS: Subcutaneous injection of ketamine (36 mmol.L-1, 5 microL) into the ipsilateral hindpaw produced an inhibition of C responses. At 9 min after application of ketamine, injection of naloxone (1%, 5 microL) into the same area annulled ketamine-induced inhibition. CONCLUSION: Ketamine as a dissociate anesthetic acts on peripheral nociceptors to produce analgesia, which is related to activity of peripheral opioid receptors.  (+info)

Response surface analysis of synergism between morphine and clonidine. (6/9560)

Graded doses of morphine sulfate and clonidine hydrochloride were administered intrathecally to mice that were then tested for antinociception in the 55 degrees C tail immersion test. The dose-effect relations of each compound were used in calculations that permitted the construction of a three-dimensional plot of the expected additive effect (vertical scale) against the planar domain of dose pairs representing combinations administered simultaneously. This additive response surface became the reference surface for viewing the actual effects produced by three different fixed-ratio combinations of the drugs that were used in our tests. Each combination produced effects significantly greater than indicated by the additive surface, thereby illustrating marked synergism and a method for quantifying the synergism. This quantification, measured by the value of the interaction index (alpha), was found to be dependent on the fixed-ratio combination; accordingly, the actual response surface could not be described by a single value of the index alpha. Furthermore, we found that application of the common method of isoboles gave estimates of the index that agreed well with those obtained from the more extensive surface analysis. These results confirm earlier studies, which found synergism for these drugs while also providing surface views of additivity and synergism that form the basis of isobolographic analysis.  (+info)

Nitrocinnamoyl and chlorocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone: in vivo and in vitro characterization of mu-selective agonist and antagonist activity. (7/9560)

Two 14beta-p-nitrocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone, 14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)-7,8-dihydrocodeinone (CACO) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)- 7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (N-CPM-CACO), and the corresponding chlorocinnamoylamino analogs, 14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino)-7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (CAM) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino) -7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (MC-CAM), were tested in opioid receptor binding assays and the mouse tail-flick test to characterize the opioid affinity, selectivity, and antinociceptive properties of these compounds. In competition binding assays, all four compounds bound to the mu opioid receptor with high affinity. When bovine striatal membranes were incubated with any of the four dihydrocodeinones, binding to the mu receptor was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, wash-resistant manner. Saturation binding experiments demonstrated that the wash-resistant inhibition of mu binding was due to a decrease in the Bmax value for the binding of the mu-selective peptide [3H][D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly(ol)5] enkephalin and not a change in the Kd value, suggesting an irreversible interaction of the compounds with the mu receptor. In the mouse 55 degrees C warm water tail-flick test, both CACO and N-CPM-CACO acted as short-term mu-selective agonists when administered by i. c.v. injection, whereas CAM and MC-CAM produced no measurable antinociception at doses up to 30 nmol. Pretreatment of mice for 24 h with any of the four dihydrocodeinone derivatives produced a dose-dependent antagonism of antinociception mediated by the mu but not the delta or kappa receptors. Long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception lasted for at least 48 h after i.c. v. administration. Finally, shifts in the morphine dose-response lines after 24-h pretreatment with the four dihydrocodeinone compounds suggest that the nitrocinnamoylamino derivatives may produce a greater magnitude long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception than the chlorocinnamoylamino analogs.  (+info)

Activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors inhibits capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in rhesus monkeys. (8/9560)

8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide (capsaicin) was locally applied in the tail of rhesus monkeys to evoke a nociceptive response, thermal allodynia, which was manifested as reduced tail-withdrawal latencies in normally innocuous 46 degrees C water. Coadministration of three kappa opioid ligands, U50,488 (3.2-100 microgram), bremazocine (0.1-3.2 microgram), and dynorphin A(1-13) (3.2-100 microgram), with capsaicin in the tail dose-dependently inhibited capsaicin-induced allodynia. This local antinociception was antagonized by a small dose of an opioid antagonist, quadazocine; (0.32 mg), applied in the tail; however, this dose of quadazocine injected s.c. in the back did not antagonize local U50,488. Comparing the relative potency of either agonist or antagonist after local and systemic administration confirmed that the site of action of locally applied kappa opioid agonists is in the tail. In addition, local nor-binaltorphimine (0.32 mg) and oxilorphan (0.1-10 microgram) antagonist studies raised the possibility of kappa opioid receptor subtypes in the periphery, which indicated that U50,488 produced local antinociception by acting on kappa1 receptors, but bremazocine acted probably on non-kappa1 receptors. These results provide functional evidence that activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors can diminish capsaicin-induced allodynia in primates. This experimental pain model is a useful tool for evaluating peripherally antinociceptive actions of kappa agonists without central side effects and suggests new approaches for opioid pain management.  (+info)

Pain and Pain Measurement Scales, 978-3-659-62722-4, This book provides an insight about pain and subjective scales that are used to measure pain. Fear of pain is the most vulnerable cause that deters most of the children from seeking dental care. Young children are often unable to explain the intensity of pain and therefore it is of utmost importance for the clinician to identify and measure the pain. Subjective pain measurement scales serve as an useful guide towards pain management in clinical situations and also provides a detailed database for research studies in pain measurement.
Looking for McGill Pain Questionnaire? Find out information about McGill Pain Questionnaire. at Montreal, Que., Canada; coeducational; chartered 1821, opened 1829. It was named for James McGill, who left a bequest to establish it. Its real... Explanation of McGill Pain Questionnaire
New guidelines for measuring pain in patients with rheumatic conditions recommend that clinicians use the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain) for estimating patients pain intensity and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS) for evaluating pain in the context of overall health status, says an article by Medscape Medical News based on a review published online last month in Arthritis Care & Research. The review, part of the journals special issue titled Patient Outcomes in Rheumatology, 2011, includes the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), SF-36 BPS, and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). Details on questionnaire content, ease of use, and measurement properties are included in the review of each questionnaire. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each questionnaire.. The authors also recommend the ...
New guidelines for measuring pain in patients with rheumatic conditions recommend that clinicians use the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain) for estimating patients pain intensity and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS) for evaluating pain in the context of overall health status, says an article by Medscape Medical News based on a review published online last month in Arthritis Care & Research. The review, part of the journals special issue titled Patient Outcomes in Rheumatology, 2011, includes the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), SF-36 BPS, and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). Details on questionnaire content, ease of use, and measurement properties are included in the review of each questionnaire. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each questionnaire.. The authors also recommend the ...
OBJECTIVE: Establishing a research agenda on standardizing pain measurement in clinical trials in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD).. METHODS: Discussion during a meeting at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 2018, prepared by a systematic review of existing core outcome sets and a patient online survey.. RESULTS: Several key questions were debated: Is pain a symptom or a disease? Are pain core (sub)domains consistent across RMD? How to account for pain mechanistic descriptors (e.g., central sensitization) in pain measurement?. CONCLUSION: Characterizing and assessing the spectrum of pain experience across RMD in a standardized fashion is the objective of the OMERACT Pain Working Group. ...
OBJECTIVE: Establishing a research agenda on standardizing pain measurement in clinical trials in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD). METHODS: Discussion during a meeting at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 2018, prepared by a systematic review of existing core outcome sets and a patient online survey. RESULTS: Several key questions were debated: Is pain a symptom or a disease? Are pain core (sub)domains consistent across RMD? How to account for pain mechanistic descriptors (e.g., central sensitization) in pain measurement? CONCLUSION: Characterizing and assessing the spectrum of pain experience across RMD in a standardized fashion is the objective of the OMERACT Pain Working Group.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pain measurement in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: Behavioral Pain Scale versus Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool. AU - Rijkenberg, S.. AU - Stilma, W.. AU - Endeman, H.. AU - Bosman, R.J.. AU - van Straaten, H.M.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. U2 - 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.09.007. DO - 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.09.007. M3 - Article. C2 - 25446372. VL - 30. SP - 167. EP - 172. JO - Journal of Critical Care. JF - Journal of Critical Care. SN - 0883-9441. IS - 1. ER - ...
Pain intensity is frequently measured on an 11-point pain intensity numerical rating scale (PI-NRS), where 0=no pain and 10=worst possible pain. However, it is difficult to interpret the clinical importance of changes from baseline on this scale (such as a 1- or 2-point change). To date, there are n …
Regardless of whether it is acute or chronic, the assessment of pain should be simple and practical. Since the intensity of pain is thought to be one of the primary factors that determine its effect on a humans overall function and sense, there are many scales to assess pain. The aim of the current article was to review pain intensity scales that are commonly used in dental and oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Previous studies demonstrated that multidimensional scales, such as the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire were suitable for assessing chronic pain, while unidimensional scales, like the Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Verbal descriptor scale, Verbal rating scale, Numerical rating Scale, Faces Pain Scale, Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (WBS), and Full Cup Test, were used to evaluate acute pain. The WBS is widely used to assess pain in children and elderly because other scales are often difficult to ...
Home , Papers , Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Norwegian Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 in Low Back-Related Leg Pain. ...
Read this full essay on Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative Pain-week 12. Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative PainAs mentioned earlier, Clark and Spear...
Running Head: Week 5Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative Pain[Writer Name][Institute Name] Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative PainIntroductionA study by Scott and Huskisson (1976) (N = 100) found no significant differences between the distri...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Can Multidimensional Pain Assessment Tools Help Improve Pain Outcomes in the Perianesthesia Setting?. AU - Petti, Emily. AU - Scher, Clara. AU - Meador, Lauren. AU - Van Cleave, Janet. AU - Reid, M. Carrington. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/j.jopan.2018.07.010. DO - 10.1016/j.jopan.2018.07.010. M3 - Article. VL - 33. SP - 767. EP - 772. JO - Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. JF - Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. SN - 1089-9472. IS - 5. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small fibers, large impact. T2 - Quality of life in small-fiber neuropathy. AU - Bakkers, Mayienne. AU - Faber, Catharina G.. AU - Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J. AU - Lauria, Giuseppe. AU - Merkies, Ingemar S J. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Introduction: The impact of small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) on patients quality of life (QOL) has not been studied extensively. Our aim was to determine the impact of SFN on QOL and examine possible determinants. Methods: We examined a total of 265 patients diagnosed with SFN. The SFN Symptoms Inventory Questionnaire (SFN-SIQ), the pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and the generic SF-36 Health Survey were assessed. Regression studies were undertaken to evaluate determinants of functioning. Results: SFN patients demonstrated a severe overall reduction in QOL. The biggest deficits were in Role Functioning-Physical, Body Pain, and Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores. VAS scores, changed sweating pattern, dry mouth, and age were the strongest predictors ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pain relief scale is more highly correlated with numerical rating scale than with visual analogue scale in chronic pain patients. AU - Lee, Jae Jin. AU - Lee, Mi Kyoung. AU - Kim, Jung Eun. AU - Kim, Heezoo. AU - Park, Sang Hoon. AU - Tae, Jong Hyun. AU - Choi, Sang Sik. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - The pain relief scale (PRS) is a method that measures the magnitude of change in pain intensity after treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between PRS and changes in pain determined by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and numerical rating scale (NRS), to confirm the evidence supporting the use of PRS. Sixty patients with chronic spinal pain that had a VAS and NRS recorded during an initial examination were enrolled in the study. One week later, the patients received an epidural nerve block, then VAS, NRS, and PRS assessments were performed. Differences between VAS and NRS were compared to the PRS and scatter plots and correlation coefficient were ...
Background: Pain measurement in nonverbal older adults is best based on behavioural observation, e.g. using an observational measurement tool such as Doloplus-2. The purposes of this study were to examine the use ...
in Douleur et Analgésie (2014), 27. This article aims to establish a profile of patients presenting with chronic pain in the algology service of CHU of Liège to identify possible relationships between diagnoses, psychological states and ... [more ▼]. This article aims to establish a profile of patients presenting with chronic pain in the algology service of CHU of Liège to identify possible relationships between diagnoses, psychological states and modes of pain management. Between 2005 and 2010 we monitored 1832 individual chronic pain patients who attended our pain clinic at the University Hospital of Liège. This paper presents the characteristics of these patients and their test scores before the treatment to assess their health status in a biopsychosocial perspective. Demographic and lifestyle as well as occupational factors, pain disability index, pain belief assessment, hospital anxiety and depression scale, SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and pain visual analogue scale are ...
Patients will be assessed for pain using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Scale at set time points after surgery (0,1,2,4,8,12,16,20,24 hours post-operatively). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scale was measured on a scale of 0 - 10 (0 = no pain, 1-3 = mild, 4-6 = moderate, 7-10 = severe). Higher values on the VAS represent a worse outcome. The two rows below report: 1. the average VAS score for the least amount of pain reported per group and 2. the average VAS score of the worst amount of pain reported per group ...
Sixty subjects with diagnostic of facet joint syndrome will be enrolled in the study.. They were randomized into experimental and control groups. The experimental group will be submitted to intra-articular infiltration of six facet joints. The control group will be submitted to intramuscular injection of six lumbar paravertebral points. After the randomization, all subjects will be assessed by an investigator blinded to the groups. The assessment will be taken just before the interventions (T0) and them 7 , 30 , 90 and 180 days after the interventions. The following assessment instruments will be used: pain visual analogical scale (VAS) (0-10cm), pain visual analogical scale during extension of the spine (VAS E) (0-10cm), Likert scale for improving (0-5), percentage scale of subjective improving perception(0-100%), Rolland-Morris questionnaire (0-24), short health survey questionnaire (SF36), accountability of medications taken for back pain: analgesics and non-steroidal antiinflammatories ...
Aim:. To determine the associations of patients documented self-rated pain with self-rated early postoperative physical recovery.. Design:. Observational with repeated measures.. Methods:. General and orthopaedic inpatients (N = 479) were during the period 2012-2015 screened for pain. Individual daily median pain scores at rest and during activity were based on 4-9 self-ratings on postoperative days 1 and 2, using the Numeric Rating Scale. Nine items reflecting physical recovery from the Postoperative Recovery Profile were used in a questionnaire.. Results:. Associations between median pain scores on postoperative day 1 and physical recovery (fatigue, sleeping difficulties, bladder function, mobilization, muscle weakness and personal hygiene) the same day were found. Additionally, associations were found between median pain scores on day 1 and physical recovery (fatigue, sleeping difficulties, mobilization and muscle weakness) on day 2.. ...
Brief Pain Inventory©: Cleeland CS. Measurement of pain by subjective report. In: Chapman CR, Loeser JD, editors. Issues in Pain Measurement. New York: Raven Press; pp. 391-403, 1989. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy; Vol. 12.. For further information: The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)© from M. D. Andersons Department of Symptom Research ...
Reference Values of the Pain Disability Index in Patients With Painful Musculoskeletal and Spinal Disorders: A Cross-national Study ...
Are you experiencing spine, neck or back pain? Take our online pain assessment tool to self-diagnose your pain and start finding treatment options.
We have developed a neonatal pain assessment tool CRIES. The tool is a ten point scale similar to the APGAR score (Apgar 1953). It is an acronym of five physiological and behavioural variables previously shown to be associated with neonatal pain. C--Crying; R--Requires increased oxygen administratio …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Describing pain with physical disability. T2 - Narrative interviews and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. AU - Dudgeon, Brian J.. AU - Ehde, Dawn M.. AU - Cardenas, Diana D.. AU - Engel, Joyce M.. AU - Hoffman, Amy J.. AU - Jensen, Mark P.. N1 - Funding Information: Supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (grant no. 1PO1HD/NS33988). Funding Information: The sample with SCI was recruited primarily through the mailing list of the regional newsletter of the University of Washington Northwest Regional Spinal Cord Injury System, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary service delivery model system funded in part by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research. Notices were also placed in local clinics that serve patients with SCI and in the regional newsletter. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - Objectives To identify common pain descriptors used by ...
Objective: To determine the influence of a new intraarticular hyaluronic acid based hydrogel (Hymovis®) injections on the amount of analgesics consumption in patients diagnosed with primary knee OA.. Methods: A prospective, single-center study that included 35 patients, aged 45-80 years was conducted in our orthopaedics department. Patients received two intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (24 mg/3 ml; 500-730 kDa; Hymovis®) at one week apart. Follow-up was scheduled at 2 and 6 months after the injections. Assessment tools included Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and an in-house designed questionnaire regarding analgesic consumption (quantity, period and product) during the follow-up.. Results: Compared to baseline, a significant amelioration in visual analogue scale was observed at six months follow-up (74.2mm ± 11.7 vs. 57.3mm ± 12.1; p ,.0001). 28% (n=10) of the patients reduced their total analgesic consumption at two months after the injections. At final follow-up, the analgesic ...
Background: The guidance of prospective therapists focused on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is most often made by groups of four students. However, learning therapist skills is a sensitive process that will be affected by the processes which occur within the group. Objective: The aim was to examine prospective psychotherapists attitudes to group assessments based on the revised version of the Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R). Method: Participants were 56 students with an average age of 45.65 years (range = 31 - 64). They were recruited from psychotherapy training at the Gothenburg University and the Evidens University College in Sweden. A questionnaire was constructed in which the questions were answered by check on visual analogue scales (VAS). Results: A majority of students consisting of 38 participants (68%) had a very positive approach to group assessments, while a minority of 18 participants (32%) was more negative. Most crucial for how to answer the question of group assessments was whether
Introduction: Perception of pain and the need to treat it is highly variable, even amongst oncologists. Availability of pain specialists is an added advantage. This is an analysis of prescription patterns of pain medication and its outcome in cancer patients. Materials and Methods: The center has 8 oncologists and a pain and palliative care specialist. All the patients presenting to the outpatient department of our institute with a diagnosis of cancer were prospectively analyzed for usage of pain medication using a structured questionnaire. Data on diagnosis, stage, treatment given, and outcomes were analyzed. Pain intensity was recorded on visual analogue scale, types of pain medicines used, and their side effects were noted. The average cost of the pain medication purchased in our pharmacy was calculated. Use of alternative medicines was also noted. Results: A total of 1,098 cancer patients were evaluated. Pain was a prominent complaint in 64.6% of patients. Of these, only 89.5% received pain ...
Has anyone found an effective pain relief for female genital ulcers please? This symptom started about a year ago and I am currently experiencing a severe flair But neither my doctor or specialist...
Methods. We enrolled 62 patients (40 males and 22 females, with mean age of 30.1±9.3 ranging between 17 and 52 years affected by acute muscular injuries of different sites and severity. Fourty-three patients with a mean age of 30.5±9.9 received hyperthermia (group A) and the remaining 19 with a mean age of 28.2±8.2 (group B) ultrasound. Both groups received 8 applications, three times per week with a duration of 30 for the group (A), and 10 for the group (B). All the patients underwent a clinical examination including a pain measurement with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a ultrasound scanner before, at the end and after one month follow-up ...
Aching, stabbing, dull, sharp - pain is difficult to describe, impossible to see, and is frequently treated with opium derivatives that go back to Middle Ages. Pediatric pain has long been under recognized and under treated. In fact, as many as 40% of children and adolescents complain of pain that occurs at least once weekly. One important barrier that leads to under-treatment of pain is inadequate measurement and assessment of pain. Numerical and face-based scales (e.g. Wong Baker Faces Pain Scale, Faces Pain Scale Revised) are most commonly used to assess pain in children. These scales require a certain level of expressive capacity that younger children may not have, and give no information regarding the character of pain that the child is experiencing. In addition, children may have a number of barriers that prevent accurate communication of their pain, ranging from cognitive impairments to developmental differences that make these scales inadequate for the task at hand. By utilizing other ...
A pain management algorithm was developed. The algorithm instructed nurses to assess patients´pain at least once a shift, both at rest and during turning. Further, the algorithm instructed nurses to use valid pain assessment tools. The numeric rating scale was used when patients could self-report pain. For patients not able to self-report pain, the Behavioral Pain Scale was used when patients were receiving mechanical ventilation, and the Behavioral Pain Scale-Non Intubated was used when patients were non-intubated.. Pain treatment actions were chosen based on cutoff points that defined a pain event. The algorithm was implemented in three units. Data was collected a time period after implementing the algorithm, and the same data was collected the same time period the previous year.. ...
Results Low pain group (LPG) consists of 63 (76%) and High pain group (HPG) of 20 (24%) patients respectively. Median for SF-MPQ total index in LPG was 2.0 (IQR 0-5) and HPG 14.5 (IQR 5.5-20.5). Comparative statistical analysis showed a statistical significant difference between LPG and HPG (p≤0.001). The median number of descriptive words used to describe pain for LPG was 2 (IQR 0-4.0) and for HPG 8.5 (IQR 4.0-10.5) words (p≤0.001). Correlation was found between self-reported pain related to SLE on VAS and numbers of describing words (r=0.78, p≤0.001). In both LPG and HPG the most used words to describe moderate and severe pain related to SLE were aching and tender. In HPG burning and in LPG stabbing also were used frequently. In HPG, 70% reported their present pain (PPI) as distressing. Arthralgia was the most common location of pain due to SLAM in both LPG and HPG.. ...
After approval from the local ethical committee and written informed consent, 80 patients (ASA I-II), scheduled for elective surgery below umbilicus expected to last less than 180 minutes, were included in this prospective double blind study.. The patients were familiarized with the 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain during the pre anesthetic visit and informed of the feeling of tingling, warmth or heaviness that may be felt after the injection. Each patient received 1 mg I/v midazolam in the pre op before shifting to OT where all monitoring (ECG, noninvasive blood pressure and SpO2) was established and preloading done with 10 ml kg-1 ringer lactate over 30 min. A midline spinal puncture at L3/4 space in sitting position with 25-gauge Quincke needle was performed. All patients received a coded intrathecal drug volume of 3.0 ml at a rate of 1 ml/ 5 sec with13.5 mg 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, with saline ± clonidine. The control group (group 1) received bupivacain with saline (0.3ml) ...
Assessment Tools Pain assessment tools are in the public domain and are available to all health care providers to assist them in better understanding the impact of pain on a person. Single-dimensional pain scales Single-dimensional scales only measure pain intensity and are useful in acute pain when the etiology is clear. They provide a baseline and ongoing subjective measurement of a patients pain intensity score over time. Source.
A non-invasive integrated method was developed to measure neural and behavioural responses to peripheral sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants. The introduction of a novel event-detection interface allows synchronous recording of: (i) muscle and central nervous system activity with surface electromyography (EMG), scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); (ii) behavioural responses with video-recording and (iii) autonomic responses (heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and cardiovascular activity) with electrocardiography (ECG) and pulse oximetry. The system can detect noxious heel lance and touch stimuli with precision (33 μs and 624 μs respectively) and accuracy (523 μs and 256 μs) and has 100% sensitivity and specificity for both types of stimulation. Its ability to detect response latencies accurately was demonstrated by a shift in latency of the vertex potential of 20.7 ± 15.7 ms (n=6 infants), following touch of the heel and of the shoulder
The KOOS self-report questionnaire (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) has 5 sub-scales, assessing knee symptoms and function, and quality of life. It is widely used as it has been found to be a valid and reliable measure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Icelandic translation of KOOS. A total of 145 were recruited for the study and in addition to answering KOOS, knee pain was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS), perception of knee function during activities of daily living on a numerical rating scale, and some were tested with the timed up-and-go test (TUG). Reliability was assessed by observing ICC-values, internal consistency with Cronbachs alpha, and associations between KOOS subscales and other outcome measures with Pearsons correlation coefficient. A one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences between groups of participants with different levels of knee dysfunction. A significant change in all KOOS subscales was ...
Methods TARGET assessed sarilumab 150mg and 200mg added to csDMARDs vs placebo in patients with RA intolerant of or not responding to anti-TNF therapy. MONARCH assessed sarilumab 200mg monotherapy vs adalimumab 40mg monotherapy in patients with RA either intolerant of, inadequate responders to, or considered inappropriate candidates for continued treatment with methotrexate. Treatments were administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks. RAID has 7 single-item domains, each rated by patients on an 11-point numeric rating scale from 0 (absence) to 10 (extreme). A total score from 0 to 10 (with lower scores indicative of less impact of disease) is calculated by weighting responses for each item based on patient assessment of the relative importance of the item. RAID was assessed at baseline (BL), Weeks 12 and 24. Least square mean (LSM) changes from BL in total score (Weeks 12 and 24) and domains (Week 24 only) were analysed with a mixed model for repeated measures, including treatment, region, visit, ...
40 patients (n = 23 women, n = 17 men) with acute and chronic painful condition and difficulty to perform ADL accompanying musculoskeletal or neurological disorders were comprised in the study. All patients were treated with rPMS. The therapy parameters were adjusted to patients condition. Patients with acute pain underwent daily treatments (n = 5). Patients with chronic pain underwent treatments three times per week (n = 10). The pain presence was evaluated by a 10-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for Pain Presence. Difficulties to perform ADL were evaluated by Patient Functional Assessment Questionnaire (PFAQ) for ADL. A three-month follow-up was completed. All collected data were further evaluated.. ...
A total of 225 patients received the Mobi-C TDR device and 105 patients received ACDF. At 24 months only 3.0% of patients were lost to follow-up. On average, patients in both groups showed significant improvements in Neck Disability Index (NDI) score, visual analog scale (VAS) neck pain score, and VAS arm pain score from preoperative baseline to each time point. However, the TDR patients experienced significantly greater improvement than ACDF patients in NDI score at all time points and significantly greater improvement in VAS neck pain score at 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. On average, patients in the TDR group also maintained preoperative segmental range of motion at both treated segments immediately postoperatively and throughout the study period of 24 months. The reoperation rate was significantly higher in the ACDF group at 11.4% compared with 3.1% for the TDR group. Furthermore, at 24 months TDR demonstrated statistical superiority over ACDF based on overall study ...
This cross validation study examined the reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) and the stability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory Classification System of the empirically derived subgroup classification obtained by cluster analysis in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Reliability of the German Multidimensional Pain Inventory was only examined once in the past in a small sample. Previous international studies mainly involving fibromyalgia patients showed that retest resulted in 33-38% of patients being assigned to a different Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroup classification. Participants were 204 persons with chronic musculoskeletal pain (82% chronic non-specific back pain). Subgroup classification was conducted by cluster analysis at 4 weeks before entry (=test) and at entry into the pain management program (=retest) using Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale scores. No therapeutic interventions in this period were conducted. Reliability was quantified by intraclass
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) into Bengali in patients with chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain. AU - Majumder, M.S.M.. AU - Ahmed, Shamim. AU - Shazzad, Md Nahiduzzamane. AU - Hasan, Abu Tahir Muhammad Tanveer. AU - Haq, Syed Atiqul. AU - Rasker, Johannes J.. PY - 2020/8/30. Y1 - 2020/8/30. N2 - Aim: To develop a culturally adapted and validated Bengali Pain Catastrophizing Scale (BePCS). Methods: The English PCS was translated, adapted and back-translated into and from Bengali, pre-tested by 30 adult patients with chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain. The BePCS was administered twice with 14 days interval to 90 patients. Convergent validity was measured by comparing the BePCS score with scores of the domains physical functioning and mental health of the Bengali Short Form 36, through Spearmans correlation coefficient. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and ...
OBJECTIVE: To examine patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with different rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity levels and identify residual symptoms. METHODS: Post hoc analyses of overall and Japanese data from two randomized controlled trials including RA patients with previous inadequate responses to methotrexate (NCT01710358) or no/minimal previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment (NCT01711359) (sponsor: Eli Lilly and Company). Week 24 assessments were disease activity (Simplified Disease Activity Index, Disease Activity Score/Disease Activity Score 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and PROs (pain visual analog scale [VAS], morning joint stiffness [MJS], Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey Physical and Mental Component Scores ...
Objectives: A tool for measuring neck pain in patients with dizziness is needed to further investigate the relationship between the two symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a hand‐held pressure algometer in measuring pressure pain threshold (PPT) in different cervical regions of dizzy patients. Methods: PPT was measured at two bilateral standardized sites of the neck by a trained physiotherapist in 50 patients with dizziness. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for intrarater and test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by measuring the association between PPT and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) tender points at each site and with the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). Results: Almost perfect intrarater (ICC = 0.815-0.940) and within‐session test-retest (ICC = 0.854-0.906) reliability was found between the measures. On each site, a low PPT predicted a positive ACR tender point at each site (OR = ...
Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the effects of two different doses of intraarticular ketamine on visual analog scale (VAS) scores at rest and movement, time to first analgesic requirement, and 24-h morphine consumption in patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscectomy as well as to assess the frequency of postoperative nausea&vomiting, respiratory depression, pruritus, urinary retention, and constipation and to compare the time to discharge.. Patients and methods: This prospective randomized double- blind study was performed between August 2013 and August 2014 on 75 patients (32 males, 43 females; mean age 46.7±13 years; range, 18 to 75 years) with American Society of Anesthesiologists scores of I-II scheduled for unilateral meniscectomy. Patients were randomized to receive 0.5 ketamine (group K1), 1 ketamine (group K2) or saline (group S) to a total volume of 20 mL intraarticularly at the end of the surgery. All patients were performed periarticular 10 mL 0.5% ...
A 44-year-old woman presented with lumbar pain (visual analog scale [VAS] = 9) secondary to adrenocortical carcinoma sclerotic L4-vertebral metastasis. The positron emission tomography-computed tomography hypermetabolic lesion (Fig 1a,d) was unresponsive to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. She refused surgery. Following general anesthesia and aseptic preparation, 2 power d rill-mounted (Aescula...
Objective. In lumbar foraminal spinal stenosis (LFSS), numerous ligaments may play an important role in causing radiculopathy by narrowing the exit of the nerve root. In order to achieve effective decompression of lumbar foraminal ligaments, a specially designed instrument for percutaneous lumbar extraforaminotomy (PLEF) was invented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PLEF in patients with intractable radiculopathy from LFSS. Design. A prospective, single-armed, observational pilot study. Setting. A pain center in a tertiary university-based hospital. Methods. The PLEF was performed in patients who suffered from radiculopathy with concordant imaging evidence of a mild to severe degree of LFSS. For each patient, an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) score, and any adverse events were evaluated at three-month follow- ups. Successful responder percentage defined as 40% ...
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PMID: 9656903 The McGill Pain Questionnaire is an instrument that is widely used to assess the multidimensional experience of pain. Although it was introduced more than 20 years ago, limited information is available about its use in patients suffering from persistent facial pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the response patterns of persistent facial pain patients to the McGill Pain Questionnaire, to correlate these patterns with patients beliefs about the seriousness of the condition, and to compare the findings with data reported from other painful conditions. The study sample consisted of 200 consecutive female patients referred to a tertiary care facial pain clinic. The Pain Rating Index scores of the McGill Pain Questionnaire subscales and the total number of words chosen by these patients closely matched the summary scores reported by Wilkie et al, who pooled data from seven pain conditions (cancer, chronic back, mixed chronic, acute/postoperative, labor/gynecological, dental, ...
4Dicle University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Diyarbakır, Turkey DOI : 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.9087-13.0 AIM: Symptoms of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) may be vascular, neurological or combined symptoms involving both. Treatment of TOS is generally conservative. Surgical treatment is required when radiological results indicate anatomical abnormality. This study aims to present the surgical outcomes of TOS patients treated with supraclavicular approach via microsurgery.. MATERIAL and METHODS: 41 patients with thoracic outlet syndrome were rewieved retrospectively. The pain was determined using both on visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry score both in the preoperative and postoperative period. All patients underwent electromyography including brachial plexus, ulnar and median nerves. Computed Tomography (CT) angiographic examination was applied dynamically with required manoeuvres.. RESULTS: Post-op VAS scores were recorded as 0.8 for the arm, 0.6 for the shoulder and 0.5 ...
Article 8.5 of the Directive 2011/24/EU states that the degree of patients pain must be taken into account in the process of the cross-border healthcare treatment authorization.. Member States should have transposed the Directive into their national legislation by October 2013 and, consequently, should have put in place mechanisms to assess the patients level of pain.Unfortunately, in the transposition process at national level only few Countries have formally recognized the importance of the assessment of the degree of patients pain as stated in article 8.5, setting the benchmark on the implementation of the cross-border healthcare directive.. In practice, do the National implementation measures include a reference to the intensity of pain? Do the medical records have now specific sections dedicated to the patients pain assessment? How common is pain measurement in the EU Member States? According to the intensity of pain, do patients receive any medical advice from their doctors about which ...
Data Synthesis:. We found good evidence that NSAIDs, skeletal muscle relaxants (for acute low back pain), and tricyclic antidepressants (for chronic low back pain) are effective for pain relief. The magnitude of benefit was moderate (effect size of 0.5 to 0.8, improvement of 10 to 20 points on a 100-point visual analogue pain scale, or relative risk of 1.25 to 2.00 for the proportion of patients experiencing clinically significant pain relief), except in the case of tricyclic antidepressants (for which the benefit was small to moderate). We also found fair evidence that acetaminophen, opioids, tramadol, benzodiazepines, and gabapentin (for radiculopathy) are effective for pain relief. We found good evidence that systemic corticosteroids are ineffective. Adverse events, such as sedation, varied by medication, although reliable data on serious and long-term harms are sparse. Most trials were short term (≤4 weeks). Few data address efficacy of dual-medication therapy compared with monotherapy, or ...
The Oxford Textbook of Paediatric Pain brings together an international team of experts to provide an authoritative and comprehensive textbook on all aspects of pain in infants, children and youth. Divided into nine sections, this resource analyses pain as a multifactorial problem and gives the reader a comprehensive understanding of this challenging subject. Topics covered include the biological, social, and psychological basis of pain, pain in specific populations, pain measurement, pharmacology, psychosocial and physical interventions, complementary therapies, education, and ethics of pain control in youths, children, and infants. Evidence-based chapters look in depth at areas ranging from the long-term effects of the pain in children, to sociodemographic differences in paediatric pain management. Case examples and online materials including scales, worksheets, and videos are provided to aid learning and illustrate the application of knowledge.
The efficacy of Qutenza, was established in two 12-week, double-blind, randomized, dose-controlled, multicenter studies. These studies enrolled patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) persisting for at least 6 months following healing of herpes zoster rash and a baseline score of 3-9 on an 11-point Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain). Qutenza and a control patch were each applied as a single 60-minute application. The control used in these studies looked similar to Qutenza but contained a low concentration of the active ingredient, capsaicin (3.2 mcg/cm 2, 0.04% w/w) to retain blinding regarding the known application site reactions of capsaicin (such as burning and erythema). The baseline mean pain scores across the 2 studies was approximately 6.0. Patients who entered the study on stable doses of pain-control medications were required to keep dosing stable throughout the duration of the study. Approximately half of the patients were taking ...
We identified 12 additional trials and included 22 trials with 8275 participants in this update. Oral oxycodone was studied in 10 trials, transdermal buprenorphine and oral tapentadol in four, oral codeine in three, oral morphine and oral oxymorphone in two, and transdermal fentanyl and oral hydromorphone in one trial each. All trials were described as double-blind, but the risk of bias for other domains was unclear in several trials due to incomplete reporting. Opioids were more beneficial in pain reduction than control interventions (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.35 to -0.20), which corresponds to a difference in pain scores of 0.7 cm on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) between opioids and placebo. This corresponds to a difference in improvement of 12% (95% CI 9% to 15%) between opioids (41% mean improvement from baseline) and placebo (29% mean improvement from baseline), which translates into a number needed to treat (NNTB) to cause one additional treatment response on pain of 10 (95% CI 8 to 14). ...
This non-experimental study was designed to investigate the congruence between in-labor report and postpartum recall of labor pain as measured by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Fifty married parturients, ages 19 to 39 at term with a normal pregnancy, served as subjects. Analysis of variance showed that postpartum report of labor pain on the Present Pain Intensity scale of the MPQ was not consistently congruent with pain reported during labor. In contrast, the Pain Rating Index of the MPQ provided postpartum data that was congruent with the in-labor report. Significant interaction effects, however, suggested that postpartally the women tended to devaluate the pain of early labor and inflate the pain of transitional labor when compared to their in-labor report. Theoretical and practical implications of the results for the measurement of labor pain are discussed. ...
JK Olsen et al. have tested the reliability of pain assessment with this new tool. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities were all above the defined cutt off 0.75 for excellent results. The DoloCuff is now in production and has a great potential for systematic follow-up on sensitivity to pain, on both an individual basis and group wise. The article is accepted in Pain Pratice.. For more information on the study of the equipment, please contact [email protected] ...
The objective of this study is to fill gaps in the literature regarding the effectiveness of cupping therapy on lumbar stiffness. Participants will be recruited from the University of South Carolina and from local clinics in Columbia, South Carolina. Individuals will be classified based on lumbar range of motion limitations, and then they will be equally dispersed into three treatment groups via stratified randomization. These groups include dynamic cupping, static cupping, or stretching. All participants will be assessed prior to selected treatment to obtain baseline values for four measures: back range of motion (BROM), pain pressure threshold (PPT), active straight leg raise (ASLR), and numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). Participants will be given each measure directly after treatment, followed by a follow-up measurement 24 hours after treatment.
In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 33 studies, we identified nine preoperative predictors that were negatively associated with pain control after surgery: young age, female sex, smoking, history of depressive symptoms, history of anxiety symptoms, sleep difficulties, higher BMI, presence of preoperative pain and use of preoperative analgesia. The most well-studied predictors were female sex (number of studies, n=20), young age (n=14) and the presence of preoperative pain (n=13). The strongest negative prognostic factors were a history of sleeping difficulties (number of studies, n=2) and depression (n=8), which were independently associated with approximately twofold higher odds of poor postoperative pain control. Our findings are consistent with and extend the results of the previous systematic review by Ip et al.20 In addition to the predictors previously described, we identified six additional preoperative predictors of poor postoperative pain control.20. Previous reports have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Timing interval from peri-prostatic block to biopsy impacts procedural pain. AU - Pathak, Ram A.. AU - Thiel, David D.. AU - Parker, Alexander. AU - Heckman, Michael G.. AU - Crook, Juliana. AU - Diehl, Nancy N.. AU - Tavlarides, Andrea. AU - Alford, Scott W.. AU - Igel, Todd C.. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Introduction: To compare visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores between patients with a 2-minute versus 10-minute delay of peri-prostatic lidocaine injection prior to transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies (TRUS-bx). Materials and methods: Eighty patients who underwent standard 12-core TRUS-bx by a single surgeon were prospectively randomized into four different treatment arms: bibasilar injection with a 2-minute delay, bibasilar injection plus a single apical injection with a 2-minute delay, bibasilar injection with a 10-minute delay, and bibasilar injection plus a single apical injection with a 10-minute delay. Patients were asked to report their level of pain ...
View more ,Question Is Strain-Counterstrain treatment combined with exercise therapy more effective than exercise alone in reducing levels of pain and disability in people with acute low back pain? Design Randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants 89 (55 female) participants between 18 and 55 years experiencing acute low back pain were randomised to experimental (n = 44) and control (n = 45) groups. Intervention Participants attended four treatments in two weeks. The experimental group received Strain-Counterstrain treatment and review of standardised exercises (abdominal bracing, knee to chest, and lumbar rotation). The control group performed the standardised exercises under supervision. Following the intervention period, all participants received exercise progression, manual therapy, and advice. Outcome measures The primary outcome was the modified Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire, measured at 2 weeks (ie, end of ...
7thSpace has reprinted an article that was first published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders:. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in low socioeconomic status population. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil.. Methods: We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n=768, 35-60 years old). Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain.. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted). Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level=5%).. Results: From the phone-interview screening, we ...
Chronic pain is generally regarded as being divided into two mutually exclusive pain mechanisms: nociceptive and neuropathic. Recently, this dichotomous approach has been questioned and a model of chronic pain being more or less neuropathic has been suggested. To test whether such a spectrum exists, we examined responses by patients with chronic pain to validated neuropathic pain assessment tools and compared these with ratings of certainty about the neuropathic origin of pain by their specialist pain physicians. We examined 200 patients (100 each with nociceptive and neuropathic pain) and administered the self-complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS score) and the Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS). Clinicians were asked to rate their certainty of the presence of neuropathic pain mechanisms on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 = not at all neuropathic in origin to 100 = completely neuropathic in origin). The whole sample was divided into tertiles based on ...
Listen to this podcast with Clifford Moy, MD, the behavioral health medical director at TMF Health Quality Institute, and Lindsay Botsford, MD, the market medical director for Iora Health in Houston, a clinical associate professor of the Department of Clinical Science at the University of Houston Co
Three nonpharmacological nursing interventions, relaxation, chosen music, and their combination, were tested for pain relief following intestinal (INT) surgery in a randomized clinical trial. The 167 patients were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups or control and were tested during ambulation and rest on postoperative days 1 and 2. Pain sensation and distress were measured with visual analog scales (VAS). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed significantly less post-test pain in the intervention groups than in the control group on both days after rest and at three of six ambulation post-tests (p = .024-.001), resulting in 16-40% less pain. Mixed effects after ambulation were due to the large variation in pain and difficulty relaxing while returning to bed; but post hoc explorations showed effects for those with high and low pain. These interventions are recommended along with analgesics for greater postoperative relief without additional side effects.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correspondence between EQ-5D health state classifications and EQ VAS scores. AU - Whynes, David K. AU - The TOMBOLA (Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears) Group. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - BACKGROUND: The EQ-5D health-related quality of life instrument comprises a health state classification followed by a health evaluation using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The EQ-5D has been employed frequently in economic evaluations, yet the relationship between the two parts of the instrument remains ill-understood. In this paper, we examine the correspondence between VAS scores and health state classifications for a large sample, and identify variables which contribute to determining the VAS scores independently of the health states as classified. METHODS: A UK trial of management of low-grade abnormalities detected on screening for cervical pre-cancer (TOMBOLA) provided EQ-5D data for over 3,000 women. Information on distress and multi-dimensional health ...
Treating persistent pain conditions with opioid medications is not only ineffective for long-term treatment but is also a preventable factor behind the current opioid crisis, which kills thousands of people each year. One way to address the opioid crisis is to identify better treatments to reduce pain. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential of a specific metabolite of ketamine named (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) to be an effective alternative to opioids in reducing pain or opioid adjunct to make opioid pain treatment safer and more effective. The specific aims for this study are 1) to determine the pain reduction effects of (2R,6R)-HNK in healthy mice and mice with induced neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and 2) to examine the interaction between (2R,6R)-HNK and opioid-induced pain reduction in mice. To investigate these aims, C57BL/J6 mice will be tested utilizing various pain measurement tests after receiving (2R,6R)-HNK and compared to mice receiving saline as a placebo. ...
Around 14% of adults who experience pain report that it lasts 3 months to a year and 42% report pain that lasts more than a year.
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A prospective double-blind randomised controlled trial of intraoperative pelvic instillation with bupivacaine for management of pain following laparoscopy and dye. AU - Sripada, Sreebala. AU - Roy, S.. AU - Mathur, M.. AU - Hamilton, M. AU - Cranfield, K.. AU - Bhattacharya, Siladitya. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine following laparoscopy and dye test. Women received either 15 ml of 0.9% saline (n=42) or 15 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine (n=43), which was instilled intraperitoneally. Pain and nausea scores were recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Pain perception was no different in the bupivacaine group compared with the control group with median values of VAS at 2 hours (18, 19; P=0.8), 6 hours (21, 22; P=0.5), 12 hours (19, 25; P=0.8), 24 hours (27, 27; P=0.9) and 48 hours (21, 13; P=0.26). Women in the bupivacaine group were less ...
Pain assessment is a broad concept involving clinical judgment based on observation of the type, significance and context of the individuals pain experience. There are challenges in assessing paediatric pain, none more so than in the pre-verbal and developmentally disabled child. Therefore physiological and behavioural tools are used in place of the self-report of pain. However in children with developmental disabilities there can be incorrect assumptions and there is a risk of under-treating pain. It is important to take behavioral cues identified by parents and caregivers to improve pain assessment in these children. Pain assessment in infants and children is also challenging due to the subjectivity and multidimensional nature of pain. The dependence on others to assess pain, limited language, comprehension and perception of pain expressed contextually. In some children it can be difficult to distinguish between pain, anxiety and distress. Assessment and documenting pain is needed in order to ...
RATIONALE: Low back pain has a significant socioeconomic impact. Repetitive lifting, with combined twisting and flexion motions of the lumbar spine, increases the risk for low-back pain and injury to the supporting tissues. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old male who presented with acute low-back pain, with a pain intensity of 6/10 on the visual analog scale (VAS) and an Oswestry disability index (ODI) score of 70%. The range of motion (ROM) of the lumbar spine on initial examination, relative to the normal peak ROM, was as follows: extension, 12°/30°; flexion, 15°/80°; left rotation, 15°/45°; and right rotation, 25°/45 ...
Background: Local anesthetics act by different mechanisms to produce their effects in control acute and chronic pain. Methods: A total of 22 patients (14 female, 8 male) who need tooth apisectomy under infiltration local anesthesia were examined in two situations: Before and after administration of local anesthesia. For all patients salivary sample has been collected by salivette to estimate the level of opiorphin using ELISA Kits, the pain was assessed after administration of local anesthesia using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results: the results showed a significant differences of salivary opiorphin before and after administration of local anesthesia (5.96+5.38) ng/ml and (14.49±3.66) ng/ml respectively with p0.05). Conclusions: local
Description: M.Cur. , Midwives are responsible to assess pain before treating it; then they should reassess the pain to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions and plan future therapy. Accurate and objective measures of labour pain continue to be scarce and the discrepancy in labour pain perceptions between parturients and health-care providers remains challenging. Various pain measurement tools are currently in use measuring chronic and acute pain, but many problems were encountered applying these methods to the woman in labour. The charts were detailed and required too much time to complete. The aim of the study was to develop a multidimensional labour pain assessment instrument to assist clinicians and midwives with labour pain control. Objectives for developing a valid and reliable instrument to accurately measure labour pain included refinement of the labour pain assessment instrument developed from literature, testing of the refined instrument on patients during labour, compilation ...
to the editor: I was pleased to read the article1 on management of nonmalignant pain. The undertreatment of pain is a widespread issue in the United States, and helping to educate practicing family physicians in the most current pain management techniques is an important, even critical, goal.. I was disappointed, however, by the relative lack of information in the article on the two newest classes of oral analgesics: (1) tramadol (Ultram) and (2) cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, which represent a new type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).. Tramadol has been available in the United States for five years. It is effective not only for an acute episode of neuropathic pain (as suggested in the article), but also for chronic neuropathic pain syndrome, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis pain2 and chronic low back pain.3 Tramadol may be most notable for what it is not-tramadol is not an NSAID, nor is it a typical opioid. Tramadol has a dual mechanism of action: it acts centrally at ...
DUBLIN, IRELAND, July 9 (Korea Bizwire) - Research and Markets ( has announced the addition of Jain PharmaBiotechs new report Global Pain Therapeutics Report 2014: Drugs, Markets and Companies - The Latest Concepts of Pathomechanisms of Pain to their offering.. This report describes the latest concepts of pathomechanisms of pain as a basis for management and development of new pharmacotherapies for pain. Major segments of the pain market are arthritis, neuropathic pain and cancer pain. Because pain is a subjective sensation, it is difficult to evaluate objectively in clinical trials. Various tools for pain measurement are described, including brain imaging.. Most of the currently used analgesic drugs fall into the categories of opioids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs such as COX-2 inhibitors. Non-opioid analgesics include ketamine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. Adjuvant analgesics include antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs used for the treatment ...
"A Conceptual Model of Pain: Measurement and Diagnosis". Practical Pain Management. Remedy Health Media. Retrieved 20 November ... "A Conceptual Model of Pain: Measurement and Diagnosis". Practical Pain Management. Remedy Health Media. Retrieved 20 November ... As a result, an addition to the theory has been proposed that the pain may be stimulated by the generation of an electric ... In response to this movement, mechanoreceptors on the pulp nerves trigger the acute, temporary pain of dentine hypersensitivity ...
Dolorimetry has been defined as "the measurement of pain sensitivity or pain intensity". Dolorimeters apply steady pressure, ... Hot plate test Dol Pain scale Pain threshold Pain tolerance Schmidt sting pain index Stedman's Medical Dictionary 2004 Houghton ... Another pain measurement device uses heat from a 500 watt incandescent heat lamp which is delivered to a small area of skin. ... The Measurement of Pain: Prototype for the Quantitative Study of Subjective Responses, Henry K. Beecher, Pharmacological ...
He wants to create a measurement of pain with a unit called the "Razim". Razim was chosen by Zeljan Kurst to run operation " ... However, Razim has been allowing her to do so, and, with Alex watching on television (and as part of his measurement of pain ... Julius joins Razim's pain projects and captures Alex for Razim, expressing an interest in joining Scorpia (although Razim ... Three who is the world's foremost expert on pain and torture, having written books about it, a Japanese man named Hideo Mikato ...
"Spirometry Measurements During an Episode of Exercise-Related Transient Abdominal Pain". International Journal of Sports ... and the medical term is exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). It sometimes extends to shoulder tip pain, and ... If the pain is present only when exercising and is completely absent at rest, in an otherwise healthy person, it does not ... A side stitch is an intense stabbing abdominal pain under the lower edge of the ribcage that occurs during exercise. It is also ...
Razim - Razim is the ultimate sociopath who intends to create a unit of measurement for pain. Despite his intelligence, he is ...
... were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. For research purposes, and for more detailed pain ... pain may get worse over time (progressive pain), also lower back pains linked to the pelvis chronic pelvic pain - typically ... Individual pain areas and pain intensity appear to be unrelated to the surgical diagnosis, and the area of pain unrelated to ... A major symptom of endometriosis is recurring pelvic pain. The pain can range from mild to severe cramping or stabbing pain ...
The Randall-Selitto test or paw pressure test is a technique for the measurement of the pain response in animals. It is used in ... Pain is deemed to be present if the animal starts to exhibit the flight or struggle response. Randall and Selitto exploited the ... basic pain research and to test the effectiveness of analgetics by observing the reaction to gradually increasing pressure on ... fact that inflammation increases pain sensitivity and this sensitivity is modifiable by analgesics. The inflammation may be ...
"Skin conductance measurements as pain assessment in newborn infants born at 22-27weeks gestational age at different postnatal ... "Metrological evaluation of skin conductance measurements". Measurement. 46 (9): 2993-3001. doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2013.06. ... is a custom EDA measurement device. External factors such as temperature and humidity affect EDA measurements, which can lead ... Pain. 152 (3): 592-598. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2010.11.032. PMID 21215519. S2CID 15779956.. ...
68.2% showed a response by measurement of the fat deposit. 81% had mild adverse reactions of bruising, swelling, pain, numbness ... however the procedure has been studied for the pain relief of other ailments, such as tendonitis, tendon calcification, dental ...
She has appeared on radio and podcasts to talk about measurement and understanding of infant pain, including Radio 4 pieces " ... She is an advocate for neuroimaging tools for objective measurement of infant pain, and has demonstrated that brain activity ... Her research focuses on infant pain, using non-invasive neuroimaging techniques to improve understanding and measurement of ... "Stroking babies 'provides pain relief'". BBC News. 18 December 2018. Costandi, Moheb. "Is the Baby in Pain? Brain Scans Can ...
Systematic process of pain assessment, measurement, and re-assessment (re-evaluation), enhances the healthcare teams' ability ... Assessment of a patient's experience of pain is a crucial component in providing effective pain management. Pain is not a ... "Pediatric Pain Assessment In the Emergency Department: A Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Protocol." Pediatric Nursing 41, no. 4 ... Pain is assessed for its provocative and palliative associations; quality, region/radiation, severity (numerical scale or ...
The use of FACS has been proposed for use in the analysis of depression, and the measurement of pain in patients unable to ... Pain Medicine. 8 (8): 678-89. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00358.x. PMID 18028046. Rosenberg EL. "Example and web site of one ... "A psychophysical investigation of the facial action coding system as an index of pain variability among older adults with and ... A Technique for the Measurement of Facial Movement. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press. Ekman P, Friesen WV, Hager JC ( ...
... depends upon applying to pleasures and pains a "science of measurement". The School of Cyrene provided one of the first ... It was one of the first to advance a systematic view on the role of pleasure and pain in human life. The Cyrenaics argued that ... Whereas negative emotions, such as anger and fear, multiplied pain. Towards the end of Plato's Protagoras it is reasoned that ...
Insulin normally increases after feeding, as well as secondary to cortisol (stress) and epinephrine (pain), so measurement ... Measurement of fasting insulin concentration involves giving a horse a single flake of hay, low in non-structural carbohydrates ... Actively laminitic horses should therefore not undergo testing until their pain and stress have been adequately controlled. ... and echocardiographic measurements in healthy adult horses". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 69 (1): 68-75. doi: ...
... as is done routinely for the measurement of pain in non-verbal humans. Observers score the presence or prominence of "facial ... From the described pain face, The Equine Pain Scale has been developed. Another pain scale has been described (EQUUS-FAP) which ... "mTORC1 inhibition induces pain via IRS-1-dependent feedback activation of ERK". Pain. 154 (7): 1080-1091. doi:10.1016/j.pain. ... "Supraspinal TRPV1 modulates the emotional expression of abdominal pain" (PDF). Pain. 155 (10): 2153-2160. doi:10.1016/j.pain. ...
Randall-Selitto test, a technique for the measurement of the pain response in animals Carlo Sellitto, an Italian painter of the ...
... were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. For research purposes, and for more detailed pain ... VAS is the most common pain scale for quantification of endometriosis-related pain and skin graft donor site-related pain. A ... measurement in clinical practice, the review suggested use of VAS or NRS for each type of typical pain related to endometriosis ... It is a measurement instrument for subjective characteristics or attitudes that cannot be directly measured. When responding to ...
... and Pain in Health and Disease: Mechanisms and Assessments: a Wenner-Gren Center International Symposium, 1st Edn, eds J. ... Physiological Measurement. 37 (7): 1074-1088. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/37/7/1074. ISSN 1361-6579. PMID 27321473. Bruns, Patrick; ... and inter-observer reliability of a novel protocol for two-point discrimination in individuals with chronic low back pain". ...
Fitzgerald's research has changed clinical perception by showing that pain in infancy requires appropriate measurement and ... Her work has had a major impact on our understanding of how pain perception emerges in early life and how early pain experience ... She trained in pain physiology and neuroscience with Patrick David Wall at University College London where she was awarded a ... In 2013 she was elected to the Faculty of Pain Medicine of the Royal College of Anaesthetists, for sustained and significant ...
Aboriginal Australians were subject to medical experiments on how they experienced pain and where body measurements and blood ... and as such are considered as examples of medical torture since the participants had to endure mass amounts of pain. At ... severe abdominal pain, and cervical cancer. Therefore, radiation treatment became the favored choice of sterilization. Specific ...
Beecher HK (1959). Measurement of subjective responses. New York: Oxford University Press. cited in Melzack R, Wall PD (1996). ... no pain' and 'worst imaginable pain". Cut-offs for pain classification have been recommended as no pain (0-4mm), mild pain (5- ... VAS Pain), Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF- ... "Does Opioid Tapering in Chronic Pain Patients Result in Improved Pain or Same Pain vs Increased Pain at Taper Completion? A ...
The FLACC scale or Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale is a measurement used to assess pain for children between the ... The FLACC scale offered the same evaluation of pain as did the Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI) scale which is ... The scale is scored in a range of 0-10 with 0 representing no pain. The scale has five criteria, which are each assigned a ... A behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children, by S Merkel and others, 1997, Pediatr Nurse 23(3), p. 293- ...
She attempts to escape, and nearly succeeds, but Razim is merely using her for his "measurement of pain" experiment, and has ... Alex's grief is enough to cause him to black out, and Razim "may even have to create a second scale of measurement" for the ... amount of emotional pain Alex felt. However, Jack is revealed to be alive in the following novel Never Say Die, as her death ...
... may refer to: Pain Suffering The unit of measurement in utilitarianism, see Felicific calculus#Hedons and dolors Dolor ( ...
"The Measurement of Pain in the Laboratory Rodent", The Oxford Handbook of the Neurobiology of Pain, Oxford University Press, pp ... For the past century, the measurement of pain in rodent biomedical research was considered complicated and imprecise, and many ... They showed that mice display more pain behavior if they are tested in close proximity to other mice also in pain, but only if ... He is known for his work in the genetics of pain, for being among the first scientists to demonstrate sex differences in pain ...
... pain measurement MeSH E01.370.376.550.650 - reflex MeSH E01.370.376.550.650.650 - reflex, abdominal MeSH E01.370.376.550. ... lung volume measurements MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750 - total lung capacity MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.150 - closing volume ... nuchal translucency measurement MeSH E01.370.350.925 - whole body imaging MeSH E01.370.370.050 - angiography MeSH E01.370. ... nuchal translucency measurement MeSH E01.370.378.850 - ultrasonography, mammary MeSH E01.370.378.860 - uterine monitoring MeSH ...
... a 2007 Kurdish film A little-used unit of measurement for pain; see List of unusual units of measurement#Pain Department of ...
... s are a necessity to assist with better assessment of pain and patient screening. Pain measurements help determine ... Alder Hey Triage Pain Score Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI ... were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. For research purposes, and for more detailed pain ... for measuring pain in children Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) for measuring pain in premature infants Schmidt Sting Pain ...
"Chronic pain and the measurement of personality: do states influence traits?". Pain Medicine. 7 (6): 509-29. doi:10.1111/j.1526 ... Chronic neuropathic pain: pain caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system. Chronic headache and orofacial pain: pain ... Chronic visceral pain: pain originating in an internal organ. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: pain originating in the bones, ... Chronic pain can contribute to decreased physical activity due to fear of making the pain worse. Pain intensity, pain control, ...
"Psychophysical approaches to measurement of the dimensions and stages of pain". In Turk DC, Melzack R (eds.). Handbook of pain ... joint pain, muscle pain, and abdominal pain due to diarrhea or constipation; hormone therapy, which sometimes causes pain ... Antibiotic treatment produced pain relief in all of them within three days. Cancer pain treatment aims to relieve pain with ... Failure to report pain or misguided reluctance to take pain medicine can be overcome by sensitive coaching. Pain is experienced ...
PainEdit. Preclinical data support the notion that Substance P is an important element in pain perception. The sensory function ... Bossaller C, Reither K, Hehlert-Friedrich C, Auch-Schwelk W, Graf K, Gräfe M, Fleck E (Oct 1992). "In vivo measurement of ... The symptoms of infection are diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain.[68][69] This protozoan was found to secrete serotonin ... The "P" in substance "P" [SP] is mistakenly thought to signify Pain or Psychiatric substance. Substance P ("P" standing for " ...
Too high a dose of levothyroxine causes hyperthyroidism.[18] Overdose can result in heart palpitations, abdominal pain, nausea ... It is recommended that dosing be based on regular measurements of TSH and T4 levels in the blood.[1] Much of the effect of ...
... and dose measurement devices (such as ionization chambers, Geiger counters, and dosimeters used to measure the local radiation ... Pain management. *Palliative care. *Pediatrics *Neonatology. *Physical medicine and rehabilitation *PM&R ...
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) involve injury and pain to the joints and muscles of the body. Approximately 2.5 million ... Kasl, S.V., & Jones, B.A. (2011). An epidemiological perspective on research design, measurement, and surveillance strategies. ...
... fundamental limits of precision in measurement are inherent in the uncertainty principle.[45] The relevance of such prospective ...
For example, a patient with chronic pain may decrease the physiological result of stress and draw attention away from the pain ... the Behavior Rating Index for Children and the bereavement Group Questionnaire for Parents and Guardians as measurement tools, ... therapy on pediatric pain: phase 1. The Journal of Music Therapy, 44(3), 217-41. ... decrease pain, enhance relaxation, and decrease anxiety. Although it doesn't affect disease, it can help with coping skills.[7] ...
Curr Pain Headache Rep (Review). 2008-01, 12 (1): 56-61. PMID 18417025. doi:10.1007/s11916-008-0011-8.. ... Measurement and Definitions of Obesity In Childhood and Adolescence: A field guide for the uninitiated. Nutr J. 2007, 6 (1): 32 ... Pain Med (Review). 2007, 8 (8): 669-77. PMID 18028045. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2006.00227.x.. ... Overweight and health problems of the lower extremities: osteoarthritis, pain and disability. Public Health Nutr (Research ...
Lewis, P. A.; Miall, R. C. (2003). "Distinct systems for automatic and cognitively controlled time measurement: evidence from ... which indicates a sense of conflict or emotional pain.[14] The right hemisphere has also been found to be correlated with ... emotion, which can also activate areas in the cingulate in times of emotional pain, specifically social rejection (Eisenberger ...
Overindulgence in food is discouraged and eating only enough to silence the pain of hunger is encouraged. Muslims believe they ... or certain blood glucose measurements require fasting for several hours so that a baseline can be established. In the case of a ... lipid panel, failure to fast for a full 12 hours (including vitamins) will guarantee an elevated triglyceride measurement.[4] ...
Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas, and nausea.[1] These symptoms typically start thirty minutes to ... for research applications such as mRNA measurements, a specialist laboratory is required. ...
In 1842, John Hutchinson invented the spirometer, which allowed the measurement of vital capacity of the lungs. However, his ... Signs of a PE in COPD include pleuritic chest pain and heart failure without signs of infection.[69] ... Mahler DA (May 2006). "Mechanisms and measurement of dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Proceedings of the ... Based on these measurements, spirometry would lead to over-diagnosis of COPD in the elderly.[75] The National Institute for ...
The SHU is a measurement of the base resin compound and not what comes out in the aerosol. The rated irritant effect of the ... A study of five often-recommended treatments for skin pain (Maalox, 2% lidocaine gel, baby shampoo, milk, or water) concluded ... there was no significant difference in pain relief provided by five different treatment regimens. Time after exposure appeared ... "A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Treatment Regimens for Acute Pain for Topical Oleoresin Capsaicin (Pepper Spray) ...
Measurement[edit]. Current data[edit]. Each Thursday, the Department of Labor issues the Unemployment Insurance Weekly Claims ... The latter requires participation in training, education, or other employment support, which may be mandated on pain of losing ...
Lipid measurementsEdit. Cholesterol levels may be determined as part of health screening for health insurance or occupational ... This may lead to angina pectoris (chest pain or tightness on exertion) or heart attacks. Less commonly, arteries of the brain ... this can cause pain in the calf muscles during walking that resolves with rest (intermittent claudication) and problems due to ...
In females monitoring normally consists of measurement of oestrogen, FSH, LH, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH).[3] ... NTRK1 (Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis). *KIT (KIT Piebaldism, Gastrointestinal stromal tumor) ... In males, the monitoring of treatment normally requires the measurement of serum testosterone, inhibin B, haematocrit and ...
Pain is a symptom experienced by most people with ALS and can take the form of neuropathic pain (pain caused by nerve damage), ... The most commonly used measurement is upright forced vital capacity (FVC), but it is a poor detector of early respiratory ... examples of nociceptive pain in ALS include contractures (permanent shortening of a muscle or joint), neck pain, back pain, ... About 90% of people with ALS die peacefully.[110] In the final days of life, opioids can be used to treat pain and dyspnea, ...
Breuer and quantum measurement[edit]. The editor who summarized Breuer's thesis regarding self-measurement has misstated ... All citations are valid, regardless of whether the publisher turns a profit." My condolences on the pain you share... if only ... Neutral monists such as Russell were also convinced they'd solved the mind-body problem, at long last). Sperry is at pains to ... Breuer is talking to the operational reality of performing measurements on a quantum system which includes the observing system ...
Emadi-Konjin P, Verjee Z, Levin AV, Adeli K (May 2005). "Measurement of intracellular vitamin C levels in human lymphocytes by ... bone pain, bleeding gums, susceptibility to bruising, poor wound healing, and finally fever, convulsions and eventual death.[2] ...
The emergence of powerful new measurement techniques such as neuroimaging (e.g., fMRI, PET, SPECT), electrophysiology, and ... Neurology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, psychosurgery, anesthesiology and pain medicine, neuropathology, neuroradiology, ... Anesthesiology focuses on perception of pain, and pharmacologic alteration of consciousness. Neuropathology focuses upon the ... generally using physiological techniques that include measurement and stimulation with electrodes or optically with ion- or ...
... probe measurements and incorporation 3-80...3-84: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3-90...3-90: other imaging techniques 3-99 ... anesthesia and pain management 8-92...8-93: patient monitoring 8-97...8-98: complex treatment 8-99...8-99: additional ...
Methadone: treatment of heroin addiction, extreme chronic pain. *Methamphetamine: treatment of ADHD (rare), severe obesity ( ... "Appendix C: Measurement of Dependence, Abuse, Treatment, and Treatment Need - 2000 NHSDA - Substance Dependence, Abuse, and ... Heroin (diacetylmorphine), which is used in some European countries as a potent pain reliever in terminal cancer patients, and ... and treatment for narcolepsy-cataplexy and alcohol withdrawal with a limited safe dosage range and poor ability to control pain ...
There have been several cases where the doctors have recommended amputation to resolve the issue of pain that was not there ... Banks SA, Hodge WA (June 1996). "Accurate measurement of three-dimensional knee replacement kinematics using single-plane ... The outcome of an ankle replacement includes factors like ankle function, pain, revision and implant survival. Outcome studies ... total ankle replacement are successful by reducing pain and improving mobility there is a very high possibility that the pain ...
... although short-term pain flare-up can be experienced in the days following treatment due to oedema compressing nerves in the ... and then transmits the measurements back to the positioning system to determine the location.[54] The implantable device can ... A single treatment gives comparable pain relief and morbidity outcomes to multiple-fraction treatments, and for patients with ...
Flight measurements[edit]. In May 2008, a Japanese television crew (NHK) filmed a flying fish (dubbed "Icarfish") off the coast ...
Sandberg, A.; Fowler, C.J. (2005). "Measurement of saturable and non-saturable components of anandamide uptake into P19 ... used to treat rheumatism and pain in human. The blockade of anandamide transport may, at least in part, be the mechanism ...
... (BAC), also called blood alcohol concentration or blood alcohol level, is a measurement of alcohol ... Units of measurement[edit]. There are several different units in use around the world for defining blood alcohol concentration ... Therefore, a breathalyzer measurement of 0.10 mg/L of breath alcohol converts to 0.0001×2100 g/L, or 0.21 g/L of blood alcohol ...
Denial of animal pain and suffering can also lead to denial of broader concepts, such as denial of moral status[72] or the ... When linked to other observed phenomena such as gravity, sunsets, tides, eclipses, distances and other measurements that ... Despite wide scientific consensus that some animals can experience pain and suffering,[66] this is often denied when it is ... The idea that animals might not feel pain goes back to the 17th-century French philosopher, René Descartes, who argued that ...
More practical measurements refer primarily to the body length, quoting leg lengths separately, if at all. The body length is ... "Mystery bug bite leaves Arizona man covered in bruises, 'excruciating pain'". Global News. July 27, 2017. Retrieved July 27, ...
Bigal ME; Lipton RB (januar 2008). "Obesity and chronic daily headache". Curr Pain Headache Rep. Vol. 12 no. 1. str. 56-61. doi ... februar 2008). "Assessment of body mass index and hand anthropometric measurements as independent risk factors for carpal ... Harney D; Patijn J (2007). "Meralgia paresthetica: diagnosis and management strategies". Pain Med. Vol. 8 no. 8. str. 669-77. ... Tukker A; Visscher T; Picavet H (april 2008). "Overweight and health problems of the lower extremities: osteoarthritis, pain ...
Pain Unresponsive A score of five or more is statistically linked to increased likelihood of death or admission to an intensive ... EWS is based on the principle that clinical deterioration can be seen through changes in multiple physiological measurements, ... flow rate of oxygen administration and pain scores. ...
Though complex and multifactorial, it is based on two overarching concepts: qualifying and quantifying pain. In practicality, ... Treatment of pain first requires an accurate measurement of pain. ... Pain measurement Pain scale Visual analog scale Faces rated scale Neonatal pain score Premature pain profile Numeric rating ... Faces pain scale-revised: toward a common metric in pediatric pain measurement. Pain. 2001;93(2):173-83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
The particular location and axes of the motion or activity sensors may be chosen based on the location of the pain being ... The effectiveness of a particular pain management stimulation parameter set is based on the statistics accumulated over a ... Increased levels of exertion are an indication of successful pain management. The patients walking gait smoothness and walking ... gait stability are also graded as indicators of pain management effectiveness. The motion or activity sensors may be part of a ...
How children cope with pain has a lot to do with our role as parents and there is a huge contribution we can make to helping ... to the more terrifying accidents and emergencies one way or another our children will need to learn to deal with pain. ... You never want your child to experience pain but we also need to realize its part of life.. from the ordinary tumbles and ... alleviate not just the physical experience but the anxiety and stress that can certainly increase pain for children. ...
VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale ( ... NRS Pain) for estimating patients pain intensity and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS) for evaluating pain in ... Rheumatologists Issue New Guides for Pain Measurements. New guidelines for measuring pain in patients with rheumatic conditions ... The authors also recommend the ICOAP for assessment of osteoarthritis-related pain. ...
Home , August 2010 - Volume 150 - Issue 2 , 50 years on, Henry Beechers "Measurement of subjective resp... ... 50 years on, Henry Beechers "Measurement of subjective responses". Morley, Stephen1; Vlaeyen, Johan W.S.2 ... PAIN 2019: Global Year Against Pain in the Most Vulnerable. *PAIN 2018: Global Year for Excellence in Pain Education ... PAIN 2017: Global Year Against Pain After Surgery. *PAIN 2016: Global Year Against Pain in the Joints ...
Measurement, & Management in Pain Research (R03) PA-13-117. NINR ... Pain Management The prevalence of pain and inadequate pain ... Differences in care for various types of pain, acute postoperative pain, treatment-related pain, cancer pain, or chronic non- ... of pain measurements that can account for or predict the trajectory or course of pain, as well as the changes in pain over time ... Models of Pain. There are many factors responsible for pain experienced by patients. Current animal models of pain have been ...
Near-infrared Spectroscopic Measurement in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Near-infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of Tissue Oxygen Saturation and the Vascular Occlusion Test in Complex Regional Pain ... A hypothesis for the cause of complex regional pain syndrome-type I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy): pain due to deep-tissue ... Recent clinical investigations have suggested that the cause of abnormal pain in complex regional pain syndrome could be ...
cause of pain ( eg: post-operative) Pain measurement quantifies pain intensity and enables the nurse to determine the efficacy ... assess pain using a developmentally and cognitively appropriate pain tool *reassess pain after interventions given to reduce ... Pain assessment and measurement. * For acute medical and surgical pain in children ... cognitive development and understanding of pain. When to assess pain?. *Pain scores should be documented for all children at ...
Pain Monitoring Using Plurality of Non-invasive Physiological Measurement. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ...
Ninety percent of the pain ratings were reproducible within 9 mm. These data suggest that the VAS is sufficiently reliable to ... Reliability of the VAS for acute pain measurement as assessed by the ICC appears to be high. ... The paired measurements were more reproducible at the extremes of pain intensity than at moderate levels of pain. ... Reliability of the VAS for acute pain measurement as assessed by the ICC appears to be high. Ninety percent of the pain ratings ...
Measurement of Stress During Anesthesia With Pain Detector on Patients Receiving Atropine. The safety and scientific validity ... Measurement of Stress During Anesthesia With Pain Detector on Patients Receiving Atropine ...
It is an acronym of five physiological and behavioural variables previously shown to be associated with neonatal pain. C-- ... We have developed a neonatal pain assessment tool CRIES. The tool is a ten point scale similar to the APGAR score (Apgar 1953 ... CRIES: a new neonatal postoperative pain measurement score. Initial testing of validity and reliability Paediatr Anaesth. 1995; ... We have developed a neonatal pain assessment tool CRIES. The tool is a ten point scale similar to the APGAR score (Apgar 1953 ...
Pain Measurement Completed Phase 4 Trials for Methoxyflurane (DB01028). Back to Pain Measurement ... Safety and Efficacy of Methoxyflurane for Treatment of Incident Pain. Treatment. *Methoxyflurane (DB01028) ...
... and Measurement Tools ... This page contains the article Assessment of Patients With Neck Pain: A Review of Definitions, Selection Criteria, ... Pain questionnaires Table 2 Questionnaires that incorporate assessments of pain include the Extended Aberdeen Spine Pain Scale ... Pain to the front of the cervical spine is usually described as pain in the throat and not as neck pain. [11] Bogduk and ...
It aims to contribute to improve pain measurement, treatment, and the relationship between pain and health care consumption. ... Since pain relief is not always immediate and is sometimes preceded by an increase in pain, we examined whether radiotherapy is ... Nonetheless, in 60% of them the pain remained moderate to severe. The hypothesis that people experience less pain if they are ... J.J. Meeuse: Aspects of pain in measurement, management and health care utilization. ...
Recruitment of patients presenting with chest pain, and results of early measurement of high-sensitivity troponin T levels ... Characteristics of 939 patients presenting with chest pain and no ST-segment elevation who underwent early measurement of ... This early measurement may have failed to identify patients with "minor" infarctions who had only low-level increases in ... and prognostic utility of early measurement with high-sensitivity troponin T assay in patients presenting with chest pain. ...
Is HCAHPS survey pain measurement causing doctors to prescribe narcotics too liberally? Measuring anything in health care can ... Before pain measurement, pain was classified as mild, medium or high and this was clear.. The response of a physician to his ... The Paradox of Pain Measurement. Nevertheless, I dont dispute that simply knowing that pain control is being measured can ... In the discussions of what happened and what to do about it, critics point at measurement of pain in the HCAHPS survey, and ...
Pain measurement and Beechers challenge: 50 years later. Anesthesiology. 2009 Sep; 111(3):473-4. ...
Pain relief is the new mantra for optical test and measurement equipment vendors. ... SPECIAL REPORTS: Test, Measurement, and Management With the deployment of 40-Gbit/sec systems pushed back 18-24 months, optical ... measurement, and control of polarized light. Luna expects the acquisition to enhance its existing test and measurement product ... Easing this pain has become the test equipment vendors biggest challenge in the current economy. Their ability to deliver easy ...
... brand marketers shared pain points in trying to navigate digital and connect all the dots. ... Roundtable: Digital pain points include attribution, measurement, justifying costs. At a lunch roundtable event hosted by ... "Measurement is a big one, its difficult to track a direct mail to retail or social and marketers are moving away from last ... Measurement and commitment. Jon Stona, head of regional marketing for Google Play APAC at Google Asia Pacific, shared that in ...
Editorial Views / Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems / Pain Medicine Editorial Views , September 2009 Pain Measurement and ... Brain imaging is a very active area of pain research that might afford the possibility of improved pain measurement in the ... Strong agreement with self-report in subjects with experimental pain, acute pain, and chronic pain, under a range of situations ... Pain Measurement and Beechers Challenge: 50 Years Later You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated ...
Longitudinal Measurement of Pain and Other Symptoms of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Following Thoracic Surgery. ... Longitudinal Measurement of Pain and Other Symptoms of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients Following Thoracic Surgery ...
Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: recommendations ... Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: recommendations ... Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: recommendations ... from the first International Hip-related Pain Research Network (IHiPRN) meeting, Zurich, 2018 ...
Standardised measurement methods of physical capacity of relevance to young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain ... Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: recommendations ... Standardised measurement of physical capacity in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain: recommendations ... Hip-related pain can significantly impact quality of life, function, work capacity, physical activity and family life. ...
Measurement of pelvic blood flow changes in response to posture in normal subjects and in women with pelvic pain owing to ... Measurement of pelvic blood flow changes in response to posture in normal subjects and in women with pelvic pain owing to ... Ten women with chronic pelvic pain and venous congestion and 10 normal subjects were observed during posture changes over a 2 h ... 4. The findings are consistent with a disorder of blood flow regulation in women with pelvic pain owing to congestion. ...
Comparison of paraspinal cutaneous temperature measurements between subjects with and without chronic low back pain.. January 1 ... inequality Low low back pain lumbar Manipulation manual Mechanical methods Muscle neck pain Neurophysiological Orthopedic pain ... Precise measurement of functional leg length inequality and changes due to cervical spine rotation in pain-free students. » ... Effectiveness as a Mechanical Impedance Measurement Tool » Grand Rounds Discussion: Patient with acute low back pain » ...
1. Compare pain measurement between a new electronic device, the Continuous Pain Score Meter (CPSM) and the Verbal Rating Scale ... Pain perception is usually measured using pain scores, where participants are asked to rate their level of pain at certain ... directly after a procedure versus pain measurement and using the Continuous Pain Score Meter (CPSM, CPSM-AUC, CPSM-PPS, CPSM- ... Electronic continuous pain measurement versus Verbal Rating Scale in gynaecology: a prospective observational cohort study ...
... slight pain, mild pain, moderate pain, severe pain). The third level of scale complexity would be the equal interval scale. ... For example, on a 10-point pain scale, a score of 2 represents twice as much pain as a score of 1, and a pain score of 9 ... Pain terms: A list with definitions and notes on usage. Pain 1979; 6: 249-52International Association for the Study of Pain, ... Measurement of Pain in Children: State-of-the-art Considerations You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ...
Low back pain and range of motion: Outcome measurement following Gonstead-Type low back adjustments. *Waagen GN, Haldeman S, ... Short term trial of chiropractic adjustments for the relief of chronic low back pain. Manual Medicine 1986; 2:63-67. (Authors ... Prospective controlled clinical trial of chiropractic manipulation in patients with chronic recurrent low back pain. (Submitted ...
  • Bedside application of the Neonatal Facial Coding System in pain assessment of premature neonates. (
  • Wong DL, Baker CM. Pain in children: comparison of assessment scales. (
  • The revised FLACC observational pain tool: improved reliability and validity for pain assessment in children with cognitive impairment. (
  • Pain assessment in nonverbal children with severe cognitive impairments: the Individualized Numeric Rating Scale (INRS). (
  • Pain management and assessment for infants and children. (
  • So in the assessment of a child's pain, how much is due to the physical experience and how much is sheer anxiety and fear of a medical environment or a reaction to a parent's anxiety? (
  • One of her areas of research interest is pain assessment and management for children. (
  • She is a PhD candidate and her thesis is entitled 'Procedural pain assessment in infants and young children: the psychometrics of behavioural scales' - the aim of this research is to identify an appropriate scale for pain assessment which can be used clinically and for research purposes for children. (
  • The authors also recommend the ICOAP for assessment of osteoarthritis-related pain. (
  • Pain assessment is crucial if pain management is to be effective. (
  • Pain is multidimensional therefore assessment must include the intensity, location, duration and description, the impact on activity and the factors that may influence the child's perception of pain (bio psychosocial phenomenon) The influences that may alter pain perception and coping strategies include social history/issues, cultural and religious beliefs, past pain experiences and the first pain experience. (
  • is a multidimensional observational assessment of a patients' experience of pain. (
  • Pain assessment is a broad concept involving clinical judgment based on observation of the type, significance and context of the individual's pain experience. (
  • It is important to take behavioral cues identified by parents and caregivers to improve pain assessment in these children. (
  • Pain assessment in infants and children is also challenging due to the subjectivity and multidimensional nature of pain. (
  • Assessment and documenting pain is needed in order to improve management of pain. (
  • A pain assessment should be conducted during a patient's admission. (
  • Tools used for pain assessment at RCH have been selected on their validity, reliability and usability and are recognized by pain specialists to be clinically effective in assessing acute pain. (
  • We have developed a neonatal pain assessment tool CRIES. (
  • 8 ] The purpose of this study was to conduct a critical review on assessment and measurement tools and various definitions and classifications of the existing literature on neck pain. (
  • The main results of a search looking at the evidence regarding the reliability, validity, and utility of objective tests and self-reported impairment and disability assessment in people with neck pain are presented here. (
  • We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL and reviewed all relevant articles through September 2008, using neck pain, and measurements, functional ability, exercises, and assessment as search words and referring to neck pain as non-specific, soft tissue, or mechanical neck pain. (
  • Therefore, pain assessment in children is dependent in large part on their level of understanding as well as their ability to convey to others the magnitude of their experience. (
  • In general, pain assessment instruments in children can be categorized as observational, self-report, and physiologic instruments. (
  • The Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) and Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) are behavioral pain assessment tools for uncommunicative and sedated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. (
  • Data extraction and quality assessment of included studies (according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, COSMIN criteria) will be conducted independently by two authors. (
  • Simple measurement instruments for the assessment of ischemic ulcers were reproducible in patients with SSc and correlated to other variables of interest for these wounds. (
  • Clinical sagittal plane assessment of the thoracic kyphosis angle is considered an essential component of the postural examination of patients presenting with upper body pain syndromes. (
  • In physically active patients with long-standing groin pain, a manual assessment method of hip adduction and hip flexion has been proposed by Hölmich et al 3 . (
  • Reducing barriers to pain assessment and management: An institutional perspective. (
  • painDETECT (PD-Q) is a self-reported assessment of pain qualities developed as a screening tool for pain of neuropathic origin. (
  • Rasch analysis is an approach aimed at understanding the measurement characteristics of an assessment. (
  • Another key premise of Rasch modelling is invariance of the model across samples: meaning a Rasch-validated tool can be expected to measure the same way regardless of the population being studied [ 15 , 16 ] because the assessment itself is validated, not the measurement characteristics for a specific population. (
  • The system uses electroencephalography (EEG) to identify oscillations in certain brainwaves that have been found to clearly correlate with commonly used pain assessment tools. (
  • Our goal is to associate specific brain activity with various scores on the numerical scale to make pain assessment more objective," explains Carl Saab, a researcher working on the project. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Computerized pneumatic cuff pressure algometry (CPA) using the DoloCuff is a new method for pain assessment. (
  • The identification of hemogeneous groups of patients with clinical and research objectives is prevented by the lack of a reliable pain scale, based on the assessment of objective and comprehensive parameters . (
  • The importance of separate validation of the pain compliant and the psychiatric assessment is stressed. (
  • Patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) domain names and definitions revisions: further assessment of content validity in IRT-derived item banks. (
  • Selection of a pain-assessment tool should be directed by the purpose of the assessment. (
  • Pain-assessment tools, many of which are currently in the early stages of validation, are discussed here. (
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to identify measuring instruments that might be suitable for assessment of satisfaction and experience of exercise programs designed to help people with persistent, recurrent low back pain. (
  • Scale published in Pediatr Anesth 5: 53-61, 1995, for pain assessment in neonates during the postoperative period. (
  • Bieri D, Reeve R, Champion GD, Addicoat L and Ziegler J. The Faces Pain Scale for the self-assessment of the severity of pain experienced by children: Development, initial validation and preliminary investigation for ratio scale properties. (
  • Pain assessment: global use of the Brief Pain Inventory. (
  • Pain scales are a necessity to assist with better assessment of pain and patient screening. (
  • In fact, a patient's self-reported pain is so critical in the pain assessment method that it has been described as the "most valid measure" of pain. (
  • Pain: current understanding of assessment, management and treatments" (PDF). (
  • Hummel P, Puchalski M, Creech SD, Weiss MG. Clinical reliability and validity of the N-PASS: neonatal pain, agitation and sedation scale with prolonged pain. (
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to inform the scientific community of the pain research interests of the various Institutes and Centers (ICs) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and to stimulate and foster a wide range of basic, clinical, and translational studies on pain as they relate to the missions of these ICs. (
  • Recent clinical investigations have suggested that the cause of abnormal pain in complex regional pain syndrome could be ischemia and inflammation, due to poor blood flow to deep tissues from microvascular pathology. (
  • Classifications according to severity and duration of pain and the establishment of selection criteria seem to play a crucial role in study designs and in clinical settings to ensure homogeneous groups and effective interventions. (
  • He noted the strong bias among clinicians and clinical researchers towards finding "objective" measures of pain, and he cited some problems with pain measurement based on indices of sympathetic activation. (
  • Nevertheless, the results should give considerable caution regarding clinical use of skin conductance fluctuations as a clinical measure of pain in children. (
  • Waagen GN, DeBoer KF, Hansen JM, McGee D, Haldeman S. Prospective controlled clinical trial of chiropractic manipulation in patients with chronic recurrent low back pain. (
  • Studies in children and adolescents with cancer that aimed to evaluate the clinimetric properties of an existing pain measurement instrument or to develop a new pain measurement instrument and that include at least one relevant outcome (reliability, validity, responsiveness, interpretability, clinical utility) are eligible for inclusion. (
  • Establishing a research agenda on standardizing pain measurement in clinical trials in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD). (
  • Clinical measurement of the thoracic kyphosis. (
  • The findings of this immediate test-retest reliability study suggest that the clinical measurement of the thoracic kyphosis using gravity dependent inclinometers demonstrates excellent intra-rater reliability. (
  • Contributors to the May issue explain why each of these statements about pain is true, and explore clinical approaches that lie between the underestimation and overtreatment of pain. (
  • In a randomised, controlled clinical trial by Hölmich et al 4 , including patients with long-standing adductor-related groin pain, greater increase in isometric hip adduction muscle strength was documented in patients treated with an active treatment approach than patients treated with a passive approach. (
  • New clinical testing procedures, such as the squeeze test and strength testing using hand-held dynamometers (HHD), have recently been introduced for athletes with hip and groin pain. (
  • Separate estimates of experimental pain sensation intensity and pain unpleasantness were obtained by each method, as were estimates of clinical pain. (
  • The stimulus-response function derived from sensory numerical ratings differed from that obtained with M-VAS and did not provide accurate predictions of temperatures perceived as twice intense as 47°C or 48°C. Both M-VAS and numerical rating scales produced reliably different stimulus response functions for pain sensation intensity as compared to pain unpleasantness and both provided consistent measures of experimental and clinical pain intensity. (
  • The ratio scale properties of M-VAS combined with its ease of administration and scoring in clinical settings offer the possibility of a simple yet powerful pain measurement technology in both research and health care settings. (
  • Further study to refine these instruments may increase the clinical feasibility of pain measurements in high-risk infants. (
  • The alleviation of pain is an essential aspect of good clinical practice, as well as an obligation for veterinary practitioners, and relies on the ability to recognise and assess pain in animals. (
  • The CMPS-SF, for the measurement of acute pain in dogs and the CMPS-Feline for cats, are decision making tools for use in general practice, adding objective measurement to the clinician's clinical judgement as to whether or not an individual patient requires analgesic treatment. (
  • The CMPS-SF has been reproduced in key pain management handbooks for veterinary and nurse practitioners and is widely used for clinical research, including many successful regulatory applications for novel analgesics. (
  • The aim of the present study was a clinical evaluation of swelling and pain of two sinus lift different flaps technique measured through visual analogue scale (VAS), verbal rating scale (VRS) and infrared thermal imaging (i.e., thermography). (
  • Clinical Research Assistant Kevin Jackson uses AlgometRx Platform Technology on Sarah Taylor's eyes to measure her degree of pain. (
  • A pain biomarker could rapidly advance both clinical practice and pain research, Dr. Finkel adds. (
  • To standardize outcome reporting in clinical trials of patients with nonspecific low back pain, an international multidisciplinary pane recommended physical functioning, pain intensity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as core outcome domains. (
  • Further, while there are many medications used to treat PLP, most have not been tested through rigorous controlled clinical trials, and their efficacies are instead based on positive treatment response for other neuropathic pain conditions ( 7 - 31 ). (
  • Core outcome measures for chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations. (
  • A number of modalities can be used in clinical practice and/or research to capture various dimensions of pain. (
  • Subjective pain measurement scales serve as an useful guide towards pain management in clinical situations and also provides a detailed database for research studies in pain measurement. (
  • The Numeric Rating Scale for Clinical Pain Measurement: A Ratio Measure? (
  • For research purposes, and for more detailed pain measurement in clinical practice, the review suggested use of VAS or NRS for each type of typical pain related to endometriosis (dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia and non-menstrual chronic pelvic pain), combined with the clinical global impression (CGI) and a quality of life scale. (
  • In practicality, this information is obtained from the subjective report of pain by a patient and/or the use additional validated tools for measuring pain. (
  • 50 years on, Henry Beecher's "Measurement of subjective resp. (
  • A series of objective tests and subjective self-report measures are useful in assessing physical abilities, pain, functional ability, psychosocial well-being, general health status, and quality of life in patients with neck pain. (
  • Pain is clearly subjective and no longer considered an experience in which pain intensity is only proportional to the objective degree of injury. (
  • Because of the subjective nature of pain, self-report methods are considered the best measure of pain in children who are at least 5 or 6 yr old. (
  • The systematic problem we are facing today is that healthcare providers prescribe pain medicine based on subjective self-reporting, which can often be inaccurate, rather than based on an objective measure of pain type and intensity. (
  • The current standard of care for measuring pain is the 0-to-10 pain scale, which is based on subjective, observational and self-reporting techniques. (
  • Moreover, Dr. Finkel points out that subjective pain scores cannot be standardized, heightening the potential for misdiagnosis, over-treatment or under-treatment. (
  • If this view can be further substantiated and if it applies also to other subjective reaponses as well as to pain, and this appears to be the case, then acceptance of this concept will require a wide shift in therapeutic planning. (
  • However, subjective methods like Visual Analog Scale rating (VAS) and preliminary objective methods like pain evoked responses, behaviral monitoring and event related evoked potentials for cognition are currently in vogue. (
  • This arithmetic aspect of the dol contrasted existing beliefs of the subjective nature of pain. (
  • Due to the inability of patients to separate the intensity of pain from the type of pain, and problems with the subjective experience of pain, the dol never found its way into common use. (
  • Pain experience is always subjective. (
  • This book provides an insight about pain and subjective scales that are used to measure pain. (
  • Jensen MP, Karoly P, O'Riordan EF, Bland F Jr & Burns RS (1989) The subjective experience of acute pain. (
  • This presents problems when the data consist of subjective sensations, and this paper is concerned with how the essentially qualitative subject of pain may yield quantitative data. (
  • Pain, as a subjective experience, cannot be the object of direct empirical study. (
  • However, even if a perfect correlation could be made between such a physical measure and the subjective pain report, so that it could be used in its place, it will never be more accurate than the report itself. (
  • Wong-Baker FACES® Pain rating scale. (
  • Immediately after the procedure, participants are asked to express the experienced average pain during the entire procedure, using the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). (
  • In round 1, consensus was achieved on the Oswestry Disability Index version 2.1a for physical functioning (78% agreement) and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain intensity (75% agreement). (
  • One of the most common pain scales is the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. (
  • The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS-11) is an 11-point scale for patient self-reporting of pain. (
  • A review came to the conclusion that VAS and numerical rating scale (NRS) were the best adapted pain scales for pain measurement in endometriosis. (
  • Krechel SW, Bildner J. CRIES: a new neonatal postoperative pain measurement score. (
  • CRIES: a new neonatal postoperative pain measurement score. (
  • This publication is of particular importance because anesthesiologists have had significant difficulties in assessing postoperative pain in children with major cognitive disabilities. (
  • Postoperative pain was scored by VAS and inflammation was recorded by VRS at 2, 4, 6 and 14 days. (
  • The review, part of the journal's special issue titled "Patient Outcomes in Rheumatology, 2011," includes the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), SF-36 BPS, and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). (
  • Details on questionnaire content, ease of use, and measurement properties are included in the review of each questionnaire. (
  • Outcomes included the modified Oswestry questionnaire and PCT measurements in the prone position after an 8-minute acclimation period. (
  • The aim here was to develop an item bank for CAT measurement of the pain domain as measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. (
  • The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) is a 37-item questionnaire. (
  • Considering all issues together, recommendations on core instruments were formulated: Oswestry Disability Index version 2.1a or 24-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for physica functioning, NRS for pain intensity, and SF12 or 10-item PROMIS Global Health form for HRQoL. (
  • PainDETECT (PD-Q) is a 9-item self-report screening questionnaire developed to detect NeP in conditions like chronic low back pain [ 4 ]. (
  • Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the development or evaluation of the measurement properties of an original version of a self-reported questionnaire, evaluating pain and/or disability, which was specifically developed or adapted for patients with neck pain. (
  • The other questionnaires show positive results, but the evidence for each measurement property is mostly limited, and at least 50% of the information on measurement properties per questionnaire is lacking. (
  • Melzack R. The McGill pain questionnaire: major properties and scoring method. (
  • Reliable and valid measures of pain are needed to advance research initiatives on appropriate and effective use of analgesia in the emergency department (ED). The reliability of visual analog scale (VAS) scores has not been demonstrated in the acute setting where pain fluctuation might be greater than for chronic pain. (
  • From simply ranking pain between 0 and 10, to the commonly used visual analog scale that is literally just a spectrum of smiley faces spanning happy to sad, these self-reported measures offer doctors no clear empirical way to evaluate a patient's pain levels. (
  • The primary outcome was pain as measured using a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale. (
  • Initially, I was using owner questionnaires such as the canine brief pain index (CBPI), Liverpool osteoarthritis in dogs (LOAD) and the Helsinki chronic pain index along with measuring quantitative data and veterinary assessments. (
  • Neuropathic pain screening questionnaires have limited measurement properties. (
  • To critically appraise and compare the measurement properties of the original versions of neck-specific questionnaires. (
  • Our findings imply that studies of high methodological quality are needed to properly assess the measurement properties of the currently available questionnaires. (
  • Thus, it is vital for a physician to adequately measure a patient's pain to provide effective and timely treatments and to avoid unnecessary medications and procedures. (
  • Dr. Finkel, who serves as director of Research and Development for Pain Medicine at the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation at Children's National , says that a key step in addressing the opioid crisis is providing physicians with objective, real-time data on a patient's pain level and type, to safely prescribe the right drug and dosage or an alternate treatment. (
  • A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. (
  • Reduced blood flow to deep tissues such as muscle, nerve, and bone can lead to a combination of inflammatory and neuropathic pain processes (Coderre TJ et al. (
  • Dr. Finkel points to the example of sciatica, a neuropathic pain sensation felt in the lower back, legs and buttocks. (
  • Data from 624 persons with a diagnosis of painful diabetic polyneuropathy, small fibre neuropathy, and neuropathic pain associated with chronic low back pain, spinal cord injury, HIV-related pain, or chronic post-surgical pain was used for this analysis. (
  • Nociceptive pain is considered to be the protective warning system to signal or avoid tissue damage [ 2 ], while neuropathic pain (NeP) represents a persistent pain resulting from damage to the nervous system [ 3 ]. (
  • Neuropathic pain , which is caused by damage of the nervous system (eg. (
  • 5 Although multiple methods have been described to measure and assess pain in children, most are not well-validated and not applicable to all age groups, and none have been universally accepted. (
  • Previously it has been shown that muscle-strength deficits up to 50%, assessed by quantitative measurement methods (dynamometer), are not identified by MMT. (
  • A selective review of the current methods of pain measurement and validation (psychophysical methods , verbal and analogical scales , psychological tests ) is presented with emphasis on patient selection for surgical pain relief, and analysis of outcome. (
  • The purpose of this literature review was to synthesize the existing literature on various definitions, classifications, selection criteria, and outcome measures used in different studies in patients with neck pain. (
  • A literature search of MEDLINE and CINAHL through September 2008 was performed to gather articles on the reliability, validity, and utility of a wide variety of outcome measurements for neck pain. (
  • One objective of this study is to provide to health care professionals who work with patients with neck pain some useful information about the existing outcome measures and the criteria for selecting the most appropriate ones according to treatment goals. (
  • Program evaluation standards require pain centers to assess medication use as one of an array of outcome criteria. (
  • The measurement properties of 17 patient-reported outcome measures for physical functioning, 3 for pain intensity, and 5 for HRQoL were appraised in 3 systematic reviews following the COSMIN methodology. (
  • We conducted a Rasch analysis to consider if the scoring and measurement properties of PD-Q would support its use as an outcome measure. (
  • Rasch modelling suggests the seven pain-qualities items from PD-Q may be used as an outcome measure. (
  • Journal of Outcome Measurement, 1(2), 114-142. (
  • The objective of the study was to assess the reliability of the VAS for measurement of acute pain. (
  • 2 in this issue of Anesthesiology, and we briefly consider the promise of future "objective" pain measures based on brain imaging or brain electrical recording. (
  • Characterizing and assessing the spectrum of pain experience across RMD in a standardized fashion is the objective of the OMERACT Pain Working Group. (
  • She also notes that objective pain measurement can provide much needed help in validating complementary approaches to pain management, such as acupuncture, physical therapy, virtual reality and other non-pharmacological interventions. (
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between th e scores with which manual physical therapists in a primary care setting identify kinesiophobia in patients with low back pain, and the patients' self-reported measures of kinesiophobia. (
  • Harvey's group had a noble goal: creating an objective measure of human pain. (
  • Beyer JE, Denyes MJ, Villarruel AM. The creation, validation, and continuing development of the Oucher: a measure of pain intensity in children. (
  • The reliability and validity of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability observational tool as a measure of pain in children with cognitive impairment. (
  • did you know health practitioners can use up to 40 scales to measure pain? (
  • are instruments designed to measure pain. (
  • 2 attempt to validate a new pain measure for children, namely fluctuations in skin conductance per second. (
  • Being able to effectively measure pain levels during the different parts of a procedure could therefore help better deliver pain relief which could make procedures more successful. (
  • Evaluations indicated that use of the CAT measure may reduce sample size requirements with 15-25 % compared to using the QLQ-C30 pain scale. (
  • Children's National Medical Center is testing an experimental device that aims to measure pain according to how pupils react to certain stimuli. (
  • Pediatric anesthesiologist Julia C. Finkel, M.D. , of Children's National Health System , gazed into the eyes of a newborn patient determined to find a better way to measure the effectiveness of pain treatment on one so tiny and unable to verbalize. (
  • A validated measure to show whether or not an opioid is indicated for a given patient could ease the health care system's transition from overreliance on opioids to a more comprehensive and less harmful approach to pain management," says Dr. Finkel. (
  • Its purpose is to measure the attitudes and knowledge of caregivers on the subject of pain. (
  • It is particularly useful as a pre/post test measure and can be used to rate learning outcomes following educational programs on pain. (
  • It will take some more time and effort to evolve yet other newer and sophisticated techniques to measure all aspects of pain in human beings. (
  • A key advantage of this type of analysis is if data produced by a measure like PD-Q fit the Rasch model, the ordinal scale measurements of individual test items (such as PD-Q's Never to Very Strongly ratings) can be converted into interval-level scaling like 0 to 5 that can be credibly summed into total scores, with desirable measurement properties [ 13 , 14 ]. (
  • A team of researchers, led by Carl Saab from Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, has developed a new method that is claimed to objectively measure pain levels. (
  • The current way researchers measure pain, and the efficacy of pain medication, in animal models is to poke the animal's paw. (
  • The aim of this thesis was to validate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively measure stress and/or pain in cattle. (
  • 2010). Development of a PROMIS item bank to measure pain interference. (
  • Tools to measure pain are critical for pain management and research in sickle cell disease (SCD). (
  • We will then move on to the question of measurement: what should we measure when assessing the level of Distributive Justice in society? (
  • Young children are often unable to explain the intensity of pain and therefore it is of utmost importance for the clinician to identify and measure the pain. (
  • Pain scales are tools that can help health care providers diagnose or measure a patients pain 's intensity. (
  • The search for a quantitative, reliable correlate of the pain experience has not yet produced an adequate 'measure' for pain. (
  • This is a prospective observational cohort study in 68 mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients who were unable to report pain. (
  • Background: Pain measurement in nonverbal older adults is best based on behavioural observation, e.g. using an observational measurement tool such as Doloplus-2. (
  • abstract = "The ascending Method of Limits, used for the determination of pressure pain thresholds (PPT), is not a psychophysically robust method. (
  • Faces pain scale-revised: toward a common metric in pediatric pain measurement. (
  • 1st : International Forum on Pediatric Pain. (
  • Based on the first biennial International Forum on Pediatric Pain, held in Nova Scotia, Oct. 4-6, 1996. (
  • Pediatric Pain Sourcebook of Protocols, Policies and Pamphlets. (
  • A systematic review of faces scales for the self-report of pain intensity in children. (
  • Numerical rating scales and mechanical visual analogue scales (M-VAS) were compared for their capacity to provide ratio scale measures of experimental pain. (
  • The Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS, Schwarzer & Schulz, 2000) were developed based on theoretical considerations and reviews of established measurement instruments for social support. (
  • Young children, babies, and even animals, could be viable targets for this new EEG test, as the researchers are currently working to calibrate these EEG signatures in a way that correlates with traditional pain measurement scales. (
  • Many pain scales include a use of cartoon faces with different expressions. (
  • In 1999, the Veteran's Administration adopted the slogan "Pain is the fifth vital sign", and encouraged greater use of pain scales in initial diagnoses. (
  • Pain scales are a common communication tool in medical contexts, and are used in a variety of medical settings. (
  • It is important to understand what features of pain scales are most useful, least useful, and which aid in understanding. (
  • How children cope with pain has a lot to do with our role as parents and there is a huge contribution we can make to helping alleviate not just the physical experience but the anxiety and stress that can certainly increase pain for children. (
  • It is certain that the pain experience cannot be separated into its physical and emotional components. (
  • Hip and groin pain is a common problem often related to physical functioning and sports activities. (
  • Physical activity (PA) is recommended for the management of low back pain (LBP). (
  • BACKGROUND: Manual physical therapists (MPTs) working in primary care get limited information about patient's courses of (chronic) low back pain (LBP). (
  • Chronic Pain is a physical-emotional experience that impairs physical functioning, engagement in social events which can cause varying degrees of anxiety, fear, worry and anger (Mittinty, et al. (
  • 2018). Such fear and anxiety have the potential to heighten the experience of pain, and cause its onset to last for longer durations of time as well as increase its intensity experienced by the individual. (
  • 2018). There are significant economic burdens that such as health care expenses, loss of work productivity and medical leave, furthermore it is estimated that 30-50% of the global population suffered from moderate to severe chronic pain (De Souze, et al. (
  • 2018). Furthermore, those who suffer from chronic pain are more susceptible to conditions such as depression and even suicide (Hassett, Jordan, & Ilgen, 2014). (
  • 2018). Therefore, to understand chronic pain it is vital to analyse and understand the impacts of the fear of pain, to create optimal care practises. (
  • Full-term infants tended to express more distinct pain-like responses to invasive procedures or direct contacts than premature infants did. (
  • Somatic pain from disbudding and initial responses to surgical castration included a synchronised drop in eye temperature, increases in catecholamines and changes in HRV indicative of increased sympathetic activity. (
  • These differences in ANS responses to different procedures, detected by IRT and HRV, may be due to the nature of the pain and the relative fear associated with the procedure. (
  • Further research using pharmacological inhibition and stimulation of the ANS activity would be beneficial to fully understand the underlying regulatory mechanisms of the eye temperature and HRV responses in cattle and other species during stress and/or pain. (
  • This integrated system has provided reliable and reproducible measurements of responses to sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants on more than 100 test occasions. (
  • Behavioural responses to pain are strongly guided by two psychosocial factors: Fear and anxiety (Crombez, et al. (
  • This study examined the measurement invariance of responses to the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) pain interference (PI) item bank. (
  • Nurses are in a unique position to assess pain as they have the most contact with the child and their family in hospital. (
  • The dependence on others to assess pain, limited language, comprehension and perception of pain expressed contextually. (
  • When to assess pain? (
  • This protocol details a systematic review whose aim is to explore current knowledge regarding measurement instruments to assess pain (and pain-related distress) in children and adolescents with cancer. (
  • Discussion: This systematic review will provide an overview of the current literature regarding measurement instruments to assess pain in children and adolescents with cancer. (
  • Tools to assess pain can be of use not only to guide pain treatment but also to provide insight into underlying pain neurobiology. (
  • Thus, age and developmentally appropriate tools and methodologies are needed to assess pain, determine the impact of pain, and investigate underlying pain mechanisms that could lead to improved understanding and ultimately improved management of pain in SCD. (
  • 2017). There are numerous factors that impact understanding of the current literature regarding chronic pain, such as emotional impacts and pain expression. (
  • Spinal disorders are the most frequent cause of pain and lower part of the spine, which is often called Low Back Pain.Straight Leg Raise Test can provide important information to detect the cause ofLBP and conducted by physican with a goniometer required accurately reading angle when your feet up.But this can be overcome with Kinect can detect motion and displays images and depth data. (
  • The purpose of this review was to summarize studies reporting on the psychometric properties of measures commonly utilized in spinal cord injury (SCI) pain research to better inform clinicians and researchers on the selection of appropriate pain-related instruments. (
  • During the circuitery in the spinal cord, the pain sensation can be reduced by endogenic substances ( endorphines ). (
  • Nevertheless, I don't dispute that simply knowing that pain control is being measured can change the way physicians practice - and that this awareness can lead to better care in some patients and worse care in others. (
  • For Kieth Chia, head group brand, loyalty, digital marketing and customer experience practice at Great Eastern Life, much of the pain points stem from legacy issues. (
  • 1-3 Recent investigations show limited improvement in prevailing practices in pain management in children 4 despite efforts to change the purview and practice of clinicians. (
  • Guidelines for the use of controlled substances for the treatment of pain now consider inappropriate treatment, including undertreatment of pain, a departure from an acceptable standard of practice. (
  • Pain-related fear of (re-)injury in patients with low back pain: Estimation or measurement in manual therapy primary care practice? (
  • Congress declared 2001 to 2010 the Decade of Pain Control and Research. (
  • Jordan, A & Eccleston, C 2006, ' A systematic review of measurement instruments used with parents of adolescents experiencing chronic pain ', Journal of Pain , vol. 7, no. 4, sup, pp. 82. (
  • A relationship between galvanic skin response and intensity of pain has been reported, but it was also found on repetition of the pains that they had lost their effectiveness to produce the galvanic skin response. (
  • Only four subjects took place in the first study, but each subject took part in over 100 pain-inflicting experiments, with the intensity of pain increasing as researchers increased the heat in each experiment. (
  • They devised a unit for the intensity of pain, which they named the dol , with the name coming from the Latin word for pain, dolor . (
  • Higher brain centers can take influence on the intensity of pain perception via descending antinociceptive paths ( pain modulation ). (
  • Premise 2: Vascular occlusion testing measures microcirculatory dysfunction NIRS measurement of peripheral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), combined with a reproducible ischemia-reperfusion challenge to induce reactive hyperemia (vascular occlusion testing - VOT), has been described as a valid and reliable method for assessing microcirculatory dysfunction (De Backer et al. (
  • The paired measurements were more reproducible at the extremes of pain intensity than at moderate levels of pain. (
  • Ninety percent of the pain ratings were reproducible within 9 mm. (
  • Pain measurement quantifies pain intensity and enables the nurse to determine the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing pain. (
  • Armed with the knowledge that pain and analgesic drugs produce an involuntary response from the pupil, Dr. Finkel developed AlgometRx, a first-of-its-kind handheld device that measures a patient's pupillary response and, using proprietary algorithms, provides a diagnostic measurement of pain intensity, pain type and, after treatment is administered, monitors efficacy. (
  • A pain decrement response seen by the 10th treatment session was predictive of final efficacy. (
  • Efficacy of bicarbonate in decreasing pain on intradermal injection of local anesthetics: A meta-analysis. (
  • In a double-blind experiment using patients with chronic, continuous pain, graded doses of a new analgesic, dextromoramide, were compared with 10-mg doses of morphine sulfate and physiologic sodium chloride solution. (
  • 6) The experimental pain techniques at present generally employed in man, while useful for some purposes, are probably useless for the appraisal of the analgesic agents (XI, D, E, F). The same techniques in animals have definite usefulness with the powerful narcotics (XI, G), but none apparently with the acetylsalicylic acid class of compounds (XI, F). (
  • 7) Assay of analgesic power can be carried on with less than a 10% error when pathological pain is employed in man provided one works in the steep part of the dose response curve (V, B, 2, a, 3). (
  • 9) No dependable relationship has been established between the action of analgesic agents and the experimental pain threshold in man (XI). (
  • Pain is a complex multidimensional experience and the most common morbidity in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). (
  • In addition to focusing on the patient's perspective, a pain scale should also be free of bias, accurate and reliable, able to differentiate between pain and other undesired emotions, absolute not relative, and able to act as a predictor or screening tool. (
  • Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and a Bland-Altman analysis were used to assess reliability of paired VAS measurements obtained 1 minute apart every 30 minutes over two hours. (
  • Reliability of the VAS for acute pain measurement as assessed by the ICC appears to be high. (
  • The measurement of the thoracic kyphosis as used in this investigation was found to have excellent intra-rater reliability for both subjects with and without symptoms. (
  • The present study reexamined the reliability and sensitivity, and provided evidence for the validity of the MQS in an effort to determine whether use of the MQS can be generalized to other pain centers. (
  • The reliability, sensitivity, and validity of the MQS was demonstrated suggesting it can be generalized for program evaluation purposes to other pain centers. (
  • The resulting seven-item scale of pain qualities demonstrated good reliability with a person-separation index of 0.79. (
  • Reliability of Pain Measurements Using C. (
  • Pain Measurement in Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases: Where To Go from Here? (
  • Pain Measurement in Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases: Where To G" by Alessandro Chiarotto, Ulrike Kaiser et al. (
  • Pain measurements help determine the severity, type, and duration of the pain, and are used to make an accurate diagnosis, determine a treatment plan, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. (
  • Conclusions: We have established an item bank of 16 items suitable for CAT measurement of pain. (
  • Conclusions concerning pain threshold must therefore be tentative (X). (
  • For clinicians, the power to identify the type and magnitude of a patient's nociception (detection of pain stimuli) would provide a much-needed scientific foundation for approaching pain treatment. (
  • One of the most helpful outcomes to potentially flow out of this research is the ability for clinicians to hopefully better evaluate pain levels in patients that are unable to clearly self-report those specific sensations. (
  • Samples were also obtained at presentation and two hours later for measurement of troponin T levels using a high-sensitivity assay. (
  • We conducted a study to assess whether early measurement (at presentation and two hours later) with a high-sensitivity troponin T assay could (a) effectively rule out myocardial infarction without the need for later measurement of troponin levels and (b) identify more patients at risk of adverse cardiac events within one year follow-up compared with a conventional troponin assay. (
  • 11 In our study, we evaluated the performance of early measurement with a high-sensitivity troponin T assay in all patients recruited irrespective of their pretest risk. (
  • They reported a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 84% for NeP compared to a reference standard based on expert examination, and robust internal consistency amongst the 7 pain quality items. (
  • Fear and anxiety can also affect the future onset of painful experiences, and can influence pain inhibition or sensitivity (Mittinty, et al. (
  • An activity monitoring system measures the effectiveness of pain management using using data from motion or activity sensors attached to the patient's body to compute measures of exertion level of a patient. (
  • Increased levels of exertion are an indication of successful pain management. (
  • The patient's walking gait smoothness and walking gait stability are also graded as indicators of pain management effectiveness. (
  • The effectiveness of a particular pain management stimulation parameter set is based on the statistics accumulated over a period of time, for example one hour. (
  • Pioneers in pain management and palliative care from the 1940s to the 1970s emphasized interrelationships among nociception, pain experience, impairment, disability, and suffering. (
  • Addicts quickly learn the diagnoses that cannot be definitively confirmed or ruled out by examinations or test results but that elicit prescriptions for opioid pain management. (
  • In Decision Making in Pain Management (pp. 22-23). (
  • Additionally, proposals that link such understandings to the development of better approaches to therapeutic interventions, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions, and management of acute and chronic pain are in keeping with the current translational focus of NIH and are encouraged. (
  • Development and validation of these multimodal tools is crucial for developing improved understanding of SCD pain and its management. (
  • Dr. Hanna specializes in obstetric anesthesia, as well as regional and acute pain management. (
  • She serves as the director of the Acute Pain Service and the chief of the Division of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management. (
  • Dr. Hanna has been instrumental in developing regional anesthesia and pain management educational programs for residents, fellows and faculty in the U.S. and abroad. (
  • She recently worked with United Arab Emirates physicians to establish a pain-management education research project there. (
  • Her many educational roles at Johns Hopkins include serving as the associate director of the Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine Residency Program, as well as the director of Pain Management and Regional Anesthesia Education. (
  • Taking up the challenge of measuring prolonged pain in (premature) neonates: the COMFORTneo scale seems promising. (
  • Pain in neonates and children has historically been underreported, undertreated, and frequently misunderstood. (
  • Comparison of paraspinal cutaneous temperature measurements between subjects with and without chronic low back pain. (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chiropractic manipulative treatment on paraspinal cutaneous temperature (PCT) for subjects with chronic low back pain and compare these PCT findings to subjects without chronic low back pain. (
  • The PCT readings for subjects with chronic low back pain were lower than the asymptomatic, nontreatment group. (
  • Short term trial of chiropractic adjustments for the relief of chronic low back pain. (
  • and compare patterns of PA between people with acute low back pain (ALBP) and people with chronic low back pain (CLBP). (
  • Algophobia / Fear of pain is the scientific classification for phobia of pain, classified [ repeated word in opening sentence ] as an abnormal and persistent fear of pain that is more powerful in comparison to a standard individual (Casselman, 1998). (
  • 3) No convincing demonstration has yet been given that the pain threshold is a constant from man to man, or from one time to another in a given man (VIII). (
  • 4) More than a score of factors are ssid to produce variations in the pain threshold. (
  • In 1940's Studies on Pain: A new method for measuring pain threshold , researchers inflicted pain upon subjects using by applying heat to their foreheads for three seconds at a time. (
  • As the heat blistered her hand, the subject helped established a value of pain intensity encumbered during child birth - a pain that can meet or exceed the perceived human threshold for pain. (
  • The variables of interest were pressure pain threshold (PT), pressure pain tolerance (PTol), and temporal summation index (TSI). (
  • Repeatedly occuring pain leads to a more intensive and longer sensation of pain since the threshold of pain is lowered. (
  • Pain Measurement in Rheumatic and Muscul. (
  • Stevens B, Johnston C, Petryshen P, Taddio A. Premature infant pain profile: development and initial validation. (
  • Measurement of pain in infants and children / editors G. Allen Finley, Patrick J. McGrath. (
  • Proposals that seek to improve the understanding of the causes, costs, and societal effects of both acute and chronic pain and the relationships between the two are highly encouraged. (
  • The areas of research detailed below and the following acute and chronic pain conditions are of special interest but do not comprise a comprehensive or complete listing of research areas relevant to this FOA. (
  • The HHD is a quantitative measurement method for assessing unilateral muscle strength that has been used since the 1940s. (
  • The two components have not yet been satisfactorily separated experimentally (XII, B). Pain from the two origins differs greatly in the quantitative representation of the two components (XII, B). It is essential that these diffrences be taken into account when scientific study of pain or pain relief is undertaken. (
  • 11) Quantitative work with pain is possible and rewarding. (
  • Using the 'dol' as a unit, the physicians created a 21-point quantitative scale, but through unusual means - testing pain reactions on medical students and women in labor between contractions. (
  • New advances are needed in every area of pain research, from the micro perspective of molecular sciences to the macro perspective of behavioral and social sciences. (
  • Recent research has revealed that certain resting state EEG oscillations within the low-frequency theta band could be associated with pain levels. (
  • Following from that, the goal of the research is to develop new pain sensors that can easily and clearly signal to doctors how much pain a patient is actually suffering. (
  • In summary, this research showed that during stress or pain, the heat emitted from superficial capillaries around the eye changes as blood flow is regulated under ANS control and these changes can be quantified using IRT. (
  • Greater rigor for assessing psychometric information in SCI pain studies will better inform the SCI research community of the applicability of generic measures to SCI pain investigations. (
  • The NIH Pain Consortium was established in 1996 to enhance pain research and promote collaboration among researchers across the many NIH ICs that have programs and activities addressing pain. (
  • In presenting new pain findings, the April 2006 NIH Pain Consortium symposium "Advances in Pain Research" reiterated this need for an ongoing multidisciplinary research agenda that will ultimately lead to the prevention or effective treatment of unwanted pain. (
  • The NIH Pain Consortium requests research on all conditions in which pain is a prominent feature. (
  • At the Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposia, "Advances in Pain Research," speakers present new pain research findings and reiterate the need for an ongoing multidisciplinary research agenda that will lead to the prevention or effective treatment of unwanted pain. (
  • Algophobia is commonly associated with chronic pain, with vast research focusing on its relationship and impacts. (
  • Algophobia is highly associated with chronic pain, with a plethora of research focusing on the relationship and impacts of the fear of pain on chronic pain. (
  • The authors compared fluctuations in skin conductance to age-appropriate standardized behavioral and self-report pain measures. (
  • Correlations between pain, upper limb function, pinch strength, and quality of life were also determined. (
  • Therefore physiological and behavioural tools are used in place of the self-report of pain. (
  • It is an acronym of five physiological and behavioural variables previously shown to be associated with neonatal pain. (
  • The CMPS-Feline is the first of its kind to include a facial component as well as behavioural markers of pain and was only made available early in 2016. (
  • On the other hand, the experience of pain is frequently preceded, accompanied or followed by physiological, biochemical and behavioural events. (
  • Mechanisms of pain in SCD are multifactorial and are not completely elucidated. (
  • Although vaso-occlusion of microcirculation by sickled red cells is believed to be the underlying mechanism of acute vaso-occlusive pain, mechanisms for chronic pain and the transition from acute to chronic pain are under investigation. (
  • Furthermore, humans have the ability to describe the several dimensions of their pain. (
  • Pain measurement and Beecher's challenge: 50 years later. (
  • Ten women with chronic pelvic pain and venous congestion and 10 normal subjects were observed during posture changes over a 2 h period. (
  • During the procedure, patients' perception of pain plays a key role in how well they are able to tolerate the procedure. (
  • The perception of pain includes a sensory component, involving neural pathway activation in response to noxious stimuli, and an affective response, which involves behavioral and cognitive aspects. (
  • Hanna MN, González-Fernández M, Barrett AD, Williams KA, Pronovost P. "Does patient perception of pain control affect patient satisfaction across surgical units in a tertiary teaching hospital? (
  • Although great strides have been made in some areas, such as the identification of neural pathways of pain, the experience of pain and the challenge of treatment have remained uniquely individual and unsolved. (
  • Although great strides have been made in some areas, such as the neural pathways of pain, pain and the challenge of its treatment have remained uniquely individual and largely unsolved. (
  • Although great strides have been made in some areas, such as the neural pathways of pain, chronic pain and the challenge of its treatment have remained uniquely individual and largely unsolved. (
  • We want to help patients with chronic pain and their physicians get into agreement about pain level so it is better managed and diagnosed, which may reduce the over-prescription of opioids. (
  • They are sensitive to fear or anxiety as well as pain, and they may underrate pain intensity relative to self-report measures in patients with persistent pain. (
  • Without sufficient training caregivers will struggle to meet the demands of dealing with chronic pain patients. (