A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
Facilities providing diagnostic, therapeutic, and palliative services for patients with severe chronic pain. These may be free-standing clinics or hospital-based and serve ambulatory or inpatient populations. The approach is usually multidisciplinary. These clinics are often referred to as "acute pain services". (From Br Med Bull 1991 Jul;47(3):762-85)
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.
A traditional term for all the activities which a physician or other health care professional normally performs to insure the coordination of the medical services required by a patient. It also, when used in connection with managed care, covers all the activities of evaluating the patient, planning treatment, referral, and follow-up so that care is continuous and comprehensive and payment for the care is obtained. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Generating, planning, organizing, and administering medical and nursing care and services for patients.
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Pain in the joint.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.
The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
Specialized health care, supportive in nature, provided to a dying person. A holistic approach is often taken, providing patients and their families with legal, financial, emotional, or spiritual counseling in addition to meeting patients' immediate physical needs. Care may be provided in the home, in the hospital, in specialized facilities (HOSPICES), or in specially designated areas of long-term care facilities. The concept also includes bereavement care for the family. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.
A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
A complex network of nerve fibers including sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and visceral afferents. The celiac plexus is the largest of the autonomic plexuses and is located in the abdomen surrounding the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Community centers for older adults and providers of resources for the community. In addition to providing services and activities for older adults that reflect the community's diversity, they link participants with resources offered by other agencies.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.
Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.
An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
The nursing specialty concerning care of children from birth to adolescence. It includes the clinical and psychological aspects of nursing care.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.
Research carried out by nurses that uses interviews, data collection, observation, surveys, etc., to evaluate nursing, health, clinical, and nursing education programs and curricula, and which also demonstrates the value of such evaluation.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.
Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.
Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.
Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Interaction between the patient and nurse.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.
An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)
The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.
The study of muscles and the movement of the human body. In holistic medicine it is the balance of movement and the interaction of a person's energy systems. Applied kinesiology is the name given by its inventor, Dr. George Goodheart, to the system of applying muscle testing diagnostically and therapeutically to different aspects of health care. (Thorsons Introductory Guide to Kinesiology, 1992, p13)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids are organic compounds consisting of a cyclohexane ring substituted with a carboxylic acid group, typically represented by the structural formula C6H11COOH.
Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Musculoskeletal manipulation based on the principles of OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE developed in 1874 by Dr Andrew Taylor Still.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
Treatment to improve one's health condition by using techniques that can reduce PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS; or both.
Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
The interactions between physician and patient.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The administration of medication or fluid directly into localized lesions, by means of gravity flow or INFUSION PUMPS.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
A condition of persistent pain and discomfort in the BACK and the LEG following lumbar surgery, often seen in patients enrolled in pain centers.
Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
National Health Insurance in the United States refers to a proposed system of healthcare financing that would provide comprehensive coverage for all residents, funded through a combination of government funding and mandatory contributions, and administered by a public agency.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.

Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases. (1/1563)

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

Prevalence and treatment of pain in older adults in nursing homes and other long-term care institutions: a systematic review. (2/1563)

BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of pain in older adults and its impact in this age group make it a public health issue, yet few studies of pain relief focus on older adults. Residents of long-term care facilities have more cognitive impairment than their community-living counterparts and may have difficulty reporting the presence and severity of pain. This systematic literature review was conducted to determine the prevalence of pain, and the type and effectiveness of interventions that have been used to treat pain in residents of nursing homes. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (from January 1966 to May 1997), HEALTH (from January 1975 to May 1997), CINAHL (from January 1982 to April 1997), AGELINE (from January 1978 to April 1997) and the Cochrane Library (1997, issue 1) and by performing a manual search of textbooks and reference lists. Studies of any methodological design were included if they estimated the prevalence of pain in nursing homes or other long-term care institutions or evaluated interventions for the treatment of pain in residents. Of the 14 eligible studies, 12 were noncomparative studies, 1 was a comparison study with nonrandomized contemporaneous controls, and 1 was a randomized controlled trial. Information on several factors was extracted from each study, including study design, number of patients and facilities, main outcomes measured, methods used to identify and detect pain, prevalence and types of pain, and interventions used to treat pain. The strength of the evidence provided by each study was also assessed. RESULTS: In the 6 studies with data from self-reporting or chart reviews, the prevalence of pain ranged from 49% to 83%. In the 5 studies with data on analgesic use only, the prevalence of pain ranged from 27% to 44%. Only 3 studies, with just 30 patients in total, evaluated an intervention for the treatment of pain. INTERPRETATION: Despite the high prevalence of pain in residents of nursing homes, there is a lack of studies evaluating interventions to relieve their pain. The authors make recommendations for future studies in this area.  (+info)

Antihyperalgesic effects of infection with a preproenkephalin-encoding herpes virus. (3/1563)

To test the utility of gene therapeutic approaches for the treatment of pain, a recombinant herpes simplex virus, type 1, has been engineered to contain the cDNA for an opioid peptide precursor, human preproenkephalin, under control of the human cytomegalovirus promoter. This virus and a similar recombinant containing the Escherichia coli lacZ gene were applied to the abraded skin of the dorsal hindpaw of mice. After infection, the presence of beta-galactosidase in neuronal cell bodies of the relevant spinal ganglia (lacZ-containing virus) and of human proenkephalin (preproenkephalin-encoding virus) in the central terminals of these neurons indicated appropriate gene delivery and expression. Baseline foot withdrawal responses to noxious radiant heat mediated by Adelta and C fibers were similar in animals infected with proenkephalin-encoding and beta-galactosidase-encoding viruses. Sensitization of the foot withdrawal response after application of capsaicin (C fibers) or dimethyl sulfoxide (Adelta fibers) observed in control animals was reduced or eliminated in animals infected with the proenkephalin-encoding virus for at least 7 weeks postinfection. Hence, preproenkephalin cDNA delivery selectively blocked hyperalgesia without disrupting baseline sensory neurotransmission. This blockade of sensitization was reversed by administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone, apparently acting in the spinal cord. The results demonstrate that the function of sensory neurons can be selectively altered by viral delivery of a transgene. Because hyperalgesic mechanisms may be important in establishing and maintaining neuropathic and other chronic pain states, this approach may be useful for treatment of chronic pain and hyperalgesia in humans.  (+info)

Intermittent compression units for severe post-phlebitic syndrome: a randomized crossover study. (4/1563)

BACKGROUND: Although uncommon, severe post-phlebitic syndrome may be associated with persistent, intractable pain and swelling that interfere with work and leisure activities. This study was performed to determine whether intermittent compression therapy with an extremity pump benefits patients with this condition and, if so, whether the benefit is sustained. METHODS: The study was a randomized crossover trial. Over the period 1990 to 1996, all patients in the clinical thromboembolism program of an Ontario teaching hospital who had a history of deep vein thrombosis and intractable symptoms of post-phlebitic syndrome were recruited into the study. The study involved using an extremity pump twice daily for a total of 2 months (20 minutes per session). The patients were randomly assigned to use either a therapeutic pressure (50 mm Hg) or a placebo pressure (15 mm Hg) for the first month. For the second month, the patients used the other pressure. A questionnaire assessing symptoms and functional status served as the primary outcome measure and was administered at the end of each 1-month period. A symptom score was derived by summing the scores for individual questions. At the end of the 2-month study, patients were asked to indicate their treatment preference and to rate the importance of the difference between the 12 pressures. Treatment was considered successful if the patient preferred the therapeutic pressure and stated that he or she would continue using the extremity pump and that the difference between the therapeutic and placebo pressures was of at least slight importance. All other combinations of responses were considered to represent treatment failure. Patients whose treatment was classified as successful were offered the opportunity to keep the pump and to alter pressure, frequency and duration of pump use to optimize symptom management. In July 1996 the authors contacted all study participants whose treatment had been classified as successful to determine whether they were still using the pump and, if so, whether they were still deriving benefit. RESULTS: In total 15 consecutive patients (12 women and 3 men) were enrolled in the study. The symptom scores were significantly better with the therapeutic pressure (mean 16.5) than with the placebo pressure (mean 14.4) (paired t-test, p = 0.007). The treatment for 12 of the patients (80%, 95% confidence interval 52% to 96%) was considered successful. Of these, 9 patients continued to use the pump beyond the crossover study and to derive benefit. INTERPRETATION: The authors conclude that a trial of pump therapy is worthwhile for patients with severe post-phlebitic syndrome and that a sustained beneficial response can be expected in most such patients.  (+info)

Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: disease-related pain. (5/1563)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate psychological literature addressing interventions for disease-related pain in children. METHODS: We conducted a literature review of all studies using psychological interventions for pain stemming directly from disease process as well as pain secondary to disease treatment. RESULTS: Few empirically validated psychological approaches to the treatment of disease pain were found. Although existing intervention studies do not meet Chambless criteria, some promising strategies were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioral strategies for the management of disease pain in children are promising and manualized, controlled intervention studies are needed.  (+info)

Clinical and radiological differences between traumatic and idiopathic coccygodynia. (6/1563)

Several reports of coccygodynia have been confined to the causes, the methods of treatment, and the methods of radiological examination. As far as we know, there has been no previous study about the objective measurement of the coccyx. The purpose of this study was to find the possible cause of idiopathic coccygodynia by comparing the clinical and radiological differences between traumatic and idiopathic coccygodynia by innovative objective clinical and radiological measurements. Thirty-two patients with coccygodynia were evaluated retrospectively. We divided the patients into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 19 patients with traumatic coccygodynia and group 2 consisted of 13 patients with idiopathic coccygodynia. We reviewed medical records and checked age, sex distribution, symptoms, and treatment outcome in each group. We also reviewed coccyx AP and lateral views of plain radiological film and measured the number of coccyx segments and the intercoccygeal angle in each group. The intercoccygeal angle devised by the authors was defined as the angle between the first and last segment of the coccyx. We also checked the intercoccygeal angle in a normal control group, which consisted of 18 women and 2 men, to observe the reference value of the intercoccygeal angle. The outcome of treatment was assessed by a visual analogue scale based on the pain score. Statistical analysis was done with Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. Group 1 consisted of 1 male and 18 female patients, while group 2 consisted of 2 male and 11 female patients. There were no statistically significant differences between the traumatic and idiopathic coccygodynia groups in terms of age (38.7 years versus 36.5 years), male/female sex ratio (1/18 versus 2/11), and the number of coccyx segments (2.9 versus 2.7). There were significant differences between the traumatic and idiopathic coccygodynia groups in terms of the pain score (pain on sitting: 82 versus 47, pain on defecation: 39 versus 87), the intercoccygeal angle (47.9 degree versus 72.2 degrees), and the satisfactory outcome of conservative treatment (47.4% versus 92.3%). The reference value of the intercoccygeal angle in the normal control group was 52.3 degrees, which was significantly different from that of the idiopathic group. In conclusion, the intercoccygeal angle of the idiopathic coccygodynia group was greater than that of the traumatic group and normal control group. Based on the results of this study, the increased intercoccygeal angle can be considered a possible cause of idiopathic coccygodynia. The intercoccygeal angle was a useful radiological measurement to evaluate the forward angulation deformity of the coccyx.  (+info)

Seven year follow up of children presenting to the accident and emergency department with irritable hip. (7/1563)

OBJECTIVE: To assess an established protocol for managing children with irritable hip in the accident and emergency department. METHODS: Retrospective seven year follow up of all children managed under an established hip pain protocol. The main outcome measure was of failure of the protocol to identify serious pathology. RESULTS: A total of 103 children met the criteria for assessment using the protocol. Sixty were allowed home, and outpatient follow up arranged. All of these children except one were diagnosed as having transient synovitis. This child had Perthes' disease and was diagnosed at first presentation. Forty three children were admitted, with eight subsequently having a diagnosis other than transient synovitis of the hip. It was possible to review 80 children seven years later. Of these children no long term problems were encountered. CONCLUSION: The protocol used in the department for children with irritable hip is successful in identifying those children with transient synovitis of the hip, or other benign causes, and therefore not requiring hospital admission. Long term follow up showed that no serious pathology was missed.  (+info)

A systematic review of treatments for the painful heel. (8/1563)

OBJECTIVE: To establish the efficacy for treatments of pain on the plantar aspect of the heel. METHODS: Systematic review of the published and unpublished literature. Electronic search of Medline, BIDS and the Cochrane database of clinical trials. An assessment of the quality of the reporting was made of studies included in the review. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: patients' pain scores. STUDY SELECTION: randomized controlled trials, published or unpublished, that evaluated treatments used for plantar heel pain. Foreign language papers were excluded. RESULTS: Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the review. These evaluated some of the most frequently described treatments (steroid injections and orthoses) and some experimental therapies (extracorporeal shock wave therapy and directed electrons). The methodological assessment scores of the published trials were low; small sample sizes and failure to conceal the treatment allocation from study participants prevents more definitive statements about the efficacy of treatments. In 10 of the included trials, patients in both the intervention and control arms reported improved pain scores at the final outcome measure. CONCLUSIONS: Although much has been written about the treatment of plantar heel pain, the few randomized controlled trials involve small populations of patients and do not provide robust scientific evidence of treatment efficacy.  (+info)

Pain management is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pain and improvement in the quality of life of patients with chronic pain. The goal of pain management is to reduce pain levels, improve physical functioning, and help patients cope mentally and emotionally with their pain. This may involve the use of medications, interventional procedures, physical therapy, psychological therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The definition of pain management can vary depending on the medical context, but it generally refers to a multidisciplinary approach that addresses the complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the experience of pain. Pain management specialists may include physicians, nurses, physical therapists, psychologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with chronic pain.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists or recurs for a period of 3 months or longer, beyond the normal healing time for an injury or illness. It can be continuous or intermittent and range from mild to severe. Chronic pain can have various causes, such as nerve damage, musculoskeletal conditions, or chronic diseases like cancer. It can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing limitations in mobility, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased overall well-being. Effective management of chronic pain often involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, physical therapy, psychological interventions, and complementary therapies.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

In medicine, "intractable pain" is a term used to describe pain that is difficult to manage, control or relieve with standard treatments. It's a type of chronic pain that continues for an extended period, often months or even years, and does not respond to conventional therapies such as medications, physical therapy, or surgery. Intractable pain can significantly affect a person's quality of life, causing emotional distress, sleep disturbances, and reduced mobility. It is essential to distinguish intractable pain from acute pain, which is typically sharp and short-lived, resulting from tissue damage or inflammation.

Intractable pain may be classified as:

1. Refractory pain: Pain that persists despite optimal treatment with various modalities, including medications, interventions, and multidisciplinary care.
2. Incurable pain: Pain caused by a progressive or incurable disease, such as cancer, for which no curative treatment is available.
3. Functional pain: Pain without an identifiable organic cause that does not respond to standard treatments.

Managing intractable pain often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals from various fields, including pain specialists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and physical therapists. Treatment options may include:

1. Adjuvant medications: Medications that are not primarily analgesics but have been found to help with pain relief, such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants.
2. Interventional procedures: Minimally invasive techniques like nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, or intrathecal drug delivery systems that target specific nerves or areas of the body to reduce pain signals.
3. Psychological interventions: Techniques such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness meditation, and relaxation training can help patients cope with chronic pain and improve their overall well-being.
4. Physical therapy and rehabilitation: Exercise programs, massage, acupuncture, and other physical therapies may provide relief for some types of intractable pain.
5. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): Techniques like yoga, tai chi, hypnosis, or biofeedback can be helpful in managing chronic pain.
6. Lifestyle modifications: Dietary changes, stress management, and quitting smoking may also contribute to improved pain management.

A pain clinic, also known as a pain management center or pain treatment center, is a healthcare facility that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of various types and levels of pain. These clinics are typically staffed with interdisciplinary teams of medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, and physical therapists, who work together to provide comprehensive and personalized care for patients experiencing chronic or acute pain.

Pain clinics may offer a range of treatments, including medications, injections, nerve blocks, physical therapy, psychological counseling, and complementary therapies like acupuncture and massage. The goal of these clinics is to help patients manage their pain effectively, improve their quality of life, and increase their functionality and mobility.

It's important to note that while pain clinics can be very helpful for many people, it's essential to do your research and choose a reputable clinic with licensed and experienced medical professionals who prioritize patient safety and evidence-based treatments.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

Analgesia is defined as the absence or relief of pain in a patient, achieved through various medical means. It is derived from the Greek word "an-" meaning without and "algein" meaning to feel pain. Analgesics are medications that are used to reduce pain without causing loss of consciousness, and they work by blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain.

Examples of analgesics include over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve). Prescription opioid painkillers, such as oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet) and hydrocodone (Vicodin), are also used for pain relief but carry a higher risk of addiction and abuse.

Analgesia can also be achieved through non-pharmacological means, such as through nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, acupuncture, and other complementary therapies. The choice of analgesic therapy depends on the type and severity of pain, as well as the patient's medical history and individual needs.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

Acute pain is a type of pain that comes on suddenly and can be severe, but it typically lasts for a short period of time. It is often described as sharp or stabbing and can be caused by tissue damage, inflammation, or injury. Acute pain is the body's way of signaling that something is wrong and that action needs to be taken to address the underlying cause.

Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is pain that persists for 12 weeks or longer. Chronic pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including ongoing medical conditions, nerve damage, or inflammation. It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing acute pain that does not improve or becomes severe, as it may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.

Neck pain is discomfort or soreness in the neck region, which can extend from the base of the skull to the upper part of the shoulder blades, caused by injury, irritation, or inflammation of the muscles, ligaments, or nerves in the cervical spine. The pain may worsen with movement and can be accompanied by stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, arms, or hands. In some cases, headaches can also occur as a result of neck pain.

Disease management is a proactive, planned approach to identify and manage patients with chronic medical conditions. It involves a systematic and coordinated method of delivering care to patients with the goal of improving clinical outcomes, enhancing quality of life, and reducing healthcare costs. This approach typically includes elements such as evidence-based care guidelines, patient education, self-management support, regular monitoring and follow-up, and collaboration between healthcare providers and specialists.

The objective of disease management is to improve the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic conditions by providing them with the necessary tools, resources, and support to effectively manage their condition and prevent complications. By implementing a comprehensive and coordinated approach to care, disease management can help reduce hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and other costly healthcare services while improving patient satisfaction and overall health outcomes.

Pain perception refers to the neural and psychological processes involved in receiving, interpreting, and responding to painful stimuli. It is the subjective experience of pain, which can vary greatly among individuals due to factors such as genetics, mood, expectations, and past experiences. The perception of pain involves complex interactions between the peripheral nervous system (which detects and transmits information about tissue damage or potential harm), the spinal cord (where this information is processed and integrated with other sensory inputs), and the brain (where the final interpretation and emotional response to pain occurs).

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

Facial pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain felt in any part of the face. It can result from various causes, including nerve damage or irritation, injuries, infections, dental problems, migraines, or sinus congestion. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent. In some cases, facial pain can also be associated with other symptoms such as headaches, redness, swelling, or changes in sensation. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for effective management of facial pain.

Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a method of pain management that allows patients to self-administer doses of analgesic medication through a controlled pump system. With PCA, the patient can press a button to deliver a predetermined dose of pain medication, usually an opioid, directly into their intravenous (IV) line.

The dosage and frequency of the medication are set by the healthcare provider based on the patient's individual needs and medical condition. The PCA pump is designed to prevent overinfusion by limiting the amount of medication that can be delivered within a specific time frame.

PCA provides several benefits, including improved pain control, increased patient satisfaction, and reduced sedation compared to traditional methods of opioid administration. It also allows patients to take an active role in managing their pain and provides them with a sense of control during their hospital stay. However, it is essential to monitor patients closely while using PCA to ensure safe and effective use.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Palliative care is a type of medical care that focuses on relieving the pain, symptoms, and stress of serious illnesses. The goal is to improve quality of life for both the patient and their family. It is provided by a team of doctors, nurses, and other specialists who work together to address the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of the patient. Palliative care can be provided at any stage of an illness, alongside curative treatments, and is not dependent on prognosis.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines palliative care as: "an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychological and spiritual."

Pelvic pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensation in the lower abdominal region, below the belly button, and between the hips. It can be acute (sudden and lasting for a short time) or chronic (persisting for months or even years), and it may be steady or intermittent, mild or severe. The pain can have various causes, including musculoskeletal issues, nerve irritation, infection, inflammation, or organic diseases in the reproductive, urinary, or gastrointestinal systems. Accurate diagnosis often requires a thorough medical evaluation to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

Shoulder pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or hurt in the shoulder joint, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or surrounding structures. The shoulder is one of the most mobile joints in the body, and this mobility makes it prone to injury and pain. Shoulder pain can result from various causes, including overuse, trauma, degenerative conditions, or referred pain from other areas of the body.

The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint made up of three bones: the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). The rotator cuff, a group of four muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint, can also be a source of pain if it becomes inflamed or torn.

Shoulder pain can range from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, swelling, bruising, weakness, numbness, tingling, or reduced mobility in the affected arm. The pain may worsen with movement, lifting objects, or performing certain activities, such as reaching overhead or behind the back.

Medical evaluation is necessary to determine the underlying cause of shoulder pain and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options may include rest, physical therapy, medication, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and nature of the condition.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

Referred pain is a type of pain that is felt in a part of the body other than its actual source. This occurs because the brain incorrectly interprets nerve signals from damaged tissues or organs. In the case of referred pain, the brain misinterprets the location of the pain signal and attributes it to a different area of the body.

Referred pain is often described as a dull, aching sensation rather than a sharp, stabbing pain. It can be difficult to diagnose because the source of the pain may not be immediately apparent. Common examples of referred pain include:

* Heart attack pain that is felt in the left arm or jaw
* Gallbladder pain that is felt in the right shoulder blade
* Kidney stones that cause pain in the lower back and abdomen
* Appendicitis that causes pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen, but can sometimes be referred to the lower left quadrant in pregnant women or those with a longer colon.

Referred pain is thought to occur because the nerves carrying pain signals from different parts of the body converge on the same neurons in the spinal cord before traveling to the brain. If these neurons are stimulated by pain signals from multiple sources, the brain may have difficulty distinguishing between them and may interpret the pain as coming from a single location.

Epidural injection is a medical procedure where a medication is injected into the epidural space of the spine. The epidural space is the area between the outer covering of the spinal cord (dura mater) and the vertebral column. This procedure is typically used to provide analgesia (pain relief) or anesthesia for surgical procedures, labor and delivery, or chronic pain management.

The injection usually contains a local anesthetic and/or a steroid medication, which can help reduce inflammation and swelling in the affected area. The medication is delivered through a thin needle that is inserted into the epidural space using the guidance of fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Epidural injections are commonly used to treat various types of pain, including lower back pain, leg pain (sciatica), and neck pain. They can also be used to diagnose the source of pain by injecting a local anesthetic to numb the area and determine if it is the cause of the pain.

While epidural injections are generally safe, they do carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or allergic reactions to the medication. It's important to discuss these risks with your healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Neuralgia is a type of pain that occurs along the pathway of a nerve, often caused by damage or irritation to the nerve. It is typically described as a sharp, stabbing, burning, or electric-shock like pain that can be severe and debilitating. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it most commonly occurs in the facial area (trigeminal neuralgia) or in the nerves related to the spine (postherpetic neuralgia). The pain associated with neuralgia can be intermittent or constant and may be worsened by certain triggers such as touch, temperature changes, or movement. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain, as well as other therapies such as nerve blocks, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

Analgesics, non-narcotic are a class of medications used to relieve pain that do not contain narcotics or opioids. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system or by reducing inflammation and swelling. Examples of non-narcotic analgesics include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), and aspirin. These medications are often used to treat mild to moderate pain, such as headaches, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, and arthritis symptoms. They can be obtained over-the-counter or by prescription, depending on the dosage and formulation. It is important to follow the recommended dosages and usage instructions carefully to avoid adverse effects.

Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which means it's a painkiller that's synthesized from thebaine, an alkaloid found in the poppy plant. It's a strong pain reliever used to treat moderate to severe pain and is often prescribed for around-the-clock treatment of chronic pain. Oxycodone can be found in various forms, such as immediate-release tablets, extended-release tablets, capsules, and solutions.

Common brand names for oxycodone include OxyContin (extended-release), Percocet (oxycodone + acetaminophen), and Roxicodone (immediate-release). As an opioid, oxycodone works by binding to specific receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and gut, reducing the perception of pain and decreasing the emotional response to pain.

However, it's important to note that oxycodone has a high potential for abuse and addiction due to its euphoric effects. Misuse or prolonged use can lead to physical dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation. Therefore, it should be taken exactly as prescribed by a healthcare professional and used with caution.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic, chemically unrelated to other opioids but with actions similar to those of morphine. It is used to manage moderate to moderately severe pain and is available in immediate-release and extended-release formulations. Tramadol has multiple mechanisms of action including binding to mu-opioid receptors, inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, and weakly inhibiting monoamine oxidase A and B. Common side effects include dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and somnolence. Respiratory depression is less frequent compared to other opioids, but caution should still be exercised in patients at risk for respiratory compromise. Tramadol has a lower potential for abuse than traditional opioids, but it can still produce physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Case management is a collaborative process that involves the assessment, planning, facilitation, care coordination, evaluation, and advocacy for options and services to meet an individual's health needs through communication and available resources to promote patient safety, quality of care, and cost-effective outcomes. It is commonly used in healthcare settings such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities to ensure that patients receive appropriate and timely care while avoiding unnecessary duplication of services and managing costs.

The goal of case management is to help patients navigate the complex healthcare system, improve their health outcomes, and enhance their quality of life by coordinating all aspects of their care, including medical treatment, rehabilitation, social support, and community resources. Effective case management requires a team-based approach that involves the active participation of the patient, family members, healthcare providers, and other stakeholders in the decision-making process.

The specific duties and responsibilities of a case manager may vary depending on the setting and population served, but typically include:

1. Assessment: Conducting comprehensive assessments to identify the patient's medical, psychosocial, functional, and environmental needs.
2. Planning: Developing an individualized care plan that outlines the goals, interventions, and expected outcomes of the patient's care.
3. Facilitation: Coordinating and facilitating the delivery of services and resources to meet the patient's needs, including arranging for appointments, tests, procedures, and referrals to specialists or community agencies.
4. Care coordination: Ensuring that all members of the healthcare team are aware of the patient's care plan and providing ongoing communication and support to ensure continuity of care.
5. Evaluation: Monitoring the patient's progress towards their goals, adjusting the care plan as needed, and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions.
6. Advocacy: Advocating for the patient's rights and needs, including access to healthcare services, insurance coverage, and community resources.

Overall, case management is a critical component of high-quality healthcare that helps patients achieve their health goals while managing costs and improving their overall well-being.

Epidural analgesia is a type of regional anesthesia used to manage pain, most commonly during childbirth and after surgery. The term "epidural" refers to the location of the injection, which is in the epidural space of the spinal column.

In this procedure, a small amount of local anesthetic or narcotic medication is injected into the epidural space using a thin catheter. This medication blocks nerve impulses from the lower body, reducing or eliminating pain sensations without causing complete loss of feeling or muscle movement.

Epidural analgesia can be used for both short-term and long-term pain management. It is often preferred in situations where patients require prolonged pain relief, such as during labor and delivery or after major surgery. The medication can be administered continuously or intermittently, depending on the patient's needs and the type of procedure being performed.

While epidural analgesia is generally safe and effective, it can have side effects, including low blood pressure, headache, and difficulty urinating. In rare cases, it may also cause nerve damage or infection. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of this procedure with their healthcare provider before deciding whether to undergo epidural analgesia.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, which is similar to morphine but is 50 to 100 times more potent. It is a schedule II prescription drug, typically used to treat patients with severe pain or to manage pain after surgery. It works by binding to the body's opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the body.

Fentanyl can be administered in several forms, including transdermal patches, lozenges, injectable solutions, and tablets that dissolve in the mouth. Illegally manufactured and distributed fentanyl has also become a major public health concern, as it is often mixed with other drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and counterfeit pills, leading to an increase in overdose deaths.

Like all opioids, fentanyl carries a risk of dependence, addiction, and overdose, especially when used outside of medical supervision or in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or benzodiazepines. It is important to use fentanyl only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of the potential risks associated with its use.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Musculoskeletal pain is discomfort or pain that affects the muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. It can be caused by injury, overuse, or disease and can affect any part of the body, including the neck, back, shoulders, hips, and extremities. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by stiffness, swelling, and decreased range of motion. Common causes of musculoskeletal pain include arthritis, fibromyalgia, tendinitis, bursitis, and muscle or ligament strain. Treatment for musculoskeletal pain depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Eye pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensations in the eye. It can be sharp, throbbing, stabbing, burning, or aching. The pain may occur in one or both eyes and can range from mild to severe. Eye pain can result from various causes, including infection, inflammation, injury, or irritation of the structures of the eye, such as the cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, or uvea. Other possible causes include migraines, optic neuritis, and glaucoma. It is essential to seek medical attention if experiencing sudden, severe, or persistent eye pain, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires prompt treatment.

A Nurse Anesthetist, also known as a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), is an advanced practice registered nurse who provides anesthesia and related care before and after surgical, therapeutic, diagnostic, and obstetrical procedures. They hold at least a master's degree in nursing from an accredited program and have passed a national certification exam.

Their responsibilities typically include conducting pre-anesthesia assessments, developing and implementing an anesthetic plan, administering anesthesia, monitoring the patient during the procedure, managing any emergencies that may arise, and providing post-anesthesia care. They work in a variety of settings including hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, and physician offices.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Patient care management is a coordinated, comprehensive approach to providing healthcare services to individuals with chronic or complex medical conditions. It involves the development and implementation of a plan of care that is tailored to the needs of the patient, with the goal of improving clinical outcomes, enhancing quality of life, and reducing healthcare costs.

Patient care management typically involves a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, social workers, pharmacists, and other specialists as needed. The team works together to assess the patient's medical, psychological, social, and functional needs, and develop a plan of care that addresses those needs in a holistic and coordinated manner.

The plan of care may include a range of services, such as:

* Regular monitoring and management of chronic conditions
* Medication management and education
* Coordination of specialist appointments and other healthcare services
* Education and support for self-management of health conditions
* Behavioral health interventions to address mental health or substance use disorders
* Assistance with accessing community resources, such as transportation or housing

The ultimate goal of patient care management is to help patients achieve their optimal level of health and well-being, while also ensuring that healthcare services are delivered in a cost-effective and efficient manner. By coordinating care across providers and settings, patient care management can help reduce unnecessary hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and other costly interventions, while improving the overall quality of care for patients with complex medical needs.

Hydromorphone is a potent semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which is chemically related to morphine but is approximately 8 times more potent. It is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain and is available in various forms such as tablets, extended-release tablets, solutions, and injectable formulations. Common brand names include Dilaudid and Exalgo. Hydromorphone works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and decreasing the emotional response to pain. As with other opioids, hydromorphone carries a risk for dependence, addiction, and abuse.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Arthralgia is a medical term that refers to pain in the joints. It does not involve inflammation, which would be referred to as arthritis. The pain can range from mild to severe and may occur in one or multiple joints. Arthralgia can have various causes, including injuries, infections, degenerative conditions, or systemic diseases. In some cases, the underlying cause of arthralgia remains unknown. Treatment typically focuses on managing the pain and addressing the underlying condition if it can be identified.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) are a group of chronic pain disorders characterized by the presence of trigger points in the musculoskeletal system. A trigger point is a hyperirritable spot within a taut band of skeletal muscle, which is often tender to palpation and can cause referred pain, meaning that the pain is felt in a different location than where the trigger point is located.

MPS can affect any muscle in the body, but they are most commonly found in the muscles of the neck, back, shoulders, and hips. The symptoms of MPS may include local or referred pain, stiffness, weakness, and reduced range of motion. The pain is often described as a deep, aching, or throbbing sensation that can be aggravated by physical activity, stress, or anxiety.

The exact cause of MPS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to muscle overuse, injury, or chronic tension. Other factors that may contribute to the development of MPS include poor posture, vitamin deficiencies, hormonal imbalances, and emotional stress.

Treatment for MPS typically involves a combination of physical therapy, trigger point release techniques, pain management strategies, and self-care practices such as stretching, relaxation, and stress reduction. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage the pain and reduce muscle spasms.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals. It is also known by its brand name Demerol and is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine has a rapid onset of action and its effects typically last for 2-4 hours.

Meperidine can cause various side effects such as dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and respiratory depression (slowed breathing). It also has a risk of abuse and physical dependence, so it is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.

Meperidine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects and addiction. It may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or those who are taking other medications that can interact with meperidine.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

Quality Assurance in the context of healthcare refers to a systematic approach and set of activities designed to ensure that health care services and products consistently meet predetermined standards of quality and safety. It includes all the policies, procedures, and processes that are put in place to monitor, assess, and improve the quality of healthcare delivery.

The goal of quality assurance is to minimize variability in clinical practice, reduce medical errors, and ensure that patients receive evidence-based care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. Quality assurance activities may include:

1. Establishing standards of care based on best practices and clinical guidelines.
2. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these standards.
3. Providing education and training to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. Conducting audits, reviews, and evaluations of healthcare services and processes to identify areas for improvement.
5. Implementing corrective actions to address identified issues and prevent their recurrence.
6. Monitoring and measuring outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives.

Quality assurance is an ongoing process that requires continuous evaluation and improvement to ensure that healthcare delivery remains safe, effective, and patient-centered.

Lidocaine is a type of local anesthetic that numbs painful areas and is used to prevent pain during certain medical procedures. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain. In addition to its use as an anesthetic, lidocaine can also be used to treat irregular heart rates and relieve itching caused by allergic reactions or skin conditions such as eczema.

Lidocaine is available in various forms, including creams, gels, ointments, sprays, solutions, and injectable preparations. It can be applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes, or it can be administered by injection into a muscle or vein. The specific dosage and method of administration will depend on the reason for its use and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

Like all medications, lidocaine can have side effects, including allergic reactions, numbness that lasts too long, and in rare cases, heart problems or seizures. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider carefully when using lidocaine to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling in a specific area of the body during certain medical procedures such as surgery, dental work, or childbirth. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Bupivacaine is available as a solution for injection and is usually administered directly into the tissue surrounding the nerve to be blocked (nerve block) or into the spinal fluid (epidural). The onset of action of bupivacaine is relatively slow, but its duration of action is long, making it suitable for procedures that require prolonged pain relief.

Like all local anesthetics, bupivacaine carries a risk of side effects such as allergic reactions, nerve damage, and systemic toxicity if accidentally injected into a blood vessel or given in excessive doses. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including heart disease, liver disease, and neurological disorders.

"Drug and narcotic control" refers to the regulation and oversight of drugs and narcotics, including their production, distribution, and use. This is typically carried out by governmental agencies in order to ensure public safety, prevent abuse and diversion, and protect the health of individuals. The goal of drug and narcotic control is to strike a balance between making sure that medications are available for legitimate medical purposes while also preventing their misuse and illegal sale.

Drug control policies may include measures such as licensing and registration of manufacturers, distributors, and pharmacies; tracking and monitoring of controlled substances; setting standards for prescription practices; and enforcement of laws and regulations related to drug use and trafficking. Narcotic control specifically refers to the regulation of drugs that have a high potential for abuse and are subject to international treaties, such as opioids.

It's important to note that while these regulations aim to protect public health and safety, they can also be controversial and have unintended consequences, such as contributing to drug shortages or creating barriers to access for people who need controlled substances for legitimate medical reasons.

Hydrocodone is an opioid medication used to treat severe pain. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain. Medically, it's defined as a semisynthetic opioid analgesic, synthesized from codeine, one of the natural opiates found in the resin of the poppy seed pod.

Hydrocodone is available only in combination with other drugs, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, which are added to enhance its pain-relieving effects and/or to prevent abuse and overdose. Common brand names include Vicodin, Lortab, and Norco.

Like all opioids, hydrocodone carries a risk of addiction and dependence, and it should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare provider. It's also important to note that misuse or abuse of hydrocodone can lead to overdose and death.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive difficulties. The pain typically occurs in specific tender points or trigger points, which are located on the neck, shoulders, back, hips, arms, and legs. These points are painful when pressure is applied.

The exact cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, but it appears to be related to abnormalities in the way the brain processes pain signals. It may also be associated with certain genetic factors, physical trauma, infection, or emotional stress. Fibromyalgia is more common in women than men and tends to develop between the ages of 20 and 50.

Fibromyalgia can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and chronic fatigue syndrome. However, a diagnosis of fibromyalgia may be made if a person has widespread pain for at least three months and tenderness in at least 11 of 18 specific points on the body when pressure is applied.

There is no cure for fibromyalgia, but medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes can help manage its symptoms. Treatment may include pain relievers, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, physical therapy, counseling, stress reduction techniques, and regular exercise.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Narcotics, in a medical context, are substances that induce sleep, relieve pain, and suppress cough. They are often used for anesthesia during surgical procedures. Narcotics are derived from opium or its synthetic substitutes and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. These drugs bind to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and producing a sense of well-being. However, narcotics can also produce physical dependence and addiction, and their long-term use can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve the same effect. Narcotics are classified as controlled substances due to their potential for abuse and are subject to strict regulations.

A nursing assessment is the process of collecting and analyzing data about a patient's health status, including their physical, psychological, social, cultural, and emotional needs. This information is used to identify actual or potential health problems, develop a plan of care, and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. Nursing assessments may include observing and documenting the patient's vital signs, appearance, behavior, mobility, nutrition, elimination, comfort level, cognitive status, and emotional well-being. They are typically conducted upon admission to a healthcare facility, during transitions of care, and on a regular basis throughout the course of treatment to ensure that the patient's needs are being met and that any changes in their condition are promptly identified and addressed.

A zygapophyseal joint, also known as a facet joint, is a type of synovial joint that connects the articulating processes of adjacent vertebrae in the spine. These joints are formed by the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebral bodies and are covered with hyaline cartilage. They allow for smooth movement between the vertebrae, providing stability and limiting excessive motion while allowing flexibility in the spine. The zygapophyseal joints are supported by a capsule and ligaments that help to maintain their alignment and restrict abnormal movements. These joints can become sources of pain and discomfort when they become inflamed or damaged due to conditions such as arthritis, degenerative disc disease, or injury.

Hospice care is a type of medical care and support provided to individuals who are terminally ill, with a life expectancy of six months or less, and have decided to stop curative treatments. The goal of hospice care is to provide comfort, dignity, and quality of life for the patient, as well as emotional and spiritual support for both the patient and their family members during the end-of-life process.

Hospice care services typically include pain management, symptom control, nursing care, emotional and spiritual counseling, social work services, volunteer support, and respite care for caregivers. These services can be provided in various settings such as the patient's home, a hospice facility, or a hospital. The interdisciplinary team of healthcare professionals works together to develop an individualized plan of care that addresses the unique needs and preferences of each patient and their family members.

The primary focus of hospice care is on improving the quality of life for patients with advanced illnesses by managing their symptoms, alleviating pain, and providing emotional and spiritual support. Hospice care also aims to help patients maintain their independence and dignity while allowing them to spend their remaining time in a familiar and comfortable environment, surrounded by loved ones.

Hyperalgesia is a medical term that describes an increased sensitivity to pain. It occurs when the nervous system, specifically the nociceptors (pain receptors), become excessively sensitive to stimuli. This means that a person experiences pain from a stimulus that normally wouldn't cause pain or experiences pain that is more intense than usual. Hyperalgesia can be a result of various conditions such as nerve damage, inflammation, or certain medications. It's an important symptom to monitor in patients with chronic pain conditions, as it may indicate the development of tolerance or addiction to pain medication.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Risk management in the medical context refers to the systematic process of identifying, assessing, and prioritizing risks to patients, staff, or healthcare organizations, followed by the development, implementation, and monitoring of strategies to manage those risks. The goal is to minimize potential harm and optimize patient safety, quality of care, and operational efficiency.

This process typically involves:

1. Identifying potential hazards and risks in the healthcare environment, procedures, or systems.
2. Assessing the likelihood and potential impact of each identified risk.
3. Prioritizing risks based on their severity and probability.
4. Developing strategies to mitigate, eliminate, transfer, or accept the prioritized risks.
5. Implementing the risk management strategies and monitoring their effectiveness.
6. Continuously reviewing and updating the risk management process to adapt to changing circumstances or new information.

Effective risk management in healthcare helps organizations provide safer care, reduce adverse events, and promote a culture of safety and continuous improvement.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

A Patient Care Team is a group of healthcare professionals from various disciplines who work together to provide comprehensive, coordinated care to a patient. The team may include doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, physical therapists, dietitians, and other specialists as needed, depending on the patient's medical condition and healthcare needs.

The Patient Care Team works collaboratively to develop an individualized care plan for the patient, taking into account their medical history, current health status, treatment options, and personal preferences. The team members communicate regularly to share information, coordinate care, and make any necessary adjustments to the care plan.

The goal of a Patient Care Team is to ensure that the patient receives high-quality, safe, and effective care that is tailored to their unique needs and preferences. By working together, the team can provide more comprehensive and coordinated care, which can lead to better outcomes for the patient.

Oncology nursing is a specialized area of nursing that focuses on the care of patients with cancer. Oncology nurses are responsible for providing comprehensive nursing care to patients throughout all stages of their illness, from diagnosis and treatment to recovery or palliative care. They work closely with other healthcare professionals, such as oncologists, radiotherapists, and social workers, to provide a coordinated approach to patient care.

Oncology nurses must have a deep understanding of the various types of cancer, their treatments, and the potential side effects of those treatments. They must also be skilled in assessing patients' physical and emotional needs, providing education and support to patients and their families, and managing symptoms such as pain, nausea, and fatigue.

In addition to direct patient care, oncology nurses may also be involved in research, advocacy, and education related to cancer and its treatment. They may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and long-term care facilities.

Physical therapy modalities refer to the various forms of treatment that physical therapists use to help reduce pain, promote healing, and restore function to the body. These modalities can include:

1. Heat therapy: This includes the use of hot packs, paraffin baths, and infrared heat to increase blood flow, relax muscles, and relieve pain.
2. Cold therapy: Also known as cryotherapy, this involves the use of ice packs, cold compresses, or cooling gels to reduce inflammation, numb the area, and relieve pain.
3. Electrical stimulation: This uses electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles, which can help to reduce pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and function.
4. Ultrasound: This uses high-frequency sound waves to penetrate deep into tissues, increasing blood flow, reducing inflammation, and promoting healing.
5. Manual therapy: This includes techniques such as massage, joint mobilization, and stretching, which are used to improve range of motion, reduce pain, and promote relaxation.
6. Traction: This is a technique that uses gentle pulling on the spine or other joints to help relieve pressure and improve alignment.
7. Light therapy: Also known as phototherapy, this involves the use of low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation.
8. Therapeutic exercise: This includes a range of exercises that are designed to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, and help patients recover from injury or illness.

Physical therapy modalities are often used in combination with other treatments, such as manual therapy and therapeutic exercise, to provide a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation and pain management.

The celiac plexus, also known as the solar plexus or autonomic plexus, is a complex network of nerves located in the abdomen, near the stomach and other digestive organs. It plays a crucial role in regulating various automatic functions of the body, such as digestion, absorption, and secretion.

The celiac plexus is formed by the union of several splanchnic nerves that arise from the spinal cord and pass through the diaphragm to reach the abdomen. These nerves carry sensory information from the organs in the abdomen to the brain, as well as motor impulses that control the function of these organs.

In some medical procedures, such as celiac plexus block or neurolysis, the celiac plexus may be targeted to relieve chronic pain associated with conditions like pancreatitis, cancer, or abdominal surgery. These procedures involve injecting anesthetic or neurolytic agents into the area around the celiac plexus to interrupt nerve signals and reduce pain.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

A nursing society is a professional organization composed of registered nurses and other healthcare professionals who share a common mission, vision, and goals to advance the nursing profession and improve patient care. These societies provide a platform for members to collaborate, network, and exchange knowledge and ideas related to their practice, research, education, and policy-making. They offer various opportunities for professional development, including conferences, seminars, workshops, publications, and awards. Nursing societies also advocate for the rights and interests of nurses and patients at local, national, and international levels. Examples of nursing societies include the American Nurses Association (ANA), the International Council of Nurses (ICN), and the Society of Pediatric Nurses (SPN).

In medical terms, "outpatients" refers to individuals who receive medical care or treatment at a hospital or clinic without being admitted as inpatients. This means that they do not stay overnight or for an extended period; instead, they visit the healthcare facility for specific services such as consultations, diagnostic tests, treatments, or follow-up appointments and then return home afterward. Outpatient care can include various services like primary care, specialty clinics, dental care, physical therapy, and more. It is often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care, as it allows patients to maintain their daily routines while receiving necessary medical attention.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

Anesthesiology is a medical specialty concerned with providing anesthesia, which is the loss of sensation or awareness, to patients undergoing surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures. Anesthesiologists are responsible for administering various types of anesthetics, monitoring the patient's vital signs during the procedure, and managing any complications that may arise. They also play a critical role in pain management before, during, and after surgery, as well as in the treatment of chronic pain conditions.

Anesthesiologists work closely with other medical professionals, including surgeons, anesthetists, nurses, and respiratory therapists, to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. They must have a thorough understanding of human physiology, pharmacology, and anatomy, as well as excellent communication skills and the ability to make quick decisions under high pressure.

The primary goal of anesthesiology is to provide safe and effective anesthesia that minimizes pain and discomfort while maximizing patient safety and comfort. This requires a deep understanding of the risks and benefits associated with different types of anesthetics, as well as the ability to tailor the anesthetic plan to each individual patient's needs and medical history.

In summary, anesthesiology is a critical medical specialty focused on providing safe and effective anesthesia and pain management for patients undergoing surgical or other medical procedures.

Nociceptive pain is a type of pain that results from the activation of nociceptors, which are specialized sensory receptors located in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors detect potentially harmful stimuli such as extreme temperatures, pressure, or chemical irritants and transmit signals to the brain, which interprets them as painful sensations.

Nociceptive pain can be further classified into two categories:

1. Somatic nociceptive pain: This type of pain arises from the activation of nociceptors in the skin, muscles, bones, and joints. It is often described as sharp, aching, or throbbing and may be localized to a specific area of the body.
2. Visceral nociceptive pain: This type of pain arises from the activation of nociceptors in the internal organs, such as the lungs, heart, and digestive system. It is often described as deep, cramping, or aching and may be more diffuse and difficult to localize.

Examples of conditions that can cause nociceptive pain include injuries, arthritis, cancer, and infections. Effective management of nociceptive pain typically involves a multimodal approach that includes pharmacologic interventions, such as non-opioid analgesics, opioids, and adjuvant medications, as well as non-pharmacologic therapies, such as physical therapy, acupuncture, and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Nociceptors are specialized peripheral sensory neurons that detect and transmit signals indicating potentially harmful stimuli in the form of pain. They are activated by various noxious stimuli such as extreme temperatures, intense pressure, or chemical irritants. Once activated, nociceptors transmit these signals to the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain) where they are interpreted as painful sensations, leading to protective responses like withdrawing from the harmful stimulus or seeking medical attention. Nociceptors play a crucial role in our perception of pain and help protect the body from further harm.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Senior Centers" is not a term that has a medical definition. Senior centers are community facilities that provide a variety of services and activities for older adults, such as social events, educational programs, health and wellness classes, and access to resources. They are run by local organizations, often in partnership with government agencies, and are designed to help seniors stay active, engaged, and independent. However, they do not typically provide medical care or treatment.

Minority Health is a term used to describe the health status and disparities that affect racial, ethnic, sexual, and gender minority populations. According to the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD), minority health refers to "the study of differences in health status or events and access to health care across racial and ethnic groups."

Minority health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among minorities and other population groups. These disparities are often related to social, economic, and environmental factors, such as poverty, lack of access to quality healthcare, discrimination, and limited educational opportunities.

Minority Health is an important field of study because it helps to identify and address the health needs and challenges faced by marginalized populations. By understanding and addressing these disparities, healthcare providers can develop more effective strategies to improve the health outcomes of minority populations and reduce health inequities.

Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist medication used to treat opioid use disorder. It has a lower risk of respiratory depression and other adverse effects compared to full opioid agonists like methadone, making it a safer option for some individuals. Buprenorphine works by binding to the same receptors in the brain as other opioids but with weaker effects, helping to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms. It is available in several forms, including tablets, films, and implants.

In addition to its use in treating opioid use disorder, buprenorphine may also be used to treat pain, although this use is less common due to the risk of addiction and dependence. When used for pain management, it is typically prescribed at lower doses than those used for opioid use disorder treatment.

It's important to note that while buprenorphine has a lower potential for abuse and overdose than full opioid agonists, it still carries some risks and should be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Acupuncture analgesia is a form of pain relief that involves the stimulation of specific points on the body, called acupoints, using thin needles. This technique is based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) principles, which suggest that energy, or "qi," flows through the body along pathways called meridians. According to TCM, blockages or imbalances in this flow of qi can lead to illness or pain. By inserting needles at specific acupoints, acupuncture is thought to help restore the balance and flow of qi, thereby alleviating pain and promoting healing.

In modern medical terms, acupuncture analgesia is believed to work by stimulating the nervous system and triggering the release of natural painkillers called endorphins. The needles may also cause localized changes in blood flow and inflammation, which can help reduce pain and promote healing in the affected area.

Acupuncture has been shown to be effective for a variety of pain conditions, including osteoarthritis, migraines, and chronic low back pain. However, it is important to note that acupuncture should be performed by a qualified practitioner and may not be suitable for everyone. As with any medical treatment, there are potential risks and side effects associated with acupuncture, including infection, bruising, and bleeding. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment.

Radiculopathy is a medical term that refers to the condition where there is damage or disturbance in the nerve roots as they exit the spinal column. These nerve roots, also known as radicles, can become damaged due to various reasons such as compression, inflammation, or injury, leading to a range of symptoms.

Radiculopathy may occur in any part of the spine, but it is most commonly found in the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) regions. When the nerve roots in the cervical region are affected, it can result in symptoms such as neck pain, shoulder pain, arm pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or fingers. On the other hand, when the nerve roots in the lumbar region are affected, it can cause lower back pain, leg pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the legs or feet.

The symptoms of radiculopathy can vary depending on the severity and location of the damage to the nerve roots. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own with rest and conservative treatment. However, in more severe cases, medical intervention such as physical therapy, medication, or surgery may be necessary to alleviate the symptoms and prevent further damage.

Codeine is a opiate analgesic, commonly used for its pain-relieving and cough suppressant properties. It is typically prescribed for mild to moderately severe pain, and is also found in some over-the-counter cold and cough medications. Codeine works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which helps to reduce the perception of pain. Like other opiates, codeine can produce side effects such as drowsiness, constipation, and respiratory depression, and it carries a risk of dependence and addiction with long-term use. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking codeine, and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you may have.

Pediatric nursing is a specialized field of nursing that focuses on the care of children, infants, and adolescents. According to the Society of Pediatric Nurses, pediatric nursing encompasses "the holistic care of children and families in all settings to restore, promote, and maintain health and development."

Pediatric nurses work in a variety of healthcare settings, including hospitals, clinics, physician's offices, schools, and community health centers. They provide care for patients with a wide range of acute and chronic illnesses, as well as those who are healthy but require routine check-ups and immunizations.

Pediatric nurses must have a deep understanding of child development, growth, and family dynamics in order to provide appropriate and effective care. They must also be skilled in communication with children and their families, as well as able to work collaboratively with other healthcare professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients.

In addition to providing direct patient care, pediatric nurses may also be involved in research, education, and advocacy efforts aimed at improving the health and well-being of children and adolescents.

Reimbursement mechanisms in a medical context refer to the various systems and methods used by health insurance companies, government agencies, or other payers to refund or recompense healthcare providers, institutions, or patients for the costs associated with medical services, treatments, or products. These mechanisms ensure that covered individuals receive necessary medical care while protecting payers from unnecessary expenses.

There are several types of reimbursement mechanisms, including:

1. Fee-for-service (FFS): In this model, healthcare providers are paid for each service or procedure they perform, with the payment typically based on a predetermined fee schedule. This can lead to overutilization and increased costs if providers perform unnecessary services to increase their reimbursement.
2. Capitation: Under capitation, healthcare providers receive a set amount of money per patient enrolled in their care for a specified period, regardless of the number or type of services provided. This encourages providers to manage resources efficiently and focus on preventive care to maintain patients' health and reduce overall costs.
3. Bundled payments: Also known as episode-based payment, this model involves paying a single price for all the services related to a specific medical event, treatment, or condition over a defined period. This encourages coordination among healthcare providers and can help eliminate unnecessary procedures and costs.
4. Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS): RBRVS is a payment system that assigns relative value units (RVUs) to various medical services based on factors such as time, skill, and intensity required for the procedure. The RVUs are then converted into a monetary amount using a conversion factor. This system aims to create more equitable and consistent payments across different medical specialties and procedures.
5. Prospective payment systems (PPS): In PPS, healthcare providers receive predetermined fixed payments for specific services or conditions based on established diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) or other criteria. This system encourages efficiency in care delivery and can help control costs by setting limits on reimbursement amounts.
6. Pay-for-performance (P4P): P4P models tie a portion of healthcare providers' reimbursements to their performance on specific quality measures, such as patient satisfaction scores or adherence to evidence-based guidelines. This system aims to incentivize high-quality care and improve overall healthcare outcomes.
7. Shared savings/risk arrangements: In these models, healthcare providers form accountable care organizations (ACOs) or other collaborative entities that assume responsibility for managing the total cost of care for a defined population. If they can deliver care at lower costs while maintaining quality standards, they share in the savings with payers. However, if costs exceed targets, they may be required to absorb some of the financial risk.

These various reimbursement models aim to balance the need for high-quality care with cost control and efficiency in healthcare delivery. By aligning incentives and promoting coordination among providers, these systems can help improve patient outcomes while reducing unnecessary costs and waste in the healthcare system.

Perioperative care is a multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients before, during, and after surgery with the goal of optimizing outcomes and minimizing complications. It encompasses various aspects such as preoperative evaluation and preparation, intraoperative monitoring and management, and postoperative recovery and rehabilitation. The perioperative period begins when a decision is made to pursue surgical intervention and ends when the patient has fully recovered from the procedure. This care is typically provided by a team of healthcare professionals including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, physical therapists, and other specialists as needed.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Medical malpractice is a legal term that refers to the breach of the duty of care by a healthcare provider, such as a doctor, nurse, or hospital, resulting in harm to the patient. This breach could be due to negligence, misconduct, or a failure to provide appropriate treatment. The standard of care expected from healthcare providers is based on established medical practices and standards within the relevant medical community.

To prove medical malpractice, four key elements must typically be demonstrated:

1. Duty of Care: A healthcare provider-patient relationship must exist, establishing a duty of care.
2. Breach of Duty: The healthcare provider must have failed to meet the standard of care expected in their field or specialty.
3. Causation: The breach of duty must be directly linked to the patient's injury or harm.
4. Damages: The patient must have suffered harm, such as physical injury, emotional distress, financial loss, or other negative consequences due to the healthcare provider's actions or inactions.

Medical malpractice cases can result in significant financial compensation for the victim and may also lead to changes in medical practices and policies to prevent similar incidents from happening in the future.

Local anesthesia is a type of anesthesia that numbs a specific area of the body, blocking pain signals from that particular region while allowing the person to remain conscious and alert. It is typically achieved through the injection or application of a local anesthetic drug, which works by temporarily inhibiting the function of nerve fibers carrying pain sensations. Common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, and bupivacaine.

Local anesthesia is commonly used for minor surgical procedures, dental work, or other medical interventions where only a small area needs to be numbed. It can also be employed as part of a combined anesthetic technique, such as in conjunction with sedation or regional anesthesia, to provide additional pain relief and increase patient comfort during more extensive surgeries.

The duration of local anesthesia varies depending on the type and dosage of the anesthetic agent used; some last for just a few hours, while others may provide numbness for up to several days. Overall, local anesthesia is considered a safe and effective method for managing pain during various medical procedures.

A toothache is defined as pain or discomfort in or around a tooth, usually caused by dental cavities, gum disease, tooth fracture, or exposed tooth roots. The pain may be sharp and stabbing, throbbing, or constant and dull. It can also be aggravated by hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks, or by biting or chewing. Toothaches are serious and should not be ignored as they can be a sign of more significant dental issues that require immediate professional attention from a dentist.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Continuing nursing education (CNE) refers to the lifelong learning process that enables nurses to expand their knowledge and skills, update their practice, and improve patient outcomes. CNE programs are designed to meet the needs of practicing nurses and can include a variety of formats such as conferences, seminars, workshops, online courses, and self-study modules. These activities provide nurses with the opportunity to learn about new developments in nursing practice, research, and technology, and to earn continuing education credits or contact hours that are required for licensure renewal and professional certification. The goal of CNE is to promote excellence in nursing practice and to ensure that nurses have the knowledge and skills necessary to provide safe, high-quality care to their patients.

Self care is a health practice that involves individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being by actively seeking out and participating in activities and behaviors that promote healthy living, prevent illness and disease, and manage existing medical conditions. Self care includes a wide range of activities such as:

* Following a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Getting adequate sleep and rest
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques or mindfulness practices
* Practicing good hygiene and grooming habits
* Seeking preventive care through regular check-ups and screenings
* Taking prescribed medications as directed by a healthcare provider
* Monitoring symptoms and seeking medical attention when necessary

Self care is an important part of overall health and wellness, and can help individuals maintain their physical, emotional, and mental health. It is also an essential component of chronic disease management, helping people with ongoing medical conditions to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Patient care planning is a critical aspect of medical practice that involves the development, implementation, and evaluation of an individualized plan for patients to receive high-quality and coordinated healthcare services. It is a collaborative process between healthcare professionals, patients, and their families that aims to identify the patient's health needs, establish realistic goals, and determine the most effective interventions to achieve those goals.

The care planning process typically includes several key components, such as:

1. Assessment: A comprehensive evaluation of the patient's physical, psychological, social, and environmental status to identify their healthcare needs and strengths.
2. Diagnosis: The identification of the patient's medical condition(s) based on clinical findings and diagnostic tests.
3. Goal-setting: The establishment of realistic and measurable goals that address the patient's healthcare needs and align with their values, preferences, and lifestyle.
4. Intervention: The development and implementation of evidence-based strategies to achieve the identified goals, including medical treatments, therapies, and supportive services.
5. Monitoring and evaluation: The ongoing assessment of the patient's progress towards achieving their goals and adjusting the care plan as needed based on changes in their condition or response to treatment.

Patient care planning is essential for ensuring that patients receive comprehensive, coordinated, and personalized care that promotes their health, well-being, and quality of life. It also helps healthcare professionals to communicate effectively, make informed decisions, and provide safe and effective care that meets the needs and expectations of their patients.

Nursing Evaluation Research (NER) is a type of research that focuses on evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of nursing interventions, treatments, or care delivery models. The main goal of NER is to determine whether these interventions or models produce desired outcomes, improve patient care, and contribute to better health outcomes.

NER typically involves collecting and analyzing data related to nursing practices, such as patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and safety. This type of research can help nurses identify best practices, develop evidence-based guidelines, and make informed decisions about patient care. NER may also be used to evaluate the impact of changes in policy or practice on patient outcomes and healthcare delivery.

NER is an important area of study for nursing professionals, as it helps to advance the field of nursing and improve patient care. By conducting rigorous evaluations of nursing interventions and practices, nurses can contribute to the development of evidence-based care that leads to better health outcomes for patients.

Clinical protocols, also known as clinical practice guidelines or care paths, are systematically developed statements that assist healthcare professionals and patients in making decisions about the appropriate healthcare for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence and consist of a set of recommendations that are designed to optimize patient outcomes, improve the quality of care, and reduce unnecessary variations in practice. Clinical protocols may cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and disease prevention, and are developed by professional organizations, government agencies, and other groups with expertise in the relevant field.

Guideline adherence, in the context of medicine, refers to the extent to which healthcare professionals follow established clinical practice guidelines or recommendations in their daily practice. These guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to assist practitioners and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines can help improve the quality of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote optimal patient outcomes. Factors that may influence guideline adherence include clinician awareness, familiarity, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the complexity of the recommendation.

Terminal care, also known as end-of-life care or palliative care, is a type of medical care provided to patients who are in the final stages of a terminal illness or condition. The primary goal of terminal care is to provide comfort, dignity, and quality of life for the patient, rather than attempting to cure the disease or prolong life.

Terminal care may involve managing pain and other symptoms, providing emotional and psychological support to both the patient and their family, and helping the patient plan for the end of their life. This can include discussing advance directives, hospice care options, and other important decisions related to end-of-life care.

The focus of terminal care is on ensuring that the patient's physical, emotional, and spiritual needs are met in a compassionate and supportive manner. It is an essential component of high-quality medical care for patients who are facing the end of their lives.

Laboratory Animal Science (also known as Experimental Animal Science) is a multidisciplinary field that involves the care, use, and breeding of animals for scientific research. It encompasses various disciplines such as veterinary medicine, biology, genetics, nutrition, and ethology to ensure the humane treatment, proper husbandry, and experimental validity when using animals in research.

The primary goal of laboratory animal science is to support and advance biological and medical knowledge by providing well-characterized and healthy animals for research purposes. This field also includes the development and implementation of guidelines, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research to ensure their welfare and minimize any potential distress or harm.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Drug incompatibility refers to a situation where two or more drugs cannot be mixed, combined, or administered together because they will interact in a way that reduces their effectiveness, causes unintended side effects, or even results in harm to the patient. This can occur due to chemical reactions between the drugs, physical interactions (such as precipitation), or pharmacological interactions (such as one drug inhibiting the metabolism of another).

Drug incompatibilities can be identified through various methods, including laboratory testing, literature review, and clinical experience. Healthcare professionals must be aware of potential drug incompatibilities and take steps to avoid them when prescribing or administering medications to patients. This may involve using different administration routes, changing the timing of medication administration, or selecting alternative drugs that are compatible with each other.

Osteopathic medicine is a system of medical care that focuses on the unity of the mind, body, and spirit in the diagnosis and treatment of illness. It was founded in the United States in 1874 by Andrew Taylor Still, MD, who developed a philosophy of medicine based on principles of preventive medicine, holistic patient care, and the interrelationship of all body systems.

Osteopathic physicians (DOs), also known as osteopaths, are trained to diagnose and treat medical conditions using a variety of treatment modalities, including manual manipulation of the musculoskeletal system. They receive the same basic medical education as MDs, but also complete additional training in osteopathic principles and practices.

Osteopathic medicine emphasizes the importance of preventive care, lifestyle modifications, and patient education in maintaining health and preventing illness. DOs are trained to use their hands to diagnose and treat structural and functional problems in the body, with a focus on the musculoskeletal system. They believe that the body has an inherent ability to heal itself, and that manipulation of the bones, muscles, and other tissues can help promote this natural healing process.

DOs are licensed to practice medicine and surgery in all 50 states and are recognized as fully qualified physicians. They may choose to specialize in any area of medicine, including family practice, internal medicine, pediatrics, surgery, psychiatry, and neurology, among others.

Acetaminophen is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a commonly used over-the-counter drug and is also available in prescription-strength formulations. Acetaminophen works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals.

Acetaminophen is available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and suppositories. It is often found in combination with other medications, such as cough and cold products, sleep aids, and opioid pain relievers.

While acetaminophen is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause serious liver damage or even death if taken in excessive amounts. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully and avoid taking more than the recommended dose, especially if you are also taking other medications that contain acetaminophen.

If you have any questions about using acetaminophen or are concerned about potential side effects, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Continuing education (CE) in the medical field refers to the ongoing process of learning and professional development that healthcare professionals engage in throughout their careers. The goal of CE is to maintain, develop, and increase knowledge, skills, and competence in order to provide safe, effective, and high-quality care to patients.

Continuing education activities can take many forms, including conferences, seminars, workshops, online courses, and self-study programs. These activities may cover a wide range of topics, such as new research findings, advances in clinical practice, changes in regulations or guidelines, and ethical issues.

Healthcare professionals are often required to complete a certain number of CE credits each year in order to maintain their licensure or certification. This helps ensure that they stay up-to-date with the latest developments in their field and are able to provide the best possible care to their patients.

Environmental medicine is a branch of medicine that focuses on the study of how various environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological agents, can impact human health. It involves understanding and addressing the causes and effects of environmental exposures on individual health and disease. This may include assessing and managing exposure to pollutants, allergens, infectious agents, and other environmental stressors in order to prevent or treat related health issues. Additionally, environmental medicine also considers how individual susceptibility, such as genetic factors or pre-existing health conditions, can influence the impact of environmental exposures on health.

"Military hospitals" are healthcare facilities that are operated by the military or armed forces of a country. They provide medical care and treatment for active duty military personnel, veterans, and at times, their families. These hospitals can be located within military bases or installations, or they may be deployed in field settings during military operations or humanitarian missions. Military hospitals are staffed with healthcare professionals who have received additional training in military medicine and are responsible for providing a range of medical services, including emergency care, surgery, rehabilitation, and mental health services. They also often conduct research in military medicine and trauma care.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Nurses" is not a medical term per se, but rather a job title or professional role within the healthcare field. Here's a brief description of what nurses do:

Nurses are healthcare professionals who work closely with patients to provide and coordinate care, education, and support. They play a critical role in promoting health, preventing illness, and helping patients cope with various medical conditions. Nurses can be found in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, long-term care facilities, community health centers, and patient homes.

There are different nursing specialties and levels of education, including:

1. Registered Nurse (RN): Typically holds an associate's or bachelor's degree in nursing and has passed a licensing exam. RNs provide direct patient care, administer medications, and coordinate treatment plans.
2. Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN): Has completed additional education and training beyond the RN level, often earning a master's or doctoral degree. APRNs can specialize in areas such as nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, or certified nurse-midwife.
3. Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) or Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN): Holds a diploma or certificate from a practical nursing program and has passed a licensing exam. LPNs/LVNs provide basic patient care under the supervision of RNs and physicians.

These definitions are not exhaustive, but they should give you an idea of what nurses do and their roles within the healthcare system.

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common complications following surgical procedures. It is defined as nausea, vomiting, or both that occurs within the first 24 hours after surgery. PONV can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, wound dehiscence, and impaired patient satisfaction. Risk factors for PONV include female gender, non-smoking status, history of motion sickness or PONV, use of opioids, and longer duration of surgery. Preventive measures and treatments include antiemetic medications, fluid therapy, and acupuncture or acupressure.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

Nurse-patient relations refer to the interactions and relationships between registered nurses (RNs) or licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and their patients. This relationship is based on trust, respect, and collaboration, with the goal of providing safe, effective, and compassionate care that promotes the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of the patient.

The nurse-patient relationship involves several key elements, including:

1. Communication: Effective communication is essential in the nurse-patient relationship. Nurses must listen actively to their patients, understand their needs and concerns, and provide clear and concise information about their care.
2. Empathy: Nurses should demonstrate empathy and compassion towards their patients, recognizing their feelings and emotions and providing emotional support when needed.
3. Autonomy: Nurses should respect their patients' autonomy and self-determination, involving them in decision-making about their care and promoting their independence whenever possible.
4. Confidentiality: Nurses must maintain confidentiality and protect their patients' privacy, ensuring that sensitive information is shared only with those who have a legitimate need to know.
5. Advocacy: Nurses should advocate for their patients, ensuring that they receive the care and resources they need to achieve optimal health outcomes.

Overall, nurse-patient relations are critical to the delivery of high-quality healthcare and can significantly impact patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and clinical outcomes.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

A "hospitalized child" refers to a minor (an individual who has not yet reached the age of majority, which varies by country but is typically 18 in the US) who has been admitted to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment and care. This term can encompass children of all ages, from infants to teenagers, and may include those who are suffering from a wide range of medical conditions or injuries, requiring various levels of care and intervention.

Hospitalization can be necessary for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to:

1. Acute illnesses that require close monitoring, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis.
2. Chronic medical conditions that need ongoing management, like cystic fibrosis, cancer, or congenital heart defects.
3. Severe injuries resulting from accidents, such as fractures, burns, or traumatic brain injuries.
4. Elective procedures, such as surgeries for orthopedic issues or to correct congenital abnormalities.
5. Mental health disorders that necessitate inpatient care and treatment.

Regardless of the reason for hospitalization, healthcare professionals strive to provide comprehensive, family-centered care to ensure the best possible outcomes for their young patients. This may involve working closely with families to address their concerns, providing education about the child's condition and treatment plan, and coordinating care across various disciplines and specialties.

In the context of medical law and ethics, fraud refers to a deliberate and intentional deception or misrepresentation of facts, motivated by personal gain, which is made by a person or entity in a position of trust, such as a healthcare professional or organization. This deception can occur through various means, including the provision of false information, the concealment of important facts, or the manipulation of data.

Medical fraud can take many forms, including:

1. Billing fraud: This occurs when healthcare providers submit false claims to insurance companies or government programs like Medicare and Medicaid for services that were not provided, were unnecessary, or were more expensive than the services actually rendered.
2. Prescription fraud: Healthcare professionals may engage in prescription fraud by writing unnecessary prescriptions for controlled substances, such as opioids, for their own use or to sell on the black market. They may also alter prescriptions or use stolen identities to obtain these drugs.
3. Research fraud: Scientists and researchers can commit fraud by manipulating or falsifying data in clinical trials, experiments, or studies to support predetermined outcomes or to secure funding and recognition.
4. Credentialing fraud: Healthcare professionals may misrepresent their qualifications, licenses, or certifications to gain employment or admitting privileges at healthcare facilities.
5. Identity theft: Stealing someone's personal information to obtain medical services, prescription medications, or insurance benefits is another form of medical fraud.

Medical fraud not only has severe legal consequences for those found guilty but also undermines the trust between patients and healthcare providers, jeopardizes patient safety, and contributes to rising healthcare costs.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Patient rights refer to the ethical principles, legal regulations, and professional guidelines that protect and ensure the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of patients during healthcare encounters. These rights encompass various aspects of patient care, including informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, access to medical records, freedom from abuse and discrimination, pain management, and communication with healthcare providers.

The specific components of patient rights may vary depending on the jurisdiction and legal framework but generally include:

1. Right to receive information: Patients have the right to obtain accurate, clear, and comprehensive information about their health status, diagnosis, treatment options, benefits, risks, and prognosis in a manner they can understand. This includes the right to ask questions and seek clarification.
2. Informed consent: Patients have the right to make informed decisions about their care based on complete and accurate information. They must be given sufficient time and support to consider their options and provide voluntary, informed consent before any treatment or procedure is performed.
3. Privacy and confidentiality: Patients have the right to privacy during medical examinations and treatments. Healthcare providers must protect patients' personal and medical information from unauthorized access, disclosure, or use.
4. Access to medical records: Patients have the right to access their medical records and obtain copies of them in a timely manner. They can also request amendments to their records if they believe there are errors or inaccuracies.
5. Freedom from discrimination: Patients have the right to receive care without discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, disability, or socioeconomic status.
6. Pain management: Patients have the right to appropriate pain assessment and management, including access to palliative and hospice care when appropriate.
7. Refusal of treatment: Patients have the right to refuse any treatment or procedure, even if it may be life-saving, as long as they are competent to make that decision and understand the consequences.
8. Communication and language assistance: Patients have the right to clear, effective communication with their healthcare providers, including access to interpreters or other necessary language assistance services.
9. Respect and dignity: Patients have the right to be treated with respect, dignity, and consideration during all aspects of their care.
10. Complaint resolution: Patients have the right to voice concerns about their care and receive timely responses from healthcare providers or institutions. They also have the right to file complaints with regulatory bodies if necessary.

Oxymorphone is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, which is a strong painkiller. It is derived from thebaine, a constituent of opium. Medically, it is used to treat moderate to severe pain and is available under various brand names such as Opana and Numorphan.

Oxymorphone works by binding to the mu-opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which results in pain relief, relaxation, and sedation. It has a high potential for abuse and addiction due to its euphoric effects, and its use should be closely monitored and controlled.

Like other opioids, oxymorphone can cause physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms if discontinued abruptly after prolonged use. Common side effects of oxymorphone include dizziness, lightheadedness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and sweating. Serious side effects may include respiratory depression, low blood pressure, and decreased heart rate.

It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking oxymorphone and to report any bothersome or worsening side effects promptly.

In medical terms, observation refers to the close monitoring and recording of a patient's signs, symptoms, or biological parameters over time in order to evaluate their condition, response to treatment, or any changes that may occur. This can include continuous or intermittent monitoring of vital signs, behavior, appearance, laboratory results, or other relevant factors. The purpose is to gather data and assess the patient's status, which will help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, or further management. Observation can take place in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, or at home with the use of telemedicine technologies.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), also known as Physiatry, is a medical specialty that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with disabilities or functional limitations related to musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurologic, and other systems. The main goal of this discipline is to restore optimal function, reduce symptoms, and improve the overall quality of life for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or disabling conditions.

PRM physicians use a variety of techniques, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, assistive devices, medications, and various types of injections to manage pain and spasticity. They also perform electrodiagnostic studies to diagnose neuromuscular disorders and provide comprehensive rehabilitation plans tailored to each patient's unique needs and goals.

In addition to direct patient care, PRM specialists often work as part of multidisciplinary teams in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and outpatient clinics, collaborating with other healthcare professionals such as nurses, therapists, psychologists, and social workers to provide coordinated, holistic care for patients.

Neurology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of diseases and disorders of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, and autonomic nervous system. Neurologists are medical doctors who specialize in this field, diagnosing and treating conditions such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various types of headaches and pain disorders. They use a variety of diagnostic tests, including imaging studies like MRI and CT scans, electrophysiological tests like EEG and EMG, and laboratory tests to evaluate nerve function and identify any underlying conditions or abnormalities. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, rehabilitation, or lifestyle modifications.

Comprehensive dental care is a broad term that refers to a dental approach that involves the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a wide range of oral health issues. It aims to provide patients with complete and optimal oral health care, including:

1. Oral examination and assessment: This includes a thorough examination of the patient's oral cavity, head, and neck to identify any existing dental problems or potential issues that may arise in the future.
2. Preventive care: Comprehensive dental care emphasizes preventive measures such as regular dental cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants to help protect against tooth decay and gum disease.
3. Restorative dentistry: If dental problems are identified, comprehensive dental care includes restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, bridges, or implants to restore the function and appearance of damaged teeth.
4. Periodontal (gum) treatment: Comprehensive dental care also addresses periodontal health through deep cleanings, scaling and root planing, and other therapies to manage gum disease.
5. Oral surgery: In some cases, comprehensive dental care may involve oral surgery procedures like tooth extractions or jaw realignment.
6. Endodontic (root canal) treatment: If the pulp of a tooth becomes infected or inflamed, endodontic treatment may be necessary to save the tooth and alleviate pain.
7. Prosthodontics: This includes the replacement of missing teeth with dentures, bridges, or implants.
8. Orthodontic care: Comprehensive dental care can also involve orthodontic treatments like braces or aligners to straighten misaligned teeth and improve bite.
9. Oral cancer screening: Regular oral cancer screenings are an essential part of comprehensive dental care, as early detection significantly increases the chances of successful treatment.
10. Patient education: Comprehensive dental care also focuses on educating patients about proper oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle choices that can impact their oral health. This helps empower patients to take an active role in maintaining their oral health between appointments.

In summary, comprehensive dental care is a holistic approach to dental care that aims to provide complete and personalized oral health solutions for each patient, addressing all aspects of their oral health and promoting long-term wellbeing.

Applied Kinesiology (AK) is a system of diagnosis and treatment based on the belief that various muscles are linked to particular organs and glands, and that specific muscle weakness can signal distant internal problems such as nerve damage or illness. Developed by chiropractor George Goodheart in the 1960s, AK is often used in conjunction with other therapies, such as chiropractic manipulation and nutritional counseling. Practitioners use manual muscle testing to evaluate a patient's physical health and emotional well-being, looking for imbalances that can be addressed through various interventions. It's important to note that Applied Kinesiology is not generally recognized as a valid or reliable diagnostic tool within the mainstream medical community.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

I'm happy to help! However, it looks like you are asking for a medical definition of "Information Management." It is important to note that "Information Management" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general term used in many fields, including healthcare. Here's a possible definition of Information Management in the context of healthcare:

Information Management (in healthcare) refers to the systematic processes and practices used to collect, store, distribute, retrieve, and dispose of health information in an accurate, confidential, timely, and efficient manner. It involves the use of technology, policies, procedures, and personnel to ensure that health information is accessible, secure, and used appropriately for patient care, research, quality improvement, and other purposes. Effective Information Management is critical for ensuring high-quality healthcare, improving patient outcomes, and complying with legal and regulatory requirements related to privacy and security of health information.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

Interdisciplinary communication in a medical context refers to the exchange of information and ideas between professionals from different healthcare disciplines, such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, and therapists. This form of communication is essential for coordinating patient care, making informed treatment decisions, and ensuring that all members of the healthcare team are aware of the patient's needs, goals, and progress. Effective interdisciplinary communication can help to improve patient outcomes, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce medical errors. It typically involves clear, concise, and respectful communication, often through regular meetings, shared documentation, and collaborative decision-making processes.

Laxatives are substances or medications that are used to promote bowel movements or loosen the stools, thereby helping in the treatment of constipation. They work by increasing the amount of water in the stool or stimulating the muscles in the intestines to contract and push the stool through. Laxatives can be categorized into several types based on their mechanism of action, including bulk-forming laxatives, lubricant laxatives, osmotic laxatives, saline laxatives, stimulant laxatives, and stool softeners. It is important to use laxatives only as directed by a healthcare professional, as overuse or misuse can lead to serious health complications.

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) are a group of chronic pain conditions that typically affect a limb after an injury or trauma. They are characterized by prolonged, severe and often debilitating pain that is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. CRPS is divided into two types:

1. CRPS-1 (also known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): This type occurs without a clearly defined nerve injury. It usually develops after an illness or injury that didn't directly damage the nerves.
2. CRPS-2 (also known as Causalgia): This type is associated with a confirmed nerve injury.

The symptoms of CRPS include:

* Continuous, burning or throbbing pain in the affected limb
* Changes in skin temperature, color and texture
* Swelling and stiffness in the joints
* Decreased range of motion and weakness in the affected limb
* Sensitivity to touch or cold
* Abnormal sweating pattern in the affected area
* Changes in nail and hair growth patterns

The exact cause of CRPS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a dysfunction in the nervous system's response to injury. Treatment for CRPS typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and psychological support. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation may be recommended.

"Cutaneous administration" is a route of administering medication or treatment through the skin. This can be done through various methods such as:

1. Topical application: This involves applying the medication directly to the skin in the form of creams, ointments, gels, lotions, patches, or solutions. The medication is absorbed into the skin and enters the systemic circulation slowly over a period of time. Topical medications are often used for local effects, such as treating eczema, psoriasis, or fungal infections.

2. Iontophoresis: This method uses a mild electrical current to help a medication penetrate deeper into the skin. A positive charge is applied to a medication with a negative charge, or vice versa, causing it to be attracted through the skin. Iontophoresis is often used for local pain management and treating conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

3. Transdermal delivery systems: These are specialized patches that contain medication within them. The patch is applied to the skin, and as time passes, the medication is released through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This method allows for a steady, controlled release of medication over an extended period. Common examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation and hormone replacement therapy patches.

Cutaneous administration offers several advantages, such as avoiding first-pass metabolism (which can reduce the effectiveness of oral medications), providing localized treatment, and allowing for self-administration in some cases. However, it may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions, and potential side effects include skin irritation, allergic reactions, and systemic absorption leading to unwanted systemic effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

An autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that involves injecting a local anesthetic or other medication into or near the nerves that make up the autonomic nervous system. This type of nerve block is used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, such as neuropathy or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling many involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and body temperature. It is made up of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for preparing the body for "fight or flight" responses, while the parasympathetic nervous system helps the body relax and rest.

An autonomic nerve block can be used to diagnose a problem with the autonomic nervous system by temporarily blocking the nerves' signals and observing how this affects the body's functions. It can also be used to treat pain or other symptoms caused by damage to the autonomic nerves. The injection is usually given in the area near the spine, and the specific location will depend on the nerves being targeted.

It is important to note that an autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that should only be performed by a qualified healthcare professional. As with any medical procedure, there are risks and benefits associated with an autonomic nerve block, and it is important for patients to discuss these with their doctor before deciding whether this treatment is right for them.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Acupuncture therapy is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate the flow of energy (Qi), balance the vital force (Chi), and promote healing. It is based on the concept of meridians, or pathways, through which this energy flows. Acupuncture therapy is used to treat a variety of conditions, including pain, stress, anxiety, insomnia, digestive disorders, and reproductive health issues. According to Western medicine, acupuncture may work by stimulating the nervous system, increasing blood flow, and releasing natural pain-relieving chemicals called endorphins. It is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified practitioner using sterile needles.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids are a type of organic compound that consists of a cyclohexane ring, which is a six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon, substituted with a carboxylic acid group (-COOH). This group contains a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

The cyclohexane ring can be in various forms, including the chair, boat, or twist-boat conformations, depending on the orientation of its constituent atoms. The carboxylic acid group can ionize to form a carboxylate anion, which is negatively charged and has a deprotonated hydroxyl group.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids have various applications in industry and research, including as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. They can also be found naturally in some plants and microorganisms.

Animal Care Committees (ACCs), also known as Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) in the United States, are committees required by regulations to oversee the humane treatment and use of animals in research and teaching at institutions such as universities, hospitals, and pharmaceutical companies.

The main responsibilities of ACCs include reviewing and approving animal use protocols, inspecting animal facilities and laboratories, ensuring compliance with relevant policies and regulations, and providing training and education to researchers and staff on the ethical treatment of animals. The members of ACCs typically include veterinarians, scientists, non-scientists, and community members who can provide a balanced perspective on the use of animals in research and teaching.

Visceral pain is a type of pain that originates from the internal organs (viscera) such as the stomach, intestines, liver, or heart. It's often described as diffuse, dull, and hard to localize, unlike somatic pain which arises from the skin, muscles, or bones and is usually easier to pinpoint.

Visceral pain may be caused by various conditions like inflammation, infection, ischemia (reduced blood supply), distention or stretching of the organ walls, or direct damage to the organs. The sensation of visceral pain can be modulated and referred to other areas of the body due to the complex interactions in the nervous system, making it sometimes challenging to diagnose the exact source of the pain.

"Men" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It generally refers to adult male human beings. If you are looking for a medical definition related to males, there are several terms that could potentially fit based on the context. Here are some examples:

* Male: A person who is biologically determined to be male, typically having XY chromosomes, testes, and certain physical characteristics such as greater muscle mass and body hair compared to females.
* Men's health: Refers to the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical conditions that are more common or specific to males, such as prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and erectile dysfunction.
* Menopause: A natural biological process that occurs in women, typically in their 40s or 50s, when their ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods cease. Although not directly related to males, it is worth noting that some men may experience symptoms similar to those of menopause due to a decline in testosterone levels as they age (a condition known as andropause).

I hope this helps clarify! Let me know if you have any further questions or need more information.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

Ambulatory surgical procedures, also known as outpatient or same-day surgery, refer to medical operations that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These procedures are typically performed in a specialized ambulatory surgery center (ASC) or in a hospital-based outpatient department. Patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures receive anesthesia, undergo the operation, and recover enough to be discharged home on the same day of the procedure.

Examples of common ambulatory surgical procedures include:

1. Arthroscopy (joint scope examination and repair)
2. Cataract surgery
3. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy
4. Dental surgery, such as wisdom tooth extraction
5. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
6. Hernia repair
7. Hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus)
8. Minor skin procedures, like biopsies and lesion removals
9. Orthopedic procedures, such as carpal tunnel release or joint injections
10. Pain management procedures, including epidural steroid injections and nerve blocks
11. Podiatric (foot and ankle) surgery
12. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

Advancements in medical technology, minimally invasive surgical techniques, and improved anesthesia methods have contributed to the growth of ambulatory surgical procedures, offering patients a more convenient and cost-effective alternative to traditional inpatient surgeries.

Osteopathic manipulation, also known as osteopathic manual medicine (OMM), is a hands-on approach to diagnosing, treating, and preventing illness and injury. It is a system of manual therapy that was developed by Andrew Taylor Still, the founder of osteopathic medicine. OMM uses a variety of techniques to move, stretch, and massage the muscles, joints, and other tissues. The goal of osteopathic manipulation is to restore normal function and balance to the body, allowing it to heal itself.

Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is a series of manual techniques that are used to diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions. These techniques may include stretching, gentle pressure, or resistance to improve the mobility and function of joints, muscles, and other tissues. OMT can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including back pain, headaches, neck pain, and other musculoskeletal problems. It is also used to help relieve the symptoms of various internal disorders, such as asthma, sinus disorders, and digestive problems.

It's important to note that Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) should be performed by a qualified healthcare professional with training in osteopathic manipulation, like an osteopathic physician (DO). It is generally considered safe when performed by a trained and licensed practitioner. However, as with any medical treatment, it is not without risks and potential complications. Therefore, it's important to discuss the potential benefits and risks of OMT with your healthcare provider before undergoing treatment.

A physician is a healthcare professional who practices medicine, providing medical care and treatment to patients. Physicians may specialize in various fields of medicine, such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, or radiology, among others. They are responsible for diagnosing and treating illnesses, injuries, and disorders; prescribing medications; ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests; providing counseling and education to patients; and collaborating with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care. Physicians may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and academic medical centers. To become a physician, one must complete a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree program and pass licensing exams to practice medicine in their state.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

Veterinary surgery refers to the surgical procedures performed on animals by trained veterinarians or veterinary surgeons. It involves the use of various surgical techniques and tools to diagnose, treat, or prevent diseases and injuries in animals. This can include soft tissue surgeries such as abdominal or thoracic surgeries, orthopedic surgeries for bone and joint issues, neurological surgeries, oncological surgeries for the removal of tumors, and reconstructive surgeries. Veterinary surgeons must complete extensive education and training in order to provide safe and effective surgical care for animals.

A drug prescription is a written or electronic order provided by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician, dentist, or advanced practice nurse, to a pharmacist that authorizes the preparation and dispensing of a specific medication for a patient. The prescription typically includes important information such as the patient's name and date of birth, the name and strength of the medication, the dosage regimen, the duration of treatment, and any special instructions or precautions.

Prescriptions serve several purposes, including ensuring that patients receive the appropriate medication for their medical condition, preventing medication errors, and promoting safe and effective use of medications. They also provide a legal record of the medical provider's authorization for the pharmacist to dispense the medication to the patient.

There are two main types of prescriptions: written prescriptions and electronic prescriptions. Written prescriptions are handwritten or printed on paper, while electronic prescriptions are transmitted electronically from the medical provider to the pharmacy. Electronic prescriptions are becoming increasingly common due to their convenience, accuracy, and security.

It is important for patients to follow the instructions provided on their prescription carefully and to ask their healthcare provider or pharmacist any questions they may have about their medication. Failure to follow a drug prescription can result in improper use of the medication, which can lead to adverse effects, treatment failure, or even life-threatening situations.

Relaxation therapy is not a specific type of therapy with its own distinct medical definition. Rather, relaxation is a common element that is incorporated into many types of therapies and techniques aimed at reducing stress, anxiety, and promoting physical and mental relaxation. These techniques can include various forms of mind-body interventions such as deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, meditation, yoga, tai chi, and biofeedback.

The goal of relaxation therapy is to help individuals learn to control their physiological responses to stress and anxiety, leading to a reduction in muscle tension, lower heart rate and blood pressure, and an overall sense of calm and well-being. While relaxation therapy is not typically used as a standalone treatment for medical conditions, it can be a useful adjunctive therapy when combined with other treatments for a variety of physical and mental health concerns.

Airway management is a set of procedures and techniques used to maintain or restore the flow of air into and out of the lungs, ensuring adequate ventilation and oxygenation of the body. This is critical in medical emergencies such as respiratory arrest, cardiac arrest, trauma, and other situations where a patient may have difficulty breathing on their own.

Airway management includes various interventions, such as:

1. Basic airway maneuvers: These include chin lift, jaw thrust, and suctioning to clear the airway of obstructions.
2. Use of adjuncts: Devices like oropharyngeal (OPA) and nasopharyngeal airways (NPA) can be used to maintain an open airway.
3. Bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation: This is a technique where a mask is placed over the patient's face, and positive pressure is applied to the bag to help move air in and out of the lungs.
4. Endotracheal intubation: A flexible plastic tube is inserted through the mouth or nose and advanced into the trachea (windpipe) to secure the airway and allow for mechanical ventilation.
5. Supraglottic airway devices (SADs): These are alternatives to endotracheal intubation, such as laryngeal mask airways (LMAs), that provide a temporary seal over the upper airway to facilitate ventilation.
6. Surgical airway: In rare cases, when other methods fail or are not possible, a surgical airway may be established by creating an opening through the neck (cricothyrotomy or tracheostomy) to access the trachea directly.

Proper airway management requires knowledge of anatomy, understanding of various techniques and devices, and the ability to quickly assess and respond to changing clinical situations. Healthcare professionals, such as physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and paramedics, receive extensive training in airway management to ensure competency in managing this critical aspect of patient care.

Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist, often used as a substitute for heroin or other opiates in detoxification programs or as a long-term maintenance drug for opiate addiction. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain signals. It also helps to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opiate dependence.

Methadone is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solutions, and injectable solutions. It's typically prescribed and dispensed under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

In a medical context, methadone may also be used to treat moderate to severe pain that cannot be managed with other types of medication. However, its use in this context is more limited due to the risks associated with opioid therapy.

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a medical procedure that involves the use of an implanted device to deliver electrical pulses to the spinal cord. The pulses are intended to interrupt or mask the transmission of pain signals to the brain, thereby reducing the perception of pain. SCS is typically offered as a treatment option for patients with chronic pain who have not found relief from other therapies, such as medication or surgery.

During the procedure, electrodes are placed in the epidural space of the spinal cord, and connected to a pulse generator that is implanted under the skin, usually in the abdomen or buttocks. The patient can use a remote control to adjust the intensity and location of the stimulation, allowing them to customize the therapy to their individual pain patterns.

SCS is generally considered safe, although there are some risks associated with the procedure, such as infection, bleeding, and nerve damage. It is important for patients to discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before deciding whether to undergo SCS.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

The lumbosacral region is the lower part of the back where the lumbar spine (five vertebrae in the lower back) connects with the sacrum (a triangular bone at the base of the spine). This region is subject to various conditions such as sprains, strains, herniated discs, and degenerative disorders that can cause pain and discomfort. It's also a common site for surgical intervention when non-surgical treatments fail to provide relief.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Clinical competence is the ability of a healthcare professional to provide safe and effective patient care, demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for the job. It involves the integration of theoretical knowledge with practical skills, judgment, and decision-making abilities in real-world clinical situations. Clinical competence is typically evaluated through various methods such as direct observation, case studies, simulations, and feedback from peers and supervisors.

A clinically competent healthcare professional should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a solid understanding of the relevant medical knowledge and its application in clinical practice.
2. Perform essential clinical skills proficiently and safely.
3. Communicate effectively with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals.
4. Make informed decisions based on critical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
5. Exhibit professionalism, ethical behavior, and cultural sensitivity in patient care.
6. Continuously evaluate and improve their performance through self-reflection and ongoing learning.

Maintaining clinical competence is essential for healthcare professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients and stay current with advances in medical science and technology.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Medical Definition of Massage:

Massage is defined as the manual manipulation of soft body tissues (such as muscle, connective tissue, tendons, and ligaments) to enhance health and well-being. It involves various techniques that include kneading, rubbing, pressing, and stretching the muscles and fascia (the connective tissue that covers the muscles).

The goal of massage is to increase circulation, relieve tension, reduce muscle stiffness and pain, promote relaxation, and improve range of motion and overall flexibility. Massage therapy may be used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including anxiety, headaches, insomnia, joint pain, soft tissue injuries, and sports-related injuries.

It is important to note that massage should be performed by a trained and licensed professional to ensure safety and effectiveness. Additionally, individuals with certain health conditions, such as deep vein thrombosis, fractures, or infectious diseases, should avoid massage or consult their healthcare provider before receiving treatment.

Legal liability, in the context of medical law, refers to a legal obligation or responsibility that a healthcare professional or facility may have for their actions or negligence that results in harm or injury to a patient. This can include failure to provide appropriate care, misdiagnosis, medication errors, or other breaches of the standard of care. If a healthcare provider is found to be legally liable, they may be required to pay damages to the injured party. It's important to note that legal liability is different from medical malpractice, which refers to a specific type of negligence committed by a healthcare professional.

Musculoskeletal diseases are a group of medical conditions that affect the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. These diseases can cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and decreased function in the affected areas of the body. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and bone erosion.
3. Gout: A form of arthritis caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, leading to severe pain, redness, and swelling.
4. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weakened bones that are more susceptible to fractures due to decreased bone density.
5. Fibromyalgia: A disorder that causes widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and tenderness in specific areas of the body.
6. Spinal disorders: Conditions affecting the spine, such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or degenerative disc disease, which can cause back pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
7. Soft tissue injuries: Damage to muscles, tendons, and ligaments, often caused by overuse, strain, or trauma.
8. Infections: Bone and joint infections (septic arthritis or osteomyelitis) can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
9. Tumors: Benign or malignant growths in bones, muscles, or soft tissues can lead to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
10. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can affect the musculoskeletal system and cause various symptoms.

Treatment for musculoskeletal diseases varies depending on the specific condition but may include medications, physical therapy, exercise, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Cryotherapy is a medical treatment that uses low temperatures to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue. It can be applied locally to a small area, or more widely to larger areas of the body. In local cryotherapy, a substance such as liquid nitrogen or argon gas is applied directly to the skin to freeze and destroy unwanted cells, such as in the treatment of warts, skin tags, or certain types of cancer. More widespread cryotherapy can be achieved through the use of cold chambers that lower the temperature of the air around the body, which has been used to treat conditions such as inflammation, pain, and muscle spasms.

The medical definition of cryotherapy is:

"The therapeutic application of cold temperatures to damaged tissues to reduce inflammation, promote healing, and provide pain relief."

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Drug tolerance is a medical concept that refers to the decreased response to a drug following its repeated use, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. This occurs because the body adapts to the presence of the drug, leading to changes in the function or expression of targets that the drug acts upon, such as receptors or enzymes. Tolerance can develop to various types of drugs, including opioids, benzodiazepines, and alcohol, and it is often associated with physical dependence and addiction. It's important to note that tolerance is different from resistance, which refers to the ability of a pathogen to survive or grow in the presence of a drug, such as antibiotics.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder that affects the hemoglobin in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. In sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin is abnormal and causes the red blood cells to take on a sickle shape, rather than the normal disc shape. These sickled cells are stiff and sticky, and they can block blood vessels, causing tissue damage and pain. They also die more quickly than normal red blood cells, leading to anemia.

People with sickle cell anemia often experience fatigue, chronic pain, and jaundice. They may also have a higher risk of infections and complications such as stroke, acute chest syndrome, and priapism. The disease is inherited from both parents, who must both be carriers of the sickle cell gene. It primarily affects people of African descent, but it can also affect people from other ethnic backgrounds.

There is no cure for sickle cell anemia, but treatments such as blood transfusions, medications to manage pain and prevent complications, and bone marrow transplantation can help improve quality of life for affected individuals. Regular medical care and monitoring are essential for managing the disease effectively.

An amide is a functional group or a compound that contains a carbonyl group (a double-bonded carbon atom) and a nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom is connected to the carbonyl carbon atom by a single bond, and it also has a lone pair of electrons. Amides are commonly found in proteins and peptides, where they form amide bonds (also known as peptide bonds) between individual amino acids.

The general structure of an amide is R-CO-NHR', where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Amides can be classified into several types based on the nature of R and R' substituents:

* Primary amides: R-CO-NH2
* Secondary amides: R-CO-NHR'
* Tertiary amides: R-CO-NR''R'''

Amides have several important chemical properties. They are generally stable and resistant to hydrolysis under neutral or basic conditions, but they can be hydrolyzed under acidic conditions or with strong bases. Amides also exhibit a characteristic infrared absorption band around 1650 cm-1 due to the carbonyl stretching vibration.

In addition to their prevalence in proteins and peptides, amides are also found in many natural and synthetic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, and polymers. They have a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and materials science.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

Ambulatory care is a type of health care service in which patients are treated on an outpatient basis, meaning they do not stay overnight at the medical facility. This can include a wide range of services such as diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care for various medical conditions. The goal of ambulatory care is to provide high-quality medical care that is convenient, accessible, and cost-effective for patients.

Examples of ambulatory care settings include physician offices, community health centers, urgent care centers, outpatient surgery centers, and diagnostic imaging facilities. Patients who receive ambulatory care may have a variety of medical needs, such as routine checkups, chronic disease management, minor procedures, or same-day surgeries.

Overall, ambulatory care is an essential component of modern healthcare systems, providing patients with timely and convenient access to medical services without the need for hospitalization.

Physician-patient relations, also known as doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interaction and communication between healthcare professionals and their patients. This relationship is founded on trust, respect, and understanding, with the physician providing medical care and treatment based on the patient's needs and best interests. Effective physician-patient relations involve clear communication, informed consent, shared decision-making, and confidentiality. A positive and collaborative relationship can lead to better health outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and increased adherence to treatment plans.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Infusions and intralesional treatments are medical procedures that involve introducing medications or therapeutic substances directly into the body or a specific location in the body. Although they are different in their administration methods and applications, I will provide separate definitions for both infusions and intralesional treatments for clarity.

Infusion:
An infusion is a medical procedure where a liquid medication or fluid is introduced directly into a vein (intravenous infusion) or subcutaneously (subcutaneous infusion) using a sterile needle or catheter. This method allows the medication to bypass the gastrointestinal tract and enter the bloodstream directly, ensuring rapid absorption and a higher bioavailability of the drug. Infusions are commonly used for administering various medications, including antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents, immunoglobulins, and other therapeutic proteins.

Intralesional:
An intralesional treatment is a medical procedure where a medication or therapeutic substance is injected directly into a specific lesion or area of inflammation within the body. This method targets the therapy to the site of action, often leading to higher concentrations of the drug at the affected area and minimizing systemic exposure and potential side effects. Intralesional treatments are commonly used for various conditions, including skin disorders, cancerous and noncancerous tumors, and joint inflammation. Examples of intralesional therapies include the injection of corticosteroids into a inflamed joint or the use of immunotherapy to treat certain types of melanoma.

Animal welfare is a concept that refers to the state of an animal's physical and mental health, comfort, and ability to express normal behaviors. It encompasses factors such as proper nutrition, housing, handling, care, treatment, and protection from harm and distress. The goal of animal welfare is to ensure that animals are treated with respect and consideration, and that their needs and interests are met in a responsible and ethical manner.

The concept of animal welfare is based on the recognition that animals are sentient beings capable of experiencing pain, suffering, and emotions, and that they have intrinsic value beyond their usefulness to humans. It is guided by principles such as the "Five Freedoms," which include freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury or disease, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from fear and distress.

Animal welfare is an important consideration in various fields, including agriculture, research, conservation, entertainment, and companionship. It involves a multidisciplinary approach that draws on knowledge from biology, ethology, veterinary medicine, psychology, philosophy, and law. Ultimately, animal welfare aims to promote the humane treatment of animals and to ensure their well-being in all aspects of their lives.

Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) is not a formally recognized medical diagnosis, but rather a term that is used to describe the condition of patients who continue to experience chronic pain in the spine or legs after having undergone one or more spinal surgeries. FBSS does not necessarily mean that the surgery was performed incorrectly, but rather that it did not achieve the desired outcome of relieving the patient's pain.

The symptoms of FBSS can vary from person to person, but often include chronic pain in the back or legs, numbness or tingling sensations, muscle weakness, and decreased mobility. The exact cause of FBSS is not always clear, but it may be due to a variety of factors, such as nerve damage, scar tissue formation, or continued spinal instability.

Treatment for FBSS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that may include medication, physical therapy, injections, and psychological support. In some cases, additional surgery may be recommended, but this is usually considered a last resort due to the risks involved and the fact that previous surgeries have not been successful.

Labor pain is the physiological discomfort and pain experienced by women during childbirth, typically beginning in the lower back and radiating to the abdomen as contractions become more intense and frequent. It's primarily caused by the contraction of uterine muscles, pressure on the cervix, and stretching of the vaginal tissues during labor and delivery.

The pain can vary greatly among individuals, ranging from mild to severe, and it may be influenced by factors such as fear, anxiety, cultural expectations, and previous childbirth experiences. Various methods, including pharmacological interventions (such as epidural anesthesia), non-pharmacological techniques (such as breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and water immersion), and alternative therapies (such as acupuncture and massage) can be used to manage labor pain.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) diseases, also known as Peripheral Neuropathies, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the peripheral nervous system, which includes all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, controlling sensations, movements, and automatic functions such as heart rate and digestion.

PNS diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, toxins, metabolic disorders, trauma, or autoimmune conditions. The symptoms of PNS diseases depend on the type and extent of nerve damage but often include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet
2. Muscle weakness or cramps
3. Loss of reflexes
4. Decreased sensation to touch, temperature, or vibration
5. Coordination problems and difficulty with balance
6. Sexual dysfunction
7. Digestive issues, such as constipation or diarrhea
8. Dizziness or fainting due to changes in blood pressure

Examples of PNS diseases include Guillain-Barre syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, diabetic neuropathy, and peripheral nerve injuries. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the underlying cause but may involve medications, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

An inpatient, in medical terms, refers to a person who has been admitted to a hospital or other healthcare facility for the purpose of receiving medical treatment and who is expected to remain there for at least one night. Inpatients are typically cared for by a team of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, and therapists, and may receive various treatments, such as medications, surgeries, or rehabilitation services.

Inpatient care is generally recommended for patients who require close monitoring, frequent assessments, or intensive medical interventions that cannot be provided in an outpatient setting. The length of stay for inpatients can vary widely depending on the nature and severity of their condition, as well as their individual treatment plan.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

Occupational medicine is a branch of clinical medicine that deals with the prevention and management of diseases and injuries that may arise in the workplace or as a result of work-related activities. It involves evaluating the health risks associated with various jobs, recommending measures to reduce these risks, providing medical care for workers who become ill or injured on the job, and promoting overall health and wellness in the workplace. Occupational medicine physicians may also be involved in developing policies and procedures related to workplace safety, disability management, and return-to-work programs. The ultimate goal of occupational medicine is to help ensure that workers are able to perform their jobs safely and effectively while maintaining their overall health and well-being.

Epidural anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves the injection of local anesthetic medication into the epidural space in the spine, which is the space surrounding the dura mater, a membrane that covers the spinal cord. The injection is typically administered through a catheter placed in the lower back using a needle.

The local anesthetic drug blocks nerve impulses from the affected area, numbing it and relieving pain. Epidural anesthesia can be used for various surgical procedures, such as cesarean sections, knee or hip replacements, and hernia repairs. It is also commonly used during childbirth to provide pain relief during labor and delivery.

The effects of epidural anesthesia can vary depending on the dose and type of medication used, as well as the individual's response to the drug. The anesthetic may take several minutes to start working, and its duration of action can range from a few hours to a day or more. Epidural anesthesia is generally considered safe when administered by trained medical professionals, but like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, nerve damage, and respiratory depression.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

An outpatient clinic in a hospital setting is a department or facility where patients receive medical care without being admitted to the hospital. These clinics are typically designed to provide specialized services for specific medical conditions or populations. They may be staffed by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who work on a part-time or full-time basis.

Outpatient clinics offer a range of services, including diagnostic tests, consultations, treatments, and follow-up care. Patients can visit the clinic for routine checkups, management of chronic conditions, rehabilitation, and other medical needs. The specific services offered at an outpatient clinic will depend on the hospital and the clinic's specialty.

Outpatient clinics are often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care because they allow patients to receive medical treatment while continuing to live at home. They also help reduce the burden on hospitals by freeing up beds for patients who require more intensive or emergency care. Overall, outpatient clinics play an essential role in providing accessible and high-quality healthcare services to patients in their communities.

National Health Insurance (NHI) in the United States does not refer to a specific federal program, but rather it is often used to describe the concept of universal healthcare financing, where all residents have access to necessary healthcare services, and the costs are shared among the entire population.

However, the closest equivalent to NHI in the US is Medicare, which is a federal social insurance program that provides health insurance coverage to people aged 65 and older, some younger people with disabilities, and people with end-stage renal disease. It is not a true NHI system because it does not cover all residents of the country.

Therefore, there is no widely accepted medical definition of 'National Health Insurance, United States' in the context of an actual existing program or policy.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Intervertebral disc displacement, also known as a slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition where the inner, softer material (nucleus pulposus) of the intervertebral disc bulges or ruptures through its outer, tougher ring (annulus fibrosus). This can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area, often in the lower back or neck. The displacement may also lead to inflammation and irritation of the surrounding spinal structures, further exacerbating the symptoms. The condition is typically caused by age-related wear and tear (degenerative disc disease) or sudden trauma.

Behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on modifying harmful or unhealthy behaviors, thoughts, and emotions by applying learning principles derived from behavioral psychology. The goal of behavior therapy is to reinforce positive behaviors and eliminate negative ones through various techniques such as systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, exposure therapy, and operant conditioning.

Systematic desensitization involves gradually exposing the individual to a feared situation or stimulus while teaching them relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety. Aversion therapy aims to associate an undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus to discourage the behavior. Exposure therapy exposes the individual to a feared situation or object in a controlled and safe environment to help them overcome their fear. Operant conditioning uses reinforcement and punishment to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable ones.

Behavior therapy has been found to be effective in treating various mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, phobias, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. It is often used in combination with other forms of therapy and medication to provide a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals seeking help for mental health concerns.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

Medicare Assignment is a term used in the United States healthcare system that refers to an agreement between healthcare providers (such as doctors, clinics, or hospitals) and the Medicare program. When a provider accepts assignment, they agree to accept the Medicare-approved amount as payment in full for covered services provided to Medicare beneficiaries. This means that the provider cannot charge patients more than the Medicare deductible and coinsurance amounts for those services.

For beneficiaries, accepting Medicare Assignment offers several advantages:

1. Predictable costs: Beneficiaries only need to pay their designated share (deductibles and coinsurances) of the Medicare-approved amount for covered services. Providers cannot bill them for any additional amounts beyond this.
2. No surprise bills: With providers accepting assignment, beneficiaries are protected from receiving unexpected or balance bills for more than the Medicare-approved amount.
3. Easier claims processing: When using an assigned provider, Medicare directly pays the provider, and the patient only needs to pay their share of the costs. This simplifies the claims process and reduces administrative burdens for beneficiaries.

Providers also benefit from accepting Medicare Assignment as they receive timely payments from Medicare without having to chase down payments or deal with complex billing issues. However, providers may choose not to accept assignment in certain situations, which could potentially result in higher out-of-pocket costs for beneficiaries.

Individualized medicine, also known as personalized medicine, is a medical model that uses molecular profiling and various diagnostic tests to understand the genetic and environmental variations affecting an individual's health and disease susceptibility. It aims to tailor medical treatments, including prevention strategies, diagnostics, therapies, and follow-up care, to each person's unique needs and characteristics. By incorporating genomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and other "omics" data into clinical decision-making, individualized medicine strives to improve patient outcomes, reduce adverse effects, and potentially lower healthcare costs.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a persistent pattern of distrust and suspicion, such that others' intentions are interpreted as malevolent. This disorder is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions.

To be diagnosed with PPD, an individual must display at least four of the following symptoms:

1. Suspects, without sufficient reason, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them.
2. Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates.
3. Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against them.
4. Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events.
5. Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights.
6. Perceives attacks on their character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack.
7. Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner.

These symptoms must be present for a significant period, typically at least one year, and must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms cannot be better explained by another mental disorder, such as Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features, or Substance/Medication-Induced Psychotic Disorder.

'Drug legislation' refers to the laws and regulations that govern the production, distribution, sale, possession, and use of medications and pharmaceutical products within a given jurisdiction. These laws are designed to protect public health and safety by establishing standards for drug quality, ensuring appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices, preventing drug abuse and diversion, and promoting access to necessary medications. Drug legislation may also include provisions related to clinical trials, advertising, packaging, labeling, and reimbursement. Compliance with these regulations is typically enforced through a combination of government agencies, professional organizations, and legal penalties for non-compliance.

"Military medicine" is a specific branch of medical practice that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and injuries in military populations. It encompasses the provision of healthcare services to military personnel, both in peacetime and during times of conflict or emergency situations. This may include providing care in combat zones, managing mass casualties, delivering preventive medicine programs, conducting medical research, and providing medical support during peacekeeping missions and humanitarian assistance efforts. Military medicine also places a strong emphasis on the development and use of specialized equipment, techniques, and protocols to ensure the best possible medical care for military personnel in challenging environments.

Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works by binding to the opiate receptors in the brain, which reduces the perception of pain. Butorphanol is available as an injectable solution and a nasal spray.

The medical definition of 'Butorphanol' is:

A synthetic opioid analgesic with agonist-antagonist properties. It is used in the management of moderate to severe pain, as a veterinary analgesic, and for obstetrical analgesia. Butorphanol has a high affinity for the kappa-opioid receptor, a lower affinity for the mu-opioid receptor, and little or no affinity for the delta-opioid receptor. Its actions at the mu-opioid receptor are antagonistic to those of morphine and other mu-opioid agonists, while its actions at the kappa-opioid receptor are similar to those of other opioids.

Butorphanol has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect. It may cause respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, vomiting, and other side effects common to opioid analgesics. Butorphanol is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Northern Territory" is not a medical term. It is a geographical and political term referring to a federal territory in Australia. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Triamcinolone is a glucocorticoid medication, which is a class of corticosteroids. It is used to treat various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Triamcinolone is available in several forms, including topical creams, ointments, and lotions for skin application; oral tablets and injectable solutions for systemic use; and inhaled preparations for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory conditions.

Triamcinolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which leads to a decrease in the production of inflammatory chemicals such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. This results in reduced swelling, redness, itching, and pain associated with inflammation.

Some common uses of triamcinolone include treating skin conditions like eczema, psoriasis, and dermatitis; managing allergic reactions; reducing inflammation in respiratory diseases like asthma and COPD; and alleviating symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders.

As with any medication, triamcinolone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, acne, thinning of the skin, and easy bruising. Long-term use may also lead to more serious complications such as osteoporosis, adrenal suppression, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using triamcinolone or any other prescription medication.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Electric stimulation therapy, also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses electrical impulses to stimulate muscles and nerves. The electrical signals are delivered through electrodes placed on the skin near the target muscle group or nerve.

The therapy can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help reduce pain by stimulating the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body. It can also help block the transmission of pain signals to the brain.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: NMES can be used to prevent muscle atrophy and maintain muscle tone in individuals who are unable to move their muscles due to injury or illness, such as spinal cord injuries or stroke.
3. Improving circulation: Electric stimulation can help improve blood flow and reduce swelling by contracting the muscles and promoting the movement of fluids in the body.
4. Wound healing: NMES can be used to promote wound healing by increasing blood flow, reducing swelling, and improving muscle function around the wound site.
5. Muscle strengthening: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen muscles by causing them to contract and relax repeatedly, which can help improve muscle strength and endurance.

It is important to note that electric stimulation therapy should only be administered under the guidance of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Complementary therapies refer to a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medicine. They are often used in conjunction with conventional treatments and are intended to facilitate the physical and emotional well-being of the patient. Complementary therapies can include a wide range of interventions such as acupuncture, chiropractic care, massage therapy, herbal medicine, yoga, meditation, guided imagery, hypnotherapy, and homeopathy, among others. It is important to note that while some complementary therapies have been shown to be effective for certain conditions, others lack scientific evidence of their safety and efficacy. Therefore, it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new complementary therapy.

Home care services, also known as home health care, refer to a wide range of health and social services delivered at an individual's residence. These services are designed to help people who have special needs or disabilities, those recovering from illness or surgery, and the elderly or frail who require assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) or skilled nursing care.

Home care services can include:

1. Skilled Nursing Care: Provided by registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), or licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to administer medications, wound care, injections, and other medical treatments. They also monitor the patient's health status, provide education on disease management, and coordinate with other healthcare professionals.
2. Therapy Services: Occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists help patients regain strength, mobility, coordination, balance, and communication skills after an illness or injury. They develop personalized treatment plans to improve the patient's ability to perform daily activities independently.
3. Personal Care/Assistance with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs): Home health aides and personal care assistants provide assistance with bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and other personal care tasks. They may also help with light housekeeping, meal preparation, and shopping.
4. Social Work Services: Provided by licensed social workers who assess the patient's psychosocial needs, connect them to community resources, and provide counseling and support for patients and their families.
5. Nutritional Support: Registered dietitians evaluate the patient's nutritional status, develop meal plans, and provide education on special diets or feeding techniques as needed.
6. Telehealth Monitoring: Remote monitoring of a patient's health status using technology such as video conferencing, wearable devices, or mobile apps to track vital signs, medication adherence, and symptoms. This allows healthcare providers to monitor patients closely and adjust treatment plans as necessary without requiring in-person visits.
7. Hospice Care: End-of-life care provided in the patient's home to manage pain, provide emotional support, and address spiritual needs. The goal is to help the patient maintain dignity and quality of life during their final days.
8. Respite Care: Temporary relief for family caregivers who need a break from caring for their loved ones. This can include short-term stays in assisted living facilities or hiring professional caregivers to provide in-home support.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

A caregiver is an individual who provides assistance and support to another person who is unable to meet their own needs for activities of daily living due to illness, disability, frailty, or other reasons. Caregiving can take many forms, including providing physical care, emotional support, managing medications, assisting with mobility, and helping with household tasks and errands. Caregivers may be family members, friends, or professional providers, and the level of care they provide can range from a few hours a week to round-the-clock assistance. In medical contexts, caregivers are often referred to as informal or family caregivers when they are unpaid relatives or friends, and professional or paid caregivers when they are hired to provide care.

Arthritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation in one or more joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, stiffness, swelling, and reduced range of motion. There are many different types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, and lupus, among others.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by wear and tear on the joints over time. Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joint lining, causing inflammation and damage.

Arthritis can affect people of all ages, including children, although it is more common in older adults. Treatment for arthritis may include medications to manage pain and reduce inflammation, physical therapy, exercise, and in some cases, surgery.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a comprehensive healthcare reform law passed in 2010 in the United States. Its primary goal is to increase the quality and affordability of health insurance, lower the uninsured rate by expanding public and private insurance coverage, and reduce the costs of healthcare for individuals, businesses, and government.

The ACA achieves these goals through several key provisions:

1. Individual mandate: Requires most individuals to have health insurance or pay a penalty, with some exceptions.
2. Employer mandate: Requires certain employers to offer health insurance to their employees or face penalties.
3. Insurance market reforms: Prohibits insurers from denying coverage based on pre-existing conditions, limits out-of-pocket costs, and requires coverage of essential health benefits.
4. Medicaid expansion: Expands Medicaid eligibility to cover more low-income individuals and families.
5. Health insurance exchanges: Establishes state-based marketplaces where individuals and small businesses can purchase qualified health plans.
6. Subsidies: Provides premium tax credits and cost-sharing reductions to help eligible individuals and families afford health insurance.
7. Prevention and public health fund: Invests in prevention, wellness, and public health programs.
8. Medicare reforms: Improves benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, reduces costs for some beneficiaries, and extends the solvency of the Medicare Trust Fund.

The ACA has been subject to numerous legal challenges and political debates since its passage. Despite these controversies, the law has significantly reduced the number of uninsured Americans and reshaped the U.S. healthcare system.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Narcotic antagonists are a class of medications that block the effects of opioids, a type of narcotic pain reliever, by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and blocking the activation of these receptors by opioids. This results in the prevention or reversal of opioid-induced effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, and euphoria. Narcotic antagonists are used for a variety of medical purposes, including the treatment of opioid overdose, the management of opioid dependence, and the prevention of opioid-induced side effects in certain clinical situations. Examples of narcotic antagonists include naloxone, naltrexone, and methylnaltrexone.

Pneumothorax is a medical condition that refers to the presence of air in the pleural space, which is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. This collection of air can result in a partial or complete collapse of the lung. The symptoms of pneumothorax may include sudden chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, and rapid heartbeat.

The two main types of pneumothorax are spontaneous pneumothorax, which occurs without any apparent cause or underlying lung disease, and secondary pneumothorax, which is caused by an underlying lung condition such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or lung cancer.

Treatment for pneumothorax may include observation, oxygen therapy, needle aspiration, or chest tube insertion to remove the excess air from the pleural space and allow the lung to re-expand. In severe cases, surgery may be required to prevent recurrence.

Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) is not a medical term itself, but it is a federal advisory commission that provides recommendations to Congress on issues affecting the Medicare program. According to the official MedPAC website, its mission is "to advise Congress on payments to providers in Medicare's fee-for-service and managed care programs."

MedPAC is an independent agency established by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) and is composed of 17 commissioners appointed by the Comptroller General, with representatives from the medical community, including practicing doctors and nurses, as well as other health care experts, economists, and consumer advocates.

MedPAC's primary responsibility is to analyze access to care, quality of care, and other issues affecting Medicare beneficiaries and providers. The commission then makes recommendations to Congress on payment updates, payment system reforms, and policies aimed at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the Medicare program. These recommendations cover various aspects of Medicare, including payments for hospitals, physicians, skilled nursing facilities, home health agencies, hospice care, and other healthcare services.

In summary, MedPAC is a federal advisory commission that provides non-partisan analysis and recommendations to Congress on Medicare payment policies and issues affecting the program's beneficiaries and providers.

Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) often used for its analgesic (pain-relieving), antipyretic (fever-reducing), and anti-inflammatory effects. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in the production of prostaglandins that cause inflammation and induce pain and fever. Ibuprofen is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of various conditions such as headaches, menstrual cramps, arthritis, mild fever, and minor aches and pains. It is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suspensions, and topical creams or gels.

Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is a type of research that compares the benefits and harms of different medical interventions or strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, or monitor a clinical condition. The goal of CER is to inform healthcare decisions by providing evidence on which intervention works best for specific patient populations and in what circumstances.

CER typically compares two or more alternative treatments or approaches that are already available and in use. It can include a range of study designs, such as randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and systematic reviews of the literature. The research may focus on various outcomes, including clinical outcomes (such as mortality, morbidity, and adverse events), patient-centered outcomes (such as quality of life, functional status, and symptoms), and economic outcomes (such as costs and cost-effectiveness).

CER is intended to help healthcare providers and patients make informed decisions about treatment options based on the best available evidence. It can also inform healthcare policies and guidelines, and help to identify gaps in knowledge and areas where further research is needed.

A "Teaching Hospital" is a healthcare institution that provides medical education and training to future healthcare professionals, such as medical students, residents, and fellows. These hospitals are often affiliated with medical schools or universities and have a strong focus on research and innovation in addition to patient care. They typically have a larger staff of specialized doctors and medical professionals who can provide comprehensive care for complex and rare medical conditions. Teaching hospitals also serve as important resources for their communities, providing access to advanced medical treatments and contributing to the development of new healthcare technologies and practices.

The abdomen refers to the portion of the body that lies between the thorax (chest) and the pelvis. It is a musculo-fascial cavity containing the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs. The abdominal cavity is divided into several regions and quadrants for medical description and examination purposes. These include the upper and lower abdomen, as well as nine quadrants formed by the intersection of the midline and a horizontal line drawn at the level of the umbilicus (navel).

The major organs located within the abdominal cavity include:

1. Stomach - muscular organ responsible for initial digestion of food
2. Small intestine - long, coiled tube where most nutrient absorption occurs
3. Large intestine - consists of the colon and rectum; absorbs water and stores waste products
4. Liver - largest internal organ, involved in protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism
5. Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin
6. Spleen - filters blood and removes old red blood cells
7. Kidneys - pair of organs responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine
8. Adrenal glands - sit atop each kidney, produce hormones that regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response

The abdomen is an essential part of the human body, playing a crucial role in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food and waste materials, as well as various metabolic processes.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Phlebotomy is a medical term that refers to the process of making an incision in a vein, usually in the arm, in order to draw blood. It is also commonly known as venipuncture. This procedure is performed by healthcare professionals for various purposes such as diagnostic testing, blood donation, or therapeutic treatments like phlebotomy for patients with hemochromatosis (a condition where the body absorbs too much iron from food).

The person who performs this procedure is called a phlebotomist. They must be trained in the proper techniques to ensure that the process is safe and relatively pain-free for the patient, and that the blood sample is suitable for laboratory testing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Management Information Systems" (MIS) is not a medical term. It is a term commonly used in the field of information systems and technology to describe:

"A computer-based system that provides information to support managerial decision-making at all levels of an organization." (Source: "Management Information Systems" article, *Encyclopedia Britannica*)

In a healthcare setting, MIS can be used to manage various aspects of patient care and administrative tasks. This can include maintaining electronic health records, managing scheduling and billing systems, tracking inventory, analyzing patient data for quality improvement, and more.

Peer review is a process in which experts in a field assess the quality and validity of scientific research, scholarly articles, or other professional works prior to publication. In the context of medical research, peer review typically involves one or more researchers with similar expertise evaluating a manuscript or study proposal to ensure that it meets established standards for design, methodology, analysis, and interpretation of results. The goal of peer review is to maintain the integrity and credibility of the scientific record by identifying and correcting errors, biases, or other shortcomings in the research before it is published. Peer review is a standard practice in medical publishing and is considered an essential component of the scientific process.

'Laboratory animals' are defined as non-human creatures that are used in scientific research and experiments to study various biological phenomena, develop new medical treatments and therapies, test the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical devices, and other products. These animals are kept under controlled conditions in laboratory settings and are typically purpose-bred for research purposes.

The use of laboratory animals is subject to strict regulations and guidelines to ensure their humane treatment and welfare. The most commonly used species include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and fish. Other less common species may also be used depending on the specific research question being studied.

The primary goal of using laboratory animals in research is to advance our understanding of basic biological processes and develop new medical treatments that can improve human and animal health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding their welfare and potential for suffering.

Medical societies are professional organizations composed of physicians, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals who share a common purpose of promoting medical research, education, and patient care. These societies can focus on specific medical specialties, such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for cancer specialists or the American College of Surgeons (ACS) for surgeons. They may also address broader issues related to healthcare policy, advocacy, and ethics. Medical societies often provide resources for continuing medical education, publish scientific journals, establish clinical practice guidelines, and offer networking opportunities for members.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Conduction anesthesia is a type of local anesthesia in which an anesthetic agent is administered near a peripheral nerve to block the transmission of painful stimuli. It is called "conduction" anesthesia because it works by blocking the conduction of nerve impulses along the nerve fibers.

There are several types of conduction anesthesia, including:

1. Infiltration anesthesia: In this technique, the anesthetic agent is injected directly into the tissue where the surgical procedure will be performed. This type of anesthesia can be used for minor surgeries such as wound closure or repair of simple lacerations.
2. Nerve block anesthesia: In this technique, the anesthetic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block sensation in a larger area of the body. For example, a brachial plexus block can be used to numb the arm and hand for procedures such as shoulder surgery or fracture reduction.
3. Field block anesthesia: In this technique, the anesthetic agent is injected around the periphery of the surgical site to create a "field" of anesthesia that blocks sensation in the area. This type of anesthesia is often used for procedures such as hernia repair or circumcision.

Conduction anesthesia has several advantages over general anesthesia, including reduced risk of complications, faster recovery time, and lower cost. However, it may not be appropriate for all types of surgical procedures or patients, and its effectiveness can vary depending on the skill of the practitioner and the individual patient's response to the anesthetic agent.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Medicare is a social insurance program in the United States, administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), that provides health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over; or who have certain disabilities; or who have End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or a transplant).

The program consists of four parts:

1. Hospital Insurance (Part A), which helps pay for inpatient care in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, hospices, and home health care.
2. Medical Insurance (Part B), which helps pay for doctors' services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services.
3. Medicare Advantage Plans (Part C), which are private insurance plans that provide all of your Part A and Part B benefits, and may include additional benefits like dental, vision, and hearing coverage.
4. Prescription Drug Coverage (Part D), which helps pay for medications doctors prescribe for treatment.

Medicare is funded by payroll taxes, premiums paid by beneficiaries, and general revenue. Beneficiaries typically pay a monthly premium for Part B and Part D coverage, while Part A is generally free for those who have worked and paid Medicare taxes for at least 40 quarters.

A pediatric hospital is a specialized medical facility that provides comprehensive healthcare services for infants, children, adolescents, and young adults up to the age of 21. These hospitals employ medical professionals with expertise in treating various childhood illnesses, injuries, and developmental disorders. The facilities are designed to cater to the unique needs of children, including child-friendly environments, specialized equipment, and age-appropriate care.

Pediatric hospitals offer a wide range of services such as inpatient and outpatient care, emergency services, surgical procedures, diagnostic testing, rehabilitation, and mental health services. They also focus on preventive healthcare, family-centered care, and education to support the overall well-being of their young patients. Some pediatric hospitals may specialize further, focusing on specific areas such as cancer treatment, cardiology, neurology, or orthopedics.

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal or the neural foramina (the openings through which nerves exit the spinal column), typically in the lower back (lumbar) or neck (cervical) regions. This can put pressure on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected areas, often in the legs, arms, or hands. It's most commonly caused by age-related wear and tear, but can also be due to degenerative changes, herniated discs, tumors, or spinal injuries.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

**Ketamine** is a dissociative anesthetic medication primarily used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It can lead to a state of altered perception, hallucinations, sedation, and memory loss. Ketamine is also used as a pain reliever in patients with chronic pain conditions and during certain medical procedures due to its strong analgesic properties.

It is available as a generic drug and is also sold under various brand names, such as Ketalar, Ketanest, and Ketamine HCl. It can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, orally, or as a nasal spray.

In addition to its medical uses, ketamine has been increasingly used off-label for the treatment of mood disorders like depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), owing to its rapid antidepressant effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand its long-term benefits and risks in these applications.

It's important to note that ketamine can be abused recreationally due to its dissociative and hallucinogenic effects, which may lead to addiction and severe psychological distress. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

Pediatrics is a branch of medicine that deals with the medical care and treatment of infants, children, and adolescents, typically up to the age of 18 or sometimes up to 21 years. It covers a wide range of health services including preventive healthcare, diagnosis and treatment of physical, mental, and emotional illnesses, and promotion of healthy lifestyles and behaviors in children.

Pediatricians are medical doctors who specialize in this field and have extensive training in the unique needs and developmental stages of children. They provide comprehensive care for children from birth to young adulthood, addressing various health issues such as infectious diseases, injuries, genetic disorders, developmental delays, behavioral problems, and chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, and cancer.

In addition to medical expertise, pediatricians also need excellent communication skills to build trust with their young patients and their families, and to provide education and guidance on various aspects of child health and well-being.

Decision support techniques are methods used to help individuals or groups make informed and effective decisions in a medical context. These techniques can involve various approaches, such as:

1. **Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS):** Computerized systems that provide clinicians with patient-specific information and evidence-based recommendations to assist in decision-making. CDSS can be integrated into electronic health records (EHRs) or standalone applications.

2. **Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM):** A systematic approach to clinical decision-making that involves the integration of best available research evidence, clinician expertise, and patient values and preferences. EBM emphasizes the importance of using high-quality scientific studies to inform medical decisions.

3. **Diagnostic Reasoning:** The process of formulating a diagnosis based on history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Diagnostic reasoning techniques may include pattern recognition, hypothetico-deductive reasoning, or a combination of both.

4. **Predictive Modeling:** The use of statistical models to predict patient outcomes based on historical data and clinical variables. These models can help clinicians identify high-risk patients and inform treatment decisions.

5. **Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA):** An economic evaluation technique that compares the costs and benefits of different medical interventions to determine which option provides the most value for money. CEA can assist decision-makers in allocating resources efficiently.

6. **Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA):** A structured approach to decision-making that involves identifying, evaluating, and comparing multiple criteria or objectives. MCDA can help clinicians and patients make complex decisions by accounting for various factors, such as efficacy, safety, cost, and patient preferences.

7. **Shared Decision-Making (SDM):** A collaborative approach to decision-making that involves the clinician and patient working together to choose the best course of action based on the available evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values and preferences. SDM aims to empower patients to participate actively in their care.

These techniques can be used individually or in combination to support medical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.

'Hospital Nursing Staff' refers to the group of healthcare professionals who are licensed and trained to provide nursing care to patients in a hospital setting. They work under the direction of a nurse manager or director and collaborate with an interdisciplinary team of healthcare providers, including physicians, therapists, social workers, and other support staff.

Hospital nursing staff can include registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs) or vocational nurses (LVNs), and unlicensed assistive personnel (UAPs) such as nursing assistants, orderlies, and patient care technicians. Their responsibilities may vary depending on their role and the needs of the patients, but they typically include:

* Administering medications and treatments prescribed by physicians
* Monitoring patients' vital signs and overall condition
* Providing emotional support and education to patients and their families
* Assisting with activities of daily living such as bathing, dressing, and grooming
* Documenting patient care and progress in medical records
* Collaborating with other healthcare professionals to develop and implement individualized care plans.

Hospital nursing staff play a critical role in ensuring the safety, comfort, and well-being of hospitalized patients, and they are essential members of the healthcare team.

Intravenous anesthesia, also known as IV anesthesia, is a type of anesthesia that involves the administration of one or more drugs into a patient's vein to achieve a state of unconsciousness and analgesia (pain relief) during medical procedures. The drugs used in intravenous anesthesia can include sedatives, hypnotics, analgesics, and muscle relaxants, which are carefully selected and dosed based on the patient's medical history, physical status, and the type and duration of the procedure.

The administration of IV anesthesia is typically performed by a trained anesthesiologist or nurse anesthetist, who monitors the patient's vital signs and adjusts the dosage of the drugs as needed to ensure the patient's safety and comfort throughout the procedure. The onset of action for IV anesthesia is relatively rapid, usually within minutes, and the depth and duration of anesthesia can be easily titrated to meet the needs of the individual patient.

Compared to general anesthesia, which involves the administration of inhaled gases or vapors to achieve a state of unconsciousness, intravenous anesthesia is associated with fewer adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular function, and may be preferred for certain types of procedures or patients. However, like all forms of anesthesia, IV anesthesia carries risks and potential complications, including allergic reactions, infection, bleeding, and respiratory depression, and requires careful monitoring and management by trained medical professionals.

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in the quality, accessibility, and outcomes of healthcare that are systematically related to social or economic disadvantage. These disparities may exist between different racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, geographic, or disability status groups. They can result from a complex interplay of factors including provider bias, patient-provider communication, health system policies, and structural racism, among others. Healthcare disparities often lead to worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life for disadvantaged populations.

Antiemetics are a class of medications that are used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting. They work by blocking or reducing the activity of dopamine, serotonin, and other neurotransmitters in the brain that can trigger these symptoms. Antiemetics can be prescribed for a variety of conditions, including motion sickness, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pregnancy-related morning sickness. Some common examples of antiemetic medications include ondansetron (Zofran), promethazine (Phenergan), and metoclopramide (Reglan).

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizational innovation" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of business and management, where it refers to the introduction of new methods, ideas, or products within an organization. This can include things like new processes, structures, or technologies that are designed to improve efficiency, effectiveness, or competitive advantage.

In healthcare organizations, for example, organizational innovation might involve the implementation of new electronic health records systems, the creation of multidisciplinary care teams, or the adoption of novel approaches to patient engagement and empowerment. These types of innovations can help to improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and enhance the overall quality of care.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Program Development" is not a medical term. It is a general term that refers to the process of creating, planning, and implementing a new program or project, typically in a business, education, or community setting. In a healthcare context, it might refer to the development of a new healthcare service, treatment program, or educational initiative.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to try and help!

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

"Review literature" is a term used to describe a type of scientific or academic writing that summarizes and synthesizes existing research on a particular topic. A review literature article, also known as a literature review, provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on a subject, highlighting the most important studies, methods, findings, and controversies.

A well-conducted review literature article is based on a thorough and systematic search of the relevant scientific or academic databases, journals, and other sources of information. The selection of studies for inclusion in the review is typically based on specific criteria, such as the quality of the research design, the relevance of the findings to the topic, and the publication date.

The purpose of a review literature article is to provide a critical analysis of the existing research, identify gaps in the current knowledge, and suggest directions for future research. It can also serve as a guide for researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and other stakeholders who are interested in staying up-to-date with the latest developments in their field.

In medical contexts, review literature articles are often used to inform evidence-based practice, clinical guidelines, and health policy decisions. They can also help to identify research priorities and guide funding agencies in allocating resources for future studies.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Obstetrical anesthesia refers to the use of anesthetic techniques and medications during childbirth or obstetrical procedures. The goal is to provide pain relief and comfort to the birthing person while ensuring the safety of both the mother and the baby. There are different types of obstetrical anesthesia, including:

1. Local anesthesia: Injection of a local anesthetic agent to numb a specific area, such as the perineum (the area between the vagina and the anus) during childbirth.
2. Regional anesthesia: Numbing a larger region of the body using techniques like spinal or epidural anesthesia. These methods involve injecting local anesthetic agents near the spinal cord to block nerve impulses, providing pain relief in the lower half of the body.
3. General anesthesia: Using inhaled gases or intravenous medications to render the birthing person unconscious during cesarean sections (C-sections) or other surgical procedures related to childbirth.

The choice of anesthetic technique depends on various factors, including the type of delivery, the mother's medical history, and the preferences of both the mother and the healthcare team. Obstetrical anesthesia requires specialized training and expertise to ensure safe and effective pain management during labor and delivery.

The spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a complex structure in the human body that is part of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 33 individual vertebrae (except in some people where there are fewer due to fusion of certain vertebrae), intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

The spine has several important functions:

1. Protection: The spine protects the spinal cord, which is a major component of the nervous system, by enclosing it within a bony canal.
2. Support: The spine supports the head and upper body, allowing us to maintain an upright posture and facilitating movement of the trunk and head.
3. Movement: The spine enables various movements such as flexion (bending forward), extension (bending backward), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and rotation (twisting).
4. Weight-bearing: The spine helps distribute weight and pressure evenly across the body, reducing stress on individual vertebrae and other structures.
5. Blood vessel and nerve protection: The spine protects vital blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, including the aorta, vena cava, and spinal nerves.

The spine is divided into five regions: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae, also known as the tailbone). Each region has unique characteristics that allow for specific functions and adaptations to the body's needs.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

An injection is a medical procedure in which a medication, vaccine, or other substance is introduced into the body using a needle and syringe. The substance can be delivered into various parts of the body, including into a vein (intravenous), muscle (intramuscular), under the skin (subcutaneous), or into the spinal canal (intrathecal or spinal).

Injections are commonly used to administer medications that cannot be taken orally, have poor oral bioavailability, need to reach the site of action quickly, or require direct delivery to a specific organ or tissue. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as drawing blood samples (venipuncture) or injecting contrast agents for imaging studies.

Proper technique and sterile conditions are essential when administering injections to prevent infection, pain, and other complications. The choice of injection site depends on the type and volume of the substance being administered, as well as the patient's age, health status, and personal preferences.

Medication Therapy Management (MTM) is a structured, patient-centered process of care that involves the medication use process for individual patients to optimize therapeutic outcomes and reduce the risk of adverse effects. MTM includes various services such as medication review, identification of potential drug therapy problems, formulation of a personalized care plan, education and counseling, and ongoing monitoring and adjustment of medication therapy. The goal of MTM is to improve medication adherence, enhance patient engagement in their healthcare, and promote the safe and effective use of medications. MTM services may be provided by pharmacists, physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals as part of a collaborative care team.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country in central Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

Intervention studies are a type of clinical research design where the investigator assigns participants into comparison groups, typically to receive or not receive an intervention. The intervention could be a new drug, a medical device, a procedure, or a health promotion program. These studies aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the intervention in preventing or treating diseases or conditions.

There are two main types of intervention studies: experimental (or randomized controlled trials) and quasi-experimental designs. In experimental designs, participants are randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group, while in quasi-experimental designs, assignment is not random but based on other factors such as geographical location or time period.

Intervention studies provide valuable evidence for informing clinical practice and health policy decisions. However, they require careful planning, execution, and analysis to minimize bias and ensure valid results.

Flank pain is defined as discomfort or pain located in the area of the body between the lower ribcage and the pelvis, specifically in the region of the abdomen that lies posterior to the axillary line (the line drawn from the underarm down the side of the body). This region contains several vital organs such as the kidneys, ureters, pancreas, colon, and parts of the reproductive system. Flank pain can be a symptom of various medical conditions affecting these organs, including but not limited to kidney stones, pyelonephritis (kidney infection), musculoskeletal issues, or irritable bowel syndrome. The intensity and character of flank pain may vary depending on the underlying cause, ranging from a dull ache to sharp stabbing sensations.

A nursing home, also known as a skilled nursing facility, is a type of residential healthcare facility that provides round-the-clock care and assistance to individuals who require a high level of medical care and support with activities of daily living. Nursing homes are designed for people who cannot be cared for at home or in an assisted living facility due to their complex medical needs, mobility limitations, or cognitive impairments.

Nursing homes provide a range of services, including:

1. Skilled nursing care: Registered nurses and licensed practical nurses provide 24-hour medical care and monitoring for residents with chronic illnesses, disabilities, or those recovering from surgery or illness.
2. Rehabilitation services: Physical, occupational, and speech therapists help residents regain strength, mobility, and communication skills after an injury, illness, or surgery.
3. Personal care: Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) help residents with activities of daily living, such as bathing, dressing, grooming, and using the bathroom.
4. Meals and nutrition: Nursing homes provide three meals a day, plus snacks, and accommodate special dietary needs.
5. Social activities: Recreational programs and social events are organized to help residents stay active and engaged with their peers.
6. Hospice care: Some nursing homes offer end-of-life care for residents who require palliative or comfort measures.
7. Secure environments: For residents with memory impairments, specialized units called memory care or Alzheimer's units provide a secure and structured environment to help maintain their safety and well-being.

When selecting a nursing home, it is essential to consider factors such as the quality of care, staff-to-resident ratio, cleanliness, and overall atmosphere to ensure the best possible experience for the resident.

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a specialized hospital unit that provides advanced, intensive care for newborn babies who are born prematurely, critically ill, or have complex medical conditions. The NICU staff includes neonatologists, neonatal nurses, respiratory therapists, and other healthcare professionals trained to provide specialized care for these vulnerable infants.

The NICU is equipped with advanced technology and monitoring systems to support the babies' breathing, heart function, temperature regulation, and nutrition. The unit may include incubators or radiant warmers to maintain the baby's body temperature, ventilators to assist with breathing, and intravenous lines to provide fluids and medications.

NICUs are typically classified into levels based on the complexity of care provided, ranging from Level I (basic care for healthy newborns) to Level IV (the highest level of care for critically ill newborns). The specific services and level of care provided in a NICU may vary depending on the hospital and geographic location.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software application that enables users to define, create, maintain, and manipulate databases. It provides a structured way to organize, store, retrieve, and manage data in a digital format. The DBMS serves as an interface between the database and the applications or users that access it, allowing for standardized interactions and data access methods. Common functions of a DBMS include data definition, data manipulation, data security, data recovery, and concurrent data access control. Examples of DBMS include MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and MongoDB.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Catastrophizing is a term used in the medical field, particularly in psychology and psychiatry, to describe a cognitive distortion or a pattern of thinking in which an individual tends to exaggerate the severity or negative consequences of a situation or problem. It involves magnifying or blowing things out of proportion, expecting the worst-case scenario, and having a lack of faith in one's ability to cope with adversity.

Catastrophization can be a symptom of various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It can also contribute to increased pain perception and disability in individuals with chronic pain conditions.

For example, a person who catastrophizes might think that if they make a small mistake at work, it will lead to them losing their job, which will then cause them to become homeless and destitute. This type of thinking can be debilitating and interfere with an individual's ability to function in daily life.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is often used to help individuals identify and challenge catastrophic thoughts, with the goal of replacing them with more balanced and realistic thinking patterns.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

Rural health services refer to the healthcare delivery systems and facilities that are located in rural areas and are designed to meet the unique health needs of rural populations. These services can include hospitals, clinics, community health centers, mental health centers, and home health agencies, as well as various programs and initiatives aimed at improving access to care, addressing health disparities, and promoting health and wellness in rural communities.

Rural health services are often characterized by longer travel distances to healthcare facilities, a greater reliance on primary care and preventive services, and a higher prevalence of certain health conditions such as chronic diseases, injuries, and mental health disorders. As a result, rural health services must be tailored to address these challenges and provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible care to rural residents.

In many countries, rural health services are supported by government policies and programs aimed at improving healthcare infrastructure, workforce development, and telehealth technologies in rural areas. These efforts are critical for ensuring that all individuals, regardless of where they live, have access to the healthcare services they need to maintain their health and well-being.

Health Insurance Reimbursement refers to the process of receiving payment from a health insurance company for medical expenses that you have already paid out of pocket. Here is a brief medical definition of each term:

1. Insurance: A contract, represented by a policy, in which an individual or entity receives financial protection or reimbursement against losses from an insurance company. The company pools clients' risks to make payments more affordable for the insured.
2. Health: Refers to the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
3. Reimbursement: The act of refunding or compensating a person for expenses incurred, especially those that have been previously paid by the individual and are now being paid back by an insurance company.

In the context of health insurance, reimbursement typically occurs when you receive medical care, pay the provider, and then submit a claim to your insurance company for reimbursement. The insurance company will review the claim, determine whether the services are covered under your policy, and calculate the amount they will reimburse you based on your plan's benefits and any applicable co-pays, deductibles, or coinsurance amounts. Once this process is complete, the insurance company will issue a payment to you to cover a portion or all of the costs you incurred for the medical services.

Betamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication that is used to treat various medical conditions. It works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the activity of the immune system. Betamethasone is available in several forms, including creams, ointments, lotions, gels, solutions, tablets, and injectable preparations.

The medical definition of betamethasone is:

A synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and vasoconstrictive properties. It is used to treat a variety of conditions such as skin disorders, allergies, asthma, arthritis, and autoimmune diseases. Betamethasone is available in various formulations including topical (creams, ointments, lotions, gels), oral (tablets), and injectable preparations. It acts by binding to specific receptors in cells, which leads to the inhibition of the production of inflammatory mediators and the suppression of immune responses.

It is important to note that betamethasone should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can have significant side effects if not used properly.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

I'm happy to help, but I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of waste management since it is not a medical term per se. Waste management is a broader environmental and public health issue. However, I can offer a definition related to healthcare facilities:

Waste management in the context of healthcare facilities refers to the practices, processes, and systems used to collect, transport, treat, dispose, recycle, or reuse waste materials generated from healthcare activities. This includes various types of waste such as hazardous (e.g., infectious, chemical, pharmaceutical), non-hazardous, and radioactive waste. Proper management is crucial to prevent infection, protect the environment, conserve resources, and ensure occupational safety for healthcare workers and the public.

Drug utilization refers to the use of medications by patients or healthcare professionals in a real-world setting. It involves analyzing and evaluating patterns of medication use, including prescribing practices, adherence to treatment guidelines, potential duplications or interactions, and outcomes associated with drug therapy. The goal of drug utilization is to optimize medication use, improve patient safety, and minimize costs while achieving the best possible health outcomes. It can be studied through various methods such as prescription claims data analysis, surveys, and clinical audits.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

Total Quality Management (TQM) is not a medical term per se, but rather a management approach that has been adopted in various industries, including healthcare. Here's a general definition:

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a customer-focused management framework that involves all employees in an organization in continuous improvement efforts to meet or exceed customer expectations. It is based on the principles of quality control, continuous process improvement, and customer satisfaction. TQM aims to create a culture where all members of the organization are responsible for quality, with the goal of providing defect-free products or services to customers consistently.

In healthcare, TQM can be used to improve patient care, reduce medical errors, increase efficiency, and enhance patient satisfaction. It involves the use of data-driven decision-making, process improvement techniques such as Lean and Six Sigma, and a focus on evidence-based practices. The ultimate goal of TQM in healthcare is to provide high-quality, safe, and cost-effective care to patients.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

Arthroplasty, replacement, knee is a surgical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surface of the knee is removed and replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. The procedure involves resurfacing the worn-out ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) with metal components, and the back of the kneecap with a plastic button. This surgery is usually performed to relieve pain and restore function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries that have damaged the joint beyond repair. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance the quality of life for the patient.

Spinal cord diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the spinal cord, which is a part of the central nervous system responsible for transmitting messages between the brain and the rest of the body. These diseases can cause damage to the spinal cord, leading to various symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, pain, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and difficulty with movement and coordination.

Spinal cord diseases can be congenital or acquired, and they can result from a variety of causes, including infections, injuries, tumors, degenerative conditions, autoimmune disorders, and genetic factors. Some examples of spinal cord diseases include multiple sclerosis, spina bifida, spinal cord injury, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

The treatment for spinal cord diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, and rehabilitation. In some cases, the damage to the spinal cord may be irreversible, leading to permanent disability or paralysis.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Family practice, also known as family medicine, is a medical specialty that provides comprehensive and continuous care to patients of all ages, genders, and stages of life. Family physicians are trained to provide a wide range of services, including preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, management of complex medical conditions, and providing health education and counseling.

Family practice emphasizes the importance of building long-term relationships with patients and their families, and takes into account the physical, emotional, social, and psychological factors that influence a person's health. Family physicians often serve as the primary point of contact for patients within the healthcare system, coordinating care with other specialists and healthcare providers as needed.

Family practice is a broad and diverse field, encompassing various areas such as pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, geriatrics, and behavioral health. The goal of family practice is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the unique needs and preferences of each individual patient and their family.

Naloxone is a medication used to reverse the effects of opioids, both illicit and prescription. It works by blocking the action of opioids on the brain and restoring breathing in cases where opioids have caused depressed respirations. Common brand names for naloxone include Narcan and Evzio.

Naloxone is an opioid antagonist, meaning that it binds to opioid receptors in the body without activating them, effectively blocking the effects of opioids already present at these sites. It has no effect in people who have not taken opioids and does not reverse the effects of other sedatives or substances.

Naloxone can be administered via intranasal, intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous routes. The onset of action varies depending on the route of administration but generally ranges from 1 to 5 minutes when given intravenously and up to 10-15 minutes with other methods.

The duration of naloxone's effects is usually shorter than that of most opioids, so multiple doses or a continuous infusion may be necessary in severe cases to maintain reversal of opioid toxicity. Naloxone has been used successfully in emergency situations to treat opioid overdoses and has saved many lives.

It is important to note that naloxone does not reverse the effects of other substances or address the underlying causes of addiction, so it should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals struggling with opioid use disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Italy" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

Health services misuse is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it generally refers to the inappropriate or unnecessary use of health services, resources, or treatments. This can include overutilization, underutilization, or incorrect utilization of healthcare services. Examples may include ordering unnecessary tests or procedures, using emergency department services for non-urgent conditions, or failing to seek timely and appropriate medical care when needed. Health services misuse can result in harm to patients, increased healthcare costs, and decreased efficiency in the delivery of healthcare services.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Burns are injuries to tissues caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. They are classified based on their severity:

1. First-degree burns (superficial burns) affect only the outer layer of skin (epidermis), causing redness, pain, and swelling.
2. Second-degree burns (partial-thickness burns) damage both the epidermis and the underlying layer of skin (dermis). They result in redness, pain, swelling, and blistering.
3. Third-degree burns (full-thickness burns) destroy the entire depth of the skin and can also damage underlying muscles, tendons, and bones. These burns appear white or blackened and charred, and they may be painless due to destroyed nerve endings.

Immediate medical attention is required for second-degree and third-degree burns, as well as for large area first-degree burns, to prevent infection, manage pain, and ensure proper healing. Treatment options include wound care, antibiotics, pain management, and possibly skin grafting or surgery in severe cases.

Sciatica is not a medical condition itself but rather a symptom of an underlying medical problem. It's typically described as pain that radiates along the sciatic nerve, which runs from your lower back through your hips and buttocks and down each leg.

The pain can vary widely, from a mild ache to a sharp, burning sensation or excruciating discomfort. Sometimes, the pain is severe enough to make moving difficult. Sciatica most commonly occurs when a herniated disk, bone spur on the spine, or narrowing of the spine (spinal stenosis) compresses part of the nerve.

While sciatica can be quite painful, it's not typically a sign of permanent nerve damage and can often be relieved with non-surgical treatments. However, if the pain is severe or persists for a long period, it's essential to seek medical attention as it could indicate a more serious underlying condition.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

... will then be used to address that pain. There are many types of pain management. Each have their own benefits, ... Pain is supposed to resolve as the body heals itself with time and pain management. Sometimes pain management covers a problem ... Pain management is an aspect of medicine and health care involving relief of pain (pain relief, analgesia, pain control) in ... pain, however, frequently requires the coordinated efforts of the pain management team. Effective pain management does not ...
... is a peer-reviewed medical journal. It covers all aspects of research on pain management. The ... Craig, Kenneth D. (2014). "The inevitability of change". Pain Research & Management. 19 (3): 118. doi:10.1155/2014/439893. PMID ...
The term "interventional pain management" was first used by pain management specialist Steven D. Waldman in 1996 to define the ... Physicians who practice interventional pain management are represented by a variety of pain management organizations including ... "Management of cancer pain". In Vadivelu N, Urman RD, Hines RL (eds.). Essentials of pain management. New York: Springer. pp. ... "Interventional pain management". In Vadivelu N, Urman RD, Hines RL (eds.). Essentials of pain management. New York: Springer. ...
"iTunes - Music - Pain Management by Bubba Sparxxx". Itunes.apple.com. Retrieved October 7, 2013. "PAIN MANAGEMENT - PRE-ORDER ... Pain Management is the fourth album by the American rapper Bubba Sparxxx. It was released on October 15, 2013, by Average Joes ... "Pain Management [Explicit]: Bubba Sparxxx: MP3 Downloads". Amazon.com. Retrieved October 7, 2013. - " ...
Pain management Verghese ST, Hannallah RS (July 2010). "Acute pain management in children". Journal of Pain Research. 3: 105-23 ... Pain management in children is the assessment and treatment of pain in infants and children. Usually, acute pain has an obvious ... Chronic pain has also been described as the pain experienced when the child reports a headache, abdominal pain, back pain, ... Acute pain, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and recurrent pain in children is most often managed with medication. Most of these ...
... is the treatment or prevention of pain that a woman may experience during labor and delivery ... The 1960s saw the rise of epidural analgesics for pain management. Preparation for childbirth can affect the amount of pain ... and acupuncture relieved pain. These and other non-pharmacologic pain management options are further discussed below. Breathing ... March 2012). "Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ...
... is a medical textbook on pain management. First published in 1986 by Year Book Medical Publishers ... Textbook of Pain Colvin, L. A. (12 November 2008). "Raj's Practical Management of Pain". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 101 (6 ... "a definitive text for the care of the pain patient. Although the fourth edition of Practical Management of Pain received ... Practical Management of Pain (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2022, ...
Modern pain management draws on these understandings in the biopsychosocial model of pain, which holds that pain is best ... in general for pain management, and further evidence indicating the effectiveness of compassion-based practices for pain, a ... relationship of self-compassion to adjustment to persistent pain". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 43 (4): 759-70. doi: ... "Effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention in the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain in Nursing Workers". Pain ...
The pain model of behaviour management, which acknowledges that physical pain and psychological pain may inhibit learning, is a ... that there was little difference between the effect of physical pain and psychological pain. Both types of pain were ... stressed and experiencing psychological pain teachers need to calm the student and relieve the pain before participation within ... The pain model is grounded in the work they have done with these students identified as high-risk; students whose behaviour has ...
The Journal of Pain and Symptom Management is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal that was established in 1986. It is a ... It was formally the official journal of the United States Cancer Pain Relief Committee. The journal covers clinical research ... continuation of the PRN Forum (Pain Research News forum), a bimonthly journal published from 1982 to 1985. It is the official ...
... is the absence of pain management therapy for a person in pain when treatment is indicated.[citation ... including cancer pain, acute postoperative pain, chest pain, acute pain, and chronic low back pain. Research demonstrates that ... Current strategies for improvement in pain management include framing it as an ethical issue; promoting pain management as a ... defining pain management as a fundamental human right; categorizing failure to provide pain management as professional ...
... had changed jobs due to their pain. Forty percent had inadequate pain management and less than 2% were seeing a pain management ... Chronic neuropathic pain: pain caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system. Chronic headache and orofacial pain: pain ... Chronic visceral pain: pain originating in an internal organ. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: pain originating in the bones, ... Pain management: A practical guide for clinicians (6 ed.). American Academy of Pain Management. ISBN 978-0849309267. Andrews P ...
Pain management Psychogenic pain Pain Catastrophizing Scale Chronic pain is a public health problem that is difficult and ... "The Role of Psychology in Pain Management". Practical Pain Management. Medicine, Institute of (29 June 2011). Relieving Pain in ... Science Advances in Pain Research How psychologists can help with pain management The Psychology of Pain (CS1: long volume ... Pain psychology aims to treat the person in pain rather than strictly the pain itself. A pain psychologist's job is to work ...
SOCRATES (pain assessment) Pain management in children "Pain: current understanding of assessment, management and treatments" ( ... Alder Hey Triage Pain Score Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI ... for measuring pain in children Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) for measuring pain in premature infants Schmidt Sting Pain ... 1991 revision 1997 revision Mankoski Pain Scale McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) Multiple Pain Rating Scales Neck Pain and ...
Stengel M, Binder A, Baron R (2007). "Update on the diagnosis and management of complex regional pain syndrome". Adv Pain ... while half will develop phantom limb pain and/or pain at the amputation site. As in any other chronic pain syndrome, the brain ... reduces chronic limb pain". Pain. 137 (3): 600-608. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2007.10.021. PMID 18054437. S2CID 2757963. Daly AE, ... Pain. 114 (1-2): 93-103. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2004.12.001. PMID 15733635. S2CID 19187294. Howard W (2012). "Complex regional pain ...
Collen M (November-December 2007). "Placebos in Pain Management". Practical Pain Management. 7 (2): 28-9.[permanent dead link] ... Florida Pain IASP Pain Pain Pain Exhibit AM Pain Society Pain Topics (Webarchive template wayback links, All articles with bare ... PAIN Exhibit art images have donned 19 covers on pain journals. It has been featured on the cover of the Pain Practitioner, ... Arts and Learning Research Journal, and PAIN. PAIN Exhibit art also appeared regularly on the cover of the Journal of Pain and ...
2008). Clinical Pain Management: Cancer Pain. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-340-94007-5. Cancer-Related Pain Management. Cancer Care ... as a guideline for the use of drugs in the management of pain. Originally published in 1986 for the management of cancer pain, ... 2004). Innovation in pain management : the transcript of a Witness seminar held by the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of ... Opioid comparison, an example of an equianalgesic chart Pain management WHO 2017. Schug & Auret 2008. Reynolds, L.A.; Tansey, E ...
Management of chronic pain can be difficult and may require the coordinated efforts of a pain management team, which typically ... no pain' and 'worst imaginable pain". Cut-offs for pain classification have been recommended as no pain (0-4mm), mild pain (5- ... VAS Pain), Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF- ... American Academy of Pain Management. p. 29. ISBN 978-0849322624. Main CJ, Spanswick CC (2000). Pain management: an ...
Handbook of Veterinary Pain Management. Elsevier Health Sciences. Mosley, C.A. (2005). "Anesthesia & Analgesia in reptiles". ... "psychological pain". Emotional pain is the pain experienced in the absence of physical trauma, e.g. the pain experienced by ... Pain in crustaceans is a scientific debate which questions whether they experience pain or not. Pain is a complex mental state ... Opioids may moderate pain in crustaceans in a similar way to that in vertebrates. If crustaceans feel pain, there are ethical ...
... and Management of Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome". Curr Pain Headache Rep. 24 (6): 27. doi:10.1007/s11916-020-00857-9. ... Pelvic pain is pain in the area of the pelvis. Acute pain is more common than chronic pain. If the pain lasts for more than six ... Pelvic pain is a general term that may have many causes, listed below. The subcategorical term urologic chronic pelvic pain ... Kaye, Alan David; Shah, Rinoo V. (2014-10-16). Case Studies in Pain Management. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107682894 ...
Brenman, Ephraim K. (2007-03-01). "Pain Management: Phantom Limb Pain". WebMD.com. Retrieved 2011-07-27. Fishbain DA, Cutler RB ... Chronic pain Psychogenic pain Psychological pain Somatoform disorder "Pain Somatoform Disorder". Medscape Reference. Retrieved ... "antidepressants decreased pain intensity in patients with psychogenic pain or somatoform pain disorder significantly more than ... Other techniques used in the management of chronic pain may also be of use; these include massage, transcutaneous electrical ...
"Pain mechanisms and their implication for the management of pain in farm and companion animals". Vet. J. 174 (2): 227-39. doi: ... Sometimes a distinction is made between "physical pain" and "emotional" or "psychological pain". Emotional pain is the pain ... "Ontogeny and phylogeny of facial expression of pain". Pain. 156 (5): 798-799. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000133. PMID ... Pain is therefore a private, emotional experience. Pain cannot be directly measured in other animals; responses to putatively ...
... (OFP) is the specialty of dentistry that encompasses the diagnosis, management and treatment of pain disorders ... TMD pain or periodontal pain) or visceral structures (e.g. pulpal pain or pain from the salivary glands), and transmitted via ... Orofacial Pain: Guidelines for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Management, Fifth Edition by American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP ... Orofacial pain is a general term covering any pain which is felt in the mouth, jaws and the face. Orofacial pain is a common ...
ISBN 0-8058-4299-3. Bonica JJ (1990). "History of pain concepts and therapies". The management of pain. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). ... Humans have always sought to understand why they experience pain and how that pain comes about. While pain was previously ... "A History of Pain Management." Opioids: Past, Present and Future. Journal of the American Medical Association Dallenbach KM ( ... Aristotle did not include a sense of pain when he enumerated the five senses; he, like Plato before him, saw pain and pleasure ...
Handbook of Veterinary Pain Management. Elsevier Health Sciences. Varner, Gary E. (2012) "Which Animals Are Sentient?" Chapter ... Sometimes a distinction is made between "physical pain" and "emotional" or "psychological pain". Emotional pain is the pain ... "Ontogeny and phylogeny of facial expression of pain". Pain. 156 (5): 798-799. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000133. PMID ... Examples of cephalopds Pain in cephalopods is a contentious issue. Pain is a complex mental state, with a distinct perceptual ...
"Pain mechanisms and their implication for the management of pain in farm and companion animals". Veterinary Journal. 174 (2): ... Sometimes a distinction is made between "physical pain" and "emotional" or "psychological pain". Emotional pain is the pain ... Studies indicating that fish can feel pain were confusing nociception with feeling pain, says Rose. "Pain is predicated on ... Whether fish feel pain similar to humans or differently is a contentious issue. Pain is a complex mental state, with a distinct ...
Ratini, Melinda (2 March 2013). "Pain Management: Central Pain Syndrome". WebMD. NIH. Retrieved 6 February 2014. "Central Pain ... Pain medications often provide some reduction of pain, but not complete relief of pain, for those affected by central pain ... The extent of pain and the areas affected are related to the cause of the injury. Pain can either be relegated to a specific ... The pain can also bring on hyperventilation. Blood pressure can rise due to the pain. Damage to the CNS can be caused by car ...
Bone cancer pain: From mechanism to model to therapy. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 29(5): 32-46. Zwas, T. ... Bone pain belongs to the class of deep somatic pain, often experienced as a dull pain that cannot be localized accurately by ... Pain caused by cancer within bones is one of the most severe forms of pain. Because of its severity and uniqueness with respect ... Bone pain (also known medically by several other names) is pain coming from a bone, and is caused by damaging stimuli. It ...
Galactagogue Mammoplasia Pain management Salzman, B; Fleegle, S; Tully, AS (15 August 2012). "Common breast problems". American ... Breast pain that is not linked to a menstrual cycle is called noncyclic breast pain. Noncyclical breast pain has various causes ... Ruling out the other possible causes of the pain is one way to differentiate the source of the pain. Breast pain can be due to ... Pain may also occur in those with large breasts, during menopause, and in early pregnancy. In about 2% of cases breast pain is ...
Physical therapy for pain management". In Noe CE (ed.). Pain Management for Clinicians: A Guide to Assessment and Treatment. ... The other two mechanisms are nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain. Widespread pain and increased pain have been suggested as ... Nociplastic pain is a longterm complex pain, one of three mechanisms of pain, defined by the International Association for the ... Nociplastic pain or central sensitisation is a type of pain which is mechanically different from the normal nociceptive pain ...
Rixe JA, Glick JE, Brady J, Olympia RP (September 2013). "A review of the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome". The ... Knee pain is pain caused by wear and tear, such as osteoarthritis or a meniscal tear. Effective treatments for knee pain ... Sometimes knee pain may be related to another area from body. For example, knee pain can come from ankle, foot, hip joints or ... Knee pain is pain in or around the knee. The knee joint consists of an articulation between four bones: the femur, tibia, ...
Pharmacologic pain management can significantly reduce symptoms, but can also lead to problems like addiction. ... Chronic pain affects tens of millions of people in the US, greatly destroying their quality of life. ... Drs Hope Rugo, Mike Rabow, and Reshma Mahtani discuss an interdisciplinary approach in toxicity monitoring, symptom management ... and pain control to optimize patient care in metastatic breast cancer. ...
There are multiple ways for adults with arthritis to reduce their pain without using medications. ... Self-management education workshops teach participants life skills to reduce or manage arthritis pain and improve quality of ... About CDCs Arthritis Management and Wellbeing Programplus icon *CDC Arthritis Management and Wellbeing Programs Reach ... Noninvasive Nonpharmacological Treatment for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review. *Non-opioid Treatment for Chronic Pain [PDF - ...
Learn about different techniques and treatments which may help you manage your pain without taking medicines. ... There are risks to taking pain medicines, especially opioids. ... What is pain?. Pain is a signal in your nervous system that ... What are pain relievers?. Pain relievers are medicines that reduce or relieve pain. There are many different pain medicines, ... Managing Chronic Pain: How Psychologists Can Help with Pain Management (American Psychological Association) ...
Pain management can include medications, surgery, acupuncture, massage therapy or a combination of approaches. Read about ... Physicians treat pain in numerous ways. Pain management can include medications, surgery, alternative procedures (like hypnosis ... Pain Assessment. There is no absolute measurement of the degree of pain. As we said in the beginning, pain is subjective. ... Modern Theories of Chronic Pain.http://www.spine-health.com/topics/cd/pain/chronic_pain_theories/chronic_pain_theory01.html ...
Nonpharmacologic and Pharmacologic Management of Acute Pain From Non-Low Back, Musculoskeletal Injuries in Adults: A Clinical ... Clinicians should become familiar with low-cost options for pain management in their communities so they can refer patients to ... Health insurers and health systems can improve pain management and reduce medication use and associated risks by increasing ... Pharmacologic Stepwise Multimodal Approach for Postpartum Pain Management ACOG Clinical Consensus No. 1 (2021) ...
I have been on Pain Medication for a very For a very long time. Please check everything out before taking it. Percocet, Vicodin ... Just left my pain management Dr (for the last 3 months have been seeing a nurse practioner) not my regular doct... ... Just left my pain management Dr (for the last 3 months have been seeing a nurse practioner) not my regular doct... ... From my pain management/spine specialist, I am currently prescribed percocet one tablet of... ...
Pain Management. News, opinions and meeting coverage in pain management.. See All in Pain Management * Back Pain ... More in Pain Management Run This Test Before Diagnosing Fibromyalgia Study suggests 10% of cases may have easily treatable ... Latest in Pain Management DEA Gets an Earful About Telehealth Prescribing of Controlled Substances ... AI May Influence Who Can Get or Prescribe Pain Medication New tech can have unforeseen consequences if it improperly flags ...
Musculoskeletal pain has an important impact on quality of peoples lives causing several complications. How can innovative ... They can be a valuable aid in pain management in some clinical conditions, such as fibromyalgiaor musculoskeletal disorders. ... Musculoskeletal pain has an important impact on quality of life.​. Chronic pain causes several complications, such as disturbed ... has been shown to be effective in reducing pain and improving mobility in individuals with chronic back pain.2​ ...
Montreal Neurological Institute Pain Program The Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain Department of Anesthesia RUIS McGill ... Centre of Expertise in Chronic Pain The Louise and Alan Edwards Foundation ... Alan Edwards Pain Management Unit Montreal General Hospital. 1650 Cedar Ave. Montreal, QC, H3G 1A4. Tel: (514) 934-8222. Fax: ( ...
Use this page to view details for the Local Coverage Determination for Epidural Steroid Injections for Pain Management. ... ESIs to treat non-specific low back pain (LBP), axial spine pain, complex regional pain syndrome, widespread diffuse pain, pain ... Pain Manag. 2015;5(2):129-146.. *Chou R, Hashimoto R, Friedly J, et al. Pain Management Injection Therapies for Low Back Pain ... Epidural Steroid Injections for Pain Management A58905 - Response to Comments: Epidural Steroid Injections for Pain Management ...
Tag: pain management. The Importance of Managing Pain When You Have a Serious Illness: What You Need To Think About January 17 ... Why? Managing pain not only makes you feel better, but it helps you to stay on the treatment plan for your illness. Pain makes ... When youre living with a serious illness, you may be experiencing physical pain. Treating that pain is crucial to your well- ... Kelly had done her best to deal with the chronic pain for nearly half her life, but in 2016, the issues became unbearable, and ...
... is to describe methods for assessing and treating pain in rodents. ... SOP 7.1 - Pain Management in Mice SOP 7.1 - Pain Management in Mice University Animal Care Committee Standard Operating ... Pain management is an important ethical and moral issue but is challenged by inconsistency related to lack of evidence based ... Management of Pain *Non-pharmacological considerations: *Providing appropriate housing, handling and restraint as well as using ...
Prevention: promoting wellness, stress management, and addiction behavior;. *Improved pain management: distraction experiences ... For instance, it is emerging to be an excellent substitute for both opioids and even marijuana for pain management. On the top ... Juno VR is yet another example of one of several companies focusing on pain management applications for VR. ... But chronic pain usage is also coming up, and can significantly improve the lives of those living with chronic pain! AppliedVR ...
Pain Improving Chronic Pain Management (ICPM) New York University Approved: October 2012 Grant Period: March 2012 - March 2014 ... Improving Chronic Pain Management. This initiative will assess the impact of a medical education-based program con-sisting of ... and centralized neuro-pathic-like pain that are being treated by primary care physicians at the New York University Langone ... series of multimodal interventions designed to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with noci-ceptive pain, fibromyalgia, ...
WebMD looks at how pain in children is measured and treated. ... Medications Used to Treat Pain in Children. *Pain medications: ... such as short-term pain after surgery. Tramadol should not be used for pain and Codeine should not be used for pain or cough in ... Self-reported measures of pain: Doctors may ask children to rate their pain on a scale of 1-10 or show pictures that reflect ... The most difficult task involved in treating pain in children is obtaining an objective and accurate measurement of the pain. ...
Visit your doctor if you have worsening pain, redness, or swelling. See your doctor if your pain is severe enough to interfere ... Take OTC pain relievers. Ibuprofen and naproxen will reduce swelling and improve your pain. Acetaminophen will not help with ... Fortunately, many torn toenails can be treated at home with proper cleaning and pain management. Well walk you through the ... Relieve pain by icing your toe for 20 minutes every 2 hours. Take OTC pain relievers to help minimize discomfort and swelling. ...
Pain Management * "When it comes to treating pain, we all wish for a fast fix. However, treating pain requires a holistic, ... Pain Management * "No one should have to live with pain. If you experience chronic pain, see your health care provider ... Pain Management * "DOD and VA developed a Stepped Care Model of pain management that utilizes evidence-based treatments to ... Pain Management * "Understanding where pain comes from and why it happens is crucial to treatment. Treating pain often starts ...
Pain assessment is key to good pain management. Assessing pain in young children is not as easy as people think, so researchers ... Good pain management has three components. Campbell refers the three Ps of pain management. The first P stands for ... which can decrease the pain messages to the spinal cord.. Psychological pain is no different from physical pain. Some pain is ... where kids with chronic headaches and stomach pain learned pain management techniques via computer, email and one-on-one ...
Different Ways to Take Pain Medicine. How do you treat pain?. We use minimally invasive techniques to target the pain at its ... Acute Pre & Post-Operative Pain Management. Our center not only provides outpatient services, but we also administer inpatient ... With this service, you receive 24 hour coverage with an Anesthesiology resident or Pain Management fellow and an attending ... After you are eating and drinking you can take pain pills. There is no reason for you to worry about getting "hooked" on pain ...
... together with news about the latest innovations in pain research and practice. All issues include continuing education for ... The mission of Topics in Pain Management is to provide the multidisciplinary health care team with evidence-based information ... Editorial Board : Topics in Pain Management. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please ...
Pain Management. From the latest pain management news, treatments and therapies, inspiring patient stories, to expert advice, ... 7 Natural Pain Cures Natural pain remedies include foot rubs and drinking vinegar. Get some advice from a pain expert on which ... 8 Great Pain Relievers You Arent Using. Studies show these evidence-supported therapies and approaches can reduce chronic pain ... You may want to skip the drugs & investigate natural remedies for pain relief. Learn how herbal remedies can be used for pain ...
NCQA Research Removes Barriers to Pain Treatment for Sickle Cell Disease. * October 13, 2020 ...
Pain management will then be used to address that pain. There are many types of pain management. Each have their own benefits, ... Pain is supposed to resolve as the body heals itself with time and pain management. Sometimes pain management covers a problem ... Pain management is an aspect of medicine and health care involving relief of pain (pain relief, analgesia, pain control) in ... pain, however, frequently requires the coordinated efforts of the pain management team. Effective pain management does not ...
Cancer pain is manageable. WebMD explains its causes and symptoms and how it is treated. ... Pain Management: Cancer Pain. Medically Reviewed by Murtaza Cassoobhoy, MD. on May 26, 2023 ... Mild to Moderate Pain. Pain relievers: Acetaminophen (Anacin, Mapap, Panadol, Tylenol) and a group of pain relievers called ... What Causes Cancer Pain?. There are many causes of cancer pain, but often cancer pain occurs when a tumor presses on nerves or ...
... cancer pain management (medication) and symptoms from the experts at MD Anderson Cancer Center. ... Cancer Pain Management. Nearly half of cancer patients experience pain. Cancer pain can be a presenting symptom that leads to ... Causes of cancer pain. Cancer pain can come from different sources.. *Pain from the tumor: Most cancer pain occurs when a tumor ... Does cancer pain come and go?. Some types of cancer pain come and go. In this situation, taking pain medication only as needed ...
Learn what causes lower back pain from biking and discover tips on how to manage and even prevent it. ... Is it OK to ride a bike with lower pain?. It can be difficult to know when its safe to exercise when youre feeling pain. Some ... Lower back pain affects most people at one time or another. Discover stretches that can help relieve lower back pain, like the ... What to Do When Your Back Pain Wont Go Away. Back pain can linger longer than youd like due to re-injury, disease, or a nerve ...
... we have strong evidence that our pain modulation system is not working well. Instead ofsuppression, the system may be over- ... Talking to Your Doctor about Chronic Pain:. Learn more about how to speak with your doctor about the pain you are experiencing ... In chronic pain, we have strong evidence that our pain modulation system is not working well. Instead of. suppression, the ... Examples include pain associated with nerve damage (such as diabetic neuropathy, or "sciatic" leg pain following a back injury ...
If you experience chronic pain, this relaxing hypnosis session will teach you how to manage and relieve it more effectively. ... Chronic Pain Management is an audio hypnosis session that will train your mind to help you tune out pain. By working directly ... Buy these together Chronic Pain ManagementPain Relief and save $6.95. (These products are specially selected to maximize your ... Download Chronic Pain Management now and take back your life. You can listen on your computer or device or via our free app, ...
Many people have pain for many years. Pain may decrease as the damaged pancreas loses its ability to produce enzymes. But it ... Pain is a frustrating, sometimes debilitating aspect of ongoing (chronic) pancreatitis. ... Chronic Pancreatitis: Pain Management Chronic Pancreatitis: Pain Management. Overview. Pain is a frustrating, sometimes ... If over-the-counter pain medicines don't control your pain, your doctor may prescribe another type of pain medicine. ...
If you experience chronic pain, this relaxing hypnosis session will teach you how to manage and relieve it more effectively. ... Chronic Pain Management is an audio hypnosis session that will train your mind to help you tune out pain. By working directly ... A Natural Approach to Chronic Pain Management. Use gentle, permissive hypnosis to help your unconscious mind tune out pain ... Buy these together Chronic Pain ManagementPain Relief and save $6.95. (These products are specially selected to maximize your ...
  • Because of the side effects and risks of pain relievers, you may want to try non-drug treatments first. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are some non-drug treatments for pain? (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are many non-drug treatments that can help with pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pain: Current Understanding of Assessment, Management, and Treatments. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Exercise, mind-body interventions, and behavioral treatments (including cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness practices) can encourage active patient participation in the care plan and help address the effects of pain in the patient's life. (cdc.gov)
  • It is well known that the management of musculoskeletal disorders includes both non-pharmacological treatments (physiotherapy and manual therapy) and pharmacological treatments such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics. (nutraingredients.com)
  • It also revealed an opportunity to better level the field to ensure equitable access to these evidence-based treatments -- this whole-person pain care. (medpagetoday.com)
  • These medications can increase the availability of the body's signals for well-being and relaxation, enabling pain control for people with chronic pain conditions that do not completely respond to usual treatments. (webmd.com)
  • Dr. Co specializes in treatments for bunions, ingrown toenails, toenail fungus, warts, plantar fasciitis and other causes of foot pain. (wikihow.com)
  • From the latest pain management news, treatments and therapies, inspiring patient stories, to expert advice, we're here to help you live your healthiest life every day. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Health care providers and patients may have difficulty communicating with each other about how pain responds to treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some treatments for pain can be harmful if overused. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conservative treatments might be enough to manage existing pain, but bike adjustments and core exercises could help prevent it. (healthline.com)
  • Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy , radiation , or surgery also may cause pain . (webmd.com)
  • In most cases, doctors treat cancer pain with pain-relief medicines called analgesics or with non-drug treatments such as physical therapy and rehabilitation, imagery, biofeedback and relaxation techniques. (webmd.com)
  • Your care team may recommend non-drug treatments for managing your cancer pain in addition to your pain medication. (mdanderson.org)
  • from the basic mechanisms underlying the development of pain, to the various treatments that can be applied in different clinical situations. (routledge.com)
  • A surgical evaluation may be considered for select patients with functional disabilities or refractory pain despite multiple nonsurgical treatments. (aafp.org)
  • cognitive behavioral therapy, surgical/procedural approaches, physical therapy and occupational therapy, acupuncture, chiropractic/ osteopathic treatment, nutritional therapy and naturopathic treatments have their place in the management of acute and chronic pain, depending on the needs and responses of the patient. (oregon.gov)
  • We don't just track intensity, which is important, but also look at unpleasantness or interference, and users can track how their daily activities, medications, and treatments impact their pain over time. (bostonglobe.com)
  • The "trend" section of the app allows you to display how these activities and treatments are influencing your pain in both the short-term and in the long run. (bostonglobe.com)
  • There is an encyclopaedic range of medical and alternative treatments for low back pain. (mja.com.au)
  • At UPMC Hamot, we offer the following Pain Management treatments and services. (upmc.com)
  • To ensure that all children and families have safe, equitable and reliable access to treatments for pain, Solutions for Kids in Pain (SKIP) , in partnership with the Health Standards Organization (HSO) of Canada, leading experts, and people with lived experience co-designed the first national standard for managing pain in Canada. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Between 1999-2014, nonopioid treatments for chronic pain were used less frequently while the amount of opioids prescribed in the United States quadrupled. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, clinicians will learn about the effectiveness and risks of nonopioid medications and nonpharmacologic treatments for chronic pain. (cdc.gov)
  • State the evidence related to effectiveness and potential risks associated with nonopioid treatments for chronic pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Describe the role of patient beliefs and expectations, and value of exercise, education, and nonopioid drug treatments in the management of musculoskeletal pain complaints. (cdc.gov)
  • In this review article, comprehensive information about the most commonly used locoregional options available for treating cancer pain focusing on interventional radiology (neurolysis, augmentation techniques , and embolization) and interventional radiotherapy were provided, also highlighting the potential ways to increase the effectiveness of treatments . (bvsalud.org)
  • And describe the role of patient beliefs and expectations and value of exercise, education, and non-opioid drug treatments and the management of muscular skeletal pain complaints. (cdc.gov)
  • There are multiple ways for adults with arthritis to reduce their pain without using medications. (cdc.gov)
  • Regular physical activity can help relieve adult arthritis pain as effectively as over-the counter medications. (cdc.gov)
  • Pain management can include medications, surgery, alternative procedures (like hypnosis , acupuncture , massage therapy and biofeedback) or combinations of these approaches. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Different types of pain medications act at different places in the pain pathways. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Many acute pain conditions can often be managed most effectively with nonopioid medications. (cdc.gov)
  • Here are some nonopioid medications and noninvasive nonpharmacologic approaches that can be used to treat acute pain. (cdc.gov)
  • For more detailed guidance on the use of nonopioid medications to treat acute, subacute, and chronic pain, please refer to the 2022 Clinical Practice Guideline . (cdc.gov)
  • I have been on Pain Medications for so long, that I did know that the Vicodin, Percocet, Etc does have acetaminophen and can kill you. (medhelp.org)
  • However, the latest research shows that between 1-5% of chronic pain patients become addicted to their pain medications. (medhelp.org)
  • Most pain after surgery is treated with medications, and we want to deliver a whole-person pain care approach. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The animal user should also be aware of any strain differences that could affect the animal's response to pain and or the medications used to treat said pain. (queensu.ca)
  • Opioids are narcotic pain medications that contain natural, synthetic or semi-synthetic opiates. (webmd.com)
  • While these medications are the same as those given to adults for pain, the dosing is not the same for children. (webmd.com)
  • We generally assess patients for efficacy of the pain-relieving technique, any possible side-effects, the need for adjunctive medications, the level of sedation, and patient satisfaction. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • Using this focused approach to treat pain we are able to minimize the undesirable side effects of medications that are often used to treat the pain symptoms such as itching, sedation, clouded thinking and constipation. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • Learn the names of common prescription opioids so you can stay vigilant about your pain management medications. (health.mil)
  • About nine out of 10 cancer pain patients find relief using a combination of medications. (mdanderson.org)
  • Some medications are general pain relievers, while others target specific types of pain and may require a prescription. (mdanderson.org)
  • If these are insufficient for moderate to severe pain, prescription-strength medications may be necessary. (mdanderson.org)
  • Your care team may recommend specific medications based on the type of cancer pain you have. (mdanderson.org)
  • For many types of pain we, fortunately, have very good medications. (iffgd.org)
  • Recent new understandings of the neurophysiology of pain have led to even more specific and effective medications for some pain problems. (iffgd.org)
  • A new understanding of the different subtypes of receptors involved in prostaglandin synthesis (a normal body function that produces inflammation and results in pain) has led to new anti-inflammatory medications (the "cox-2" inhibitors). (iffgd.org)
  • Some medications developed for other conditions have proven to be very effective for some chronic pain conditions. (iffgd.org)
  • Several medications originally developed as antidepressants and anti-convulsants are now commonly used to treat pain. (iffgd.org)
  • Therefore, many people with pain are left with either no good medications for pain control or one of the many narcotic medications that are available. (iffgd.org)
  • Due to side effects, especially the development of tolerance, narcotic or opioid medications have limited utility in chronic pain despite their excellent analgesic properties. (iffgd.org)
  • Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first-line medications for chronic low back pain. (aafp.org)
  • The best way to prevent diversion of pain medications for non-medical use is to limit the use of opioid pain medicines to those medical indications in which there is strong evidence of safety and effectiveness, such as treating acute pain after surgery or acute tissue injury," she continued. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Colbert's comedy indulged existing fears and judgments about the behaviors of people with pain and the addictive potential of pain medications. (socialworktoday.com)
  • While prescription drug abuse is an increasing problem, denying medications to those who suffer with pain and use medications appropriately because of our national inability to curb illicit drug abuse violates the principles of justice and beneficence. (socialworktoday.com)
  • Doctors sometimes prescribe opioid medications to manage pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Utilizing the latest equipment and innovative procedures, the Outpatient Pain Management Clinic at Cleveland Clinic Florida diagnoses and treats acute and chronic pain. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Non-opioid analgesics interfere with the enzymes and reduce inflammation and pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Opioid analgesics are used for higher levels of pain relief -- they include morphine, meripidine (Demerol), propoxyphene (Darvon), fentanyl, oxycodone ( OxyContin ) and codeine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Clinicians should maximize use of nonpharmacologic and nonopioid therapies as appropriate for the specific condition and patient and only consider opioid therapy for acute pain if benefits are anticipated to outweigh risks to the patient. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the most common references of VR applications is its use as a "pain-killer", and is even more relevant today with the ongoing opioid crisis in the United States which has resulted in almost 100 people dying every day due to opioid drug overdoses. (forbes.com)
  • Some report using it to treat chronic pain and anxiety, and as an aid for withdrawal from opioid dependence. (everydayhealth.com)
  • OxyContin ( oxycodone hydrochloride) is an opioid drug used for the management of moderate to severe pain, usually for an extended time period. (rxlist.com)
  • Chronic pain in adolescence may lead to persistent pain in adulthood, and also increase risk for mental illness, opioid use and socioeconomic disparities. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Unfortunately, long-term opioid use for chronic pain is associated with serious risks, including abuse, dependence, and overdose. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether pain relief, function, or quality of life improves with long-term opioid therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC's Recommendations for Non-Opioid Treatment in the Management of Chronic Pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Exploring biopsychosocial correlates of pain, pain management strategies, and risk for opioid misuse among home care workers in Washington State. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to gather novel data on HCWs' work characteristics, pain experiences, pain management strategies, and risk for opioid misuse. (cdc.gov)
  • Pharmacological pain management strategies were used by 67.3% of all respondents with 4.8% reporting prescription opioid use. (cdc.gov)
  • You may want to skip the drugs & investigate natural remedies for pain relief. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Dr. Katie Birnie, PhD, assistant professor at the Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute at the Cumming School of Medicine and associate scientific director for SKIP, chaired the Health Standards Working Group along with 14 experts in paediatric pain management. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Physicians also consider a patient's history of pain in their assessment. (howstuffworks.com)
  • On occasion, the PCS acts as the primary physician for hospitalized patients, with the admission and care directed by the patient's attending physician from the Center for Pain Management. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • Since each patient's cancer pain is unique, treatment plans for pain management should be tailored the individual's needs. (mdanderson.org)
  • Breathing and relaxation exercises: These methods focus the patient's attention on performing a specific task, instead of concentrating on the pain. (mdanderson.org)
  • Thus, effective procedural pain control should include assessment and management of the patient's emotional state and relative stress level. (medscape.com)
  • Psychological, social and environmental issues compound the patient's burden of pain. (mja.com.au)
  • The result of the positive (placebo) or negative (nocebo) use of CFs in the therapeutic setting could be responsible for a large part of a non-specific component of the efficacy of the treatment, directly affecting the quality of the results related to the patient's health (for example, pain, disability, or satisfaction). (bvsalud.org)
  • Babatunde OO, Jordan JL, Van der Windt DA, Hill JC, Foster NE, Protheroe J. Effective treatment options for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: a systematic overview of current evidence. (cdc.gov)
  • Musculoskeletal pain has an important impact on quality of life. (nutraingredients.com)
  • This approach aligns with the CPGs for other chronic musculoskeletal pain than non-specific TSP. (lu.se)
  • Home care workers (HCWs) are at high risk for musculoskeletal pain and injury, and they are an important population for pain management research and intervention. (cdc.gov)
  • Acetaminophen ( Anacin , Mapap , Panadol , Tylenol ) and a group of pain relievers called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ) such as aspirin and ibuprofen ( Advil, Motrin ) can treat mild to moderate pain. (webmd.com)
  • You may be able to help your pain with over-the-counter pain medicines like acetaminophen, aspirin, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen. (cigna.com)
  • Pain relievers are medicines that reduce or relieve pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Among other benefits, it may help people relax, and relieve stress and pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acupuncture can relieve pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Adjuvant analgesics (co-analgesics) are primarily used for treating some other condition, but they also relieve pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Massage stimulates blood flow, relieves muscle spasms and increases somatosensory information, which can relieve pain through the gate control theory (see previous page). (howstuffworks.com)
  • Acetaminophen ( Tylenol ) are available over the counter and are often used to relieve pain in children. (webmd.com)
  • Relieve pain by icing your toe for 20 minutes every 2 hours. (wikihow.com)
  • Although it may not be possible to relieve all of your pain, you should be comfortable enough so that you can rest, cough, exercise and sleep. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • Certain antidepressants are used to relieve pain even if the person isn't depressed. (webmd.com)
  • Find a pain management specialist in Silver Spring, RI to relieve pain. (wellness.com)
  • What are pain relievers? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most powerful prescription pain relievers are opioids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take OTC pain relievers to help minimize discomfort and swelling. (wikihow.com)
  • Pain sometimes resolves quickly once the underlying trauma or pathology has healed, and is treated by one practitioner, with drugs such as pain relievers (analgesics) and occasionally also anxiolytics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Narcotic pain relievers require a prescription and may be used along with mild pain relievers for moderate to severe pain. (webmd.com)
  • If a patient just has achy joints (arthralgias) without having actual inflammation of the joints (arthritis), doctors usually prescribe pain relievers for treatment. (lupusuk.org.uk)
  • If a person just has achy muscles (myalgias) without having actual inflammation of the muscles (myositis), they are treated with pain relievers, such as Paracetamol, NSAIDs, or other analgesics such as tramadol. (lupusuk.org.uk)
  • Persisting pain in children package: WHO guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of persisting pain in children with medical illnesses. (who.int)
  • I am strongly against the use of acetaminophen (aka Tylenol) as part of the treatment of long term chronic pain. (medhelp.org)
  • The 2022 CDC Clinical Practice Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Pain (2022 Clinical Practice Guideline) has expanded guidance on evidence-based nonopioid options for pain. (cdc.gov)
  • For additional information regarding nonopioid therapy approaches for treating acute pain, please refer to Recommendation 1 in the 2022 Clinical Practice Guideline. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 ​ The results showed how the application of the Cetilar ® ​ Patch for ten consecutive days was useful in reducing pain and increasing joint function in subjects suffering from this frequent clinical condition. (nutraingredients.com)
  • This initiative will assess the impact of a medical education-based program con-sisting of series of multimodal interventions designed to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with noci-ceptive pain, fibromyalgia, and centralized neuro-pathic-like pain that are being treated by primary care physicians at the New York University Langone Medical Center. (pfizer.com)
  • First published in 2002, Clinical Pain Management is a comprehensive textbook for trainee and practicing specialists in Pain Management and related areas, presenting readers with all they need to know to provide a successful pain management service. (routledge.com)
  • The fourth volume, Practic and Procedures, complements these by providing helpful advice on practical aspects of clinical management and research, including protocols and established clinical guidelines, making it a ready-reference manual for the busy clinician. (routledge.com)
  • Written and edited by a large team of acknowledged international aspects, the fully updated second edition of Clinical Pain Management remains an authoritative and comprehensive guide to this growing specialty and is an invaluable addition to the bookshelves of anyone training or working in the field of pain management. (routledge.com)
  • For patients with non-specific axial back pain, clinical examination and radiological imaging are unreliable guides to surgical or other pain interventions. (mja.com.au)
  • Only a few clinical trials had been reported using cannabis or compounds derived from it in a context of pain management. (aacc.org)
  • In your article, you mentioned the lack of clinical trial data on cannabis in pain management. (aacc.org)
  • You've just read a sampling of the media, public health, and legislative activities that inform the milieu within which the clinical care of persons with pain occurs. (socialworktoday.com)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to inform the scientific community of the pain research interests of the various Institutes and Centers (ICs) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and to stimulate and foster a wide range of basic, clinical, and translational studies on pain as they relate to the missions of these ICs. (nih.gov)
  • With research demonstrating that most surgical patients receive insufficient pain relief, the American Pain Society (APS) has released a new evidence-based clinical practice guideline . (medscape.com)
  • No clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for non-specific thoracic spine pain (TSP) have been compiled. (lu.se)
  • The second section determined participants' agreement with 29 statements regarding the clinical management of non-specific TSP utilising a five-point Likert scale. (lu.se)
  • Aim: To report the semiological conduct taken in three clinical cases of orofacial pain in patients with head and neck cancer and to describe the therapeutic approach adopted, discussing the analgesic ladder as set forth by the World Health Organization (WHO). (bvsalud.org)
  • Epidural analgesia can be performed around major surgeries such as abdominal, lower extremity or spinal surgeries for postoperative pain control. (webmd.com)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Do You Know the Latest Postoperative Pain Management Guidelines? (medscape.com)
  • The document contains 32 recommendations regarding postoperative pain management in children and adults. (medscape.com)
  • Surgery can sometimes be necessary to treat severe pain, especially when it is caused by back problems or serious musculoskeletal injuries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After orthopedic trauma surgery, patients often have quite a bit of pain that they can manage for months, and up to 10% of people have moderate to severe pain for 2 years later. (medpagetoday.com)
  • As well as causing them severe pain, endometriosis also had a negative impact on other areas of their life, such as their ability to work, family relationships and self-esteem. (news-medical.net)
  • The majority of the 18 women interviewed experienced severe pain and two-thirds rated it between eight and ten on a ten-point scale, with ten being the most severe pain imaginable. (news-medical.net)
  • A 2020 research paper reported that for adults with chronic pain, hypnosis conferred a "medium to large" improvement in pain intensity that was maintained for up to 12 months post-treatment. (hypnosisdownloads.com)
  • In this video, Beth Darnall, PhD, of Stanford University's Pain Relief Innovations Lab, discusses her research into the effectiveness of digital pain management interventions and their potential for improving equitable care and access. (medpagetoday.com)
  • pain relief application, which has been clinically tested and proven to be effective for chronic pain. (forbes.com)
  • Effective pain relief is an important part of your treatment while you are in the hospital. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • The American Pain Society now gives out an annual award in Jeffrey's name to honour advocates for children's pain relief. (todaysparent.com)
  • There are no approved medical uses for the herbal pain relief product kratom, says the FDA. (everydayhealth.com)
  • When chronic pain drags you down, you're desperate for relief. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Pain management is an aspect of medicine and health care involving relief of pain (pain relief, analgesia, pain control) in various dimensions, from acute and simple to chronic and challenging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relief of pain in general (analgesia) is often an acute affair, whereas managing chronic pain requires additional dimensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although cancer pain is usually treated with medicine, surgery to remove a tumor or radiation therapy to shrink a tumor can be used along with medicine to provide additional pain relief. (webmd.com)
  • What this means is that the same amount of the medication will lead to less pain relief over time, and the person may become even more sensitive to pain as their own pain modulation system is suppressed. (iffgd.org)
  • While some pain management tips work better for certain conditions, there is a perfect way to get pain relief for everyone. (articlecity.com)
  • Once you've done that, you will be able to start cutting those stressors out and find more pain relief. (articlecity.com)
  • Belleruth Naparstek's guided imagery for pain management and imagery to ease headaches offer relief for both kinds of pain. (healthjourneys.com)
  • Welcome to the empowerment and relief that you'll enjoy from discovering pain meditation, hypnosis and guided imagery. (healthjourneys.com)
  • The pain of knee OA remains a tough target, with only a couple of drugs providing (a little) long-term relief. (medpagetoday.com)
  • 718) 998-9890 Best rated pain relief specialists, sports pain management doctors in Brooklyn. (viesearch.com)
  • Explore the wide range of pain management medicines from Sri Sri Tattva .Vedanantaka vati from Sri Sri Tattva provides quick relief from body pain. (viesearch.com)
  • At the end of 26 weeks, acupuncture seemed to provide improvements in function and pain relief as adjunctive therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee. (medscape.com)
  • No matter what form of treatment is used, discuss with your doctor what kind of pain relief and improvement you can expect overall and continue to follow up with your doctor on your progress. (cdc.gov)
  • Drs Hope Rugo, Mike Rabow, and Reshma Mahtani discuss an interdisciplinary approach in toxicity monitoring, symptom management, and pain control to optimize patient care in metastatic breast cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Everyone experiences and responds to pain differently, so there's no "one-size-fits-all" approach to treating it. (health.mil)
  • Pain management often uses a multidisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of anyone experiencing pain, whether acute pain or chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain management is a part of a multidisciplinary, team-based approach to the prevention, evaluation, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of painful disorders. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • As such, the best way to manage your pain is a multi-modal approach. (petermac.org)
  • The multi-modal approach to pain management involves a multi-disciplinary team of healthcare professionals. (petermac.org)
  • This is pretty much what we do for the pain of labor and childbirth, and it's an effective pain meditation management approach. (healthjourneys.com)
  • Looking to add a complementary health treatment-like yoga or meditation-to your pain management approach? (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this sense, complexity theory offers an alternative approach to quantify the importance of contextual factors (CFs) in the patient with pain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many times, we find ourselves challenged by complex situations during the approach to the pain of our patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • The type of medication depends upon the source of the pain, the level of discomfort and possible side effects. (howstuffworks.com)
  • I have been on Pain Medication for a very For a very long time. (medhelp.org)
  • We enrolled 84 patients undergoing orthopedic trauma surgery, randomized them either to MSS or our digital control intervention, and we followed them after surgery for 3 months to understand how our intervention might change pain intensity, as well as use of medication. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Pain medication is injected into the epidural space of the spinal cord. (webmd.com)
  • The doctor noticed his heart rate was up and that he was sweating - both signs of pain - and topped up the medication. (todaysparent.com)
  • Medication can't always take away all of the pain. (todaysparent.com)
  • Use over-the-counter pain medication such as ibuprofen . (healthline.com)
  • Unfortunately, for many chronic pain conditions, there is no specific medication yet. (iffgd.org)
  • Pain management strategies include pain medication and/or interventions. (petermac.org)
  • Not all patients experience improvement from pain medication and/or interventions alone though. (petermac.org)
  • Colbert's antics included pretending to swallow a handful of pain medication, feigning uncontrolled use as if he were feeding an addiction or altering his mood. (socialworktoday.com)
  • There are many different pain medicines, and each one has advantages and risks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They are one of the safest medicines out there for pain. (medhelp.org)
  • There are many different medicines and methods available to control cancer pain. (webmd.com)
  • What Medicines Are Used To Treat Cancer Pain? (webmd.com)
  • If over-the-counter pain medicines don't control your pain, your doctor may prescribe another type of pain medicine. (cigna.com)
  • These medicines (such as amitriptyline or imipramine) may help people sleep and cope with pain and depression. (cigna.com)
  • Pain-management plans involve the participation of doctors, patients, family members and other caregivers. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Numerical rating scales ask patients to judge their pain intensity on a scale from zero (no pain at all) to 10 (unimaginable pain). (howstuffworks.com)
  • All patients should receive treatment for pain that provides the greatest benefits relative to risks. (cdc.gov)
  • VR has already proved successful in addressing any pain associated with acute procedures, working by distracting the patients. (forbes.com)
  • Spa therapy has showed positive effects in reducing pain among patients with chronic low back pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other treatment options for cancer patients may include nerve blocks, which involve the injection of pain medicine into or around a nerve or the spine. (webmd.com)
  • Nearly half of cancer patients experience pain. (mdanderson.org)
  • Many cancer patients do not experience any pain associated with cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • Patients can gain some control of these processes, which can influence pain levels. (mdanderson.org)
  • As a result of the pain, patients may also have increased levels of anxiety and depression, decreased quality of life, fear of further pain and disability, sleep loss, and withdrawal from social and pleasurable activities. (iffgd.org)
  • For patients who have back pain associated with radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, or another specific spinal cause, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography may establish the diagnosis and guide management. (aafp.org)
  • Because evidence of improved outcomes is lacking, lumbar spine radiography should be delayed for at least one to two months in patients with nonspecific pain. (aafp.org)
  • Most patients with chronic low back pain will not benefit from surgery. (aafp.org)
  • Patients with persistent or fluctuating pain that lasts longer than three months are defined as having chronic low back pain. (aafp.org)
  • Patients with chronic low back pain are more likely to see a family physician (65.0 percent) for their pain compared with orthopedists (55.9 percent), physical therapists (50.5 percent), and chiropractors (46.7 percent). (aafp.org)
  • Imaging, such as lumbar spine radiography, should be delayed at least one to two months in patients with nonspecific low back pain without red flags for serious disease. (aafp.org)
  • Evaluation of psychosocial problems and "yellow flags" are useful in identifying patients with chronic low back pain who have a poor prognosis. (aafp.org)
  • Cleveland Clinic Florida's Department of Anesthesiology offers expert anesthesiology and pain management care to patients in South Florida. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Cleveland Clinic Florida offers a full spectrum of treatment options for patients suffering chronic and acute pain from disease, surgery or trauma. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The VA St. Louis Health Care System PGY2 Pain Management and Palliative Care Residency Program is designed to transition PGY1 pharmacy residency graduates from generalist practice to specialized practice focused on the pain management and palliative care needs of patients. (va.gov)
  • In the absence of a diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine is required to exclude congenital or advanced pathological changes in patients with low back pain. (mja.com.au)
  • These fears epitomize worries of prescribers, patients, and family and make it increasingly difficult for persons with pain to get adequate care. (socialworktoday.com)
  • A Pain Management Specialist is a physician who has four extra years learning anesthesiology and pain medicine to help patients with pain management. (wellness.com)
  • [ 1 ] The majority of patients suffering from pain due to musculoskeletal conditions will use some form of CAM. (medscape.com)
  • Results: The most commonly reported complaint was orofacial pain in the three male patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • All patients with pain should receive safe and effective pain care. (cdc.gov)
  • The CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain provides recommendations for safer and more effective prescribing of opioids for chronic pain in patients 18 years of age and older in outpatient settings outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care. (cdc.gov)
  • Pain is the most common and fearsome symptom in cancer patients , particularly in the advanced stage of disease . (bvsalud.org)
  • As with any medical treatment, the source ofpain, pain tolerance, and the potential benefits and risks of treatmen must be considered. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Vicodin, Percocet, Tylenol #3, Tylenol #4 are OK for short term acute pain from surgeries etc. but using them long term everyday as a regimen for treatment of chronic pain is very damaging to the liver. (medhelp.org)
  • Myself and my colleagues are very focused on digital health and digital interventions to improve access to evidence-based pain treatment. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Historically, we have seen massive pain treatment disparities, and this was pre-existing before COVID, but COVID itself has only brought to light these disparities in treatment. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Managing pain not only makes you feel better, but it helps you to stay on the treatment plan for your illness. (getpalliativecare.org)
  • In the U.S. alone, 116 million adults struggle with chronic pain at a cost of $635 billion in lost productivity and treatment. (forbes.com)
  • We'll also give you the expert tips on managing pain and the signs that you need to head to the doctor for treatment. (wikihow.com)
  • Understanding where pain comes from and why it happens is crucial to treatment. (health.mil)
  • Reiki is a Japanese energy therapy used as a complementary medicine treatment for pain. (everydayhealth.com)
  • It treats distressing symptoms such as pain and discomfort to reduce any suffering during treatment, healing, and dying. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a risk in many types of pain management for the patient to take treatment that is less effective than needed or which causes other difficulties and side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • A goal of pain management for the patient and their health care provider is to identify the amount of treatment needed to address the pain without going beyond that limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes pain management covers a problem, and the patient might be less aware that they need treatment for a deeper problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's important to start cancer pain treatment as early as possible to get the most benefit. (webmd.com)
  • The pain can result from the cancer itself, or from the cancer 's treatment. (webmd.com)
  • Cancer pain, or the discomfort that stems from cancer and its treatment, can be controlled most of the time. (webmd.com)
  • The earlier pain treatment is started, the more effective it may be. (webmd.com)
  • It is important to have your pain evaluated so your care team can provide the best methods for treatment. (mdanderson.org)
  • Treatment for pain includes avoiding alcohol, eating a low-fat diet, using pain medicine, and in some cases taking enzyme pills to help rest your pancreas. (cigna.com)
  • 1 The economic impact of chronic low back pain stems from prolonged loss of function, resulting in loss of work productivity, treatment costs, and disability payments. (aafp.org)
  • The patient with multiple chronic pain problems may respond to dental treatment differently than the noninvolved patient. (medscape.com)
  • Acute pain may be associated with dental procedures such as anesthetic injection, restorative treatment, periodontal procedures, implant placement, and tooth extraction . (medscape.com)
  • When we start a new treatment, they're not thinking about how it's impacting their pain in the long run. (bostonglobe.com)
  • 6 The patient with chronic low back pain, having seen the report of the radiologist and suggestions for further pain interventions, then has renewed expectations of successful treatment. (mja.com.au)
  • One of the most common ways for pain management in people who suffer from chronic pain is medical treatment. (articlecity.com)
  • Pain is common because of cancer or following cancer treatment. (petermac.org)
  • Back Pain Treatment in Pune Owing to the upright posture of humans, back pain is one of the most common reasons for visiting a back pain specialist doctor. (viesearch.com)
  • We have all equipped machines for back pain & spine treatment in Ahmedabad India. (viesearch.com)
  • The goal of treatment is usually to decrease the pain, stiffness, and swelling to acceptable levels. (lupusuk.org.uk)
  • In addition to discussing issues related to pain and its treatment, this article describes the current climate in which physicians may be charged as criminals for behaviors that in the past may have been described as malpractice or tended to by organizations such as state medical boards. (socialworktoday.com)
  • The undertreatment of pain is a public health problem that has emotional and physical consequences and is estimated to cost the American public nearly $120 billion per year, which includes not only medical treatment but also the impact on society resulting from sick days and decreased productivity at work. (socialworktoday.com)
  • Although great strides have been made in some areas, such as the identification of neural pathways of pain, the experience of pain and the challenge of treatment have remained uniquely individual and unsolved. (nih.gov)
  • The data on effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of back pain are conflicting. (medscape.com)
  • A meta-analysis of 12 RCTs looking at acupuncture as a symptomatic treatment of back pain resulted in favorable outcomes with acupuncture. (medscape.com)
  • After the diagnosis and treatment of orofacial pain, the pain intensity and drug intake were reduced. (bvsalud.org)
  • On this page, you'll learn about the types of pain - acute, subacute, and chronic - and options for treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor about your treatment goals and the benefits and risks of different types of treatment for subacute pain. (cdc.gov)
  • You and your doctor should work together to establish treatment goals for pain and function in your daily life. (cdc.gov)
  • If after talking to your doctor about your pain treatment, you are prescribed opioids, be sure to ask about the risks and benefits. (cdc.gov)
  • During this COCA Call, a case study will be used to illustrate how clinicians can identify appropriate treatment strategies for chronic pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Outline nonpharmacologic and nonopioid pharmacologic treatment options for various chronic pain conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Review patient evaluation methods that can be used to identify the most appropriate treatment options for chronic pain. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study , we were examining the benefit of a brief digital pain education intervention that might help people recover from surgery with less pain. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Most importantly, we found that people in MSS reported reductions in pain proximal to the surgery and also durability of analgesia to 3 months later. (medpagetoday.com)
  • They requires a doctor's prescription) and are often used to treat acute pain, such as short-term pain after surgery. (webmd.com)
  • Vicki Baerg, of Surrey, BC, was surprised to learn how difficult it was to determine her son's level of pain during his recovery from heart surgery. (todaysparent.com)
  • Chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery can cause pain. (mdanderson.org)
  • Relieving pain resulting from surgery helps people recover more quickly and heal more effectively. (mdanderson.org)
  • The staff is closely linked with the departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Neurosurgery and Orthopaedic Surgery at Cleveland Clinic Florida for consultation and collaboration in all aspects of chronic and acute pain. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • If you have a rib fracture, there's a 40 percent probability that you might transition toward chronic pain right after the fracture or right after surgery. (bostonglobe.com)
  • When you have an injury or surgery, you're reporting pain right away. (bostonglobe.com)
  • For the benefit of the patient and the reputation of the surgeon, these aspects of chronic pain need to be carefully explored before considering spinal surgery. (mja.com.au)
  • Specializing In Pain Management, Spine Surgery, and Minimally Invasive Procedures For Longer Lasting Results. (viesearch.com)
  • Acute pain is pain that has lasted for less than a month and has a known cause, like an injury, trauma, surgery, or infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In cancer pain management, the first option is represented by analgesic drugs , whereas surgery is rarely used. (bvsalud.org)
  • Brown University psychiatry and human behavior professor Dr. Frederike Petzschner helped develop the SOMA pain management mobile application, which launched in 2023. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Published on April 3, 2023, these guidelines are the only national standard that exists for pain management anywhere in the world. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Psychological techniques for pain management include distraction (playing with toys or video games, reading, drawing) and relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or progressive muscle relaxation. (todaysparent.com)
  • activities, relaxation and distraction strategies that may help you manage your pain. (sjog.org.au)
  • For chronic pain, distraction is the key. (healthjourneys.com)
  • Conclusion: The precise and individual diagnosis of orofacial pain allows for a more effective pain management, thus reducing the pain intensity, the number of complaints, and the amount of medicine. (bvsalud.org)
  • But chronic pain usage is also coming up, and can significantly improve the lives of those living with chronic pain! (forbes.com)
  • Cancer pain can be a presenting symptom that leads to diagnosis, or it may only be felt in late-stage disease. (mdanderson.org)
  • In developed countries, low back pain is the most common presenting symptom in primary care practice, with a lifetime prevalence of 80% for episodes of back pain. (mja.com.au)
  • A tumor in his spine caused immense back pain, made worse by symptoms from chemotherapy, radiation, and several spinal surgeries. (getpalliativecare.org)
  • Each year, approximately 50 million people experience serious chronic pain lasting six months or more, and another 25 million experience acute pain from injuries and surgeries. (socialworktoday.com)
  • Learn more about CDC recognized programs for managing arthritis symptoms, including pain. (cdc.gov)
  • These workshops teach participants strategies to control or limit their symptoms, including pain, and to develop more confidence in managing health problems that affect their lives. (cdc.gov)
  • Cetilar ® ​ Tape is an inelastic adhesive tape, designed to reduce pain symptoms in the case of muscle and joint disorders such as sports trauma, sprains, tension, and contractures. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Inflammatory back pain symptoms resemble those of several types of inflammatory arthritis. (everydayhealth.com)
  • What Are the Symptoms of Cancer Pain? (webmd.com)
  • The symptoms of cancer pain vary from person to person. (webmd.com)
  • Despite the name, anticonvulsants like gabapentin ( Horizant , Neurontin ) and carbamazepine ( Carbatrol , Equetro , Tegretol ) are used not only for seizures , but also to control burning and tingling pain, painful symptoms of nerve damage . (webmd.com)
  • Luckily for most of us, pain is a matter of perception, and because of that, we can lower its intensity by using meditation and guided imagery for pain management - techniques which direct our attention to where we decide we want our focus to go. (healthjourneys.com)
  • Pain intensity was evaluated through the visual analogic scale (VAS). (bvsalud.org)
  • Opioids are natural or synthetic chemicals that bind to receptors in your brain or body to reduce the intensity of pain signals reaching the brain. (cdc.gov)
  • Residency graduates will be equipped to participate as essential members of interdisciplinary pain management and/or palliative care teams and are able to make complex therapeutic recommendations in various practice settings. (va.gov)
  • 1 Opioids in palliative care: safe and effective prescribing of strong opioids for pain in palliative care of adults. (who.int)
  • Tricyclic antidepressants affect synaptic transmission of serotonin and norepinephrine neurons in the central nervous system, thereby affecting pain-modulating pathways. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Antidepressants are drugs that can treat pain and/or emotional conditions by adjusting levels of neurotransmitters (natural chemicals) in the brain . (webmd.com)
  • Amitriptyline and nortriptyline ( Aventyl , Pamelor ), and duloxetine ( Cymbalta ) are antidepressants sometimes used to treat pain. (webmd.com)
  • Low-dose antidepressants may also help reduce chronic abdominal pain associated with functional GI disorders. (iffgd.org)
  • The pain associated with fibromyalgia is generally chronic and persistent, predominantly in the muscle-tendon system, which involves more regions of the body, as neck, shoulder and arms. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The trajectory of chronic or persistent pain differs for everyone. (petermac.org)
  • Walking, biking, swimming, and other water activities (e.g., water aerobics, aqua jogging) are all effective ways to ease arthritis pain and are safe for most adults. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC recommends adults with arthritis participate in self-management education workshops, like the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) , designed for people with arthritis or other chronic conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects of community-deliverable exercise on pain and physical function in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases: a meta-analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Did you know that over 20 percent of adults in the United States suffer from some type of chronic pain? (articlecity.com)
  • This is a no-brainer, but let's nail down one important point: Not only does untreated pain cause undue stress, it can sensitize a child's pain pathways, making future bouts of pain worse. (todaysparent.com)
  • Research shows that when parents and children both rate a child's pain, the parents tend to rate it lower than the child," says Fiona Campbell, an anaesthesiologist and consultant in pain management at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children. (todaysparent.com)
  • Accordingly, the standard highlights the child and family as equal and important members of the health team involved in the child's pain management. (ucalgary.ca)
  • So, having multimodal pain management approaches are really important. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Multimodal locoregional procedures for cancer pain management: a literature review. (bvsalud.org)
  • Multimodal primary and secondary interventions are recommended to improve HCWs' pain management. (cdc.gov)
  • High expertise in regional anesthesia and providing "pain-free" joint replacement. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The APS commissioned input from the American Society of Anesthesiologists, and the guidelines were approved by the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management. (medscape.com)
  • The bottom line was that for the 8 high-quality studies included in this review of acupuncture vs placebo for neck pain, 5 were negative. (medscape.com)
  • Learning about your pain, and using self-assessment tools, increases the likelihood of this. (petermac.org)
  • The pain assessment tools proposed by the NPS Workgroup use the definitions of chronic pain and high- impact chronic pain, which are based in part on the widely used definition of chronic pain recommended by the International Association for the Study of Pain, (International Association for the Study of Pain, 1986) modified to account for intermittent pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Pain management includes patient and communication about the pain problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most primary care physicians can expect to see at least one patient with low back pain per week. (aafp.org)
  • The delivery of anesthetic and the management of postprocedural pain in a normal patient is not likely to be impacted by peripheral and central neurophysiological plasticity. (medscape.com)
  • However, in the patient with a history of chronic nonfacial pain or in the fearful patient, brain neurophysiology may be altered so as to facilitate pain perception. (medscape.com)
  • At the initial consultation, the astute family physician will consider a wide range of diagnoses in the patient with the recent onset of back pain. (mja.com.au)
  • Today, chronic pain is understood in terms of a biopsychosocial concept, although this can be difficult to explain to a patient. (mja.com.au)
  • Justine Fehr, who serves on a number of patient advisory committees, has experience with chronic pain personally, and through her role as a child development specialist and caregiver for clients with complex medical care needs. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Capturing the complexity of the pain patient is one of the most challenging yet largely underexplored issues, as current health systems still focus on individual diseases and are not equipped to handle complexity 7 . (bvsalud.org)
  • In this sense, the patient with pain and his/her interaction with the therapeutic environment during the professional consultation can also be considered as a CS, characterized by a high degree of biological variability, negative entropy, and emergent order. (bvsalud.org)
  • One of the greatest difficulties that we have been facing in pain care, whether that's care of people with chronic pain or the care of individuals who have post-surgical pain, is that we do not have enough trained therapists and clinicians to meet the needs of varied populations and varied individual circumstances. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Clinicians can acknowledge that pain (and its accompanying issues) are significant stressors and can influence their breathing patterns. (va.gov)
  • The Bass and Rosenberg articles are emblematic of public attention to the complex environment in which clinicians practice and persons with pain attempt to secure care. (socialworktoday.com)
  • Another problem with pain management is that pain is the body's natural way of communicating a problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain is the body's message to the mind. (hypnosisdownloads.com)
  • These compounds are useful in treating neuropathic pain (chronic pain that comes from injury to the central nervous system). (howstuffworks.com)
  • An inflamed disc can compress a nerve and cause neuropathic pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • and positive thinking, to cope with pain. (forbes.com)
  • Both ancient and modern medicine has evolved a variety of ways to help cope with chronic pain and maybe even return the system to more normal functioning. (iffgd.org)
  • Much more needs to be done to ensure that the condition is diagnosed promptly and that women are offered the pain management services they need to cope with this debilitating condition. (news-medical.net)
  • Chronic pain can be managed with or without prescription opioids, but many of the nonopioid options have been shown to work better with fewer side effects. (cdc.gov)
  • You may feel pain in one area of your body, such as your back , abdomen , chest , pelvis , or you may feel pain all over. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Biofeedback may help to control pain, including chronic headaches and back pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, many people suffer back pain from herniated disks between the vertebrae. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Usually you do not eat or drink right after your operation so instead of pills for pain you will take medicine in a small tube placed in a vein (IV) in your arm or in the epidural space in your back. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • Staying physically active and trip-proofing your home are just a few thing that can reduce inflammatory back pain and prevent additional injury. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Studies have shown that kinesiotape could be used on individuals with chronic low back pain to reduce pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower back pain from cycling could be due to bike posture, muscle imbalances, or biking too much. (healthline.com)
  • Lower back pain is the most frequent overuse injury affecting cyclists. (healthline.com)
  • In a 2021 survey of 1,274 amateur Italian cyclists, researchers reported that 55.1% of athletes experienced lower back pain in the past year. (healthline.com)
  • A combination of factors can contribute to the development of back pain, including an improper-fitting bicycle and too many weekly miles. (healthline.com)
  • Read on to learn more about why biking can cause lower back pain, how you can treat it, and how you can prevent it. (healthline.com)
  • Lower back pain is a common complaint among cyclists. (healthline.com)
  • Here are some of the factors that might contribute to back pain when biking. (healthline.com)
  • Sustained and repeated spinal flexion is linked to lower back pain in cyclists. (healthline.com)
  • A handlebar position that's too low may put you into excessive spinal flexion that contributes to back pain. (healthline.com)
  • In a 2017 research review , researchers found evidence that muscle imbalances in the core and spinal muscles are risk factors for lower back pain in cyclists. (healthline.com)
  • In the same study, researchers also found a link between back pain in cyclists and decreased thickness in the transverse abdominis muscle and muscles in the back around the spine. (healthline.com)
  • Your chances of developing back pain seem to increase as your number of weekly miles increases. (healthline.com)
  • In an older 2010 study, researchers found that recreational cyclists who cycled more than 160 kilometers (about 100 miles) a week were 3.6 times more likely to experience back pain than those who biked fewer than 160 kilometers per week. (healthline.com)
  • These vibrations may increase your risk of lower back pain and injury. (healthline.com)
  • How do I get rid of lower back pain from biking? (healthline.com)
  • The best way to treat lower back pain depends on the underlying cause. (healthline.com)
  • How can I prevent lower back pain from biking? (healthline.com)
  • Download Chronic Pain Management now and take back your life. (hypnosisdownloads.com)
  • Examples include pain associated with nerve damage (such as diabetic neuropathy, or "sciatic" leg pain following a back injury). (iffgd.org)
  • See related handout on coping with chronic low back pain , written by the authors of this article. (aafp.org)
  • Chronic low back pain is a common problem in primary care. (aafp.org)
  • or (4) back pain associated with another specific spinal cause. (aafp.org)
  • Acute episodes of back pain are usually self-limited. (aafp.org)
  • It is often caused by arthritis, back pain or muscular or neurological pain. (sjog.org.au)
  • And then if you go back to the doctor, which is often weeks later, you're usually seeing a different doctor, reporting the pain again. (bostonglobe.com)
  • 1 Back pain disrupts the rhythm of daily life, affecting work, recreation, social life and family income. (mja.com.au)
  • Renal stones, aortic aneurysm, gastric and pancreatic conditions, malignant metastases, discitis and ankylosing spondylitis will all need to be considered before accepting the diagnosis of non-specific axial low back pain. (mja.com.au)
  • The supporting muscles, interspinous ligaments, lateral facet joints, vertebrae, discs and sacroiliac joints may all contribute to chronic low back pain, but their individual contribution can be difficult to elucidate clinically. (mja.com.au)
  • The spinal surgeon needs to be conscious of the natural history of low back pain. (mja.com.au)
  • 7 Back pain can be transient, recurrent and chronic. (mja.com.au)
  • Back pain and fibromyalgia. (medscape.com)
  • Community-based physical activity programs teach people how to be physically active safely and are a good option for people who are concerned about making their joint pain or arthritis worse. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC also recognizes evidence-based self-management education programs that have proven benefits for people with arthritis. (cdc.gov)
  • But we feel that showing that people have reduced pain from a brief self-administered, on-demand intervention is a really nice result, suggesting that other programs might be able to implement this type of a program wherein behavioral health and pain management could be vastly more accessible than it is now. (medpagetoday.com)
  • So, It's truly an exciting time to be able to envision how people all over the world might have ease of access to care from the comfort of their own home, whether that's acute pain or chronic pain. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Assessing pain in young children is not as easy as people think, so researchers have developed better methods. (todaysparent.com)
  • People experiencing pain may have difficulty recognizing or describing what they feel and how intense it is. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of people with cancer will experience pain at some time or another. (webmd.com)
  • In addition, some people who have been cured of their cancer can continue to suffer from pain. (webmd.com)
  • People who have cancer and are feeling pain need to inform their doctor immediately. (webmd.com)
  • Many people have pain for many years. (cigna.com)
  • People can take oral enzyme supplements, which may reduce pain in some people, particularly those who have mild or moderate disease. (cigna.com)
  • For many, many years, people have turned to hypnosis to help them manage chronic pain. (hypnosisdownloads.com)
  • But the other aspect of this is people think they know when they're in pain. (bostonglobe.com)
  • We don't exclusively focus on chronic pain, but also focus on people with acute pain. (bostonglobe.com)
  • We are trying to do two things: start a large study now where we are predicting out a sample of who is at risk of transitioning toward chronic pain and also look at how to treat people who experience pain both acutely and chronically. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Chronic pain affects people of all ages, but it doesn't have to keep you from living the life you want to live. (articlecity.com)
  • 90% to 95% of people with lupus will experience muscle and/or joint pain. (lupusuk.org.uk)
  • As the population ages and people live with chronic illnesses, competent pain management is essential to our commitment to ease suffering and maximize quality of life. (socialworktoday.com)
  • Chronic pain is one of the most common reasons people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many people experience pain every day. (cdc.gov)
  • Many people experience chronic pain, which can lead to impaired physical functioning, poor mental health, reduced quality of life, and contributes to substantial disability and death each year. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, the NPS Workgroup seeks to develop questions to measure the impact of pain on people·s lives. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on the definition of pain from the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage and should be expected in an animal subjected to any procedure or disease model that would be likely to cause pain in a human. (queensu.ca)
  • Women with the chronic and progressive condition can experience constant pain, reduced quality of life and even suicidal feelings, say Professor Annette Huntington and Senior Lecturer Jean A Gilmour. (news-medical.net)
  • The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. (medscape.com)
  • What is important about these terms is that they describe the sensory experience related to nerve function generally including peripheral and central activity, and they underscore the complexity of the neural phenomena involved in pain processing. (medscape.com)
  • Anxiety and fear is known to activate the pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to an increased experience of pain. (medscape.com)
  • 5 He likens the pain injury to the inner core of an onion, with additional layers surrounding it which enhance the experience of pain, including childhood issues, masked depression, substance abuse, pain behaviour and entitlements to secondary gain. (mja.com.au)
  • All children, even healthy ones, will experience pain at some point in their lifetime. (ucalgary.ca)
  • By its very nature, pain is a personal experience - it can only be known by the person experiencing the pain. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Pain is a subjective experience modulated by a variety of cognitive and emotional factors, as well as by a series of sensory signals, which arise from the context surrounding the painful experience 5,6 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Acute pain usually comes on suddenly, because of a disease, injury, or inflammation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hot applications increase blood flow, and cold applications reduce inflammation, which contributes to pain. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Fibromyalgia is a chronic rheumatic disease that is characterized by widespread muscle pain in the absence of inflammation signs. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The objective of manual therapy is to reduce pain and inflammation, improve joint mobility, and reduce muscle tension. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Not all joint and muscle pain is due to the inflammation of lupus. (lupusuk.org.uk)
  • Most physicians and other health professionals provide some pain control in the normal course of their practice, and for the more complex instances of pain, they also call on additional help from a specific medical specialty devoted to pain, which is called pain medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are having debilitating pain from chronic pancreatitis, you may be referred to a pain clinic. (cigna.com)
  • Med Harbour is a specialized clinic in Delhi & Gurgaon, India, for pain management. (viesearch.com)
  • We have specialist team in our Pain Clinic and centres in multiple cities of India. (viesearch.com)
  • There are many causes of cancer pain, but often cancer pain occurs when a tumor presses on nerves or body organs or when cancer cells invade bones or body organs. (webmd.com)