Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Catastrophization: Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Free Tissue Flaps: A mass of tissue that has been cut away from its surrounding areas to be used in TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Facial Neuralgia: Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Spinal DiseasesRecovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Causalgia: A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Joint DiseasesSensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Pelvic Girdle Pain: Discomfort associated with the bones that make up the pelvic girdle. It occurs frequently during pregnancy.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Neuralgia, Postherpetic: Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS; and HERPES ZOSTER OPHTHALMICUS. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Central Nervous System Sensitization: An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Musculoskeletal Manipulations: Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Breakthrough Pain: Acute pain that comes on rapidly despite the use of pain medication.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
  • What natural labor inducing methods worked for you?Why you need Joint Pain Relief Codes?Joint pain can be painful and unbearable. (nyscopa.org)
  • Sciatica is the most acute form of back pain. (nyscopa.org)
  • Sciatica refers to pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve, which branches from your sciatica sos book download lower back through your hips and buttocks and down each leg. (nyscopa.org)
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  • 5) Always follow Trigger Point Elimination Techniques with proper sciatica sos book review stretching, range of motion exercise and self-care treatments. (nyscopa.org)
  • Does It Really Work?Pole Tricks Handbook Review - Does it really work?14 day perfect booty Review - Does It Work Or Another Scam?Pure Natural Healing Review - Does It Really Work?Anabolic Running ReviewPrimal Palate Review - Does it really work?Sciatica is a relatively common form of back pain that radiates along the sciatic nerve. (nyscopa.org)
  • Between the mind and the body, by means of the exercise of many not otherwise find the pain of sciatica. (nyscopa.org)
  • A change in the frequency and severity of the pain in the throat to help will be able to live alone, it might be well to live. (nyscopa.org)
  • Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? (celiac.com)
  • One of main symptoms was stomach pain on and off for about 1 year. (celiac.com)
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  • The Epstein Barr virus (mononucleosis or glandular fever) can affect the nerves of the body resulting in symptoms such as headaches and muscle pains. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Ayurveda involves use of herbal medicines, meditation and yoga to manage the symptoms of knee pain. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Learn about the symptoms and treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Symptoms may include pain, sensitivity to heat or cold, swelling or soreness in the gum surrounding the tooth ,tooth discolouration may also occur in some cases. (drwalker.com.au)
  • This article will discuss some possible causes of inner thigh pain, other symptoms, and ways to treat them. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These measures include campaigns to promote good hygiene, large-scale vaccination campaigns, specialized Ebola treatment centers where those infected or exposed to the virus can receive investigational therapeutics, and comprehensive efforts to trace and prevent the spread of EVD through vaccination campaigns, monitoring for symptoms, diagnostic testing, and implementation of infection prevention and control measures, such as safe and dignified burial procedures. (prnewswire.com)
  • There are a few symptoms that can highlight the present of neck pains and neck related injury. (contentfreelance.com)
  • This journal can help your physician in assessing how best to treat pain and related symptoms. (mesothelioma.com)
  • Secondary symptoms, such as fluid buildup, can cause discomfort and pain by creating pressure in the lungs, heart, or abdomen. (mesothelioma.com)
  • These guidelines suggest that, following a month trial of conservative treatment, MRI may then be considered if symptoms of sciatica/radiculopathy persist, but only to guide epidural steroid injections, or to provide more information if surgery is being considered. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs provide temporarily pain relief by masking the symptoms but do not address the underlying condition and do nothing to help repair damaged tissue and prevent further deterioration. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • Steroids and Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAID) such as Rimadyl, Metacam, Deramaxx, Previcox provide temporarily pain relief by masking the symptoms but do not address the underlying condition and do nothing to help repair damaged tissue and prevent further deterioration. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
  • HealthDay News) -- Headache symptoms vary, from a sharp pain to a dull throb. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Your symptoms, any co-conditions (like anxiety or depression), and your personal preferences will influence which treatments are best for you.Talk to your GP or mental health professional about the best treatment for you. (blackdoginstitute.org.au)
  • NewMed, based in Harrietsham, is the one-stop-shop for PEMF therapy, which has been clinically proven to relieve pain and improve the symptoms of arthritis. (news-medical.net)
  • The treatment called prostatic artery embolization improved the quality of life and sleep pattern for men with enlarged prostates and lower urinary tract symptoms. (medindia.net)
  • IBD-related spondyloarthropathy is mainly characterised by axial involvement (including inflammatory back pain, isolated sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis) but may also be associated with peripheral symptoms (i.e peripheral arthritis, dactylitis and enthesopathy, such as Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciitis, and chest wall pain). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Many patients affected with CD and NCWS complain of IBP-like symptoms, which generally improve, together with the other clinical manifestations of the diseases, during a gluten-free diet (GFD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 4.1.1 The Assessment Group conducted a systematic review of cilostazol, naftidrofuryl oxalate, pentoxifylline and inositol nicotinate within their licensed indications for the treatment of intermittent claudication in people with peripheral arterial disease whose symptoms continue despite conventional management. (nice.org.uk)
  • In a general review of low back pain (BMJ, 3 April 1993), Andrew Frank, consultant physician in rheumatology and rehabilitation at Northwick Park Hospital in Harrow, England, concluded: 'Up to 85 per cent of patients with low back pain cannot be given a definitive diagnosis because of the poor associations between symptoms, signs, imaging results and pathological findings. (healthy.net)
  • Bladder pain may be acute, long term and/or associated with other symptoms and syndromes. (urotoday.com)
  • Clinicals have embraced these concepts enthusiastically and have begun to incorporate an opioid-free pain management approach in surgery. (intechopen.com)
  • Low level laser therapy (LLLT), which is now approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), provides the very latest in safe, non-invasive treatment options for people with acute and chronic pain that has not responded to other types of treatment. (massagemag.com)
  • Dr. Swierzewski and other members of the highly-qualified medical team at The Laser Pain Management Center now offer low level laser therapy (LLLT) for pain management. (massagemag.com)
  • Low level laser therapy can be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as physical therapy, massage therapy, chiropractic therapy, and acupuncture. (massagemag.com)
  • To learn more, including answers to frequently asked questions about low level laser therapy, visit The Laser Pain Management Center's website at laserpainmanagementcenter.com. (massagemag.com)
  • Verrills goes on to say, "Spinal cord stimulation should now be considered earlier in the treatment continuum and not simply as an end-stage salvage therapy. (dovepress.com)
  • Dr. Nitesh Khonde is an expert in Traditional & Modern Ayurveda and panchkarma therapy He as a driving force of this hospital has spread the culture of this ancient method of health treatment in the city and surrounding through his knowledge, exposure, and expertise. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Endodontic treatment or Root canal therapy is needed when a tooth has a damaged or infected pulp. (drwalker.com.au)
  • The alternate treatment to a root canal therapy is an extraction. (drwalker.com.au)
  • Caleb Alexander of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Maryland says existing alternatives to opioids - such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy - have more immediate potential for alleviating the epidemic than new treatments. (newscientist.com)
  • New treatments for back pain will be important for fighting this, but Caleb Alexander of the Johns Hopkins Center for Drugs Safety and Effectiveness in Maryland says existing alternatives to opioids - such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy - have more immediate potential for alleviating the epidemic. (newscientist.com)
  • Non-invasive and drug-free, PEMF therapy stimulates cellular repair to improve your body's overall performance. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. Kris Ferguson, Physician at the Pain Clinic at Aspirus Langlade Hospital, discusses the field of pain management and how treatment options can range from exercise, medication assisted treatment, physical therapy, injection procedures to surgical interventions if necessary. (tunein.com)
  • Anne Cooke, PT, MS, CAPP-Certified, discusses pelvic physical therapy and how it can help to relieve pain from many women's issues such as incontinence and pelvic pain. (tunein.com)
  • Trigger point massage therapy is specifically designed to alleviate the source of the pain through cycles of isolated pressure and release. (amazonaws.com)
  • Changing a therapy can, sometimes, be a helpful technique in combating foot and nerve pain. (amazonaws.com)
  • Done regularly, massage therapy can be an essential part of a pain management program. (healthcentral.com)
  • Research evidence suggests that massage therapy not only relieves muscle tension and pain but also increases oxytocin levels . (everydayhealth.com)
  • The superiority of both forms of acupuncture suggests a common underlying mechanism that may act on pain generation, transmission of pain signals or processing of pain signals by the central nervous system and that is stronger than the action mechanism of conventional therapy,' the authors conclude. (cbc.ca)
  • There are many widely used and recommended conservative, non-surgical forms of treatment such as physical therapy, massage, chiropractic manipulation, or short-term use of NSAIDs like diclofenac, ibuprofen or others,' he says. (cbc.ca)
  • Multimodal pain therapy that is tailored to the patient's present situation, genetics, ongoing treatment, and previous treatment(s) may reduce pain and improve quality of life. (urotoday.com)
  • Specifically, this prospective cohort study compared orthodontic pain experience during the first week of fixed-appliance therapy in two groups of children aged between 12 and 18 years and classified as normal weight and obese based upon body mass index (BMI). (deepdyve.com)
  • Non-opioid alternatives and preoperative patient education strategies have been shown to be superior in the management of postoperative pain and opioid requirements. (intechopen.com)
  • An increased occurrence of confusion and postoperative delirium [ 2 ], respiratory depression, increased postoperative pain and opioids consumption with abuse, immunodepression, hyperalgesia and chronic postoperative pain have also been described. (intechopen.com)
  • Sodium channel isoforms preferentially expressed in the peripheral nervous system, including Na+ (V) 1.3, 1.9, and especially 1.7 and 1.8, play specific roles in the neurobiology of pain . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2. Recognize the clinical characteristics and underlying etiology of several common pain conditions and the peripheral, central, and genetic mechanisms of chronic pain 3. (coursera.org)
  • 13. A method of treating sympathetically maintained pain in peripheral tissues comprising topically administering to a patient a compound other than guanethidine or clonidine effective to treat peripheral sympathetically maintained pain at the site of treatment by blocking the effect of norepinephrine on nociceptor terminals, without systemic side effects of postural hypotension, headache, tachycardia, or nasal stuffiness. (google.com)
  • Spontaneous pain and/ or allodynia and hyperalgaesia occur beyond the territory of single peripheral nerve(s), and is disproportionate to the inciting event. (reflexpainmanagement.com)
  • Spontaneous pain and/ or allodynia and hyperalgaesia are usually limited to the area involved but may spread variably distal or proximal to the area, not in the territory of a dermatomal or peripheral nerve distribution. (reflexpainmanagement.com)
  • 4) and there are also suggestions that obesity can influence peripheral pain perception, being a contributory factor for increased pain thresholds (5-8). (deepdyve.com)
  • Now, a study published in the Journal of Pain Research finds another safe and effective drug-free treatment option for chronic pain sufferers - spinal cord stimulation (SCS). (dovepress.com)
  • The study, authored by an Australian team, looks at recent evidence for safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation in back and limb pain. (dovepress.com)
  • Lead author Paul Verrills from the Metro Pain Group in Melbourne, Australia, thinks the study findings represent "unheralded evidence that we can safely treat back and leg pain using spinal cord stimulation techniques. (dovepress.com)
  • Prolapsed disc problems, just like other disc related issues such as Herniated Discs and Spinal Bulges, respond very well to my unique treatment programme. (backpainfree.life)
  • Low-frequency spinal cord stimulation (SCS) works by delivering mild electrical pulses to the spinal cord to prevent pain signals from being transmitted to the brain. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • While we treat a variety of spinal conditions , we ultimately treat pain. (deukspine.com)
  • In May his doctor sent him to a pain specialist, who suggested a spinal cord stimulator. (kansas.com)
  • This was followed by treatments including the removal of the coccyx, injections for herniated or slipped discs (in which the cushiony centre of the disc, which softens the shock of spinal movement, protrudes out of the fibrous outside), lengthy bedrest, traction and even transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. (healthy.net)
  • Spinal decompression is a relatively new specialty in the back pain industry. (cure-back-pain.org)
  • Serious structural problems with the spinal anatomy can enact pain which just might never heal. (cure-back-pain.org)
  • They also analyzed responses the seniors gave in a back and leg pain disability questionnaire. (mentalhelp.net)
  • This means there is the potential for error in both the diagnosis of a cancer (its size, position and how aggressive it is) and its subsequent focal treatment. (healthcanal.com)
  • This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc. (celiac.com)
  • In the nonsurgical group, treatments will be prescribed according to the diagnosis and duration of the condition. (prohealth.com)
  • WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. (webmd.com)
  • The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. (medindia.net)
  • Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. (medindia.net)
  • Figuring out the correct diagnosis, and then instituting the best treatment, can make all the difference and determine when an injured athlete is able to return to training. (active.com)
  • more effective ways of describing findings, covering general principles of report preparation, reports for school-age children and the medically complex child, differential diagnosis in older adults, psychopathology and psychiatric comorbidity, personal injury and criminal forensic neuropsychological evaluation, pre and postsurgical neuropsychological evaluation, and evaluation for treatment planning in rehabilitation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cortisol levels may be measured in saliva, which can be collected readily and safely in a stress-free and non-invasive manner (13). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • While there are a variety of treatment options, some are less invasive than others. (tunein.com)
  • May 12, 2016 By Ueli LadinaThe sciatica is the pain that it is caused by the compression and the irritation of the nerve of sciatic. (amazonaws.com)
  • Dr. Brett Stacey speaks with Clinical Pain Advisor about responses after the closure of the Seattle Pain Center in 2016. (washington.edu)
  • Ion channels-the cell membrane proteins integral for transmitting nerve impulses and pain signals throughout the body-have been largely difficult to drug, due to limited target areas and a lack of available testing material. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Anticonvulsants , such as gabapentin, topiramate and carbamazepine work by blocking overactive transmissions of pain signals to the brain. (promises.com)
  • Opioids mainly act through the stimulation of μ-receptors, which has inhibitory effects on the propagation of pain signals to the brain. (intechopen.com)
  • The same fibers that carry pain signals also carry touch and vibration," Johnson said. (kansas.com)
  • It works by interfering with compounds that are involved in neurological pain signals. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Then learn about the newest non-surgical and surgical treatment options for relieving your back or leg pain. (bch.org)
  • He will also provide information regarding the latest advances in surgical and non-surgical treatment options. (sphp.com)
  • Human Rights Watch further argues that the government's failure to ensure that cancer hospitals offer pain treatment may violate the prohibition against torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment because of the widespread nature and severity of the suffering it causes. (hrw.org)
  • Control of pain perception will be gained by judicious addition of regional analgesia. (identalhub.com)
  • certainly when regional analgesia is being used for the control of operative pain, the co-operation of the patient is imperative. (identalhub.com)
  • Though dentists rely on regional analgesia for the control of operative pain, it is advantageous to choose drugs for conscious - sedation that also elevate the pain threshold at CNS system level. (identalhub.com)
  • Litt (8) emphasized the effects of anxiety on pain sensation and reported that in clinical situations of acute pain, anxiety, and pain may be indistinguishable. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • That shows how often things progress when you're going from acute to a chronic to intractable conditions and you can see that initially there's just mainly behavioral factors at the start and there's acute pain, but over time as things become chronic, other factors become more salient. (coursera.org)
  • Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet? (celiac.com)
  • The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? (celiac.com)
  • Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? (celiac.com)
  • A lot of people find that the first few months of the gluten-free diet can be problematic. (celiac.com)
  • these include endocannabinoids, lipoxygenase metabolites, lysophosphatidic acid and oxidized linoleic acid metabolites released either in response to noxious heating or under path-ological pain conditions . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • As a Therapeutic Massage Therapist, this was a great course to have to go more in-depth into different pain conditions and taking a holistic approach to them. (coursera.org)
  • Doctors who recommend surgery as a treatment option for conditions which can be treated non-surgically should take a good long look in the mirror. (cure-back-pain.org)
  • However, the body is incredibly adept at healing itself and medical science is very good at successfully treating conditions which are correctly identified as the true underlying reason for pain. (cure-back-pain.org)
  • Even if one or more conditions are corrected, the others may continue to cause pain. (cure-back-pain.org)
  • Materials and methods Study design This prospective cohort study compared the effects of obesity on orthodontic pain experience during initial tooth alignment with fixed-appliances. (deepdyve.com)