Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Animals, LaboratoryFacial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Manipulation, Chiropractic: Procedures used by chiropractors to treat neuromusculoskeletal complaints.Chiropractic: An occupational discipline founded by D.D. Palmer in the 1890's based on the relationship of the spine to health and disease.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Psychology, Applied: The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Volunteers: Persons who donate their services.BooksMetaphysics: The branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, including ontology (the nature of existence or being) and cosmology (the origin and structure of the universe). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Book SelectionRhodobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Book Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
  • No truly holistic vet can ignore the existence of conventional drugs which, while quite unable to cure chronic disease, on rare occasions may be the only way to control distressing or painful symptoms. (alternativevet.org)
  • Review of occupational exposures at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases from 1989 to 2002 showed that three laboratory workers had symptoms after ocular exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). (cdc.gov)
  • Symptoms from these patients and review of clinical symptoms of 16 laboratory-acquired inhalational SEB intoxications may help healthcare workers evaluate and identify SEB exposures in laboratory personnel at risk. (cdc.gov)
  • The symptoms in these three mucocutaneous-acquired cases, and summary of symptoms from 16 laboratory-acquired inhalational intoxications with SEB, may help define the clinical spectrum that might be expected after SEB exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • During a review of occupational exposures evaluated in the Special Immunizations Clinic at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases from 1989 to 2002, clinical evaluations of three laboratory workers with symptoms of conjunctivitis and localized swelling after exposure to SEB were identified. (cdc.gov)
  • As the cancer progresses, symptoms may include vaginal bleeding following intercourse, between periods or after menopause, watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and foul smelling, and pelvic pain or pain during intercourse. (westerlynaturalmarket.com)
  • Since they lack information they have to gain that same information or the same materials that come from the information from some other creature (an animal or a person), and in doing so they cause disease symptoms. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Symptoms at initial presentation included fever or chills (n=10), sweats (n=7), fatigue or malaise (n=10), minimal or nonproductive cough (n=9), dyspnea (n=8), and nausea or vomiting (n=9). (cdc.gov)
  • The most common symptoms of Crohn's Disease are pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, and weight loss. (themaven.net)
  • Research suggests that cannabis is effective in treating the symptoms of these GI disorders in part because it interacts with the endogenous cannabinoid receptors in the digestive tract, which can result in calming spasms, assuaging pain, and improving motility. (themaven.net)
  • Cannabis and new cannabinoid drugs are attractive for GI treatment because they can address a number of symptoms at once with minimal side effects. (themaven.net)
  • If animals are awaked after anaesthesia, postoperative management is closed to human clinical problems. (mendeley.com)
  • NIH-defined clinical trial applications that are neither mechanistic nor minimal risk will not be supported through this FOA. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of treatment on the animals' well-being were assessed by clinical and behavioural changes (POT and LABORAS assays) and gross and histopathological changes. (tudelft.nl)
  • In conclusion, injection of FA according to present guidelines resulted mostly in severe pathological changes, whereas only very few clinical and behavioural signs indicated prolonged severe pain. (tudelft.nl)
  • Since most of the pathogens that are being screened for do not cause clinical disease in immunocompetent adult animals, the pain and distress suffered by the test animals is usually minimal. (forschung3r.ch)
  • However, there are relatively clear differences in the clinical presentation of compartment syndrome and the usual pain and swelling of snakebite. (acmt.net)
  • Within a 6 month goal animal safety study, meloxicam was administered orally at 1, three, and 5X the advisable dose with no significant clinical adverse reactions. (full-design.com)
  • Establishment and validation of ethologically-relevant, non-evoked behavioral end-points as surrogate measures of spontaneous pain in rodent pain models has been proposed as a means to improve preclinical to clinical research translation in the pain field. (frontiersin.org)
  • These tissue deposits can be found anywhere in the abdominal cavity, where they cause inflammation and pain, and often also decreased fertility. (sciencemag.org)
  • Early signs may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially irregular heavy bleeding, bleeding after menopause, bleeding or spotting between periods, bleeding after sexual intercourse, pelvic (lower abdominal), pain or pressure on the bladder or rectum, unexplained bladder irritation, and unexplained vaginal discharge (particularly when it is thick or foul-smelling). (westerlynaturalmarket.com)
  • Some people may be very tired and have weight loss, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and loss of body fluids and nutrients. (themaven.net)
  • This book was prepared to help scientists, research administrators, institutional animal care and use committees, and animal care staff to address the difficult questions of the presence and alleviation of animal pain and distress. (nap.edu)
  • Research companies can also use body parts and organs taken from animals slaughtered for the meat industry to perform tests such as the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test and Isolated Chicken Eye Test. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Central Institute for Experimental Animals (CIEA) was founded in 1952 by my father Tatsuji Nomura, a young medical researcher at the time, who at the time recognized the need for laboratory animals to obtain reproducible data for medical research and drugs. (inewsletter-king-skyfront.jp)
  • CIEA is a 'public interest incorporated foundation 'with the mission developing a stable supply of high quality laboratory animals and conduct research on human diseases and clarify their cause with laboratory animals as live measurement standards. (inewsletter-king-skyfront.jp)
  • After graduating from Keio University Medical School, my father Tatsuji Nomura was confronted with the reality that a stable supply of high quality laboratory animals was critical for achieving reproducible results in medical research. (inewsletter-king-skyfront.jp)
  • In this research, to avoid killing animals we use a special animal friendly MRI system for analysis of animal brains. (inewsletter-king-skyfront.jp)
  • A current USDA case involving a major antibody producer underscores the need for the research community to demonstrate its commitment to high standards of animal welfare. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • Animal research has been used as a method of study, when the study of humans is deemed impractical or unethical. (goshen.edu)
  • In the last century major important medical advances have benefited directly or indirectly from animal research. (goshen.edu)
  • The exploration and implementation of non-animal methods should be a priority for investigators and research institutions, and should take advantage of a wide variety of viewpoints to ensure progress toward scientific, human health, and animal protection goals. (goshen.edu)
  • Applied research has often been related to the treatment or cure of disease and disorder in humans and other animals. (goshen.edu)
  • Animals require anaesthesia not only for ethical reasons but also because pain and stress can alter the quality of research results. (mendeley.com)
  • We live in a nation where animals are used for food, fashion and clothing, entertainment, research, and in wildlife-associated recreation - in both harmful and benign ways - to generate hundreds of billions of dollars in commerce. (thedodo.com)
  • Sadly, in too many instances, laws are not in place to guarantee even minimal standards for all animals, as the recent New York Times investigation of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center revealed. (thedodo.com)
  • This database, created in 2000, is updated every three months with newly published scientific articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research. (awionline.org)
  • No. In general, animals have proven to be very poor models for human disease research. (neavs.org)
  • We will never know if we might have found the same treatments and cures - or even superior ones or found them sooner - if we had focused our efforts on non-animal research. (neavs.org)
  • Speaking of Research (SR). SR describes itself as "an international advocacy group that provides accurate information about the importance of animal research in medical and veterinary science. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Pro-Test aims to counter the irrational arguments of anti-vivisectionists by raising public awareness of the benefits of animal research and creating an environment where scientists can speak out about their work and be proud of the contributions they make. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Mice are the most commonly used laboratory animal - comprising approximately 70% of all animals used for research. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • The majority of all animals that are used for research are used in procedures that confer little or no pain or distress. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • In our book we are presenting research from various scientific disciplines concerned with exploring the nature of nonhuman animal life (the biomedical sciences, pharmacological studies, neuroscience, zoology, etc.) but also from human and animal sciences with regard to human and animal interaction (animal science and farming production, animal psychology, animal welfare studies, and ecological niche modeling). (livingbooksaboutlife.org)
  • 5 Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • The project was carried out under the guidance of Dr. F. Bootz, Head of Animal Health Services and PCR Diagnostics, Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences, University of Zürich and Prof. Dr. F.R. Homberger, Associate Director of the Research Animal Resources Center and Head of Biosecurity and Animal Health Service, Cornell University New York. (forschung3r.ch)
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture has issued an official warning letter to Southern Research Institute for two animal care lapses in 2009. (animalliberationfront.com)
  • SAEN uses Freedom of Information requests to monitor animal research at labs across the United States. (animalliberationfront.com)
  • Michael Budkie -- the executive director of SAEN who had asked the USDA in March to fine Southern Research $10,000 per animal death -- said he was disappointed to see only a warning. (animalliberationfront.com)
  • This week SAEN also released leaked Southern Research documents of another animal welfare lapse that occurred in 2007. (animalliberationfront.com)
  • SACRAMENTO, Calif.-An animal rights group has produced a television commercial charging University of California, Davis and three other University of California campuses of mistreating monkeys during laboratory research. (animalliberationfront.com)
  • There must be clear scientific justification, based on scientific evidence and justified to and approved by an animal care committee, for any exemption to provision of adequate pain relief if pain is expected to occur in a research project. (ccac.ca)
  • We have an obligation to reduce or abolish pain in animals whenever it occurs and particularly if it occurs in research, teaching, or testing. (ccac.ca)
  • Many investigations that use animals for research and testing have the potential to cause pain or suffering that should be alleviated. (ccac.ca)
  • The first four sections examine the FDA requirements for medical products in the United States, federal animal welfare regulations, the general structure of a research facility, and industry regulations for animal use. (animallaw.info)
  • By comparing the options available for a research facility to animal use regulations in the United States, it is hoped that the structure of animal welfare in the laboratory can be understood from both economic and legal motivations that influence animal research use today. (animallaw.info)
  • Animal use in research has long been a highly controversial and veiled field, particularly in the United States. (animallaw.info)
  • In the 2010 fiscal year alone, an estimated total of 1,134,693 research animals covered under the Animal Welfare Act were reported to have been used within the United States. (animallaw.info)
  • See http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/efoia/downloads/2010_Animals_Used_In_Research.pdf ). (animallaw.info)
  • Additionally, the proliferation of FDA-regulated medical products has made it increasingly difficult to deny the influence of biomedical animal research in our daily lives. (animallaw.info)
  • Animal research as a practice is allowed by trust of the public that researchers will use such privileges for medical advancement and benefit of mankind. (animallaw.info)
  • As such, varying aspects of animal use in research are regulated by multiple governmental bodies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (animallaw.info)
  • It may be argued that the use of animals in biomedical research intended to produce data that will be useful for important issues of human health and disease is not transparently frivolous as is our use of animals for food, hunting, entertainment, clothing, etc. (abolitionistapproach.com)
  • Although the uncertainty of extrapolation affects all biomedical research involving animals, it is particularly problematic in the context of the use of animals for testing purposes, which usually involves predicting how humans will react to exposure over a lifetime to small quantities of a substance based on how nonhumans respond to large quantities over a short period. (abolitionistapproach.com)
  • That the IOM does not endorse an outright ban on pain-causing research using these apes is a disappointment, especially considering the report acknowledges chimpanzees are highly intelligent primates capable of feeling grief and depression. (npr.org)
  • In addition, the research must be performed "using techniques that are minimally invasive, and in a manner that minimizes pain and distress. (npr.org)
  • These two criteria - voluntary participation in combination with minimal pain and distress - are absent from the guidelines for biomedical research. (npr.org)
  • The use of animals in conducting medical research reached its peak in the early 1980s and it has been going down as a result of public pressure to reduce the amount of animals tested and due to development of alternatives. (ukessays.com)
  • The act was later amended in 1970, to cater for the care of animals in research institutions. (ukessays.com)
  • The argument for support of animal experimentation is that it aids in development of the several medications and procedures that are currently in use today and also use of animals in research helps in development of future treatments. (ukessays.com)
  • Animal research has been justified since it has helped to assist in coming up with ways to assist human beings and other animals for the future. (ukessays.com)
  • Normally when animals are used in veterinary practice or experimental research, different forms of postsurgical analgesics are administered to alleviate postsurgical pain and speed up recovery from the surgical intervention. (thefishsite.com)
  • 1930 Kettering Laboratory is founded from gifts from Ethyl Corporation, General Electric and DuPont (all who have interlocking relationships with I.G. Farben in Germany) to "investigate chemical hazards in American industrial operations" under contract, with provision that research "shall not be released to the public without the consent of the contracting company. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • The following paper was prepared in response to inquiries made to me by representatives from two animal rights organizations concerning possible unethical sourcing of research antibodies at Northwestern University. (jhsph.edu)
  • Northwestern's office of the Vice President for Research, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), office of Purchasing Resource Services, and the offices of the dean of Feinberg and Weinberg Colleges, should quickly organize a team to evaluate the costs and explore the physical and administrative infrastructure needed for the change. (jhsph.edu)
  • Violations of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) by two of Northwestern's chief mAB suppliers - Rockland Immunochemical and Santa Cruz Biotech (the latter exposed in an article in The New Yorker) -- are what initially brought the issue of research antibodies to the attention of the Faculty Senate leadership. (jhsph.edu)
  • 2019. Humanely ending the life of animals: Research priorities to identify alternatives to carbon dioxide. (awionline.org)
  • If not, unwanted strays and pets were sold to research laboratories or given to anyone who wanted them. (libraryindex.com)
  • Recent laboratory research on the endogenous cannabinoid system in humans has identified that there are many cannabinoid receptors located in both the large and small intestines. (themaven.net)
  • The local Ethical Committee on Animal Research approved the study. (asahq.org)
  • Cosmetics manufacturers who do not test on animals may now use in vitro screens to test for endpoints which can determine potential risk to humans with a very high sensitivity and specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Companies such as CeeTox in the USA, recently acquired by Cyprotex, specialize in such testing and organizations like the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), PETA and many other organizations advocate the use of in vitro and other non-animal tests in the development of consumer products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Great differences exist between the effects observed in vitro and in whole animals. (mendeley.com)
  • The current model, reliant upon obtaining monoclonal antibodies (mABs) produced in live animals (in vivo), should be replaced within three to five years by the procurement and use of recombinant antibodies (rABs) produced in the laboratory (in vitro). (jhsph.edu)
  • The infection is usually transferred to humans through urine or tissue of an infected domestic or wild animal. (rarediseases.org)
  • Highly localized pain may cause signs restricted to that locality e.g., the signs of pain from a sore foot may be restricted to the same leg while a generalized infection will provide more widespread evidence of pain. (ccac.ca)
  • In the mid-1800s, inhalational anthrax related to the textile industry became known as woolsorters' disease (in England) (1) and ragpickers' disease (in Germany and Austria) because of the frequency of infection in mill workers exposed to imported animal fibers contaminated with B. anthracis spores. (cdc.gov)
  • One production method involves collecting blood from animals injected with the protein and then extracting the antibodies. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • Viagra side effects joint pain - They have more choices of equipment but requires care in small pneumothoraces a conservative with antibiotics and insulin antibodies in both precursor and a fall in circulating blood volume perioperatively examples of such a role of the dialysis center has dietary specialists who will not. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • These are laboratory-generated antibodies that come from identical immune cells cloned from a unique parent. (jhsph.edu)
  • These issues are acknowledged in theseguidelines and special c on siderati on s are described forhandling animals under free-ranging c on diti on s,where their needs are far different from those of theirdomestic counterparts.These guidelines are intended for use by membersof the veterinary professi on who carry out or overseethe euthanasia of animals. (yumpu.com)
  • Our holistic and integrated information is offered in support of animal patients, 'owners' and carers and the veterinary profession. (alternativevet.org)
  • In a formal complaint filed August 7, 2015, the USDA accused SCBT of "repeated failures to provide minimally-adequate and expeditious veterinary care and treatment to animals" (2015 complaint, paragraph 5). (speakingofresearch.com)
  • During the March 6, 2012 inspection, the inspector cited SCBT for not only having "failed to establish and maintain programs of adequate veterinary care under the supervision and assistance of a doctor of veterinary medicine," but also having "failed to provide veterinary care to animals in need of care. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • I do question the motives of this vet, veterinary team and why this suffering animal was not euthanised compassionately. (speakupforthevoiceless.org)
  • Based on the owners own financial position, the organisations responsibilities for other animals but more importantly the "survival rate" regarding second-degree burns, or more than 30 percent of third degree burns Tidus should have been humanely euthanised after a complete professional assessment was undertaken by professional vets and veterinary specialized burns teams taking all factors into consideration. (speakupforthevoiceless.org)
  • I'll never know myself, however if I or any qualified and professional veterinary team was presented with an animal with such appalling and life threatening injuries we have to weigh the chances of survival up, financial position and community care, whilst leaving emotional feelings out. (speakupforthevoiceless.org)
  • According to the Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2004) and The British Union for the abolition of Vivisection (BUAV, 2005) , it is estimated it that fifty to a hundred million animals worldwide are used annually and then killed afterwards in scientific procedures every year, 10-11 million of them in the European Union. (goshen.edu)
  • Vivisection is the practice of cutting into, dissecting, or operating on a living animal for scientific purposes. (neavs.org)
  • Essentially, vivisection is using animals in ways that cause distress, harm, and death in attempts to test the safety of drugs and products or to find a related treatment or cure for humans. (neavs.org)
  • The use of animals for this purpose represents a very small segment of the many activities that constitute vivisection, and much animal use in this context has more to do with corporate profits and the endless barrage of consumer products that fuel those profits than with compelling claims of human health. (abolitionistapproach.com)
  • I do not share the view of some animal advocates that we have learned nothing useful from vivisection, although I do maintain that claims about what we have learned are greatly exaggerated. (abolitionistapproach.com)
  • In 1863 some British women in Florence were the first to object and protest against vivisection which involves dissection of animal. (ukessays.com)
  • A 46-year-old man returned from the Peruvian city of Iquitos and the upper Amazon basin, where he had become ill with a fever and an unproductive cough associated with chest pain. (aafp.org)
  • Studies show that if you flipped a coin to guess how a human will respond to a certain drug, your prediction would actually be as accurate as if you tested the drug on a nonhuman animal. (neavs.org)
  • Add in the other sectors of animal agriculture, and then consider the uses of animals in wildlife management, in fashion, the pet trade, and so many other sectors. (thedodo.com)
  • Although the $4 trillion budget contains positive provisions - funding anti-wildlife trafficking measures and defunding horse slaughter inspections - it also funds a wasteful program that kills millions of wild animals every year and continues through agriculture subsidies to allocate more money to harming animals than to helping them. (thedodo.com)
  • Wildlife Services kills millions of wild animals every year as a subsidy to private ranchers and other resource users throughout the country. (thedodo.com)
  • The Society's Sanctuaries receive and treat companion animals, equines and wildlife. (uspca.co.uk)
  • Our aim is to provide an overview of different sensing technologies used for wildlife monitoring and to review their capabilities in terms of data they provide for modeling movement behavior of animals. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, results from toxicity tests using animals can vary dramatically depending on the method that is used. (abolitionistapproach.com)
  • Chronic selenium toxicity, and animals to dysrhythmias, presumably in an attempt to correlate more closely governed by their origin: Animal, vegetable, or mineral vitamin a and b, phylloerythrin alkaloid cardioactive steroid poisoning includes providing general supportive care. (childbirthsolutions.com)
  • Low-molecular-weight heparins have minimal toxicity were also concerned about your childs clumsiness. (childbirthsolutions.com)
  • mean values are approximately 3 ng/mL and the highest human blood level recorded among 108 chronically dosed patients was 17 ng/mL, less than 1/200th of 1-PP levels found in animals given large doses of Buspirone without signs of toxicity. (drugs.com)
  • These devices have been found to be very useful to the investigator and in reducing the pain and suffering of the horses during immunization for the production high potency antivenom/ antitoxin. (omicsonline.org)
  • As I read the IOM report (made available one day early to the media), I felt distress for the 937 chimpanzees currently available for biomedical testing in U.S. facilities. (npr.org)
  • The door that the IOM leaves open may well lead right to pain and distress for some of these chimpanzees. (npr.org)
  • The decision to transfer the chimps and take them out of retirement provoked enough of an outrage by animal-welfare groups that the National Institutes of Health tasked a group called the Institute of Medicine with investigating the necessity of continued testing on 612 NIH-owned chimpanzees. (houstonpress.com)
  • Those regulations and policies also require that institutions develop programs for training personnel in procedures to ensure that animal pain and distress are minimized. (nap.edu)
  • Institutional guidelines governing animal use and procedures relating to these methodologies are generally oriented around humane considerations and appropriate conduct for adjuvant (agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves) use. (bionity.com)
  • or 2) interventions that entail procedures with minimal risk to subjects. (nih.gov)
  • In many laboratories, animals are handled roughly-even for routine monitoring procedures that fall outside the realm of an experimental protocol-and this only heightens the animals' fear and stress. (bayareaveg.org)
  • The authors conclude, "Routine handling, venipuncture, and orogastric gavage lead to elevations of heart rate, blood pressure, and glucocorticoid concentrations that persist for 30 to 60 [minutes] following the event, suggesting that despite their routine use in laboratory studies, these procedures are acutely stressful for animals. (bayareaveg.org)
  • Pain occurs following most surgical procedures, but the severity depends on the invasiveness of the surgery, the organs involved, post surgery complications, etc. (ccac.ca)
  • It is at least plausible to claim that the use of animals for testing and developing procedures and cures is necessary to obtain certain desirable and significant benefits, and that this animal use at least ostensibly involves something other than pleasure, amusement, or convenience. (abolitionistapproach.com)
  • Since animals are always used as models of disease or to test procedures or drugs, we cannot claim with any certainty to know that procedures or discoveries that are attributed to animal use would not have occurred in its absence. (abolitionistapproach.com)
  • To avoid the indiscriminate use of rifampin, diagnostic laboratory procedures, including serotyping and susceptibility testing, should be performed to establish the carrier state and the correct treatment. (rxlist.com)
  • The UK in 1986 published, Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act which provides the guidelines and regulations on use of animals for scientific and commercials testing. (ukessays.com)
  • The UK government also established the Animal Procedures Committee which serves as an advisory and non-departmental public body under the provisions of the sections 19 and 20 of the Animal Act of 1986( Tybanks). (ukessays.com)
  • Such behavioral processes can be short-term and adaptive or, as in cases of chronic pain and other potential sources of distress, can continue to the point where they become maladaptive. (nap.edu)
  • Here, we compared the utility of burrowing behavior with hypersensitivity to applied mechanical stimuli for pain assessment in rat models of chronic inflammatory and peripheral neuropathic pain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data collectively show that burrowing behavior is altered in rodent models of chronic inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Poorly relieved chronic pain not only affects the quality of life of patients and their care-givers, it also imposes a significant socioeconomic cost ( Woolf, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Over the past two decades, numerous novel 'pain targets' including receptors, ion-channels and enzymes have been identified and implicated in the pathobiology of chronic pain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exposure to chronic stress is a reliable predictor of depressive disorders, and social stress is a common ethologically relevant stressor in both animals and humans. (jove.com)
  • Estrogenic and inflammatory components play key roles in a broad range of diseases including endometriosis, a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disorder in which endometrial tissue creates inflammatory lesions at extrauterine sites, causing pelvic pain and reduced fertility. (sciencemag.org)
  • During "World Week for Animals in Laboratories" in 2008, Holder traveled to West Coast universities including UCLA , University of California, Berkeley , Oregon Health & Sciences University ( ONPRC ) and the University of Washington. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Dr. Lester Packer, senior scientist at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and head of the Packer Lab at the University of California, has spent over 35 years studying how antioxidants like vitamins C, E and glutathione interact in the body. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Nonetheless, if fish do perceive pain, an attempt to minimize this is not only important from a welfare perspective, but also desired from the researcher's point of view as it will likely increase the quality and reliability of the experimental data. (thefishsite.com)
  • Institutional policies generally include allowable volumes of blood per collection and safety precautions including appropriate restraint and sedation or anesthesia of animals for injury prevention to animals or personnel. (bionity.com)
  • In order to protect animals against suffering and distress during transfer, restraint and management, a premedication is administered. (mendeley.com)
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder of the intestines that leads to stomach pain, gassiness, bloating, constipation, diarrhea or both. (themaven.net)
  • This feature describes creative ways in which technology can be used to study animals within their home cages, eliminating the need to handle, restrain, and separate them from cage mates. (awionline.org)
  • First, the present study, as well as previous studies, has focused on relatively crude measures of animal welfare. (speakingofresearch.com)
  • This study assessed an optimal cut-off point and validated the Distress Screener by relating it to the 4DSQ and to medical diagnoses. (tudelft.nl)
  • The fact that we believe animals make suitable models for the study of pain, is evidence enough. (ccac.ca)
  • Using adequate pain relief should not be compromised to accommodate the goals of the study. (ccac.ca)
  • In this blinded study, rhesus monkeys (9 animals/sex/dose group) were randomized to receive a single subcutaneous injection of placebo (group 1) or rHuIL-12 at doses of 50, 100, 250, or 500 ng/kg (groups 2-5, respectively), without antibiotics, fluids or blood transfusions, 24-25 hours after TBI (700 cGy). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Charles Darwin in 1959, through the evolutionary theory was able to demonstrate that live animals could be used as models to study physiology and biology in human beings. (ukessays.com)
  • The study suggests that animals can defend themselves by activating the sensory nerves of their enemies, just like certain plants do. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • In the new study, a team led by neuropharmacologist David Julius from the University California, San Francisco, identified three pain-causing molecules in tarantula venom. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The advent of brain imaging has been useful in specifying more clearly the neural involvement in hypertension and providing a possible bridge between behavioral and self-report information in humans and the mechanistic observations in animal models. (biomedsearch.com)
  • who suffer simultaneously from severe pain, nausea, and appetite loss, cannabinoid drugs might offer broad-spectrum relief not found in any other single medication. (themaven.net)
  • If repeated doses are needed or the pain is increasing despite antivenom administration, then something is wrong. (acmt.net)
  • These neurotoxins were found to activate the same receptor on sensory nerves that produces the burning sensation animals get from capsaicin, the "hot" ingredient in chilies. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Many countries passed new laws to ensure that all new pharmaceutical products have to go through rigorous animal testing before being licensed for human use. (goshen.edu)
  • Most human anaesthetic products can be used in animals. (mendeley.com)
  • In large animals, human anaesthesia material can be used. (mendeley.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that regulates certain foods, drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, and other health-related products, tells us that an astonishing 92% of drugs tested "successfully" in animals fail in human trials because they don't work or aren't safe. (neavs.org)
  • This "living" book about life explores the nature and meaning of the emotional lives of nonhuman animals, focusing on how those lives are communicated to other living creatures (such as human beings) via affective states. (livingbooksaboutlife.org)
  • By examining the emotional lives of animals and how they are communicated, we hope to re-examine how human beings interact with, and relate to, other living creatures that are capable of experiencing emotional lives. (livingbooksaboutlife.org)
  • While some products are able to pass initial testing with pre-existing data, many products today are still tested using animal models prior to being used in human trials. (animallaw.info)
  • While most products are ultimately geared for human use (some tested products are for use in domestic animals), preclinical trials serve the function of ensuring that a product is safe enough to be tested with a human subject. (animallaw.info)
  • Recombinant human interleukin-12 (rHuIL-12) is being developed for HSARS mitigation under the FDA Animal Rule, where efficacy is proven in an appropriate animal model and safety is demonstrated in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of live animals in conducting medical test has been in use for a long time and it has had invaluable use in the progress of medical science and understanding of human body. (ukessays.com)
  • Almost all medicines used on human beings have to be first tested on animals before being used on humans. (ukessays.com)
  • Accumulating evidence from animal models and human studies of essential hypertension suggest that brain regulation of the vasculature is impacted by the disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Wind energy companies remain largely dismissive, claiming that wind turbine noise is subaudible, undetectable by humans, and therefore presents minimal risk to human health. (wind-watch.org)
  • Historically, human anthrax in its various forms has been a disease of those with close contact to animals or animal products contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. (cdc.gov)
  • Collecti on of animals for scientific investigati on s,euthanasia of injured or diseased wildlifespecies, removal of animals causing damage to propertyor threatening human safety, and euthanasia of animalsin excess populati on are drawing more publicattenti on . (yumpu.com)