A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Benign or malignant neoplasms of the FALLOPIAN TUBES. They are uncommon. If they develop, they may be located in the wall or within the lumen as a growth attached to the wall by a stalk.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic compounds which contain platinum as the central atom.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.

EB1, a protein which interacts with the APC tumour suppressor, is associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. (1/5423)

The characteristics of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) associated protein EB1 were examined in mammalian cells. By immunocytochemistry EB1 was shown to be closely associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. In interphase cells EB1 was associated with microtubules along their full length but was often particularly concentrated at their tips. During early mitosis, EB1 was localized to separating centrosomes and associated microtubules, while at metaphase it was associated with the spindle poles and associated microtubules. During cytokinesis EB1 was strongly associated with the midbody microtubules. Treatment with nocodazole caused a diffuse redistribution of EB1 immunoreactivity, whereas treatment with cytochalasin D had no effect. Interestingly, treatment with taxol abolished the EB1 association with microtubules. In nocodazole washout experiments EB1 rapidly became associated with the centrosome and repolymerizing microtubules. In taxol wash-out experiments EB1 rapidly re-associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton, resembling untreated control cells within 10 min. Immunostaining of SW480 cells, which contain truncated APC incapable of interaction with EB1, showed that the association of EB1 with microtubules throughout the cell cycle was not dependent upon an interaction with APC. These results suggest a role for EB1 in the control of microtubule dynamics in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Phase I study of escalating doses of edatrexate in combination with paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer. (2/5423)

Motivated by the observation of preclinical synergy, a Phase I dose escalation study of edatrexate in combination with a 3-h paclitaxel infusion was performed in patients with advanced breast cancer to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of edatrexate and the toxicities associated with this combination and to report preliminary observations of efficacy with this novel combination. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this Phase I trial. Thirty-five eligible patients were treated every 21 days in cohorts of at least three patients and were assessable for toxicity. One patient was ineligible due to hyperbilirubinemia. Stepwise dose escalations of edatrexate were administered until grade >3 nonhematological dose-limiting toxicities were reported. The initial dose level of edatrexate was 180 mg/m2; subsequent cohorts were treated with escalating doses of edatrexate (210, 240, 270, 300, 350, and 400 mg/m2). Edatrexate was administered by i.v. infusion over 1 h. Paclitaxel was administered 24 h later at a fixed dose of 175 mg/m2 as a 3-h infusion with standard dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, and cimetidine premedication. The MTD of edatrexate was reached at the 350 mg/m2 level in this study. Grade 3 diarrhea was seen in one patient at the 300 and 400 mg/m2 dose levels, requiring dose reductions. Two patients experienced grade 4 stomatitis at the 400 mg/m2 dose level and also required dose reduction, establishing the MTD as 350 mg/m2. Grade 3 nausea and vomiting were noted in two of three patients at the highest dose level. Of 35 patients, 4 patients reported grade 3 myalgias and 1 patient reported grade 3 neurosensory complaints, which were seen mostly at the 350 and 400 mg/m2 dose levels; however, 1 patient reported grade 3 myalgias at 180 mg/m2. No cumulative neurotoxicity was observed, and no patient experienced an allergic reaction to paclitaxel. In 23 patients with bidimensionally measurable disease, there were four complete (17%) and seven partial responses, with an overall response rate of 48% (95% confidence interval, 27-69%). All of the responses were seen in patients who had not received prior chemotherapy for stage IV disease. The median duration of response was not assessable because many responding patients went on to receive high-dose chemotherapy treatment with stem cell support. The combination of edatrexate and paclitaxel for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is a feasible and safe regimen. The MTD of edatrexate was 350 mg/m2 when combined with a 3-h infusion of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) given 24 h later. Activity was noted even among patients who had relapsed shortly after receiving methotrexate- and/or doxorubicin-containing adjuvant regimens. Additional studies evaluating the sequences and dosing schema for this combination are warranted to improve the response proportion and define the duration of the response.  (+info)

A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of losoxantrone and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. (3/5423)

A Phase I and pharmacological study was performed to evaluate the feasibility, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics of the anthrapyrazole losoxantrone in combination with paclitaxel in adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. Losoxantrone was administered as a 10-min infusion in combination with paclitaxel on either a 24- or 3-h schedule. The starting dose level was 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel (as a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion) without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Administration of these agents at the starting dose level and dose escalation was feasible only with G-CSF support. The following dose levels (losoxantrone/paclitaxel, in mg/m2) of losoxantrone and paclitaxel as a 3-h infusion were also evaluated: 50/135, 50/175, 50/200, 50/225, and 60/225. The sequence-dependent toxicological and pharmacological effects of losoxantrone and paclitaxel on the 24- and 3-h schedules of paclitaxel were also assessed. The MTD was defined as the dose at which >50% of the patients experienced DLT during the first two courses of therapy. DLTs, mainly myelosuppression, occurring during the first course of therapy were noted in four of six and five of eight patients treated with 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel over 24 and 3 h, respectively, without G-CSF. DLTs during the first two courses of therapy were observed in one of six patients at the 50/175 (losoxantrone/paclitaxel) mg/m2 dose level, two of four patients at the 50/200 mg/m2 dose level, one of four patients at the 50/225 mg/m2 dose level, and two of five patients at the 60/225 mg/m2 dose level. The degree of thrombocytopenia was worse, albeit not statistically significant, when 24-h paclitaxel preceded losoxantrone, with a mean percentage decrement in platelet count during course 1 of 80.7%, compared to 43.8% with the reverse sequence (P = 0.19). Losoxantrone clearance was not significantly altered by the sequence or schedule of paclitaxel. Cardiac toxicity was observed; however, it was not related to total cumulative dose of losoxantrone. An unacceptably high rate of DLTs at the first dose level of 40 mg/m2 losoxantrone and 135 mg/m2 paclitaxel administered as either a 24- or 3-h i.v. infusion precluded dose escalation without G-CSF support. The addition of G-CSF to the regimen permitted further dose escalation without reaching the MTD. Losoxantrone at 50 mg/m2 followed by paclitaxel (3-h i.v. infusion) at 175 mg/m2 with G-CSF support is recommended for further clinical trials.  (+info)

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor emodin suppresses growth of HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells in athymic mice and sensitizes these cells to the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel. (4/5423)

Overexpression of the HER-2/neu proto-oncogene, which encodes the tyrosine kinase receptor p185neu, has been observed in tumors from breast cancer patients. We demonstrated previously that emodin, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suppresses tyrosine kinase activity in HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells and preferentially represses transformation phenotypes of these cells in vitro. In the present study, we examined whether emodin can inhibit the growth of HER-2/neu-overexpressing tumors in mice and whether emodin can sensitize these tumors to paclitaxel, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer patients. We found that emodin significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice bearing HER-2/neu-overexpressing human breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of emodin and paclitaxel synergistically inhibited the anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells in vitro and synergistically inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in athymic mice bearing s.c. xenografts of human tumor cells expressing high levels of p185neu. Both immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis showed that emodin decreases tyrosine phosphorylation of HER-2/neu in tumor tissue. Taken together, our results suggest that the tyrosine kinase activity of HER-2/neu is required for tumor growth and chemoresistance and that tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as emodin can inhibit the growth of HER-2/neu-overexpressing tumors in mice and also sensitize these tumors to paclitaxel. The results may have important implications in chemotherapy for HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast tumors.  (+info)

Microtubule-dependent plus- and minus end-directed motilities are competing processes for nuclear targeting of adenovirus. (5/5423)

Adenovirus (Ad) enters target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, escapes to the cytosol, and then delivers its DNA genome into the nucleus. Here we analyzed the trafficking of fluorophore-tagged viruses in HeLa and TC7 cells by time-lapse microscopy. Our results show that native or taxol-stabilized microtubules (MTs) support alternating minus- and plus end-directed movements of cytosolic virus with elementary speeds up to 2.6 micrometer/s. No directed movement was observed in nocodazole-treated cells. Switching between plus- and minus end-directed elementary speeds at frequencies up to 1 Hz was observed in the periphery and near the MT organizing center (MTOC) after recovery from nocodazole treatment. MT-dependent motilities allowed virus accumulation near the MTOC at population speeds of 1-10 micrometer/min, depending on the cell type. Overexpression of p50/dynamitin, which is known to affect dynein-dependent minus end-directed vesicular transport, significantly reduced the extent and the frequency of minus end-directed migration of cytosolic virus, and increased the frequency, but not the extent of plus end-directed motility. The data imply that a single cytosolic Ad particle engages with two types of MT-dependent motor activities, the minus end- directed cytoplasmic dynein and an unknown plus end- directed activity.  (+info)

CLIP-170 highlights growing microtubule ends in vivo. (6/5423)

A chimera with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been constructed to visualize the dynamic properties of the endosome-microtubule linker protein CLIP170 (GFP-CLIP170). GFP-CLIP170 binds in stretches along a subset of microtubule ends. These fluorescent stretches appear to move with the growing tips of microtubules at 0.15-0.4 microm/s, comparable to microtubule elongation in vivo. Analysis of speckles along dynamic GFP-CLIP170 stretches suggests that CLIP170 treadmills on growing microtubule ends, rather than being continuously transported toward these ends. Drugs affecting microtubule dynamics rapidly inhibit movement of GFP-CLIP170 dashes. We propose that GFP-CLIP170 highlights growing microtubule ends by specifically recognizing the structure of a segment of newly polymerized tubulin.  (+info)

A novel taxane with improved tolerability and therapeutic activity in a panel of human tumor xenografts. (7/5423)

Clinically available taxanes represent one of the most promising class of antitumor agents, despite several problems with their solubility and toxicity. In an attempt to improve the pharmacological profile of taxanes, a new series of analogues was synthesized from 14beta-hydroxy-10-deacetylbaccatin III and tested in a panel of human tumor cell lines. On the basis of the pattern of cytotoxicity and lack of cross-resistance in tumor cell lines expressing the typical multidrug-resistant phenotype, a compound (IDN5109) was selected for preclinical development. A comparative efficacy study of IDN5109 and paclitaxel was performed using a large panel of human tumor xenografts, characterized by intrinsic (seven tumors) or acquired (four tumors) resistance to cisplatin or doxorubicin, including four ovarian, one breast, one cervical, three lung, one colon, and one prostatic carcinoma. Drugs were delivered i.v. according to the same schedule (four times every 4th day). IDN5109 achieved a very high level of activity (percentage tumor weight inhibition >70%; log10 cell kill >1) in all but one of the tested tumors. Compared to paclitaxel, IDN5109 exhibited a significantly superior activity in six tumors (including the four tumors that were resistant to paclitaxel) and a comparable activity against the other five paclitaxel-responsive tumors. Additional advantages of IDN5109 over paclitaxel were also suggested by its toxicity profile. IDN5109 was not only less toxic (maximal tolerated doses were 90 and 54 mg/kg for IDN5109 and paclitaxel, respectively), but it also appeared to be endowed with a reduced neurotoxic potential and an improved profile of tolerability compared to the parent drug. Furthermore, the best antitumor efficacy was often already reached with doses lower than the maximal tolerated dose, suggesting an improved therapeutic index for the new drug. In conclusion, the results support the preclinical interest of IDN5109 in terms of the toxicity profile and of the efficacy with particular reference to the ability to overcome multiple mechanisms of drug resistance.  (+info)

Phase I and pharmacologic study of the combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and topotecan administered intravenously every 21 days as first-line therapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. (8/5423)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of administering topotecan in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin without and with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support as first-line chemotherapy in women with incompletely resected stage III and stage IV ovarian carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Starting doses were paclitaxel 110 mg/m2 administered over 24 hours (day 1), followed by cisplatin 50 mg/m2 over 3 hours (day 2) and topotecan 0.3 mg/m2/d over 30 minutes for 5 consecutive days (days 2 to 6). Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. After encountering dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) without G-CSF support, the maximum-tolerated dose was defined as 5 microg/kg of G-CSF subcutaneously starting on day 6. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients received a total of 116 courses at four different dose levels. The DLT was neutropenia. At the first dose level, all six patients experienced grade 4 myelosuppression. G-CSF support permitted further dose escalation of cisplatin and topotecan. Nonhematologic toxicities, primarily fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and neurosensory neuropathy, were observed but were generally mild. Of 15 patients assessable for response, nine had a complete response, four achieved a partial response, and two had stable disease. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia was the DLT of this combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and topotecan. The recommended phase II dose is paclitaxel 110 mg/m2 (day 1), followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 (day 2) and topotecan 0.3 mg/m2/d (days 2 to 6) with G-CSF support repeated every 3 weeks.  (+info)

Benign ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.

Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.

Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.

Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of NSCLC and is characterized by malignant cells that have glandular or secretory properties. Squamous cell carcinoma is less common and is characterized by malignant cells that resemble squamous epithelium. Large cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and is characterized by large, poorly differentiated cells.

The main risk factor for developing NSCLC is tobacco smoking, which is responsible for approximately 80-90% of all cases. Other risk factors include exposure to secondhand smoke, radon gas, asbestos, and certain chemicals in the workplace or environment.

Symptoms of NSCLC can include coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. The diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging studies such as CT scans, PET scans, and biopsy. Treatment options for NSCLC can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. The prognosis for NSCLC depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and the effectiveness of treatment.

Overall, NSCLC is a common and aggressive form of lung cancer that can be treated with a variety of therapies. Early detection and treatment are critical for improving outcomes in patients with this diagnosis.

Symptoms of neutropenia may include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. The diagnosis is typically made through a blood test that measures the number of neutrophils in the blood.

Treatment options for neutropenia depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, supportive care to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy to increase neutrophil production.

Peripheral Nervous System Diseases can result from a variety of causes, including:

1. Trauma or injury
2. Infections such as Lyme disease or HIV
3. Autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome
4. Genetic mutations
5. Tumors or cysts
6. Toxins or poisoning
7. Vitamin deficiencies
8. Chronic diseases such as diabetes or alcoholism

Some common Peripheral Nervous System Diseases include:

1. Neuropathy - damage to the nerves that can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected areas.
2. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) - an autoimmune disease that affects the CNS and PNS, causing a range of symptoms including numbness, weakness, and vision problems.
3. Peripheral Neuropathy - damage to the nerves that can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected areas.
4. Guillain-Barré syndrome - an autoimmune disorder that causes muscle weakness and paralysis.
5. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease - a group of inherited disorders that affect the nerves in the feet and legs, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
6. Friedreich's ataxia - an inherited disorder that affects the nerves in the spine and limbs, leading to coordination problems and muscle weakness.
7. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) - an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation of the nerves, leading to pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected areas.
8. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) - a progressive neurological disease that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to muscle weakness, atrophy, and paralysis.
9. Spinal Muscular Atrophy - an inherited disorder that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
10. Muscular Dystrophy - a group of inherited disorders that affect the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there may be other causes of muscle weakness. If you are experiencing persistent or severe muscle weakness, it is important to see a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis.

Benign fallopian tube neoplasms include:

* Serous cystadenomas: These are fluid-filled sacs that grow on the lining of the fallopian tube. They are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
* Mucinous cystadenomas: These are similar to serous cystadenomas, but they contain a thick, mucous-like fluid.
* Adenomas: These are small, glandular tumors that grow on the lining of the fallopian tube. They are usually benign but can sometimes become cancerous over time.

Malignant fallopian tube neoplasms include:

* Fallopian tube carcinoma: This is a rare form of cancer that originates in the fallopian tube. It can be either serous or endometrioid type, depending on the type of cells involved.
* Endometrial adenocarcinoma: This is a type of cancer that originates in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) and can also involve the fallopian tubes.

The symptoms of fallopian tube neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Some common symptoms include:

* Abnormal vaginal bleeding
* Pelvic pain or discomfort
* Abdominal pain or swelling
* Difficulty urinating or defecating
* Weakness or fatigue

The diagnosis of fallopian tube neoplasms is based on a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans, and tissue sampling, such as biopsy or surgical removal of the tumor. Treatment options for fallopian tube neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's age, overall health, and fertility status.

Treatment options for fallopian tube neoplasms can include:

* Surgical removal of the tumor: This is the most common treatment for fallopian tube neoplasms, and it involves removing the affected fallopian tube and any other affected tissues.
* Chemotherapy: This is a treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells, and it may be used in combination with surgery or as a standalone treatment for more advanced cancers.
* Radiation therapy: This is a treatment that uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells, and it may be used in combination with surgery or chemotherapy.
* Hysterectomy: This is a surgical removal of the uterus, and it may be recommended for more advanced cancers that have spread beyond the fallopian tubes.
* Conservative management: In some cases, small, non-invasive tumors may be monitored with regular check-ups and imaging studies rather than undergoing immediate treatment.

The prognosis for fallopian tube neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient's age and overall health, and the effectiveness of the treatment. In general, the prognosis is good for women with early-stage tumors that are treated successfully, but the prognosis is poorer for women with more advanced cancers.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Peritoneal neoplasms are relatively rare, but they can be aggressive and difficult to treat. The most common types of peritoneal neoplasms include:

1. Peritoneal mesothelioma: This is the most common type of peritoneal neoplasm and arises from the mesothelial cells that line the abdominal cavity. It is often associated with asbestos exposure.
2. Ovarian cancer: This type of cancer originates in the ovaries and can spread to the peritoneum.
3. Appendiceal cancer: This type of cancer arises in the appendix and can spread to the peritoneum.
4. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the abdominal cavity and resembles a mucin-secreting tumor.
5. Primary peritoneal cancer: This type of cancer originates in the peritoneum itself and can be of various types, including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and sarcoma.

The symptoms of peritoneal neoplasms vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, distension, and difficulty eating or passing stool. Treatment options for peritoneal neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the cancer, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Prognosis for peritoneal neoplasms is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of around 20-30%.

Examples of neoplasms, glandular and epithelial include:

* Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from glandular tissue. Examples include colon adenomas and prostate adenomas.
* Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glandular or epithelial tissue. Examples include breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma, and ovarian carcinoma.
* Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from connective tissue. Examples include soft tissue sarcoma and bone sarcoma.

The diagnosis of neoplasms, glandular and epithelial is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, along with a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for these types of neoplasms depend on the location, size, and stage of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Overall, the term "neoplasms, glandular and epithelial" refers to a wide range of tumors that arise from glandular or epithelial tissue, and can be either benign or malignant. These types of neoplasms are common and can affect many different parts of the body.

White blood cells are an important part of the immune system, and they help to fight off infections and diseases. A low number of white blood cells can make a person more susceptible to infections and other health problems.

There are several different types of leukopenia, including:

* Severe congenital neutropenia: This is a rare genetic disorder that causes a severe decrease in the number of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell.
* Chronic granulomatous disease: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of white blood cells and can cause recurring infections.
* Autoimmune disorders: These are conditions where the immune system mistakenly attacks its own cells, including white blood cells. Examples include lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
* Bone marrow failure: This is a condition where the bone marrow does not produce enough white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets.

Symptoms of leukopenia can include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, and weight loss. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, immunoglobulin replacement therapy, or bone marrow transplantation.

Examples of hematologic diseases include:

1. Anemia - a condition where there are not enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in the body.
2. Leukemia - a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood, causing an overproduction of immature white blood cells.
3. Lymphoma - a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, including the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes.
4. Thalassemia - a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia and other complications.
5. Sickle cell disease - a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, causing red blood cells to become sickle-shaped and prone to breaking down.
6. Polycythemia vera - a rare disorder where there is an overproduction of red blood cells.
7. Myelodysplastic syndrome - a condition where the bone marrow produces abnormal blood cells that do not mature properly.
8. Myeloproliferative neoplasms - a group of conditions where the bone marrow produces excessive amounts of blood cells, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis.
9. Deep vein thrombosis - a condition where a blood clot forms in a deep vein, often in the leg or arm.
10. Pulmonary embolism - a condition where a blood clot travels to the lungs and blocks a blood vessel, causing shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms.

These are just a few examples of hematologic diseases, but there are many others that can affect the blood and bone marrow. Treatment options for these diseases can range from watchful waiting and medication to surgery, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of hematologic disease, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

There are several possible causes of thrombocytopenia, including:

1. Immune-mediated disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
2. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia or leukemia.
3. Viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C.
4. Medications such as chemotherapy or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
5. Vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin B12 and folate.
6. Genetic disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
7. Sepsis or other severe infections.
8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition where blood clots form throughout the body.
9. Postpartum thrombocytopenia, which can occur in some women after childbirth.

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include platelet transfusions, steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and in severe cases, surgery.

In summary, thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low platelet counts that can increase the risk of bleeding and bruising. It can be caused by various factors, and treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause.

There are several subtypes of carcinoma, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in glandular cells, which produce fluids or mucus. Examples include breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in squamous cells, which are found on the surface layers of skin and mucous membranes. Examples include head and neck cancers, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
3. Basal cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in the deepest layer of skin, called the basal layer. It is the most common type of skin cancer and tends to grow slowly.
4. Neuroendocrine carcinoma: This type of carcinoma originates in cells that produce hormones and neurotransmitters. Examples include lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and thyroid cancer.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This type of carcinoma is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that spreads quickly to other parts of the body.

The signs and symptoms of carcinoma depend on the location and stage of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:

* A lump or mass
* Pain
* Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the color or texture of the skin
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Abnormal bleeding

The diagnosis of carcinoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for carcinoma depend on the location and stage of the cancer and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.

In conclusion, carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates in epithelial cells and can occur in various parts of the body. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes.

References:

1. American Cancer Society. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
2. Mayo Clinic. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from
3. MedlinePlus. (2022). Carcinoma. Retrieved from

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Albumin-bound paclitaxel (trade name Abraxane, also called nab-paclitaxel) is an alternative formulation where paclitaxel is ... Space-filling model of paclitaxel Rotating paclitaxel molecule model Crystal structure of paclitaxel Total charge surface of ... Moreover, Paclitaxel has been used in vitro to inhibit insulin fibrillation; in a molar ratio of 10:1 (insulin:paclitaxel), it ... Paclitaxel is one of several cytoskeletal drugs that target tubulin. Paclitaxel-treated cells have defects in mitotic spindle ...
... is a paclitaxel-Angiopep-2 conjugate. Various Angiopep vectors have been composed and differ by their anti ... Paclitaxel trevatide contains paclitaxel, which stabilizes microtubule polymer formation. Microtubules are composed of polymers ... Paclitaxel is generally prevented from reaching its target in the cell due to the presence of the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P ... Paclitaxel trevatide has the potential to treat a variety of CNS diseases including glioma. Research has shown reduction in ...
The advantage of DHA-paclitaxel over paclitaxel is DHA-paclitaxel's ability to carry much higher concentrations of paclitaxel ... DHA-paclitaxel (or Taxoprexin) is an investigational drug (from Protarga Inc) made by linking paclitaxel to docosahexaenoic ... With increased activity, DHA-paclitaxel, also known as Taxoprexin, may have a more successful response in cancer patients than ... "A phase II open-label study of DHA-paclitaxel (Taxoprexin) by 2-h intravenous infusion in previously untreated patients with ...
... , also known as nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel, is an injectable formulation ... Stinchcombe, Thomas E (2007). "Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel: a novel Cremphor-EL®-free formulation of paclitaxel". ... Protein-bound paclitaxel was developed by VivoRx which became Abraxis BioScience as the first in its class of drugs to use the ... In this formulation, paclitaxel is bonded to albumin as a delivery vehicle. It is manufactured and sold in the United States by ...
... in organic chemistry is a major ongoing research effort in the total synthesis of paclitaxel (Taxol ... "Synthesis of Paclitaxel. 1. Synthesis of the ABC Ring of Paclitaxel by SmI2-Mediated Cyclization" Organic Letters 17 (11), 2570 ... but it also opens the way to paclitaxel derivatives not found in nature but with greater potential. The paclitaxel molecule ... Paclitaxel Total Syntheses @ SynArchive.com Taxolog for Taxol research, founded by Holto The complete Taxol story from Chemical ...
Paclitaxel, in contrast, is a tubulin polymerization stabilizer and is used as a chemotherapeutic drug. Paclitaxel is based on ... Sneader W (2005). "Paclitaxel (taxol)". Drug Discovery: A History (Rev. and updated ed.). Chichester: Wiley. pp. 112-113. ISBN ... An example of this is paclitaxel, which can be manufactured by extracting 10-deacetylbaccatin III from T. brevifolia needles, ... Clinically useful examples include the anticancer agents paclitaxel and omacetaxine mepesuccinate (from Taxus brevifolia and ...
FDA (October 2012). "Highlights of Prescribing Information, Abraxane for Injectable Suspension" (PDF). "Paclitaxel (Abraxane ... is the nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel. Doxil was originally approved by the FDA for the use on HIV-related Kaposi's ...
Gibson JD, Khanal BP, Zubarev ER (September 2007). "Paclitaxel-functionalized gold nanoparticles". Journal of the American ... Gold nanoparticles are being investigated as carriers for drugs such as Paclitaxel. The administration of hydrophobic drugs ...
Paclitaxel the active compound found in Taxol is a chemotherapy drug used to treat many forms of cancers including ovarian ... "Paclitaxel Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2020-04-04. "Success Story: Taxol". dtp.cancer.gov. Retrieved ... The two most commonly known terpenoids are artemisinin and paclitaxel. Artemisinin was widely used in Traditional Chinese ...
"Paclitaxel, Protein-Bound Suspension". Paclitaxel, Protein-Bound Suspension. Cancer.Org. January 6, 2015. Retrieved January 24 ...
Horwitz SB (1994). "Taxol (paclitaxel): mechanisms of action". Annals of Oncology. 5 (Suppl 6): S3-6. PMID 7865431. Rao PN, ...
Liggins RT; Hunter WL; Burt HM (1 December 1997). "Solid-state characterization of paclitaxel". Journal of Pharmaceutical ...
... competes with paclitaxel for microtubule binding, but with higher affinity and is also effective in paclitaxel- ... Epothilone Paclitaxel Gunasekera, S. P.; Gunasekera, M.; Longley, R. E.; Schulte, G. K. J. Org. Chem. 1990, 55, 4912-4915. (doi ... and synergistic antiproliferative activity in combination with paclitaxel. Discodermolide was recognized as one of the most ...
Unlike standard taxanes (paclitaxel Taxol®; docetaxel (Taxotere®) that require slow intravenous administration and are ... tesetaxel demonstrated substantially higher activity against cancer cell lines that were resistant to paclitaxel and docetaxel ...
"The Merck Index Online: Paclitaxel". Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 30 June 2014. "The Merck Index Online: Penicillin V ...
Wood, Shelley (March 4, 2004). "FDA Approves Taxus Paclitaxel-Eluting Stent". Medscape. Retrieved February 20, 2015. Working ...
Everolimus-eluting versus paclitaxel-eluting stents. Kounis NG, Goudevenos JA. Lancet 2010;375:1160-3. Kounis NG, Evans WH. ...
Paclitaxel was originally derived from the Pacific yew tree. Taxanes are difficult to synthesize because of their numerous ... Paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel (Taxotere) are widely used as chemotherapy agents. Cabazitaxel was FDA approved to treat ... Weaver, Beth A.; Bement, William (2014). "How Taxol/paclitaxel kills cancer cells". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 25 (18): ... Hoffman, Angela M; Shahidi, Fereidoon (January 2009). "Paclitaxel and other taxanes in hazel". Journal of Functional Foods. 1 ( ...
"LDE225 and Paclitaxel in Solid Tumors". ClinicalTrials.gov. National Institutes of Health. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 16 ... "Gemcitabine + Nab-paclitaxel With LDE-225 (Hedgehog Inhibitor) as Neoadjuvant Therapy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma". ...
carboplatin/ paclitaxel as a first-line treatment in advanced NSCLC. IPASS studied 1,217 patients with confirmed adenocarcinoma ... September 2009). "Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma". The New England Journal of Medicine. 361 ( ... September 2009). "Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma". The New England Journal of Medicine. 361 ( ...
Docetaxel is a semisynthetic taxane and nab-paclitaxel is a nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. Paclitaxel Paclitaxel binds ... Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) paclitaxel is an Albumin bound with high affinity to the ... A recent meta-analysis showed that when compared to Paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel has significant beneficial effects in terms of ... In 2018, the FDA approved pembrolizumab in combination with carboplatin and either paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel as first-line ...
AC-Taxol: AC followed by paclitaxel (Taxol). TAC: Taxotere (docetaxel), Adriamycin (doxorubicin), and cyclophosphamide. FEC: 5- ...
... or paclitaxel. Alitretinoin, applied to the lesion, may be used when the lesion is not getting better with standard treatment ... "Paclitaxel is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 17 ... "Mechanism of paclitaxel activity in Kaposi's sarcoma". Journal of Immunology. 165 (1): 509-17. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.165.1.509. ...
Nab-Paclitaxel Compared With Carboplatin+Nab-Paclitaxel in Participants With Stage IV Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer ( ... Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared With Carboplatin+Paclitaxel+Bevacizumab in Participants With Stage IV Non- ... "A Study of Atezolizumab in Combination With Nab-Paclitaxel Compared With Placebo With Nab-Paclitaxel for Participants With ... "A Study of Atezolizumab and Paclitaxel Versus Placebo and Paclitaxel in Participants With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced ...
Sparreboom A, Verweij J (15 Jul 2003). "Paclitaxel Pharmacokinetics, Threshold Models, and Dosing Strategies". Journal of ...
... evofosfamide and protein-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) have been investigated in combination with gemcitabine in patients ... The study CA046 compares gemcitabine with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel. Gemcitabine is a generic product sold by many ... The indirect comparison of both studies shows comparable efficacy profiles of evofosfamide and nab-paclitaxel in combination ... protein-bound paclitaxel (Abraxane), marketed by Celgene; and FOLFIRINOX, which is a combination of generic products that are ...
He led the first clinical studies showing that paclitaxel was an effective therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma and that thalidomide ... Treatment of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with paclitaxel. Lancet 346:26-28. Yarchoan Amherst Honorary Degree Description ...
Paclitaxel-used to treat lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and advanced forms of Kaposi's sarcoma. Docetaxel-used to ... Examples of mitotic inhibitors frequently used in the treatment of cancer include paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinblastine, ... "Treatment of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with paclitaxel". Lancet. 346 (8966): 26-28. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(95)92654-2. ...
Selected terpenoids Paclitaxel is a diterpenoid anticancer drug. Terpineols are monoterpenoids. Humulones are classified as ...
"Orally Bioavailable Tubulin Antagonists for Paclitaxel-Refractory Cancer". Pharmaceutical Research. 29 (11): 3053-3063. doi: ...
... (UNII: P88XT4IS4D) (PACLITAXEL - UNII:P88XT4IS4D) PACLITAXEL. 6 mg in 1 mL. ... Paclitaxel is obtained via an extraction process from Taxus X media Hicksii. The chemical name for paclitaxel is (2aR,4S,4aS, ... Do not receive paclitaxel if:. *you are allergic to any of the ingredients in paclitaxel. See the end of this leaflet for a ... c Paclitaxel dose in mg/m2/infusion duration in hours.. d Paclitaxel (T) following 4 courses of doxorubicin and ...
Paclitaxel (with albumin) Injection Paclitaxel (with albumin) injection is used to treat breast cancer that has spread to other ... Paclitaxel (with polyoxyethylated castor oil) Injection Paclitaxel (with polyoxyethylated castor oil) is used along or along ... It also used in combination with paclitaxel (Abraxane, Taxol) to treat breast cancer that has ... ... with other chemotherapy medications to treat breast ... formed), and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Paclitaxel (with ...
JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it ...
Therapy with paclitaxel has been associated with a low rate of serum enzyme elevations, but has not been clearly linked to ca … ... Paclitaxel is an antineoplastic agent which acts by inhibitor of cellular mitosis and which currently plays a central role in ... Paclitaxel No authors listed In: LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda ... Therapy with paclitaxel has been associated with a low rate of serum enzyme elevations, but has not been clearly linked to ...
Therapy with paclitaxel has been associated with a low rate of serum enzyme elevations, but has not been clearly linked to ... Paclitaxel is an antineoplastic agent which acts by inhibitor of cellular mitosis and which currently plays a central role in ... Paclitaxel (pak" li tax el) is a complex diterpenoid molecule that contains a central 8-member taxane ring. Paclitaxel was ... Paclitaxel is available in solution for injection (6 mg/mL) generically and under the brand names Taxol and Onxol. Paclitaxel ...
Drug: nab-Paclitaxel Nab-paclitaxel will be administered as per the dose and schedule specified in the respective arms. ... Drug: nab-Paclitaxel Nab-paclitaxel will be administered as per the dose and schedule specified in the respective arms. ... combined with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (PAG treatment), compared with placebo combined with nab-paclitaxel plus ... in Combination With Nab-Paclitaxel Plus Gemcitabine Compared With Placebo Plus Nab-Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine in Subjects With ...
Nab-paclitaxel was internalized by tumor-associated macrophages ,i,in vivo,/i,, and therapeutic doses of nab-paclitaxel alone, ... Nab-paclitaxel (trade name Abraxane) is a nanoparticle albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel that, in combination with ... Here, we show that macrophages internalized nab-paclitaxel via macropinocytosis. The macropinocytic uptake of nab-paclitaxel ... These data revealed an unanticipated role for nab-paclitaxel in macrophage activation and rationalized its potential use to ...
In an attempt to improve the localized paclitaxel delivery, carrier based thermoresponsive chitosan hydrogel was exploited in ... Nanoliposomes as carrier for paclitaxel were prepared and optimized in strength of 6 mg/ml similar to marketed paclitaxel ... Nanoliposomes as carrier for paclitaxel were prepared and optimized in strength of 6 mg/ml similar to marketed paclitaxel ... Paclitaxel Efficacy is Increased by Parthenolide via Nuclear Factor- KappaB Pathways in In Vitro and In Vivo Human Non-Small ...
A comparison of cisplatin/paclitaxel and carboplatin/paclitaxel in stage IVB, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer. Gynecol ... Topotecan, ifosfamide, and paclitaxel also have significant activity in this setting. The combination of topotecan and ... Phase III study of cisplatin with or without paclitaxel in stage IVB, recurrent, or persistent squamous cell carcinoma of the ... The mechanisms of action of paclitaxel are tubulin polymerization and microtubule stabilization. This agent also participates ...
The contents of these pages are provided as information only. The Pharmacologia cannot accept responsibility for any errors, omissions or misleading statements on these web pages or on any pages to which these pages are linked. No mention of any individual, organization or company in these pages or in any pages to which these pages are linked implies any approval or warranty on the part of the Pharmacologia. ...
Lack of correlation between caspase activation and caspase activity assays in paclitaxel-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ... Dive into the research topics of Lack of correlation between caspase activation and caspase activity assays in paclitaxel- ...
SWAG Cancer Alliance is not responsible for the content or reliability of the websites we link to and do not necessarily endorse the views expressed within them. We aim to replace broken links to other sites but cannot guarantee that these links will always work as we have no control over the availability of other sites. Due to the very nature of the internet we cannot guarantee our site or other sites we link to will always be available to you.. ...
The mean dose intensity of cisplatin was 29.6 mg/m per week (95% confidence interval, 27.0-32.1); that of paclitaxel was 40.0 ... Long-Term Results of a Phase II Trial of Concomitant Cisplatin-Paclitaxel Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer. ... Long-Term Results of a Phase II Trial of Concomitant Cisplatin-Paclitaxel Chemoradiation i ... and weekly cisplatin and paclitaxel in patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. METHODS:. Thirty-seven patients ...
Intranasal paclitaxel alters Alzheimers disease phenotypic features in 3xTg-AD mice BIBLIOGRAPHIC THERAPEUTIC AGENT ANIMAL ... Objective: This research investigated if paclitaxel (PTX) delivered via the intranasal (IN) route could alter the phenotypic ...
Cyclopamine increases the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel and radiation but not cisplatin and gemcitabine in Hedgehog ... Cyclopamine increases the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel and radiation but not cisplatin and gemcitabine in Hedgehog ... Cyclopamine increases the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel and radiation but not cisplatin and gemcitabine in Hedgehog ...
Keywords: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance (MDR), cancer stem cells (CSCs), coumarin derivatives, paclitaxel (PTX), ... Keywords: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance (MDR), cancer stem cells (CSCs), coumarin derivatives, paclitaxel (PTX), ... Title:Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein Mediated Efflux of Paclitaxel by Coumarin Derivatives in Cancer Stem Cells: An In Silico ... Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein Mediated Efflux of Paclitaxel by Coumarin Derivatives in Cancer Stem Cells: An In Silico Approach ...
The first stop for professional medicines advice
Paclitaxel 49.2mg/100ml in Sodium chloride 0.9% infusion bags Abbreviated name. Paclitaxel 49.2mg/100ml in Sodium chloride 0.9 ... Paclitaxel 49.2mg/100ml in Sodium chloride 0.9% infusion bags. ID. 40073811000001103 ... Paclitaxel 49.2mg/100ml in Sodium chloride 0.9% infusion bags (Special Order) ... Paclitaxel 49.2mg/100ml in Sodium chloride 0.9% infusion bags 1 bag ...
Tumor lysis syndrome refers to the constellation of metabolic disturbances that may follow the initiation of cancer treatment. It usually occurs in patients with bulky, rapidly proliferating, treatment-responsive tumors.
Paclitaxel [‎1]‎. Pain [‎48]‎. Pain Clinics [‎1]‎. Pain Management [‎6]‎. Pain Measurement [‎8]‎. ...
Prochlorperazine reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (AHFS DI).
Abraxane®see Paclitaxel (with albumin) Injection. *Abrilada® (adalimumab-afzb)see Adalimumab Injection ...
We successfully identified several hub genes and pathways relevant to the effects of eribulin and paclitaxel on BC based on the ... A total of 132 and 153 differentially expressed genes were identified in BC cell lines treated with eribulin and paclitaxel, ... We investigated the effects of eribulin and paclitaxel on breast cancer (BC) by exploring molecular biomarkers and pathways. Co ... Molecular-level effects of eribulin and paclitaxel on breast cancer based on differential co-expression network analysis. * J. ...
Preliminary analysis of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and concurrent radiation in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small ... Preliminary analysis of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and concurrent radiation in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small ... Preliminary analysis of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and concurrent radiation in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small ... Choy H, Akerley W, Safran H, Graziano S, Chung C. Preliminary analysis of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and concurrent radiation in ...
Phase II recommended dose was established as paclitaxel 80mg/m2 weekly on day 1, and MK-2206 135mg weekly on day 2. Paclitaxel ... Phase II recommended dose was established as paclitaxel 80mg/m2 weekly on day 1, and MK-2206 135mg weekly on day 2. Paclitaxel ... Phase II recommended dose was established as paclitaxel 80mg/m2 weekly on day 1, and MK-2206 135mg weekly on day 2. Paclitaxel ... Phase II recommended dose was established as paclitaxel 80mg/m2 weekly on day 1, and MK-2206 135mg weekly on day 2. Paclitaxel ...
August 7, 2019 UPDATE: Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease with Paclitaxel-Coated Balloons and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents ... August 7, 2019 UPDATE: Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease with Paclitaxel-Coated Balloons and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents ... in the femoropopliteal artery with paclitaxel-coated balloons and paclitaxel-eluting stents. This communication updates the ... care-providers/august-7-2019-update-treatment-peripheral-arterial-disease-paclitaxel-coated-balloons-and-paclitaxel ...
paclitaxel. *pentoxifylline. *phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (e.g., sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil). *pregabalin. * ...
  • Paclitaxel (with albumin) injection is also used in combination with other chemotherapy medications to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (medlineplus.gov)
  • While it is still uncertain exactly how Abraxane works, Abraxane wraps traditional chemotherapy, paclitaxel, in near-nano sized shells of albumin, a protein that the tumor could recognize as food. (medindia.net)
  • The repeated single doses were administered the day after chemotherapy at D2 and D16 of the 28-day cycles of paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 at D1, D8 and D15, for 6 cycles). (nih.gov)
  • In this trial we will implant a novel device with 9 ultrasound emitters allowing to temporarily and reversibly open the BBB immediately prior to chemotherapy infusion with albumin-bound paclitaxel. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether DCVAC/OvCa added to chemotherapy (carboplatin plus paclitaxel as first line chemotherapy) may result in prolongation of progression free survival (PFS). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation, work in different ways to kill tumor cells or stop them from growing. (her2support.org)
  • Paclitaxel is a common chemotherapy drug associated with the development of chronic paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN). (escholarship.org)
  • nab -Paclitaxel was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2005 for the treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy, including anthracyclines, for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FDA's prior approval of paclitaxel as chemotherapy was critical dramatically better outcomes for patients. (nih.gov)
  • A woman with a history of treatment for thyroid cancer and recurrence during pregnancy was treated postpartum with paclitaxel and carboplatin. (nih.gov)
  • It consisted of doxorubicin 118 mg and cyclophosphamide 1180 mg every 2 weeks for 4 cycles, followed by paclitaxel 156 mg weekly and carboplatin 900 mg every 4 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of Carboplatin/Paclitaxel With. (checkorphan.org)
  • You should not receive paclitaxel (with albumin) if you already have a low number of white blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Patients receive paclitaxel IV on days 1, 8, and 15. (knowcancer.com)
  • Serious allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) can happen in people who receive paclitaxel injection. (nih.gov)
  • Who should not receive paclitaxel? (nih.gov)
  • You and your healthcare provider should decide if you will receive paclitaxel or breast-feed. (nih.gov)
  • How will I receive paclitaxel? (nih.gov)
  • Your healthcare provider will do certain tests while you receive paclitaxel. (nih.gov)
  • The clinical pharmacokinetic behavior of paclitaxel (Taxol) is distinctly nonlinear, with disproportional increases in systemic exposure with an increase in dose. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Multiple studies of paclitaxel (Taxol) have been ongoing. (oncolink.org)
  • Paclitaxel Injection, USP should be administered under the supervision of a physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (nih.gov)
  • Paclitaxel Injection, USP is a clear colorless to slightly yellow viscous solution. (nih.gov)
  • Paclitaxel (with albumin) injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell that is needed to fight infection) in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • or other signs of infection during your treatment with paclitaxel injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will order certain tests to check your body's response to paclitaxel (with albumin) injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving paclitaxel (with albumin) injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Paclitaxel (with albumin) injection is used to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and has not improved or worsened after treatment with other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Paclitaxel (with albumin) injection is used in combination with gemcitabine (Gemzar) to treat cancer of the pancreas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Paclitaxel (with albumin) injection comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected over 30 minutes intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse in a medical facility. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When paclitaxel (with albumin) injection is used to treat breast cancer, it is usually given once every 3 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When paclitaxel (with albumin) injection is used to treat non-small cell lung cancer it is usually given on days 1, 8, and 15 as part of a 3 week cycle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Paclitaxel injection is also sometimes used to treat cancer of the head and neck, esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), bladder, endometrium (lining of the uterus), and cervix (opening of the uterus). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Paclitaxel Injection, USP is indicated as subsequent therapy for the treatment of advanced carcinoma of the ovary. (hipaaspace.com)
  • On Sept. 6, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved nab-paclitaxel (produced by Celgene Corporation under the brand name Abraxane) for use in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. (medindia.net)
  • Following intravenous administration of paclitaxel, paclitaxel plasma concentrations declined in a biphasic manner. (nih.gov)
  • We have recently shown that Cremophor EL, the formulation vehicle used for i.v. administration of paclitaxel, alters drug distribution as a result of micellar entrapment of paclitaxel, and we speculated that the free drug fraction (fu) is dependent on dose and time-varying concentrations of Cremophor EL in the central plasma compartment. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Her intravenous paclitaxel dose was 56.1 mg (30 mg per square meter) weekly for 6 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Paclitaxel is injected into a vein (intravenous [IV] infusion) by your healthcare provider. (nih.gov)
  • The dose of 4 mg/kg i.p. was chosen after thorough evaluation of different doses of paclitaxel (2 mg/kg i.p., 2 mg/kg i.v., 4 mg/kg i.p., 6 mg/kg i.p.), by looking at pharmacokinetic parameters, development of mechanical and cold allodynia, and health of the animals. (nih.gov)
  • Recently published population pharmacokinetic data on nab -paclitaxel compared with sb-paclitaxel demonstrated more rapid and greater tissue penetration and slower elimination of paclitaxel [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to paclitaxel, docetaxel, any other medications, or human albumin, Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you do not know if a medication that you are allergic to contains human albumin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most recent study on the paclitaxel and docetaxel market by Dhirtek Business Research and Consulting provides a comprehensive view of the entire market. (storeboard.com)
  • The research report delves deeply into the drivers and restraints of the global paclitaxel and docetaxel market. (storeboard.com)
  • Analysts have conducted extensive research on the global paclitaxel and docetaxel market's milestones and current trends that will determine its future. (storeboard.com)
  • Analysts have provided clients with objective perspectives on the global paclitaxel and docetaxel industry to help them make sound business decisions. (storeboard.com)
  • The detailed research report employs Porter's five forces analysis and SWOT analysis to provide readers with a clear picture of the predicted path of the global paclitaxel and docetaxel market. (storeboard.com)
  • The SWOT analysis examines the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the global paclitaxel and docetaxel market, whereas Porter's five forces analysis examines competitive competitiveness. (storeboard.com)
  • The research study goes into great detail about the trends and consumer behaviour patterns that are expected to shape the evolution of the global paclitaxel and docetaxel market. (storeboard.com)
  • Examines the prospects of the paclitaxel and docetaxel industry and quickly compares historical, current, and projected market figures. (storeboard.com)
  • Describes the global paclitaxel and docetaxel market's expansion across various industries and geographies. (storeboard.com)
  • The product type, application, and region components of the global paclitaxel and docetaxel market research study are divided into three sections. (storeboard.com)
  • Furthermore, the study includes government forecasts for regional markets that have an impact on the global paclitaxel and docetaxel sector. (storeboard.com)
  • The market by product type is segmented into paclitaxel, docetaxel . (storeboard.com)
  • Furthermore, milk paclitaxel levels appear to increase with repeated doses at weekly intervals. (nih.gov)
  • The authors calculated an average milk paclitaxel level over the 316 hour collection period of 0.78 mg/L, resulting in an estimated total weight-adjusted infant daily dose of 16.7% of the maternal weekly dose. (nih.gov)
  • Each mL of sterile nonpyrogenic solution contains 6 mg paclitaxel, 527 mg of Polyoxyl 35 Castor Oil, NF, 49.7% (v/v) Dehydrated Alcohol, USP and 2 mg Citric Acid, USP. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that although monotherapy with itraconazole or paclitaxel has anti-tumor activity against HT-29 human colorectal cancer, a synergistic anti-tumor activity can be achieved when itraconazole is co-administered with paclitaxel. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In addition, patient -derived xenografts from 69 ovarian carcinoma patients were examined for CHFR expression and sensitivity to paclitaxel monotherapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Likewise, no association between CHFR expression and paclitaxel sensitivity was observed in ovarian cancer PDXs treated with paclitaxel monotherapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this US healthcare system, the majority of patients received nab -paclitaxel as second-line or later therapy, monotherapy, and weekly treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paclitaxel is a natural product with antitumor activity. (nih.gov)
  • The efficacy and safety outcomes of nab -paclitaxel observed in this real-world setting appear consistent with those from clinical trial data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although it has previously been reported that two new chemotherapeutic agents, paclitaxel and irinotecan, showed strong cytotoxic effect to human CCA cell lines the treatment cost currently using reference formulations of these two drugs are very expensive. (who.int)
  • To date, the generic drugs for both paclitaxel and irinotecan are now commercially available in Thailand with relatively low price compared to reference formulations. (who.int)
  • KKU-M055 was the most sensitive cell line to paclitaxel and KKU-OCA17 showed the highest sensitivity to irinotecan whereas KKU-M156 was the least sensitive cell line to both drugs. (who.int)
  • No different in the IC50 values of the generic and reference formulations of paclitaxel and irinotecan against seven CCA lines suggest that the in vitro efficacy of generic and reference formulations of these two drugs are very similar. (who.int)
  • The pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel were also evaluated in adult cancer patients who received single doses of 15-135 mg/m 2 given by 1-hour infusions (n=15), 30-275 mg/m 2 given by 6-hour infusions (n=36), and 200-275 mg/m 2 given by 24-hour infusions (n=54) in Phase 1 & 2 studies. (nih.gov)
  • A 17-week pregnant woman with breast cancer received a regimen of fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, followed by 9 weekly doses of paclitaxel 80 mg/sq. m. (nih.gov)
  • Paclitaxel is a novel antimicrotubule agent that promotes the assembly of microtubules from tubulin dimers and stabilizes microtubules by preventing depolymerization. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, paclitaxel induces abnormal arrays or "bundles" of microtubules throughout the cell cycle and multiple asters of microtubules during mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • This phase II trial studies how well giving pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation together works in treating patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2-positive metastatic breast cancer. (her2support.org)
  • nab -Paclitaxel is an albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cytotoxic activity of the generic formulation was compared to the reference formulation using Student's unpaired t-test.Results: Paclitaxel exhibited strong potency towards most CCA cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.001-1.40 mM whereas irinotecan showed IC50 values ranging varied from 0.02 to 69 mM. (who.int)
  • Similary, the cytotoxicity of the generic formulation of irinotecan (IrinotelÒ, Dabur, India) was not statistically significant different from the reference formulation (CamptoÒ, Aventis Pharma, UK).Conclusion: The cytotoxic activity of paclitaxel towards six CCA cell lines was more potent than irinotecan except for KKU-OCA17. (who.int)
  • HealthDay)-The U.S. Food and Drug Administration alerted health care providers on Thursday that the agency is investigating the use of paclitaxel-coated balloons and paclitaxel-eluting stents to treat peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the femoropopliteal artery because of a potentially increased mortality risk in the long term. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The analysis of randomized trials revealed a possible increased mortality rate at two years postoperatively in PAD patients treated with paclitaxel-coated balloons and paclitaxel-eluting stents compared with patients treated with noncoated balloons or bare-metal stents. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Despite this investigation, the agency noted the benefits continue to outweigh the risks for approved paclitaxel-coated balloons and paclitaxel-eluting stents when used according to their indications for use. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Recently, a meta-analysis that grouped both drug-eluting stents (DES) and drug-coated balloons (DCB) together indicated a higher incidence of late all-cause mortality for paclitaxel-based devices compared to uncoated PTA or BMS at 2 years up to 5 years [ 12 ]. (springer.com)
  • In addition, meaning far fewer return visits to the catheterization lab or paclitaxel-coated stents are finding their use in peripheral organs operating room for cardiac patients1. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanisms of action of paclitaxel are tubulin polymerization and microtubule stabilization. (medscape.com)
  • Paclitaxel is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in the taxane class which has been shown to produce neurotoxicity and sensory neuropathy, which is often reported as numbness, tingling, or burning pain. (nih.gov)
  • A painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat produced by the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel. (nih.gov)
  • The study of 861 patients, conducted at 151 community and academic centers in 11 nations, found that the 431 patients assigned nab-paclitaxel in addition to the standard-of-care gemcitabine had significantly improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and drug response rates than for the 430 assigned to gemcitabine alone. (medindia.net)
  • New research indicates that the addition of nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer was superior to the survival for patients who received only gemcitabine. (medindia.net)
  • Macropinocytosis of Nab-paclitaxel Drives Macrophage Activation in Pancreatic Cancer. (nih.gov)
  • nab -Paclitaxel was often (31.7 %) combined with targeted therapy (57.5 % with bevacizumab and 23.9 % with trastuzumab or lapatinib). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It appeared that with the 24-hour infusion of paclitaxel, a 30% increase in dose (135 mg/m 2 versus 175 mg/m 2 ) increased the C max by 87%, whereas the AUC (0-∞) remained proportional. (nih.gov)
  • The mean apparent volume of distribution at steady state, with the 24-hour infusion of paclitaxel, ranged from 227 to 688 L/m 2 , indicating extensive extravascular distribution and/or tissue binding of paclitaxel. (nih.gov)
  • No hint of increased mortality risk in association with the use of paclitaxel-coated devices for treatment of peripheral artery disease was detected in VOYAGER PAD, a multithousand-patient randomized trial with long-term follow-up and ascertainment of vital status in 99.6% of participants. (medscape.com)
  • Observers opined that the VOYAGER PAD findings effectively put to rest a nearly 2-year-old controversy over whether paclitaxel-coated devices for treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD) carry an increased mortality risk. (medscape.com)
  • In the weighted analysis, the all-cause mortality rate at 3.5 years was 12.1% in paclitaxel-coated device recipients and 12.6% in those who didn't get such devices. (medscape.com)
  • After a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, the all-cause mortality rate in the paclitaxel cohort was 25.5%, versus 24.6% in the uncoated arm. (medtechdive.com)
  • Paclitaxel is an antineoplastic agent which acts by inhibitor of cellular mitosis and which currently plays a central role in the therapy of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer. (nih.gov)
  • We report clinical and biological results of a phase I/II in patients with metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) receiving first-line paclitaxel weekly, 3 weeks out of 4. (nih.gov)
  • Determine the 2-month objective response rate in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, unresectable soft tissue angiosarcoma or lymphangiosarcoma treated with paclitaxel. (knowcancer.com)
  • Nor did all-cause mortality differ by device type, be it paclitaxel-coated balloon versus plain balloon angioplasty, or drug-eluting stent versus bare-metal stent. (medscape.com)
  • This large, randomized, international, phase 3 study showed that the nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine led to a significant improvement in survival at all time points," said Dr. Daniel D. Von Hoff, TGen Distinguished Professor and Physician-In-Chief, and Chief Scientific Officer for the Virginia G. Piper Cancer Center Clinical Trials at Scottsdale Healthcare, a partnership with TGen. (medindia.net)
  • The rate of survival was significantly higher in the nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine group than in the gemcitabine group," said Dr. Von Hoff, lead author among the study's 23 co-authors and more than 130 researchers. (medindia.net)
  • The deubiquitinase UBC13, which regulates CHFR levels, has been associated with better overall survival in paclitaxel -treated ovarian cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • Personally, I think this is probably the most impactful data seen regarding the paclitaxel issue in almost 2 years because it is randomized data, it's prospectively collected data, and - most importantly from my perspective - they were able to collect vital statistics on more than 99.5% of the patients," he added. (medscape.com)
  • you are allergic to any of the ingredients in paclitaxel. (nih.gov)
  • The recovery is built on data published by Boston Scientific and rivals such as Cook Medical, Medtronic and Philips, as well as by analyses of Optum Medicare Advantage patients and other recipients of paclitaxel-coated devices. (medtechdive.com)
  • Paclitaxel is in a class of medications called antimicrotubule agents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Patients who experience severe hypersensitivity reactions to paclitaxel should not be rechallenged with the drug. (nih.gov)
  • The most significant side effect from the addition of nab-paclitaxel was peripheral neuropathy, such as numbness in the hands and feet, although this occurred in only a small proportion of patients and was "rapidly reversible in most patients" by temporarily halting the drug and subsequently reducing its dosage. (medindia.net)
  • Patient-level data from two large studies of the Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent (DES) with long-term follow-up and concurrent non-drug comparator groups were analyzed to determine whether there was an increased mortality risk due to paclitaxel. (springer.com)
  • Use of paclitaxel coated drug eluting technology to improve central vein patency for haemodialysis access circuits: Any benefit? (nus.edu.sg)
  • We investigated the efficacy of itraconazole as a P-gp inhibitor and its therapeutic synergistic relationship to paclitaxel through Tc-MIBI accumulation in HT-29 tumor-bearing nude mice. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • During week 6, rats with average PWT ≤4.0g are included in the subsequent testing of the asset's efficacy to treat mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel CIPN rats. (nih.gov)
  • This analysis was designed to characterize the treatment patterns, efficacy, and safety of nab -paclitaxel for MBC treatment using health claims data from US health plans associated with Optum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CHFR and Paclitaxel Sensitivity of Ovarian Cancer. (bvsalud.org)
  • Accordingly, differences in CHFR expression are unlikely to play a major role in paclitaxel sensitivity of high grade serous ovarian cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • She pumped milk and discarded it until after the 9th dose of paclitaxel when maternal blood and milk samples were collected. (nih.gov)
  • The incidence of grade 4 neutropenia was significantly lower with nab -paclitaxel compared with sb-paclitaxel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the incidence of grade 3 sensory neuropathy was significantly higher with nab -paclitaxel compared with sb-paclitaxel, it was manageable with dose modifications and treatment interruptions and improved to grade ≤ 2 in a median of 22 days. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paclitaxel concentration in milk was 111.4 mcg/L at 11 hours after the dose. (nih.gov)
  • Anaphylaxis and severe hypersensitivity reactions characterized by dyspnea and hypotension requiring treatment, angioedema, and generalized urticaria have occurred in 2%-4% of patients receiving paclitaxel in clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • When given paclitaxel alone, the ID% of hepatic and cardiac tissue was reduced while co-administration of itraconazole with paclitaxel increased Tc-MIBI accumulation in these organs. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Figure 1: Experimental procedure for the paclitaxel CIPN model. (nih.gov)
  • B and C- Representative experimental design for the assessment of mechanical cold (B) and cold mechanical (C) allodynia in the paclitaxel CIPN model. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: As compared with a bare metal stent of identical design, the paclitaxel elution from reservoirs results in significantly less binary restenosis, less late loss and lower revascularisation rates at eight months. (ru.nl)
  • As previously reported, the most common grade ≥ 3 adverse events with nab-paclitaxel were peripheral neuropathy (25% vs 0% with DTIC) and neutropenia (20% vs 10% with DTIC). (edu.au)
  • Many other medications may also interact with paclitaxel, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Perturbations in neuroinflammatory pathways are associated with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in breast cancer survivors. (escholarship.org)
  • Researchers conducted the unplanned review in response to a 2018 meta-analysis that found mortality at two years was significantly higher in patients treated with devices coated in paclitaxel. (medtechdive.com)
  • Neither treatment with Zilver PTX ( p = 0.46 RCT, p = 0.49 Japan) nor paclitaxel dose ( p = 0.86 RCT, p = 0.07 Japan) was associated with mortality. (springer.com)
  • And compared to paclitaxel group, the nude mice co-treated with paclitaxel and itraconazole showed suppression of tumor growth by about 33.31 % at the end of the treatment period. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The use of poststudy anticancer therapy did not differ by treatment arm, with 77% vs 73% of patients in the nab-paclitaxel arm vs DTIC arm receiving poststudy therapy. (edu.au)
  • Women aged ≥ 18 years who initiated nab -paclitaxel for MBC treatment from January 1, 2005, to September 30, 2012, and who met eligibility criteria were selected from the Optum Research Database for this analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paclitaxel is perhaps in facilitating approval of the paclitaxel-stent combination best known in the form offered by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) product because the drug's safety was already well established. (nih.gov)
  • Paclitaxel is a white to off-white crystalline powder with the empirical formula C 47 H 51 NO 14 and a molecular weight of 853.9. (nih.gov)
  • Paclitaxel is a white to off-white crystalline powder with the empirical formula C47H51NO14 and molecular weight of 853.9. (hipaaspace.com)
  • At final analysis, nab-paclitaxel continued to demonstrate a trend toward improved OS vs DTIC. (edu.au)
  • Although as a community we've continued to struggle with this issue of paclitaxel and mortality, VOYAGER PAD does fill many of the gaps and addresses many of the limitations of currently available data," Connie N. Hess, MD , said in reporting results of a prespecified analysis of the trial at the Transcatheter Cardiovascular Research Therapeutics virtual annual meeting. (medscape.com)
  • Results: At the final OS analysis (median follow-up, ≈ 30 months for censored patients), 427 patient deaths occurred: 215 (81%) in the nab-paclitaxel vs 212 (80%) in the DTIC arm. (edu.au)
  • Of the 4,316 patients included in the prespecified analysis by Hess, a cardiologist at the University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, 31% received a paclitaxel-coated device. (medscape.com)