The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere. It is produced continuously by the action of solar ULTRAVIOLET RAYS on oxygen in the stratosphere. The stratospheric ozone (especially at the ozone layer) blocks much of the solar UV radiation of wavelengths of 320 nanometers or less from being transmitted to lower ATMOSPHERE of the Earth.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The motion of air currents.
Respiratory tract diseases are a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs, impairing breathing and oxygen uptake, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, bronchitis, influenza, tuberculosis, and sleep apnea.

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (1/1280)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Enrichment of enzyme activity on deformylation of 1-NFK-lysozyme. (2/1280)

The formamide linkage of an inactive lysozyme derivative (1-NFK-lysozyme), formed by selective ozonization of tryptophan 62 in hen egg-white lysozyme [EC] was hydrolyzed with dilute acid faster in the frozen state at about --10 degrees than at 20 degrees. On hydrolysis of 1-NFK-lysozyme the low lytic activity increased to approximately 80% of that of native lysozyme. It is suggested that the binding ability associated with kynurenine 62 in the lysozyme derivative formed by this hydrolysis may be responsible for increase in enzymatic activity.  (+info)

Airway inflammatory response to ozone in subjects with different asthma severity. (3/1280)

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ozone exposure induces a similar airway inflammatory response in subjects with different degrees of asthma severity. Two groups of asthmatic subjects were studied: seven with intermittent mild asthma not requiring regular treatment (group A); and seven with persistent mild asthma requiring regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (group B). All subjects were exposed, in a randomized cross-over design, to air or O3 (0.26 parts per million (ppm) for 2 h with intermittent exercise); subjects in group B withdrew from regular treatment 72 h before each exposure. Before the exposure, and 1 and 2 h after the beginning of the exposure they performed a pulmonary function test, and a questionnaire was completed to obtain a total symptom score (TSS). Six hours after the end of the exposure, hypertonic saline (HS) sputum induction was conducted. Sputum cell percentages, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the sputum supernatant were measured. TSS significantly increased and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) significantly decreased after O3 exposure in comparison with air exposure in group A, whereas no changes were observed in group B except for a significant decrement of FEV1 2 h after the beginning of O3 exposure. Sputum neutrophil percentage was significantly higher after O3 exposure than after air exposure in both groups (Group A: 70.2% (28-87) versus 26.6% (8.6-73.2); Group B: 62.1% (25-82.4) versus 27.9% (14.4-54)). IL-8 was higher in sputum supernatant collected 6 h after O3 exposure than after air, only in group A. No change due to O3 has been found in sputum eosinophil percentage and ECP concentration in both groups. In conclusion, the degree of airway response to a short-term exposure to ozone is different in subjects with asthma of different severity. The available data do not allow elucidation of whether this difference depends on the severity of the disease or on the regular anti-inflammatory treatment.  (+info)

Capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber-mediated protective responses in ozone inhalation in rats. (4/1280)

To assess the role of lung sensory C fibers during and after inhalation of 1 part/million ozone for 8 h, we compared breathing pattern responses and epithelial injury-inflammation-repair in rats depleted of C fibers by systemic administration of capsaicin as neonates and in vehicle-treated control animals. Capsaicin-treated rats did not develop ozone-induced rapid, shallow breathing. Capsaicin-treated rats showed more severe necrosis in the nasal cavity and greater inflammation throughout the respiratory tract than did control rats exposed to ozone. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (a marker of DNA synthesis associated with proliferation) into terminal bronchiolar epithelial cells was not significantly affected by capsaicin treatment in rats exposed to ozone. However, when normalized to the degree of epithelial necrosis present in each rat studied, there was less 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in the terminal bronchioles of capsaicin-treated rats. These observations suggest that the ozone-induced release of neuropeptides does not measurably contribute to airway inflammation but may play a role in modulating basal and reparative airway epithelial cell proliferation.  (+info)

Air pollution, pollens, and daily admissions for asthma in London 1987-92. (5/1280)

BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between daily hospital admissions for asthma and air pollution in London in 1987-92 and the possible confounding and modifying effects of airborne pollen. METHODS: For all ages together and the age groups 0-14, 15-64 and 65+ years, Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of daily asthma admissions associated with changes in ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particles (black smoke), controlling for time trends, seasonal factors, calendar effects, influenza epidemics, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation. Independent effects of individual pollutants and interactions with aeroallergens were explored using two pollutant models and models including pollen counts (grass, oak and birch). RESULTS: In all-year analyses ozone was significantly associated with admissions in the 15-64 age group (10 ppb eight hour ozone, 3.93% increase), nitrogen dioxide in the 0-14 and 65+ age groups (10 ppb 24 hour nitrogen dioxide, 1.25% and 2.96%, respectively), sulphur dioxide in the 0-14 age group (10 micrograms/m3 24 hour sulphur dioxide, 1.64%), and black smoke in the 65% age group (10 micrograms/m3 black smoke, 5.60%). Significant seasonal differences were observed for ozone in the 0-14 and 15-64 age groups, and in the 0-14 age group there were negative associations with ozone in the cool season. In general, cumulative lags of up to three days tended to show stronger and more significant effects than single day lags. In two-pollutant models these associations were most robust for ozone and least for nitrogen dioxide. There was no evidence that the associations with air pollutants were due to confounding by any of the pollens, and little evidence of an interaction between pollens and pollution except for synergism of sulphur dioxide and grass pollen in children (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles were all found to have significant associations with daily hospital admissions for asthma, but there was a lack of consistency across the age groups in the specific pollutant. These associations were not explained by confounding by airborne pollens nor was there convincing evidence that the effects of air pollutants and airborne pollens interact in causing hospital admissions for asthma.  (+info)

Effect of insurance coverage on the relationship between asthma hospitalizations and exposure to air pollution. (6/1280)

OBJECTIVE: Based on the assumption that people without health insurance have limited access to the primary care services needed to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations for asthma, the authors hypothesized that insurance is a factor in the strength of the association between hospital admissions for asthma and exposure to air pollution. They tested this hypothesis with 1991-1994 data from central Los Angeles. METHODS: The authors analyzed the effect of insurance status on the association between asthma-related hospital admissions and exposure to atmospheric particulates (PM10) and ozone (O3) using hospital discharge and air quality data for 1991-1994 for central Los Angeles. They used regression techniques with weighted moving averages (simulating distributed lag structures) to measure the effects of exposure on overall hospital admissions, admissions of uninsured patients, admissions for which MediCal (California Medicaid) was the primary payer, and admissions for which the primary payer was another government or private health insurance program. RESULTS: No associations were found between asthma admissions and O3 exposure. An estimated increase from 1991 to 1994 of 50 micrograms per cubic meter in PM10 concentrations averaged over eight days was associated with an increase of 21.0% in the number of asthma admissions. An even stronger increase--27.4%--was noted among MediCal asthma admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that low family income, as indicated by MediCal coverage, is a better predictor of asthma exacerbations associated with air pollution than lack of insurance and, by implication, a better predictor of insufficient access to primary care.  (+info)

Public health consequences of global climate change in the United States--some regions may suffer disproportionately. (7/1280)

Current risk assessments of the likely regional health impacts of global climate change (GCC) are hindered by two factors. First, dose-response relationships between weather parameters and many of the likely health effects have not been developed, and second, reliable estimates of future regional climates across the United States are still beyond the scope of current modeling efforts. Consequently, probabilistic risk estimates of most of the likely regional health impacts of GCC have such a high degree of uncertainty that their usefulness to health officials dealing with regional issues is very limited. With the numerous pressures on today's health care systems, it is understandable that the possible consequences of GCC have received scant attention from regional health care decision makers. Indeed, the consensus among this community appears to be that any increases in health effects associated with GCC will be easily handled by the current health care system. However, such a position may be naive as the potential exists that an unequal distribution of such effects could overwhelm some regions, whereas others may feel little or no impact. This review of the likely regional impacts of GCC has been structured as a semianalytical look at this issue of distributional effects. Because of the lack of dose-response information and reliable estimates of future regional climates, however, it takes a historical perspective. That is, it assumes that the quality and quantity of health risks a region faces under GCC will be directly related to its recent history of health risks from warm weather/climate-related diseases as well as to the size, characteristics, and distribution of the sensitive subpopulations currently residing within its borders. The approach is semiquantitative; however, it uses national data gathered on a regional level and as such should only be used to generate a hypothesis rather than test it. When applied to the United States, its outcome leads to the hypothesis that if indeed history repeats itself, some states or regions may be more greatly affected by GCC than others, not only because historically they are more prone to summer weather/climate-related diseases, but also because they contain a greater proportion of the sensitive subpopulations in the United States.  (+info)

Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation. (8/1280)

There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions.  (+info)

Ozone (O3) is not a substance that is typically considered a component of health or medicine in the context of human body or physiology. It's actually a form of oxygen, but with three atoms instead of two, making it unstable and reactive. Ozone is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer in the stratosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

However, ozone can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health depending on its location and concentration. At ground level or in indoor environments, ozone is considered an air pollutant that can irritate the respiratory system and aggravate asthma symptoms when inhaled at high concentrations. It's important to note that ozone should not be confused with oxygen (O2), which is essential for human life and breathing.

Photochemical oxidants refer to chemical compounds that are formed as a result of a photochemical reaction, which involves the absorption of light. These oxidants are often highly reactive and can cause oxidative damage to living cells and tissues.

In the context of environmental science, photochemical oxidants are primarily associated with air pollution and the formation of ozone (O3) and other harmful oxidizing agents in the atmosphere. These pollutants are formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, particularly ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Photochemical oxidation can also occur in biological systems, such as within cells, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated by the absorption of light by certain molecules. These ROS can cause damage to cellular components, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Overall, photochemical oxidants are a significant concern in both environmental and health contexts, and understanding the mechanisms of their formation and effects is an important area of research.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Ozone depletion is defined as the reduction in the total amount of ozone (O3) in the Earth's stratosphere, which ranges from about 12 to 15 kilometers above the planetary surface. This phenomenon is primarily caused by the breakdown of ozone molecules due to the presence of chlorine and bromine-containing chemicals, especially chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. These substances were once widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning, and aerosol spray cans, but have been phased out due to their harmful effects on the ozone layer.

The depletion of the ozone layer is most pronounced over the polar regions, particularly the Antarctic, where it gives rise to the formation of the "ozone hole." This thinning of the ozone layer allows more ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun to reach the Earth's surface, leading to increased risks of skin cancer, cataracts, and damage to crops and marine ecosystems.

It is important to note that ozone depletion is a global environmental issue, requiring international cooperation and regulations, such as the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, to address it effectively.

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air due to the presence of substances or harmful elements that exceed the acceptable limits. These pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination of these. They can be released from various sources, including industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and natural events like volcanic eruptions.

Exposure to air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and even premature death. It can also harm the environment, damaging crops, forests, and wildlife populations. Stringent regulations and measures are necessary to control and reduce air pollution levels, thereby protecting public health and the environment.

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gaseous air pollutant and respiratory irritant. It is a reddish-brown toxic gas with a pungent, choking odor. NO2 is a major component of smog and is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants, and industrial processes.

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing, especially in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. Long-term exposure has been linked to the development of chronic lung diseases, including bronchitis and emphysema. NO2 also contributes to the formation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause additional health problems.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Chlorine compounds refer to chemical substances that contain chlorine (Cl), which is a member of the halogen group in the periodic table. Chlorine is a highly reactive element that readily forms compounds with many other elements and molecules.

Chlorine compounds can be found in various forms, including inorganic and organic compounds. Inorganic chlorine compounds include salts of hydrochloric acid, such as sodium chloride (table salt), and chlorides of metals, such as copper chloride and silver chloride. Other inorganic chlorine compounds include chlorine gas (Cl2), hypochlorous acid (HClO), and chlorine dioxide (ClO2).

Organic chlorine compounds are those that contain carbon atoms bonded to chlorine atoms. Examples of organic chlorine compounds include chlorinated solvents, such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, and pesticides, such as DDT and lindane.

Chlorine compounds have a wide range of uses in various industries, including water treatment, disinfection, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and manufacturing. However, some chlorine compounds can be harmful or toxic to humans and the environment, particularly if they are released into the air, water, or soil in large quantities. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of chlorine compounds properly to minimize potential health and environmental risks.

'Smog' is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a combination of the words "smoke" and "fog" and refers to a type of air pollution typically formed when vehicle emissions, industrial processes, and other sources release large amounts of fine particles and gases (such as nitrogen oxides or ground-level ozone) into the air. These pollutants then react in the presence of sunlight to form smog.

However, exposure to high levels of smog can have negative health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smog can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Long-term exposure to smog has been linked to more serious health problems, including heart disease, lung cancer, and premature death.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Particulate Matter (PM) refers to the mixture of tiny particles and droplets in the air that are solid or liquid in nature. These particles vary in size, with some being visible to the naked eye while others can only be seen under a microscope. PM is classified based on its diameter:

* PM10 includes particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller. These particles are often found in dust, pollen, and smoke.
* PM2.5 includes particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller. These fine particles are produced from sources such as power plants, industrial processes, and vehicle emissions. They can also come from natural sources like wildfires.

Exposure to particulate matter has been linked to various health problems, including respiratory issues, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The smaller the particle, the deeper it can penetrate into the lungs, making PM2.5 particularly harmful to human health.

Inhalation exposure is a term used in occupational and environmental health to describe the situation where an individual breathes in substances present in the air, which could be gases, vapors, fumes, mist, or particulate matter. These substances can originate from various sources, such as industrial processes, chemical reactions, or natural phenomena.

The extent of inhalation exposure is determined by several factors, including:

1. Concentration of the substance in the air
2. Duration of exposure
3. Frequency of exposure
4. The individual's breathing rate
5. The efficiency of the individual's respiratory protection, if any

Inhalation exposure can lead to adverse health effects, depending on the toxicity and concentration of the inhaled substances. Short-term or acute health effects may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs, while long-term or chronic exposure can result in more severe health issues, such as respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, or cancer.

It is essential to monitor and control inhalation exposures in occupational settings to protect workers' health and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. Various methods are employed for exposure assessment, including personal air sampling, area monitoring, and biological monitoring. Based on the results of these assessments, appropriate control measures can be implemented to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with inhalation exposure.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is not a medical term per se, but it's an important chemical compound with implications in human health and medicine. Here's a brief definition:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is primarily released into the atmosphere as a result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (like coal and oil) and the smelting of metals. SO2 is also produced naturally during volcanic eruptions and some biological processes.

In medical terms, exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can have adverse health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SO2 can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of SO2 may exacerbate existing respiratory issues and lead to decreased lung function.

Regulations are in place to limit sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial sources to protect public health and reduce air pollution.

Stratospheric ozone, also known as "good ozone," refers to the ozone layer that exists in the stratosphere, approximately 10-50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. This layer of ozone is crucial for life on Earth because it absorbs most of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation, preventing it from reaching the Earth's surface and causing damage to living organisms.

The medical significance of stratospheric ozone lies in its role in protecting humans and other species from the harmful effects of UV radiation. Exposure to high levels of UV radiation can lead to skin cancer, cataracts, suppressed immune systems, and other health problems. By filtering out most of the Sun's UV radiation, stratospheric ozone plays a vital role in maintaining the health of Earth's biosphere and preserving the well-being of its inhabitants.

However, human activities such as the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances have contributed to the depletion of stratospheric ozone, leading to a thinning of the ozone layer and an increase in UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. This has resulted in significant health concerns, including increased rates of skin cancer and eye damage, and underscores the importance of protecting and preserving the stratospheric ozone layer for the benefit of human and environmental health.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are synthetic, volatile organic compounds that consist of carbon atoms, chlorine atoms, and fluorine atoms. They were widely used in various applications such as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, solvents, and fire extinguishing agents due to their non-toxicity, non-flammability, and chemical stability.

However, CFCs have been found to contribute significantly to the depletion of the Earth's ozone layer when released into the atmosphere. This is because they are stable enough to reach the upper atmosphere, where they react with ultraviolet radiation to release chlorine atoms that can destroy ozone molecules. As a result, the production and use of CFCs have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty aimed at protecting the ozone layer.

Indigo Carmine is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is sometimes used in medical settings. Indigo Carmine is a type of dye that is often used as a marker in various medical tests and procedures. It can be used during surgeries to help identify structures or tissues within the body, such as the urinary tract or the gastrointestinal tract.

Indigo Carmine is also sometimes used as a diagnostic aid in urological procedures, such as cystoscopy, to help visualize the flow of urine and detect any abnormalities in the urinary tract. The dye is usually introduced into the body through a catheter or other medical device, and it is excreted in the urine, turning it blue or green.

It's important to note that Indigo Carmine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to adverse effects.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pentanes" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a group of five-carbon alkane hydrocarbons, including n-pentane and iso-pentane. These substances can be used in medical settings as anesthetics or for medical research, but "Pentanes" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Cities" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a geographical and sociopolitical one referring to large, densely populated urban areas. If you're looking for information about health-related topics associated with cities, I would be happy to help! For example, there are many public health issues that are closely linked to city living, such as air pollution, infectious diseases, and chronic conditions like obesity and heart disease. Please let me know if you have any specific questions in mind!

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "weather" is not a medical term. Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, including factors such as temperature, humidity, cloudiness, precipitation, and wind. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

"Air movements" is not a medical term or concept. It generally refers to the movement or circulation of air, which can occur naturally (such as through wind) or mechanically (such as through fans or ventilation systems). In some contexts, it may refer specifically to the movement of air in operating rooms or other controlled environments for medical purposes. However, without more specific context, it is difficult to provide a precise definition or medical interpretation of "air movements."

Respiratory tract diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. These diseases can be categorized into upper and lower respiratory tract infections based on the location of the infection.

Upper respiratory tract infections affect the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, and include conditions such as the common cold, flu, sinusitis, and laryngitis. Symptoms often include nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, and fever.

Lower respiratory tract infections affect the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs, and can be more severe. They include conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. Symptoms may include cough, chest congestion, shortness of breath, and fever.

Respiratory tract diseases can also be caused by allergies, irritants, or genetic factors. Treatment varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, breathing treatments, or surgery in severe cases.

Deflagration of ozone can be triggered by a spark and can occur in ozone concentrations of 10 wt% or higher. Ozone can also be ... Ozone in the ozone layer filters out sunlight wavelengths from about 200 nm UV rays to 315 nm, with ozone peak absorption at ... Low level ozone, or tropospheric ozone, is the most concerning type of ozone pollution in urban areas and is increasing in ... "Ozone Cell vs Ozone Plate - A2Z Ozone". Archived from the original on 2020-01-10. Retrieved 2020-01-10. Smith, L. I.; Greenwood ...
... resided in Ozone. U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Ozone, Arkansas "Ozone CDP, Arkansas". United ... Ozone is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in Johnson County, Arkansas, United States. Ozone is ... Ozone has a post office with ZIP code 72854. Kenneth Henderson - Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives for ... "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Ozone CDP, Arkansas". ...
... Cracks can be formed in many different elastomers by ozone attack, and the characteristic form of attack of ... However, if ozone gas is present, cracking will occur in the seals unless preventative measures are taken. Ozone attack will ... Unfortunately, traces of ozone can turn up in the most unexpected situations. Using ozone-resistant rubbers is another way of ... Titled GORP, for Global Ozone Rubber Participant, users can see the effects of ozone pollution near their own homes or places ...
An ozone monitor is electronic equipment that monitors for ozone concentrations in the air. The instrument may be used to ... During one cycle, the ozone monitor will take one air sample through the air inlet, and scrub the ozone from the air; for the ... and most ozone monitors utilized in regulatory applications use ultraviolet absorption to accurately quantify ozone levels. An ... For ozone, a 254 nanometer wavelength of light created by a mercury lamp is shined through a specific length of tubing with ...
Ozone Alberton was closed in 1961. The Hoyts Ozone Theatre in Murray Bridge closed in 1969. Ozone Glenelg became Glenelg Cinema ... Ozone Theatres Ltd, formerly Ozone Amusements, was a cinema chain based in Adelaide, South Australia, from 1911 until 1951, ... In 1951 the Waterman family sold most of their Ozone theatres to Hoyts, with the new company known as Hoyts-Ozone Theatres Ltd ... S.A. Theatres and Ozone Theatres (Broken Hill) were subsidiary companies, and the chain was referred to as the Ozone circuit. ...
... , Autologous ozone blood therapy, Oxygen-ozone autologous blood therapy, Oxyon therapy, Hyperbaric ozone therapy: ... ozone therapy does not usually involve inhalation of ozone gas. It has been argued that while peroxides (a product of ozone) ... Ozone therapy is an alternative medical treatment that introduces ozone or ozonides to the body. The United States Food and ... Ozone therapy consists of the introduction of ozone into the body via various methods, usually involving its mixture with ...
The metaphors used in the CFC discussion (ozone shield, ozone hole) are not "exact" in the scientific sense. The "ozone hole" ... the enhanced ozone depletion process shuts down, and the ozone hole closes. Most of the ozone that is destroyed is in the lower ... Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halocarbons increased. Ozone depletion and the ozone ... The Antarctic ozone hole is an area of the Antarctic stratosphere in which the recent ozone levels have dropped to as low as 33 ...
The Ozone Proton is a French single-place paraglider that was designed by hang gliding and paragliding world champion pilot ... Reviewer Noel Bertrand described the Ozone series of gliders in a 2003 review as, "wings that are both pleasant to fly and high ... "Ozone Paragliders > Products > Previous Gliders > Proton GT > Info". Retrieved 7 September 2016. Proton official ... ISSN 1368-485X "Ozone Paragliders > Products > Previous Gliders > Proton > Info". Retrieved 7 September 2016. " ...
... is a theoretically predicted form of ozone. Like ordinary ozone (O3), it would have three oxygen atoms. It would ... In ordinary ozone, the atoms are arranged in a bent line; in cyclic ozone, they would form an equilateral triangle. Some of the ... It should have more energy than ordinary ozone. There is evidence that tiny quantities of cyclic ozone exist at the surface of ... Cyclic ozone has not been made in bulk, although at least one researcher has attempted to do so using lasers. Another ...
... (小曽根真, Pronounced [Oh-zone'-ay]; born March 25, 1961) is a Japanese jazz pianist. Ozone was born in Kobe, Japan. ... 2016 Ozone 60 (Verve, 2021) Ozone 60: Standards (Verve, 2022) No Name Horses (Universal, 2006) No Name Horses II (Verve, 2008) ... jazz pianist Makoto Ozone". Christian Science Monitor. "Makoto Ozone music". Retrieved 2 October 2021. Colin ... Ozone has collaborated with vocalist Kimiko Itoh. They appeared as a duo at the Montreux Jazz Festival, and he produced her ...
Brief History of Ozone House, 2008. p. 2 Ozone House Records 1970 - 2000, History. Bentley Historical Library, University of ... 1976, Ozone House Collection, box 5; folder: Ozone House Peoples' Handbook (Bently Historical Library, University of Michigan, ... As a "counter culture" organization, Ozone House adopted a collectivist system to make its organizational decisions. Ozone ... Ozone House offers several services to address the needs of youth and families through its main site in Ann Arbor and the Drop- ...
... is a hydrogen polyoxide having the molecular formula HO+3 (also written O3H+). It is a cationic structure ... It has been synthesized in mass spectrometer experiments by protonation of ozone using various strong acids. Related ... Cacace, Fulvio; Speranza, Maurizio (8 July 1994). "Protonated Ozone: Experimental Detection of O3H+ and Evaluation of the ... Ceotto, Michele; Gianturco, Franco A.; Hirst, David M. (1999). "Protonated Ozone: Structure, Energetics, and Nonadiabatic ...
... "ozone holes". "Ozone holes" are actually patches in the ozone layer in which the ozone is thinner. The thinnest parts of the ... Ozone layer Stratospheric ozone: an electronic textbook Ozone Layer Info The CAMS stratospheric ozone service delivers maps, ... The ozone layer contains less than 10 parts per million of ozone, while the average ozone concentration in Earth's atmosphere ... ozone shield, ozone hole) proved quite useful and, compared to global climate change, the ozone case was much more seen as a " ...
... is a 2016 Pulitzer Prize winning work by Peter Balakian. The title poem of Balakian's Ozone Journal is a sequence ... Ozone Journal creates inventive lyrical insight in a global age of danger and uncertainty. According to Bruce Smith, in this ... "Ozone Journal" by Peter Balakian has won the Pulitzer Prize for poetry". The Washington Post. Apr 18, 2016. Retrieved 2016-10- ... 20.[dead link] Ozone Journal What you need to know about Peter Balakian, the new Pulitzer Prize-winning poet (All articles with ...
Type O-Zone in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter. "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank: O-Zone" (in German). Bundesverband ... in Japanese) O-Zone Official Japanese Website (in German) O-Zone Official German Website (CS1 Romanian-language sources (ro), ... On 5 May 2017, Dan Bălan, Radu Sîrbu and Arsenie Todiraş announced that O-Zone would be reforming for two concerts. O-Zone re- ... "O-Zone Album & Song Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved 2 June 2010. "O-Zone Japanese Official Website" (in Japanese). Avex ...
Ozone may also refer to: Ozone (G.I. Joe), a fictional character in the G.I. Joe universe Ozone, a character played by Shabba ... a magazine Ozone (film), a horror movie produced by Full Moon Features Makoto Ozone (born 1961), a Japanese jazz pianist Ozone ... Ozone 7, 8, 9, 10) Ozone (group), an early 1980s funk/soul group signed to Motown records Ozone (paddle steamer), an early ... a French aircraft manufacturer O-Zone (disambiguation) Ozone cracking, a form of degradation in elastomers Ozone layer, a ...
The Ozone Zeno is a French single-place paraglider that was designed by the Ozone R&D Team and has been produced by Ozone ... Miller, Hugh (29 May 2017). "Ozone Zeno review (EN D)". Cross Country Magazine. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. ... Miller, Hugh (18 July 2016). "Ozone announce release of the Zeno". Cross Country Magazine. Archived from the original on 2 ... Ospina, Seb; Miller, Hugh (17 February 2017). "Ozone Zeno Review (EN D)". Cross Country Magazine. Retrieved 2 August 2020. ...
The Ozone Peak is a French single-place paraglider that was designed by hang gliding and paragliding world champion pilot ... Reviewer Noel Bertrand described the Ozone series of gliders in a 2003 review as, "wings that are both pleasant to fly and high ... ISSN 1368-485X "Ozone Paragliders > Products > Previous Gliders > Peak > Info". Retrieved 7 September 2016. ... Robbie Whittall and produced by Ozone Gliders of Le Bar-sur-Loup. It is no longer in production. The Peak was designed as a ...
The Ozone Vulcan is a French single-place paraglider that was designed by hang gliding and paragliding world champion pilot ... Reviewer Noel Bertrand described the Ozone series of gliders in a 2003 review as, "wings that are both pleasant to fly and high ... The Vulcan was designed as an intermediate sports glider and replaced the Ozone Octane in the product line. The Vulcan models ... ISSN 1368-485X "Ozone Paragliders > Products > Previous Gliders > Vulcan > Info". Retrieved 7 September 2016. " ...
ISSN 1368-485X "Ozone Atom 3". Retrieved 7 September 2016. "Ozone Atom 3 Specifications". Retrieved ... The Ozone Atom is a French single-place paraglider that was designed by hang gliding and paragliding world champion pilot ... It remained in production as the Ozone 3 in 2016. The aircraft was designed as a beginner glider for school use in flight ... Reviewer Noel Bertrand described the Ozone series of gliders in a 2003 review as, "wings that are both pleasant to fly and high ...
... is a waterfall located in Cumberland County, Tennessee in the Ozone Falls State Natural Area and Cumberland Trail ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ozone Falls, Tennessee. Dunigan, Tom. "Ozone Falls 110'". Tennessee landforms. Retrieved ... Ozone Falls is situated along Fall Creek, which drains a short section of the Cumberland Plateau between the Crab Orchard ... The creek spills over Ozone Falls a few hundred meters south of US-70. The trailhead is located along US-70. ...
Ozone Gliders (2020). "Enzo 3 manual" (PDF). Retrieved 7 July 2020. "Ozone Enzo". "Ozone Enzo 2". "Ozone Enzo 3". Official ... The Ozone Enzo is a French single-place two-line competition paraglider that was designed by Luc Armant and produced by Ozone ... Ozone hatte zweiten Bauplan". Ozone Gliders (2020). "Enzo 3". Retrieved 7 July 2020. Mads Syndergaard (2010). Flying rags for ... Ozone's take on this was the Enzo, with the name not only being a nod to Enzo Ferrari, but also a partial anagram of the ...
Ozone at IMDb Ozone at AllMovie Ozone at Rotten Tomatoes Hamman, Cody (2020-07-21). "J.R. Bookwalter brings his SOV cult ... "OZONE (DVD) , Film Threat". 2005-04-16. Retrieved 2023-03-27. "Blu Review - Ozone (Tempe Digital)". Horror Society. 2020-07-17 ... Frank (2020-07-11). "2020 Ozone Blu-ray Review". Psychotronic Review. Retrieved 2023-03-27. "Ozone , Movie Review , Flipside ... Ozone was released on VHS in 1993 by Suburban Tempe Company and later on DVD by Tempe Entertainment. The film was completely ...
Ozone Element Ozone Enzo Ozone FLX Ozone Geo Ozone Groundhog Ozone Jomo Ozone LM4 Ozone LM5 Ozone LM6 Ozone Mac Daddy Bi Ozone ... Magnum Ozone Mag2lite Ozone Mantra Ozone Mojo Ozone Octane Ozone Peak Ozone Proton Ozone Rush Ozone Swift Ozone Swiftmax Ozone ... Ozone 6907 Ozone Addict Ozone Alpina Ozone Atom Ozone Buzz Ozone Cosmic Rider Ozone Delta ... "Ozone Paragliders > Contact > Ozone". Retrieved 7 September 2016. "Ozone Paragliders > Team > Ozone People > Mike ...
The Ozone Vibe is a French single-place paraglider that was designed by hang gliding and paragliding world champion pilot ... Reviewer Noel Bertrand described the Ozone series of gliders in a 2003 review as, "wings that are both pleasant to fly and high ... ISSN 1368-485X "Ozone Paragliders > Products > Previous Gliders > Vibe > Info". Retrieved 7 September 2016. " ... "Ozone Paragliders > Products > Previous Gliders > Vibe > Specifications". Retrieved 7 September 2016. Official ...
Ozone Magazine held its second annual Ozone Award Show on August 13, 2007 at the James L. Knight Center in downtown Miami, ... 3rd Annual Ozone Award Retrieved 5 June 2023 Official website Digital Copies of Ozone Magazine available to read at www.issuu. ... The 3rd Annual Ozone Award and TJs DJs Tastemakers Conference was held on the weekend of August 8-11, 2008 at the George R. ... The first annual Ozone Awards were held on August 6, 2006, and were hosted by Mississippi emcee David Banner and Miami emcee ...
In 1946, 26 people were registered to vote in the Ozone precinct. "Ozone". Geographic Names Information System. United States ... Ozone is a locale in Bonneville County, Idaho, United States. It is located on Bone Road in eastern Idaho. ... "Ozone (In Bonneville County, ID)". "Bone Road could become a major "highway" again". January 5, 1982. "Eastern Idaho Voters ...
... , or Ozone, was a Barbadian mobile network operator and telecommunications company founded in 2011. Ozone was one ... "Ozone Wireless Barbados Inc - Company Overview". Hoover's. "Ozone Wireless: Glassdoor". Glassdoor. Retrieved January 2, 2018. ... As of 2018 Ozone Wireless offers the following smartphones for use on its network. Apple iPhone (several models) Huawei Y5 II ... The company has deployed a 4G LTE network, providing peak data rates of up to 50 Mbit/s. Ozone, offers its customers: post and ...
The Ozone School is a historic school building at 14137 Arkansas Highway 21 in Ozone, Arkansas. It is a single-story masonry ... "NRHP nomination for Ozone School" (PDF). Arkansas Preservation. Retrieved 2016-05-22. v t e (Articles using NRISref without a ...
Ozone is the location of Ozone Falls State Natural Area, which was established in 1973 to protect Ozone Falls, a 110-foot (33 m ... Ozone is where Myles Horton began his practice as a popular educator in 1927, helping poor people in Ozone talk out their ... Fall Creek passes through the western part of Ozone before spilling over Ozone Falls and cutting a gorge that forms the ... U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Ozone, Tennessee "Ozone Falls Class I Scenic-Recreational State ...
Good ozone is 10-30 miles above Earths surface while bad ozone is at ground level. Read more about both. ... Ozone is a gas that can be good or bad. ... Ozone is a gas. It can be good or bad, depending on where it is ... Ground-Level Ozone Pollution (Environmental Protection Agency) * Ozone Air Purifiers: Can They Improve Asthma Symptoms? (Mayo ... Part of the good ozone layer is gone. Man-made chemicals have destroyed it. Without enough good ozone, people may get too much ...
Learn how ground-level ozone can harm your health - and what you can do to protect yourself. ... How can ozone affect my health?. If you have asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema, ozone can make your symptoms worse. Carefully ... When ground-level ozone levels are high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while youre outside. For example ... Ozone can affect anyone, but it bothers some people more than others. People most likely to experience health effects caused by ...
Host Steve Curwood talks with environmental journalist Dianne Dumanoski about the near miss of an ozone catastrophe and how to ... As Living on Earth airs its 1,000th program this week we take a look back at the very first news segment on ozone depletion ... How does that compare to what happened over the ozone layer? What lessons could we take from our experience with ozone and the ... MUSIC: Ozone: Various Artists "Ozone" from Space Oddities (Permanent Vacation Music/Good To Go 2008)] ...
OZONE PARAMOTOR. At Ozone, we do our best to offer the most extensive range of gliders possible. Our aim is to provide a wing ...
Smoke from major wildfires destroys the ozone layer. University of Waterloo. Journal. Science. DOI. 10.1126/science.abm5611. ... which shows it converting these ozone-regulating compounds into more reactive compounds that destroy ozone." ... The ozone shield is a part of the stratosphere layer of the Earths atmosphere that absorbs UV rays from the sun. ... Similar to the holes over polar regions, this damage is a temporary effect, and the ozone levels returned to pre-wildfire ...
Learn all about The Ozone Quartet on AllMusic. ... Explore The Ozone Quartets discography including top tracks, ...
The ozone hole over Antarctica is closing a month later than usual for the third year in a row, European scientists have noted ... The depletion of the ozone layer has been observed since the late 1970s, and the Montreal Protocol - a ban on ozone-depleting ... The ozone hole over Antarctica is closing a month later than usual for the third year in a row, according to a recent report by ... The ozone layer filters between 97% and 99% of the Suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation, allowing life to flourish on Earth. ...
Deflagration of ozone can be triggered by a spark and can occur in ozone concentrations of 10 wt% or higher. Ozone can also be ... Ozone in the ozone layer filters out sunlight wavelengths from about 200 nm UV rays to 315 nm, with ozone peak absorption at ... Low level ozone, or tropospheric ozone, is the most concerning type of ozone pollution in urban areas and is increasing in ... "Ozone Cell vs Ozone Plate - A2Z Ozone". Archived from the original on 2020-01-10. Retrieved 2020-01-10. Smith, L. I.; Greenwood ...
Here is what to know about personal air purifiers that dont emit ozone, and which ones we recommend. ... According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ionization also generates ozone, a lung irritant. Ozone can make air ... According to the manufacturer, it does not produce any ozone.. It weighs 3.5 lbs. With a noise level of 36 decibels, it sounds ... None of the products on this list produce ozone.. We read customer reviews on multiple sales sites to gauge product efficiency ...
Analyzer for measuring ozone monitor in ambient air and other background gases, for air quality control as well as for variety ... Ozone Monitor. For Your Needs in Air Quality Monitoring. The APOA-380 is an analyzer for measuring ozone in ambient air and ...
The Second Meeting of the Parties decided in Dec. II/3 with regard to halons to establish an ad hoc working group of experts to investigate, and make recommendations to the Fourth Meeting of the Parties in 1992 on the availability of substitutes for halons, the need to define essential uses of halons, methods of implementation and, if there is such a need, the identification of such uses.. ...
... the EU has set a target value and a long term objective value for ozone (O3) for the protection of vegetation. Target value: ... 06 Oct 2010 - Ozone - Target value for the protection of vegetation 30 Mar 2010 - Ozone - Target value for the protection of ... Ozone - Target value for the protection of vegetation This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make ... In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set a target value and a long term objective value for ozone (O3) for the ...
Start using ozone-media-url in your project by running `npm i ozone-media-url`. There are 6 other projects in the npm registry ... Ozone helper to build ozone media url. Latest version: 6.2.6, last published: 6 months ago. ... ozone-media-url. Helper to convert ozone id to media preview. install. $ npm install --save ozone-media-url OzoneMediaUrl. ... import { OzoneVideoUrl} from ozone-media-url const ozoneVideoUrl = new OzoneVideoUrl(video, getDefaultClient()) this.set( ...
The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. There are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events in ... a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earths atmosphere, and a much larger springtime ... Ozone depletion consists of two related events observed since the late 1970s: ... decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earths polar regions. ... Ozone cycle overview. *Observations on ozone layer depletion ...
O-Zone, amidst the great reviews the Jaguars have been getting, Id like to temper everyones expectations. Our 2008 draft also ...
... while photochemical loss is more important than surface destruction as an ozone loss mechanism. Photochemically produced ozone ... Stewart, R.W., S. Hameed, and J.P. Pinto, 1977: Photochemistry of tropospheric ozone. J. Geophys. Res.. , 82, 3134-3140, doi: ... We find that photochemical production must be supplemented by additional sources to account for observed ozone levels in clean ... article{st02400t, author={Stewart, R. W. and Hameed, S. and Pinto, J. P.}, title={Photochemistry of tropospheric ozone}, year={ ...
The Ozone Hole. Pollution. Skin Cancer. Why does the topic of ozone make the news so much? How important is the ozone in our ... Ozone in the Stratosphere About 90% of the ozone in the Earths atmosphere is found in the region called the stratosphere. This ... Ozone. Ozone is a special kind of oxygen molecule. Normal oxygen molecules (O2), the kind we need to breathe, have two oxygen ... While both oxygen and ozone together absorb 95 to 99.9% of the Suns ultraviolet radiation, only ozone effectively absorbs the ...
Download this ozone, layer, environment, plant, protection, ecology, save the planet icon in outline style. Available in PNG ... Ozone, Layer, Environment, Plant, Protection, Ecology, Save the planet icons in Outline styles ...
SABIANs HHX Complex Cymbal Set with Free 17" O-Zone Crash provides drummers with a complete set of exquisitely-crafted cymbals ... Together with the free 17" O-Zone crash, an exotic model with rivets for sizzling effects, this combination of cymbals delivers ... Free 17 O-Zone crash has sound holes for that airy, trashy response ...
Keyboard: Mechanical Size: 455*161*37mm Cable length: 1.8m Nkey Rollover: N-Keys or 6 keys Gaming mode: Yes Compatible: Windows (10, 8 & 7), Mac, Linux and Android Weight: 1300g±30g Keys: Kailh Switches Foot: Non-slip rubber feet adjustable to two heights Consumption power: 5V 250mA Usb connector Backlight: RGB Mac
Copyright ©1994-2024 by Doctor Thaddeus Ozone, all rights reserved. - - Grail copyright ©2000-2024 by Tyberius Prime, all ...
Ozone leijojen suositellut puomin ja narujen pituudet Innovative Click-In... ... Osta Ozone Bar Contact Snow V5 edullisesti ja nopeasti -kaupasta. Klikkaa ja tilaa heti tai tule myymäläämme. A ... Ozone leijojen suositellut puomin ja narujen pituudet. Valmistajan suosittelema puomi ja suositeltu narujen pituus. ... Ozone V4 puomin asennusohjeet - video-opas. Ohjevideoiden avulla pärjäät varmasti narujen vaihdoista ja erilaisista ...
Combine a far infrared sauna dome with ozone and take your routine to the next level. ... Because heat degrades ozone, we recommend the O3Elite Dual Ozone Generator or O3Arc Ozone Generator in order to get maximum ... Ozone Therapy. Ozonated Oils. Supplements. Oxygen/EWOT. Saunas & Heat Pads. Ozone Purification. Fluoride Removal. Hydrogen. ... The sauna has been modified to make it ozone-compatible and features an easy to use ozone port. ...
... Jafar Sepehri1* and Parisa Zareie Z2. 1 ... More ozone was detected in the Southeast and less in the Northeast. In this case, mountain climbers should go to the northeast ... The hardware is made of an MQ131 ozone sensor [2], a LCD, a Buzzer, two LEDs (green for safe and red for critical) and an AVR ... The increase of ozone near two units shows the increase of ionized clouds and the increase of micro thunder probability. After ...
Were going through the finest ozone generators in 2023, considerations, and precautions you must keep in mind when getting one ... How Do Ozone Generators Work?. Ozone machines or ozone generators are devices that generate ozone gas. Ozone generators work by ... Q: Can ozone generators harm you?. A: Yes, if ozone is inhaled it can seriously damage your lungs. This is why it is advised to ... A: Ozone gas can take up to 3 or 4 hours before it reverts to oxygen. However, lower levels of ozone can clear out in just two ...
Once a new ozone standard takes effect, it is difficult - if not impossible - to revert back to an older standard. This renders ... The EPA tightened the national standard on ozone to 70 parts per billion (ppb), a five-point drop from the Bush-era 2008 ... The new EPA ozone rules threaten to erase this economic progress.. Manufacturers will be required to install costly new ... According to industry experts, this new ozone standard is poised to be the "most expensive regulation in U.S. history." ...
Draeger Tube - Ozone 10/a. Order No. CH 21 001. Application Range. ...
  • The article, Wildfire smoke destroys stratospheric ozone appears in the March 18 issue of Science . (
  • There's a region of exceptionally depleted stratospheric ozone. (
  • The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet light. (
  • Stratospheric ozone is sometimes called "good" ozone because it blocks most of the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation and is thus essential for life on Earth. (
  • Stratospheric ozone-where the ozone layer is found-is important for shielding against harmful solar radiation. (
  • Causes and effects of stratospheric ozone reduction : an update , a report / prepared by the Committee on Chemistry and Physics of Ozone Depletion and the Committee on Biological Effects of Increased Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, Environmental Studies Board, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council. (
  • The hole in the stratospheric ozone is caused by freons being activated into ozone-depleting substances. (
  • Environmental conditions above Antarctica make it the worst location on earth for rapid ozone depletion. (
  • As Living on Earth airs its 1,000th program this week we take a look back at the very first news segment on ozone depletion from 1991. (
  • DUMANOSKI: One of the things that was really ironic about this was that shortly before the hole in the ozone layer appeared, the National Academy of Sciences research council had done the final of its four assessments on ozone depletion and had concluded that the problem was not as severe as we thought. (
  • In Antarctica you only have ozone depletion in the springtime when the sun is rising, and you need these special super cold clouds, polar stratospheric clouds that only occur over Antarctica. (
  • CURWOOD: So what did the world do at the time to avoid truly catastrophic ozone depletion? (
  • DUMANOSKI: Basically, when ozone depletion showed up, it showed up in a place never forecast, in a much more dramatic way, and via a chemistry that hadn't even been thought of. (
  • Ozone depletion is a critical environmental concern. (
  • In this article, we will explore ways small businesses can reduce their impact on ozone depletion. (
  • Ozone depletion increases ultraviolet (UV) light reaching the Earth's surface. (
  • Reducing the impact of small businesses on ozone depletion involves adopting practices that are friendly to the environment. (
  • The depletion of the ozone layer has been observed since the late 1970s, and the Montreal Protocol - a ban on ozone-depleting chemicals which came into effect in 1989 - has been credited with halting this decline. (
  • Health and climate change : modelling the impacts of global warming and ozone depletion / Pim Martens. (
  • They can also affect the number of ice crystals in the cloud and therefore ozone depletion. (
  • According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) , ionization also generates ozone, a lung irritant. (
  • This week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized tighter limits on ground-level ozone levels. (
  • The AQI tells you about five major air pollutants in the U.S. that are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency, including ozone and particle pollution . (
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) issues National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants , including ozone . (
  • Ambient air pollution exposures were assessed based on maternal residential addresses using monthly averages of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), PM ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide, and ozone from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitoring stations. (
  • It is present in very low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. (
  • But high in the stratosphere a thin layer of ozone screens out a lot of ultraviolet radiation from the sun, making life possible on land. (
  • The ozone shield is a part of the stratosphere layer of the Earth's atmosphere that absorbs UV rays from the sun. (
  • The Australian fires injected acidic smoke particles into the stratosphere, disrupting the chlorine, hydrogen and nitrogen chemistry that regulate ozone," said Peter Bernath, research professor in Waterloo's Department of Chemistry and lead author of this study. (
  • Similar to the holes over polar regions, this damage is a temporary effect, and the ozone levels returned to pre-wildfire levels once the smoke disappeared from the stratosphere. (
  • The majority of Earth's ozone is in the stratosphere, more than five miles above the planet's surface. (
  • Above that, at 15-50 kilometres above sea level, we have the stratosphere, which includes the ozone layer that, amongst other things, protects Earth from ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation). (
  • In the stratosphere, the aerosol particles affect the ozone, causing it to break down and making the protective layer thinner. (
  • Large ozone holes form over Antarctica because the stratosphere over the polar region is very cold in winter. (
  • Atmospheric chemists from the University of Waterloo found that smoke from the Australian wildfires of 2019 and 2020 destroyed atmospheric ozone in the Southern Hemisphere for months. (
  • After the Australian fires in 2019 and 2020, the concentration of ozone in the Southern Hemisphere fell and ozone holes formed outside the polar region. (
  • Ozone near Earth's surface is a powerful greenhouse gas that is a main component of urban pollution. (
  • Tropospheric ozone is a major oxidant that helps cleanse pollution from the atmosphere. (
  • We didn't know why ozone was so abundant in air pollution until the 1970s. (
  • This alert means that the atmospheric conditions are "expected to be favorable for producing high levels of ozone air pollution in the San Antonio area. (
  • On Ozone Action Days, officials recommend that children, the elderly and those with respiratory problems, such as asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, etc., limit spending time outdoors due to the effects of air pollution. (
  • Health effects of ozone and nitrogen oxides in an integrated assessment of air pollution : proceedings of an international workshop, Eastbourne, UK, 10-12 June 1996 / United Nations Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, European Centre for Environment and Health. (
  • L' Ozone, indicateur majeur de la pollution photochimique, en France : évaluation et gestion des risques sur la santé. (
  • The 6 pollutants that account for the large majority of air pollution worldwide and for which standards are usually specified include carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), lead (Pb) and suspended particulate matter (SPM). (
  • Ozone and particle pollution may harm the health of hundreds of thousands of Americans each year. (
  • While this makes ozone a potent respiratory hazard and pollutant near ground level, a higher concentration in the ozone layer (from two to eight ppm) is beneficial, preventing damaging UV light from reaching the Earth's surface. (
  • Good" ozone occurs naturally about 10 to 30 miles above the Earth's surface. (
  • Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet (UV) light and electrical discharges within the Earth's atmosphere. (
  • They can destroy the earth's ozone layer. (
  • The rest of Earth's ozone lies in the troposphere, the lower part of the atmosphere in contact with Earth's surface. (
  • Without enough good ozone, people may get too much ultraviolet radiation. (
  • Estimation of risk of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient red cells to ozone and nitrogen dioxide : investigator's final report / by Marie A. Amoruso. (
  • Effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on human lung proteinase inhibitors / David A. Johnson. (
  • Positive associations were observed between PPD ozone (adjusted odds ration [aOR], 1.09), PM 10 (aOR, 1.02), and PM 2.5 (aOR, 1.02), with no statistically significant association with nitrogen dioxide. (
  • Back in the 1980Â's a large hole in the ozone layer suddenly appeared over Antarctica and surprised scientists. (
  • Scientists have observed this dramatic thinning in the ozone layer beginning in the early 1980s. (
  • In the last few decades, scientists have traced an increase in the concentration of this ground-level ozone to rapid industrialization in the last century. (
  • The thing about ozone is that scientists have only been studying it in detail for a few decades," says Laurence Yeung , an assistant professor of Earth, environmental, and planetary sciences at Rice University, and the lead author of the study. (
  • Ozone occurs naturally in the sky and helps protect us from the sun's harmful rays. (
  • Had Thomas Midgely, the inventor of CFCs, made his refrigerants with bromine rather than chlorine, we could have had catastrophic ozone loss by the early 1970s in all seasons, in all parts of the earth. (
  • The ozone hole over Antarctica is closing a month later than usual for the third year in a row, according to a recent report by the EU's Copernicus Earth Observation Program. (
  • Ozone (/ˈoʊzoʊn/) (or trioxygen) is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O 3. (
  • By default, these names pay no regard to the radicality of the ozone molecule. (
  • Ozone is a molecule that contains three oxygen atoms. (
  • Had we had bromine in these refrigerants, these refrigerants could have destroyed the ozone layer anywhere and at all times. (
  • Ensure that air conditioners and refrigeration systems use ozone-friendly refrigerants. (
  • This same high oxidizing potential, however, causes ozone to damage mucous and respiratory tissues in animals, and also tissues in plants, above concentrations of about 0.1 ppm. (
  • According to the newest EPA data -updated this September-average ozone concentrations nationwide dropped by 33 percent from 1980 to 2014. (
  • Ozone levels (i.e., air concentrations) alone in scientific studies are not directly comparable to the "level" element of the NAAQS because the standard considers the level in the context of its relation to the remaining elements . (
  • However, ground-level or "bad" ozone (smog) is a biological irritant that can lead to human health problems, ecosystem damage, and crop loss. (
  • You can use the AQI to plan your daily activities to reduce exposure to ozone. (
  • This can be seen with controlled human ozone exposure studies, which often involved small numbers of people exercising quasi-continuously for a long duration at an intensity not common in the general population (and unlikely achievable by most sensitive individuals), under worst-case exposure profiles. (
  • Relating patterns and circumstances of exposure, and exposure measurements, to all elements of the NAAQS can be challenging, but if US EPA fully undertook this, it would be evident that available evidence does not indicate that proposed lower ozone standards would be more health protective than the current one. (
  • Overall, a higher risk of PPD was associated with ozone exposure during the entire pregnancy and postpartum periods and with PM exposure during the late pregnancy and postpartum periods. (
  • Agency administrator William Reilly says the US should reappraise its policy on control of ozone-destroying chemicals. (
  • The hole in the sky spawned the 1987 Montreal Protocol, an international treaty to phase out Freon and other chemicals that destroy the ozone layer. (
  • And a whole lot of people found the idea that man-made chemicals could cause this bizarre disappearance of ozone to be inconceivable, basically. (
  • CURWOOD: The ozone problem, you write in your book, actually could have been much worse if the engineers involved, the chemical engineers, had used a slightly different refrigerant, cause this was first - these chemicals were first widely used in refrigerators. (
  • Small businesses need to be aware of ozone-depleting chemicals involved in their business. (
  • Ozone is a powerful oxidant (far more so than dioxygen) and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation. (
  • This is the first large measurement of the smoke, which shows it converting these ozone-regulating compounds into more reactive compounds that destroy ozone. (
  • The Antarctic ozone hole usually opens in September before contracting in November, coinciding with springtime in the southern hemisphere. (
  • Carefully follow your asthma management plan on days when ozone levels are high. (
  • When ground-level ozone levels are high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. (
  • Think about spending more time indoors, where ozone levels are usually lower. (
  • Plan outdoor activities at times when ozone levels are lower (usually in the morning and evening). (
  • In order to estimate changes in the levels of ground-level ozone since the preindustrial era, researchers rely on computer models such as those developed by Lee Murray , an assistant professor of Earth and environmental sciences at the University of Rochester. (
  • This regulation is expected to be one of the costliest in U.S. history, even though ozone levels have been steadily declining for decades. (
  • Nevertheless, the fact that ozone levels continue to decline calls into question the need for still tighter restrictions. (
  • But instead of waiting until localities are complying with the 2008 regulation, EPA is imposing a newer, stricter standard that puts more counties out of attainment even though ozone levels are decreasing. (
  • Even though many parts of the U.S. are having difficulty meeting the current standards, ozone levels have been consistently falling. (
  • Since the incorporation of the 2008 standards, average ozone levels have declined by more than 9 percent, nationally. (
  • Ozone levels and other sources of emissions have been trending in the right direction for decades, but it's questionable how effective additional restrictions will be at forcing more improvements. (
  • Using the AQI, you can plan your run for when ozone levels will be lower, shorten your run or walk instead, or run on a treadmill indoors. (
  • When ozone levels are above the national standard, everyone should try to limit their contact with it by reducing the amount of time spent outside. (
  • Such considerations can make it difficult to compare ozone levels and results across studies and to appropriately apply them in a NAAQS evaluation. (
  • In fact, EPA's newest data on Air Quality Trends , which was updated in September and quietly released without even a press release, confirms how ozone numbers keep dropping-without additional federal regulation. (
  • For much of the second half of the 19th century and well into the 20th, ozone was considered a healthy component of the environment by naturalists and health-seekers. (
  • The earliest measurements of tropospheric ozone date back to the late 19th century, but researchers today recognize that this data can be unreliable. (
  • The paper would turn a shade of purple relative to the amount of ozone present, and researchers would compare the color to a reference sheet on a scale of 1 to 10. (
  • For example, ozone is a primary component of urban smog, which forms near ground level in sunlight-driven reactions between oxygen and pollutants from fossil fuel combustion. (
  • Ground-level ozone is one of the biggest parts of smog. (
  • Part of the good ozone layer is gone. (
  • The very first story we did back in 1991 was a brief item about the hole in the ozone layer. (
  • NUNLEY: The Bush administration is reviewing new research data that show the ozone layer over the United States is disappearing at twice the rate previously estimated. (
  • Where you had basically 50% of the ozone layer over the South Pole disappearing in a matter of weeks. (
  • A new study shows that smoke from wildfires destroys the ozone layer. (
  • They harm the ozone layer. (
  • It seeks to curtail the use of substances that harm the ozone layer. (
  • It also involves minimizing the use of substances contributing to ozone layer damage. (
  • The ozone layer filters between 97% and 99% of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation, allowing life to flourish on Earth. (
  • The International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer occurs on the 16th of September. (
  • He fears that the global increase in forest fires could have a significant impact on the ozone layer. (
  • The combination of these two factors leads to holes in the ozone layer and more UV radiation reaching us," explains Johan Friberg. (
  • Ozone Air Purifiers: Can They Improve Asthma Symptoms? (
  • Some air purifiers that rely on electrostatic charging technology produce ozone. (
  • Breathing bad ozone can be harmful. (
  • Breathing in ground-level ozone can be harmful to your health. (
  • Tropospheric ozone is sometimes called "bad" ozone because its reactivity can be harmful to plants, animals, and people. (
  • According to NASA , there's no actual 'hole' in the ozone. (
  • In appropriate contexts, ozone can be viewed as trioxidane with two hydrogen atoms removed, and as such, trioxidanylidene may be used as a systematic name, according to substitutive nomenclature. (
  • Changes in ozone amounts closely follow temperature, with colder temperatures resulting in more polar stratospheric clouds that intensify ozone destruction. (
  • As per the sanitisation protocol of this machine, the ozone cycle lasts for less than 10 minutes followed by an ozone destruction cycle that ensures post sanitisation safety as per OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) norms. (
  • Host Steve Curwood talks with environmental journalist Dianne Dumanoski about the near miss of an ozone catastrophe and how to apply lessons learned then to today's struggle to deal with climate change. (
  • While lower energy prices and advances in extracting resources from shale formations promise to bolster manufacturing, regulations like EPA's ozone limits may reverse those positive trends. (
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • These businesses must exercise caution regarding ozone-depleting substances (ODS). (
  • Author and journalist Dianne Dumanoski covered the Montreal Protocol for the Boston Globe in 1987 and says the ozone story has much to teach us today. (
  • How can ozone affect my health? (
  • The good news is there's a lot you can do to protect yourself and your family from the health effects caused by ground-level ozone. (
  • EPA has said a final decision on the new ozone health standard is expected in July 2011. (
  • But ground-level ozone can be bad for your health and the environment. (
  • And then - bam - we have this report out of left field about this dramatic loss of ozone. (
  • Naturalists working outdoors often considered the higher elevations beneficial because of their ozone content. (
  • Seaside air was considered to be healthy because of its believed ozone content. (
  • In standard conditions, ozone is a pale blue gas that condenses at cryogenic temperatures to a dark blue liquid and finally a violet-black solid. (
  • Ozone is a suite of industry-standard mastering tools to help get your music ready to release on CD or streaming services. (
  • We've all heard about the ozone hole. (
  • The delayed closure comes after 2021's ozone hole lasted until December 23, and 2020's remained open until December 28 - the longest duration on record. (
  • The area of the Antarctic ozone hole peaked in 2000, and has been slowly shrinking since. (
  • However, the "precise role" of the eruption in this year's ozone hole "is still a research question," they conceded. (
  • The most recent standards for ozone were established in 2008 at 75 parts per billion (ppb). (
  • Are the elements of the proposed ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards informed by the best available science? (
  • Ozone can affect anyone, but it bothers some people more than others. (
  • In the air quality directive (2008/EC/50), the EU has set a target value and a long term objective value for ozone (O3) for the protection of vegetation. (
  • SAN ANTONIO - Sunday, August 27, has been declared an Ozone Action Day in San Antonio by The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. (
  • Bad" ozone is at ground level. (
  • Cars were driving up ground-level ozone. (
  • the older data suggests that ground-level ozone could have increased up to 300 percent over the past century, compared to preindustrial times. (
  • In contrast, today's best computer models suggest that ground-level ozone increased by a more moderate 25 to 50 percent. (
  • Ozone can make air harder to breathe, particularly if you have a condition such as asthma . (
  • There is quite a different atmosphere [at higher elevation] with enough ozone to sustain the necessary energy [to work]", wrote naturalist Henry Henshaw, working in Hawaii. (
  • Ozone's instability with regard to more common dioxygen is such that both concentrated gas and liquid ozone may decompose explosively at elevated temperatures, physical shock, or fast warming to the boiling point. (
  • Ozone loss appears to have peaked in 2006. (