The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere. It is produced continuously by the action of solar ULTRAVIOLET RAYS on oxygen in the stratosphere. The stratospheric ozone (especially at the ozone layer) blocks much of the solar UV radiation of wavelengths of 320 nanometers or less from being transmitted to lower ATMOSPHERE of the Earth.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The motion of air currents.
The second planet in order from the sun. It has no known natural satellites. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A religion founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1866 that was organized under the official name of the Church of Christ, Scientist. It includes the practice of spiritual healing.
The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (1/1280)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Enrichment of enzyme activity on deformylation of 1-NFK-lysozyme. (2/1280)

The formamide linkage of an inactive lysozyme derivative (1-NFK-lysozyme), formed by selective ozonization of tryptophan 62 in hen egg-white lysozyme [EC] was hydrolyzed with dilute acid faster in the frozen state at about --10 degrees than at 20 degrees. On hydrolysis of 1-NFK-lysozyme the low lytic activity increased to approximately 80% of that of native lysozyme. It is suggested that the binding ability associated with kynurenine 62 in the lysozyme derivative formed by this hydrolysis may be responsible for increase in enzymatic activity.  (+info)

Airway inflammatory response to ozone in subjects with different asthma severity. (3/1280)

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ozone exposure induces a similar airway inflammatory response in subjects with different degrees of asthma severity. Two groups of asthmatic subjects were studied: seven with intermittent mild asthma not requiring regular treatment (group A); and seven with persistent mild asthma requiring regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (group B). All subjects were exposed, in a randomized cross-over design, to air or O3 (0.26 parts per million (ppm) for 2 h with intermittent exercise); subjects in group B withdrew from regular treatment 72 h before each exposure. Before the exposure, and 1 and 2 h after the beginning of the exposure they performed a pulmonary function test, and a questionnaire was completed to obtain a total symptom score (TSS). Six hours after the end of the exposure, hypertonic saline (HS) sputum induction was conducted. Sputum cell percentages, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the sputum supernatant were measured. TSS significantly increased and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) significantly decreased after O3 exposure in comparison with air exposure in group A, whereas no changes were observed in group B except for a significant decrement of FEV1 2 h after the beginning of O3 exposure. Sputum neutrophil percentage was significantly higher after O3 exposure than after air exposure in both groups (Group A: 70.2% (28-87) versus 26.6% (8.6-73.2); Group B: 62.1% (25-82.4) versus 27.9% (14.4-54)). IL-8 was higher in sputum supernatant collected 6 h after O3 exposure than after air, only in group A. No change due to O3 has been found in sputum eosinophil percentage and ECP concentration in both groups. In conclusion, the degree of airway response to a short-term exposure to ozone is different in subjects with asthma of different severity. The available data do not allow elucidation of whether this difference depends on the severity of the disease or on the regular anti-inflammatory treatment.  (+info)

Capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber-mediated protective responses in ozone inhalation in rats. (4/1280)

To assess the role of lung sensory C fibers during and after inhalation of 1 part/million ozone for 8 h, we compared breathing pattern responses and epithelial injury-inflammation-repair in rats depleted of C fibers by systemic administration of capsaicin as neonates and in vehicle-treated control animals. Capsaicin-treated rats did not develop ozone-induced rapid, shallow breathing. Capsaicin-treated rats showed more severe necrosis in the nasal cavity and greater inflammation throughout the respiratory tract than did control rats exposed to ozone. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (a marker of DNA synthesis associated with proliferation) into terminal bronchiolar epithelial cells was not significantly affected by capsaicin treatment in rats exposed to ozone. However, when normalized to the degree of epithelial necrosis present in each rat studied, there was less 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in the terminal bronchioles of capsaicin-treated rats. These observations suggest that the ozone-induced release of neuropeptides does not measurably contribute to airway inflammation but may play a role in modulating basal and reparative airway epithelial cell proliferation.  (+info)

Air pollution, pollens, and daily admissions for asthma in London 1987-92. (5/1280)

BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between daily hospital admissions for asthma and air pollution in London in 1987-92 and the possible confounding and modifying effects of airborne pollen. METHODS: For all ages together and the age groups 0-14, 15-64 and 65+ years, Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of daily asthma admissions associated with changes in ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particles (black smoke), controlling for time trends, seasonal factors, calendar effects, influenza epidemics, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation. Independent effects of individual pollutants and interactions with aeroallergens were explored using two pollutant models and models including pollen counts (grass, oak and birch). RESULTS: In all-year analyses ozone was significantly associated with admissions in the 15-64 age group (10 ppb eight hour ozone, 3.93% increase), nitrogen dioxide in the 0-14 and 65+ age groups (10 ppb 24 hour nitrogen dioxide, 1.25% and 2.96%, respectively), sulphur dioxide in the 0-14 age group (10 micrograms/m3 24 hour sulphur dioxide, 1.64%), and black smoke in the 65% age group (10 micrograms/m3 black smoke, 5.60%). Significant seasonal differences were observed for ozone in the 0-14 and 15-64 age groups, and in the 0-14 age group there were negative associations with ozone in the cool season. In general, cumulative lags of up to three days tended to show stronger and more significant effects than single day lags. In two-pollutant models these associations were most robust for ozone and least for nitrogen dioxide. There was no evidence that the associations with air pollutants were due to confounding by any of the pollens, and little evidence of an interaction between pollens and pollution except for synergism of sulphur dioxide and grass pollen in children (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles were all found to have significant associations with daily hospital admissions for asthma, but there was a lack of consistency across the age groups in the specific pollutant. These associations were not explained by confounding by airborne pollens nor was there convincing evidence that the effects of air pollutants and airborne pollens interact in causing hospital admissions for asthma.  (+info)

Effect of insurance coverage on the relationship between asthma hospitalizations and exposure to air pollution. (6/1280)

OBJECTIVE: Based on the assumption that people without health insurance have limited access to the primary care services needed to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations for asthma, the authors hypothesized that insurance is a factor in the strength of the association between hospital admissions for asthma and exposure to air pollution. They tested this hypothesis with 1991-1994 data from central Los Angeles. METHODS: The authors analyzed the effect of insurance status on the association between asthma-related hospital admissions and exposure to atmospheric particulates (PM10) and ozone (O3) using hospital discharge and air quality data for 1991-1994 for central Los Angeles. They used regression techniques with weighted moving averages (simulating distributed lag structures) to measure the effects of exposure on overall hospital admissions, admissions of uninsured patients, admissions for which MediCal (California Medicaid) was the primary payer, and admissions for which the primary payer was another government or private health insurance program. RESULTS: No associations were found between asthma admissions and O3 exposure. An estimated increase from 1991 to 1994 of 50 micrograms per cubic meter in PM10 concentrations averaged over eight days was associated with an increase of 21.0% in the number of asthma admissions. An even stronger increase--27.4%--was noted among MediCal asthma admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that low family income, as indicated by MediCal coverage, is a better predictor of asthma exacerbations associated with air pollution than lack of insurance and, by implication, a better predictor of insufficient access to primary care.  (+info)

Public health consequences of global climate change in the United States--some regions may suffer disproportionately. (7/1280)

Current risk assessments of the likely regional health impacts of global climate change (GCC) are hindered by two factors. First, dose-response relationships between weather parameters and many of the likely health effects have not been developed, and second, reliable estimates of future regional climates across the United States are still beyond the scope of current modeling efforts. Consequently, probabilistic risk estimates of most of the likely regional health impacts of GCC have such a high degree of uncertainty that their usefulness to health officials dealing with regional issues is very limited. With the numerous pressures on today's health care systems, it is understandable that the possible consequences of GCC have received scant attention from regional health care decision makers. Indeed, the consensus among this community appears to be that any increases in health effects associated with GCC will be easily handled by the current health care system. However, such a position may be naive as the potential exists that an unequal distribution of such effects could overwhelm some regions, whereas others may feel little or no impact. This review of the likely regional impacts of GCC has been structured as a semianalytical look at this issue of distributional effects. Because of the lack of dose-response information and reliable estimates of future regional climates, however, it takes a historical perspective. That is, it assumes that the quality and quantity of health risks a region faces under GCC will be directly related to its recent history of health risks from warm weather/climate-related diseases as well as to the size, characteristics, and distribution of the sensitive subpopulations currently residing within its borders. The approach is semiquantitative; however, it uses national data gathered on a regional level and as such should only be used to generate a hypothesis rather than test it. When applied to the United States, its outcome leads to the hypothesis that if indeed history repeats itself, some states or regions may be more greatly affected by GCC than others, not only because historically they are more prone to summer weather/climate-related diseases, but also because they contain a greater proportion of the sensitive subpopulations in the United States.  (+info)

Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation. (8/1280)

There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions.  (+info)

Although the effects of elevated ozone on aboveground carbon (C) assimilation are well understood, its effects on soil C fluxes are less certain. Mesocosms taken from a lowland raised bog in northern England were exposed in open-top chambers for 2 years to ambient air or ambient air plus ozone elevated for 8 h day−1 by an average of 49 ppb in summer and 10 ppb in winter. The effects of elevated ozone on methane emission and ecosystem dark respiration were measured throughout this period, along with soil and plant variables. Methane emissions were significantly reduced, by about 25%, by elevated ozone during midsummer periods of both years, but no significant effect of ozone was found during the winter periods. Dark ecosystem respiration was not significantly affected by elevated ozone. There was no evidence that effects of elevated ozone on methane emissions were mediated through changes in aboveground plant biomass or soil water dissolved organic C concentrations. Our results imply that the ...
Ozone therapy involves the administration of ozone gas into the body. This is done to help treat wounds and also in the treatment of diseases. Ozone is a gas that does not have any color and is used by doctors to treat different medical problems. This gas, once administered into the body, helps by disinfecting and treating various diseases. The most important benefit to using ozone therapy is it helps to fuel the immune system. When used in hospitals, the ozone gas is sourced from medical-grade oxygen sources. How does it work? Ozone therapy does its work by causing an interruption in the unhealthy conditions in the human body. One of the benefits it provides is that of stopping the proliferation of harmful bacteria. Ozone therapy also helps to prevent infections in the body from spreading. In fact, it has also proved to be effective in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast and protozoa. Once injected into the body, ozone gas helps to remove infected cells. When these
The main goal of the conventional periodontal therapy is to control infection and thereby curb disease progression. The mechanical removal of the oral biofilm and adjunctive use of antimicrobial agents have been the conventional methods for periodontal therapy. However, no consensus has been reached on whether conventional periodontal therapy can eliminate periodontal pathogens.1,2,3 It has been known that medical ozone therapy eliminated 260 different pathogens. Thus, applications of medical ozone may provide a potential benefit in the treatment of periodontal diseases by reducing and eradicating subgingival periodontopathogenic species in inaccessible sites.4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11. Applications of medical ozone are a new treatment modality that has been developing rapidly within various medical specialties since the 1930s. In 1933, Dr. E.A. Fish, first used ozone on a regular basis in his dental practice, and published numerous papers on the subject.4,8 Ozone (O3) is a triatomic molecule, consisting ...
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Increased UV-B through stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increased chemical activity in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone is small (though significant) compared to the ozone generated anthropogenically in areas already experiencing air pollution. Modeling and experimental studies suggest that the impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone are different at different altitudes and for different chemical regimes. As a result the increase in ozone due to stratospheric ozone depletion may be greater in polluted regions. Attributable effects on concentrations are expected only in regions where local emissions make minor contributions. The vertical distribution of NOx (NO + NO2), the emission of volatile organic compounds and the abundance of water vapor, are important influencing factors. The long-term nature of stratospheric ozone depletion means that even a small increase in tropospheric ozone ...
Ozone or O3 is a highly charged oxygen molecule with increased oxygenating properties. It has been around for over 150 years used to treat infections. wounds and multiple diseases.. With higher levels of oxygen in the tissue, bacteria and viruses and defective tissue cells are killed. The healthy cells are stimulated and multiply more rapidly.. Ozone therapies are thought to benefit patients by stimulating white blood cell production, killing viruses, improving oxygenation, helping the body to fight infections and cancers, stimulating the bodys metabolism.. In Germany, ozone therapy has been widely used since the late 1950s. It is widely used by doctors and practitioners as a treatment for a wide range of degenerative conditions including cardio-vascular disease, diabetes, liver, and kidney disease. In 1931, the Biochemist Otto Warburg was granted the Nobel Prize for discovering that anaerobic cancer cells die in oxygen. This makes ozone therapy an extremely important modality in the treatment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of chronic elevated ozone concentration on antioxidant capacity, photosynthesis and seed yield of 10 soybean cultivars. AU - Betzelberger, Amy M.. AU - Gillespie, Kelly M.. AU - Mcgrath, Justin M.. AU - Koester, Robert P.. AU - Nelson, Randall L.. AU - Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Crops losses to tropospheric ozone (O3) in the United States are estimated to cost $1-3 billion annually. This challenge is expected to increase as O3 concentrations ([O3]) rise over the next half century. This study tested the hypothesis that there is cultivar variation in the antioxidant, photosynthetic and yield response of soybean to growth at elevated [O3]. Ten cultivars of soybean were grown at elevated [O3] from germination through maturity at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment facility in 2007 and six were grown in 2008. Photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, fluorescence and antioxidant capacity were monitored during ...
In recent years, ozone therapy as an effective therapeutic method has become more developed and well known. Russia and Cuba have recognized it in their legislation; it is regulated in more than 76% of the Autonomous Regions of Spain; and in Italy four Regions have specified the criteria for practicing it, in addition to two favorable court decisions. Ozone therapy is characterized by the simplicity of its application, its great effectiveness, good tolerance, and by the virtual absence of side effects. This document, based on the latest books and scientific articles on the subject, updates the recent findings that justify, from the scientific point of view, the medical use of ozone. For many years the application of ozone in medical practice was not well accepted due to unfounded ideas about its toxicity in relation to the high concentrations used in industry. As with any healing technique, ozone therapy is dependent on the dosage. It is important to understand that in clinical practice the ...
Two different morphotypes of peas (Pisum sativum L.), the leafy form Ilgiai and the subleafy form Profi, were examined under ozone exposure. A day after exposure, adverse effects of ozone on Ilgiai morphometric features were observed, while certain processes in Profi were stimulated. After three days of exposure, the leaf area of leafy peas was reduced by 34%, while in subleafy peas it increased by 33% under the 160 μg m-3 ozone level. Chlorophyll and carotenoid content in leaves of leafy peas decreased with increasing exposition time and ozone concentration. However, a linear dependence between the content of photosynthetic pigments in leaves of subleafy peas and exposition time / ozone concentration was determined, and only the highest ozone level significantly decreased the content of those pigments. The ratio of hexoses to sucrose increased in leafy peas after one day of ozone exposure, but it tendentiously decreased as the time of exposure increased. The same trends were observed ...
Its on everyones lips, especially during the summer months when photochemical smog engulfs the worlds cities. Environmental pollution and climate change both contribute to the increasingly frequent incidences observed. While this is a major health problem in itself, there are now indications that elevated ozone levels also raise the allergen content of pollen. A team from the Medical University of Vienna and the Austrian Institute of Technology have investigated the reasons for this phenomenon. Ozone Stimulates Rye The team behind project leader Prof. Rudolf Valenta of the Centre for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology at the Medical University of Vienna cultivated two different rye cultivars under controlled environmental conditions. One group of plants was exposed to elevated ozone concentrations (79 parts per billion) for part of the time. This value is more than three times the normal ozone concentration at ground level, i.e. 22 ppb, and corresponds to the health-endangering peak ...
Long familiar in major urban areas, smog - what we experts call ground-level ozone pollution - is quickly becoming a serious problem in the rural mountain west, thanks to rapid expansion in oil and gas development. Smog can cause serious health impacts like aggravated asthma, chronic bronchitis, heart attacks, and even premature death. In areas like the Upper Green River Basin in Wyoming, smog levels have sometimes rivaled those in Los Angeles.. Now, the Environmental Protection Agency and several western states are putting the pieces in place to fix this problem: EPA through proposed revisions to the health-based ozone standard that will better protect people from pollution, and states like Wyoming and Colorado through strong policies that are helping to reduce the sources of ozone pollution in the oil and gas industry.. In official public comments filed this week with EPA, EDF and a broad coalition of western environmental and conservation groups supported a more protective ozone standard ...
0029] A method for keeping ozone of high concentration while turning on an electrolysis-type ozone water device (as shown in FIGS. 1, 1-1, 2, and 5) utilizes an ozone generator (1) connected to a pure water tank (2) via a pipe (4) and another pipe (4-1). A top side between the pure ware tank (2) and an ozone gas-water storage and mixing tank (3) is connected by the pipe (5). The ozone gas-water storage and mixing tank (3) includes a tap water input pipe (6) disposed at a top end thereof. The ozone gas-water storage and mixing tank (3) further includes the ozone gas delivery pipe (7) (or an ozone water delivery pipe (7)) disposed at a lower end thereof. The pipe (5), the tap water input pipe (6), and the ozone gas delivery pipe (7) are respectively installed with the controlling valve for triggering the ozone generator. The DC power supply (8) provides electricity for the ozone generator and the controlling valve. When the ozone generator (1) is turned on for generating ozone, the ozone is stored ...
Skin aging can be inhibited, and skin structure can be restored through neutralization of the above-mentioned pathological processes thereby eliminating the reason, but not only the consequence - formation of wrinkles. Exactly this is the target of ozone therapy. Ozone is a substance created by the nature, produces a complex, integral effect on the human body. For treatment of problem skin and wrinkles it is recommended to use the methods of local and systemic ozone therapy: by local route - subcutaneous ozone injections and ozonized olive oil in the form of face packs and for massage; by systemic route - intravenous drop-by-drop infusions (drips) of ozonated solutions, major and minor autohaemotherapy with ozone, rectal ozone insufflations. The approach to treatment and choice of methods are strictly individual for each patient ...
Ozone is a natural gas of energetically charged oxygen atoms that has a distinctive odor and properties.. Ozone therapy is a medical therapy that a mixture of oxygen and ozone which is called Medical Ozone.. Ozone therapy can improve well-being and delay the negative effects of aging.. A Medical Ozone Generator produces Ozone from pure oxygen passing through a high voltage plasma discharge.. Ozone is:. ...
Therapeutic effect depends on the concentration of the ozone system stability, precision control, and effective treatment for this is due to three oxygen concentrations very narrow window. For different people require different concentrations. High concentration, harmful to the human body, low concentration treatment has no effect. Hansler immune ozone therapy combined with unique adjuvant therapy system, individualized set of immune ozone therapy programmes. In the course of treatment, preparation to monitor in real time, control of ozone concentration and precise to 1ug/ml and guidance system with a stable, reliable treatment. Hansler immune ozone technology, hailed as the worlds safest means of therapy ...
For More Info - Enquiry before Buying: The global Ozone Therapy market has been analyzed in technical detail in this report and data has been gathered from the market leaders across the value chain. The report sheds light on the main product portfolios, geographical segments, key applications, and the competitive landscape of the global Ozone Therapy market that have been mentioned in the study. An estimated volume revenue growth with respect to global market for Ozone Therapy over the forthcoming years has been mentioned in detail.. KEY BENEFITS:. The in-depth analysis provides market perspicacity with deference to segments predicated on components, end-users and geographies.. Detailed analysis of the top factors impacting the magnification of the market predicated on the current market scenario and projected market trends.. SWOT analysis and recent developments of key players are included in the report so that companies can understand the competitive scenario of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age-dependent increase in α-tocopherol and phytosterols in maize leaves exposed to elevated ozone pollution. AU - Wedow, Jessica M.. AU - Burroughs, Charles H.. AU - Rios Acosta, Lorena. AU - Leakey, Andrew D.B.. AU - Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by a grant from the NSF Plant Genome Research Program (PGR‐1238030). We thank Lauren McIntyre and Pat Brown for help with the experimental field design, Kannan Puthuval, Brad Dalsing, and Chad Lance for management of the FACE rings and fumigation, and Craig Yendrek, Chris Montes, Nicole Choquette, Taylor Pederson, Pauline Lemonnier, Crystal Sorgini, Alvaro Sanz‐Saez, John Regan, Ben Thompson, Matthew Kendzior, and Mark Lewis for help with sampling. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Mention of trade names or commercial products ...
Multivariate data analysis methods were applied to study the geographical and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone in Catalonia (North-East Spain). Ozone data were collected during the period 2000-2004 in 41 sampling stations. Data analysis by multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) allowed the recognition of three sub-regions within Catalonia according to their ozone variation patterns. Representation of loadings by means of geographical information systems (GIS) allowed a better visualisation of these areas. Daily, weekly and annual ozone profiles were determined for each sub-region. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied within each sub-region to unravel the relationship between ozone variation and some other parameters, such as atmospheric pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO and particulate matter), as well as meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, pressure, precipitation and wind speed ...
Abstract In this work, an in-situ ozone treatment is carried out to improve the interface thermal stability of HfO2/Al2O3 gate stack on germanium (Ge) substrate. The micrometer scale level of HfO2/Al2O3 gate stack on Ge is studied using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a conductive tip. The initial results indicate that comparing with a non in-situ ozone treated sample, the interface thermal stability of the sample with an in-situ ozone treatment can be substantially improved after annealing. As a result, void-free surface, low conductive spots, low leakage current density, and relative high breakdown voltage high-κ/Ge are obtained. A detailed analysis is performed to confirm the origins of the changes. All results indicate that in-situ ozone treatment is a promising method to improve the interface properties of Ge-based three-dimensional (3D) devices in future technology nodes.. ...
The potential mechanisms of action of ozone therapy are reviewed in this paper. The therapeutic efficacy of ozone therapy may be partly due the controlled and moderate oxidative stress produced by the reactions of ozone with several biological components. The line between effectiveness and toxicity of ozone may be dependent on the strength of the oxidative stress. As with exercise, it is well known that moderate exercise is good for health, whereas excessive exercise is not. Severe oxidative stress activates nuclear transcriptional factor kappa B (NFκB), resulting in an inflammatory response and tissue injury via the production of COX2, PGE2, and cytokines. However, moderate oxidative stress activates another nuclear transcriptional factor, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 then induces the transcription of antioxidant response elements (ARE). Transcription of ARE results in the production of numerous antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, GPx, glutathione-s-transferase(GSTr),
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Components of the Oxidizing Solution Exposure Oxidizing Time Solution Component Amount (minutes) A O3 and DI H2O 40 ppm O3 in DI H2O 64 (control) B O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O 32 O3, DI H2O, and HF 10 ppm O3 and 100:1 HF in DI H2Oa O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O O3, DI H2O, and HF 10 ppm O3 and 100:1 HF in DI H2Oa C O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O 32 O3, DI H2O, and 10 ppm O3 and 1% NH4OH NH4OH in DI H2Od O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O O3, DI H2O, and 10 ppm O3 and 1% NH4OH NH4OH in DI H2Od D O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O 16 O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O O3, DI H2O, HF, and 10 ppm O3, 100:1 HF, HCl and 1 wt % HCl in DI H20a,c O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O O3, DI H2O, HF, and 10 ppm O3, 100:1 HF, HCl and 1 wt % HCl in DI H2Oa,c E O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O 16 DI H2O HF 500:1 HFb DI H2O O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O F O3 and DI H2O 10 ppm O3 in DI H2O 32 O3, DI H2O, and HCl 10 ppm O3 and 5 wt % HCl in DI ...
AMHERST, Mass. - A new study assessing the influence of species diversity of canopy trees on the amount of ozone precursors a forest emits suggests that atmospheric chemistry models in use now may underestimate the importance of tree species mix and size to ozone pollution, says lead author Alexander Bryan, a postdoctoral fellow in the Northeast Climate Science Center at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.. Details appear in an early online edition of the journal, Atmospheric Environment. As Bryan explains, Ozone pollution models do really well at predicting air quality in urban areas because thats where the problem started. Our atmospheric chemistry models have all been tested and optimized for urban air quality studies. But when we try to put those same models to the test in the forest regime without cars and factories, the models break down.. Current models usually represent the forest as a single dominant tree species or a blend of a few, so they may not capture the right mix of ...
Footnote: Ground-level ozone is formed from pollutants emitted from cars, power plants, and other sources. The national ambient air quality standard for ozone is 0.070 parts per million (ppm); concentrations above 0.070 ppm are considered unhealthy, especially for sensitive groups such as children, asthmatics, and the elderly. Ozone concentrations are measured and averaged over 8-hour testing periods; then, the number of days per year exceeding the standard is calculated. For counties with more than one monitoring site, data are reported for sites recording the most days above 0.070 ppm. Data are limited because (i) monitoring stations are usually in urban areas, and (ii) ozone samples are taken every three days or during times of the year when air pollution is very high. In addition, not all counties are monitored, and data are only provided for counties with monitors that meet completeness criteria. State-level data are averaged from county-level data and should be treated with caution. N/A ...
Wastewater ozone treatment is an advanced form of wastewater treatment. It uses the highly reactive properties of ozone, combined with biological and other impurities to render them harmless or converted into matter that can be easily removed and treated further. Questions have been raised about the high energy requirement needed to convert oxygen into ozone, but the advantages of no residue and odor have created an effective lobby for its continued use for wastewater treatment. What is ozone, primary treatment of wastewater and wastewater ozone treatment Is a form of advanced wastewater treatment are the topics dealt with here.
Effect of ozone exposure on prostacyclin synthesis in lung.: The effect of ozone exposure on prostacyclin (PGI2) synthesis in the rat lung was studied. Male Wis
Total of 189 patients with compensated chronic hepatitis B will be divided equally and randomly into three arms. Patients in arm I and II treated with medical ozone therapy with different medical ozone generators, one was made in Tianyi medical instruments limited company and the other in Germany. Sixty-three patients of arm III treated with Diammonium glycyrrhizinate Capsules, common used liver protective herb drug. The term of therapy is 12 weeks. Virology response, biochemistry response and hepatitis B viral serological response will be studied at the end of 12 weeks treatment ...
Ozone therapy for Lyme Disease Ozone Therapy is the use of ozone gas (03), which is a molecule that contains 3 oxygen atoms to help alleviate or treat symptoms…
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Yes, Ozone is a gas and it may be a pollutant. When the gas is produced in car exhaust, or by a photo copier, it is corrosive and may damage your lungs. Medical Ozone is very different from ozone as pollution. Medical Ozone is energized oxygen, produced from pure medical grade oxygen in medical ozone generators. Medical Ozone and used in specific therapies to balance our immune systems to fight infections and to stimulate joint regenerative healing. ...
Ozone is probably one of the most miraculous healing therapies available on our planet at this time. Through its oxygenating power, it successfully treats and cures a wide range of serious degenerative conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, liver, and kidney disease. More Than Hot Air Ozone is very potent electrified or energized oxygen (O3). Oxygen is more essential to life than food and water. Without it, we would die in minutes but in big cities the levels in the air are decreasing, causing widespread ill health. Oxygen is carried to every part of the body by the red blood cells and is essential for the functioning of every cell in the body, as well as stimulating a healthy immune system. Ozone also forms a protective layer around the earth; but some scientists point to the danger of high ozone readings as the cause of respiratory problems, so many are prejudiced, dismissive, and simply refuse to look into it. Yet ozone therapy has been in use since the 1800s; and in ...
Autohemotherapy - also known as Ozone IV Treatment or Ozone Therapy - is a procedure in which a pint to a quart of blood is drawn into a closed sterile glass device specifically made for this therapy. Medical grade ozone is added directly to the blood before being returned to the body in a 30-minute reinfusion process.. Autohemotherapy or Ozone IV Treatment has proven safe and effective in more than a million treatments in Europe over the past several decades. A profoundly beneficial medical therapy, it is used by medical doctors in the treatment of almost all diseases and metabolic disorders.. ...
Surface ozone records from ten polar research stations were investigated for the dependencies of ozone on radiative processes, snow-photochemisty, and synoptic and stratospheric transport. A total of 146 annual data records for the Arctic sites Barrow, Alaska; Summit, Greenland; Alert, Canada; Zeppelinfjellet, Norway; and the Antarctic stations Halley, McMurdo, Neumayer, Sanae, Syowa, and South Pole were analyzed. Mean ozone at the Northern Hemisphere (NH) stations (excluding Summit) is 5 ppbv higher than in Antarctica. Statistical analysis yielded best estimates for the projected year 2005 median annual ozone mixing ratios, which for the Arctic stations were 33.5 ppbv at Alert, 28.6 ppbv at Barrow, 46.3 ppbv ppb at Summit and 33.7 ppbv at Zeppelinfjellet. For the Antarctic stations the corresponding ozone mixing ratios were 21.6 ppbv at Halley, 27.0 ppbv at McMurdo, 24.9 ppbv at Neumayer, 27.2 ppbv at Sanae, 29.4 ppbv at South Pole, and 25.8 ppbv at Syowa. At both Summit (3212 m asl) and South ...
Ozone strengthens your immune system - Ozone is a potent regulator of the immune system. When the immune system is overactive (as in auto-immune disease), ozone will calm it down. Conversely, when the immune system is under-active as in chronic infections, ozone will stimulate it. This unique ability of ozone stems from its activation of immune related messenger molecules, so called cytokines, like gamma interferon, interleukin-2, colony stimulating factor, and TNF-alpha, to name just a few.. Ozone kills bacteria and viruses on contact - Ozone interferes with the metabolism of bacterium-cells, most likely through inhibiting and blocking the operation of the enzymatic control system. A sufficient amount of ozone breaks through the cell membrane, and this leads to the destruction of the bacteria. Unlike bacteria, viruses multiply only within the host cell. They transform protein of the host cell into proteins of their own. Ozone destroys viruses by diffusing through the protein coat into the ...
Ozone strengthens your immune system - Ozone is a potent regulator of the immune system. When the immune system is overactive (as in auto-immune disease), ozone will calm it down. Conversely, when the immune system is under-active as in chronic infections, ozone will stimulate it. This unique ability of ozone stems from its activation of immune related messenger molecules, so called cytokines, like gamma interferon, interleukin-2, colony stimulating factor, and TNF-alpha, to name just a few.. Ozone kills bacteria and viruses on contact - Ozone interferes with the metabolism of bacterium-cells, most likely through inhibiting and blocking the operation of the enzymatic control system. A sufficient amount of ozone breaks through the cell membrane, and this leads to the destruction of the bacteria. Unlike bacteria, viruses multiply only within the host cell. They transform protein of the host cell into proteins of their own. Ozone destroys viruses by diffusing through the protein coat into the ... About Us: The only clinic of its kind, Envita offers an extensive array of advanced natural treatments from all over the world under one roof. We combine these treatment options with the best of conventional medicine to offer our patients comprehensive and complete treatment programs. By bridging the best of whats available in both natural and conventional medicine, we provide a cutting-edge approach to care that gives our patients the advantage.. Because we offer a broad range of treatments, our doctors come from different disciplinary backgrounds and work as a team, which ensures that our patients receive comprehensive and elite medical diagnosis and care. The diversity of our doctors education and training ensures that no stone is left unturned when it comes to patient care.. We treat a wide variety of conditions, and we have several focus areas, including Cancer, Lyme Disease, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Heart Disease, Diabetes, Infectious, Autoimmune, ...
Ozone is a gas that is present naturally in the atmosphere. Chemical formula of the ozone is O3 because three oxygen atoms are present in an ozone molecule .On the basis of presence of Ozone, the atmosphere is divided into two regions, troposphere and stratosphere. The troposphere is the closest region from the earth (10- 16 kilometers from the earth surface) and about 10% of the atmospheric ozone is present in this zone. Similarly the stratosphere is 50 kilometers altitude and about 90 % of the ozone is present in this region. Ozone was firstly produced in the laboratory by the European researcher C. F. Schonbein in 1839. Ozone was firstly used commercially in 1907 in municipal water supply treatment in Nice and in 1910 in St. Petersburg the general ozone generation. In order to produce ozone molecule, firstly we split the diatomic oxygen. The resulting free radical oxygen reacts with diatomic oxygen to form the tri-atomic ozone molecule. Nevertheless, in order to break the bond between two ...
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Air pollution by ozone causes airway irritation and inflammation, representing a major health issue. Ozone is highly reactive-eliciting rapid and dose-dependent disruption of the respiratory barrier with acute desquamation and necrosis of epithelial cells, and inducing inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. Chronic ozone exposure leads to rarefication of alveolar septae with emphysema and fibrosis, and chronic lung inflammation mimicking changes associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a critical effector in ozone-induced inflammation, systemic metabolic and neural hyperreactivity and cell death. In addition, it is now clearly recognized that a strong innate immune response to ozone may contribute to ozone-induced pathology and and alteration of the lungs response to infection.In this Research Topic, we aim to review ozone-induced respiratory pathology and disease based on (i) human exposure data and epidemiological evidence; (ii) on whole animal
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Why should we worry about ozone?. Ozone is an extremely harmful gas -- particularly for those involved in outdoor activities. Just a few hours of exposure to it can trigger serious health problems, especially among those who are already suffering from respiratory and asthmatic problems. Ozone worsens symptoms of asthma, leads to lung function impairment and damages lung tissues. Chest pain, coughing, nausea, headaches and chest congestion are common symptoms. It can even worsen heart disease, bronchitis and emphysema. It increases emergency hospital visits and admissions related to respiratory diseases.. Scientists inform that ozone is a powerful oxidiser, which means it can damage cells in a process akin to rusting. Children and the elderly are at special risk. International studies have also found a strong association between ozone and daily premature death counts; deaths related to ozone exposure are more likely among people with pre-existing diseases. Ozone that gets created in the polluted ...
The answer to this is not known. Daily experimental ozone exposure does affect the post-natal development of the respiratory tract in nonhuman primates. Some epidemiological studies suggest that young adults raised in areas of higher air pollution have a greater degree of airway obstruction than similar adults raised in areas of lower air pollution. Also, there is some evidence that long-term ozone exposure may increase the risk of developing new asthma, particularly in males. On the other hand, because there are many factors (genetic and environmental) that may interact to cause asthma, long-term ozone exposure alone does not appear to account for a large part of the asthma or other respiratory disease in the population living in some cities of the United States with high ozone levels.. Top of Page. 6. Should I advise my healthy patients without asthma to reduce exposure when air quality is unhealthy even if they do not experience any acute symptoms? ...
Ozone therapy is a beneficial therapy that helps to restore and oxygenate the body. It can help to help purify the body and remove toxins while promoting health and healing. After an ozone therapy treatment, it is important to take the proper after care steps to ensure maximum benefit of the therapy. Hydration A therapy session is actually a very [... ...
Ozone, a common outdoor air pollutant is a highly reactive gas and a major component of smog. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone of 0.12 parts per million [ppm] that should not be exceeded for more than one hour, once per year. This standard is based largely on scientific data documenting the effects of short-term exposure on lung function in humans. The standard is currently being reevaluated by the EPA. Because ozone can damage cells, prolonged or repeated exposures may be a risk factor for lung cancer. To assess this issue, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted an animal bioassay to evaluate ozones carcinogenicity in rodents. Another public health concern is that prolonged exposure to ozone may damage the cells that line the airways, leading to functional changes in the components of the respiratory tract.. The nose is the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens, dusts, and irritant gases; thus, changes ...
We examine the variation of stratospheric ozone over northern Finland using ozonesonde observations from 1845 stratospheric balloon flights launched between 1989 and 2015 from near Sodankylä. The annual variation of the ozone partial pressure is examined and seasonal variations are explored and quantified. Direct links between the measured ozone partial pressure and common solar-wind parameters are also examined. A superposed-epoch analysis of the observations based on 191 solar proton events (SPEs) reveals a clear drop in the ozone partial pressure that commences following SPE-arrival at Earth. This analysis shows a reduction in stratospheric ozone in the winter/early-spring months (when the polar vortex is active over northern Finland), in contrast to summer/early-autumn months where no decrease is detected. By subtracting the natural seasonal variations in ozone partial pressure the SPE-driven reduction in ozone between 16 km and 24 km altitude is quantified. Analysis indicates that the ...
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implemented the 1-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone in 1990. Under this standard, the ozone threshold value was 125 parts per billion (ppb), measured as one-hour average concentration. An area met this ozone NAAQS if there were no more than three exceedances at any one monitor in the region in a three-year period.. Four counties in the North Central Texas (NCT) region were designated as nonattainment for the 1-hour ozone NAAQS in 1991. Those counties were Collin, Dallas, Denton, and Tarrant. On June 15, 2005, the 1-hour ozone NAAQS was revoked and replaced by the 8-hour ozone NAAQS. (see 1997 Ozone NAAQS).. On October 31, 2006, the region demonstrated attainment of the 1-hour ozone NAAQS , although it continues to be monitored due to EPAs anti-backsliding requirements. On October 16, 2008, the EPA issued a determination of attainment for the four one-hour nonattainment counties in NCT. ...
The phytotoxicity of ozone to plants is conditioned by a number of environmental factors, including the availability of soil water. These experiments were conducted to determine the interactive effects of plant water stress and ozone on the productivity(biomass) and physiology (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance) of soybean (Glycine max[L.] merr. cv Davis) plants under controlled laboratory conditions. Two similar experiments were designed to examine plant response to two possible ozone - water stress interactions. The first experiment examined the influence of water stress in preconditioning plants to ozone exposure. Plants were maintained in a greenhouse under water-stressed (via soil drying) or non-stressed conditions for two weeks, followed by 8 hour daily exposures to 0, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 ppm ozone in controlled gas exchange chambers. Results indicated no consistent patterns in plant physiological response to ozone over two weeks of ozone exposures. In terms of foliar injury, ...
Environmental ozone can rapidly degrade cyanine 5 (Cy5), a fluorescent dye commonly used in microarray gene expression studies. Cyanine 3 (Cy3) is much less affected by atmospheric ozone. Degradation of the Cy5 signal relative to the Cy3 signal in 2-color microarrays will adversely reduce the Cy5/Cy3 ratio resulting in unreliable microarray data. Ozone in central Arkansas typically ranges between ~22 ppb to ~46 ppb and can be as high as 60-100 ppb depending upon season, meteorological conditions, and time of day. These levels of ozone are common in many areas of the country during the summer. A carbon filter was installed in the laboratory air handling system to reduce ozone levels in the microarray laboratory. In addition, the airflow was balanced to prevent non-filtered air from entering the laboratory. These modifications reduced the ozone within the microarray laboratory to ~2-4 ppb. Data presented here document reductions in Cy5 signal on both in-house produced microarrays and commercial
The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were discovered by the British physicist Sidney Chapman in 1930. Ozone in the Earths stratosphere is created by ultraviolet light striking oxygen molecules containing two oxygen atoms (O2), splitting them into individual oxygen atoms (atomic oxygen); the atomic oxygen then combines with unbroken O2 to create ozone, O3. The ozone molecule is also unstable (although, in the stratosphere, long-lived) and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits into a molecule of O2 and an atom of atomic oxygen, a continuing process called the ozone-oxygen cycle, thus creating an ozone layer in the stratosphere, the region from about 10 to 50 kilometres (33,000 to 160,000 ft) above Earths surface. About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. Ozone concentrations are greatest between about 20 and 40 kilometres (12 and 25 mi), where they range from about 2 to 8 parts per million. If all of the ozone were compressed to ...
We have evaluated tropospheric ozone enhancement in air dominated by biomass burning emissions at high latitudes (, 50° N) in July 2008, using 10 global chemical transport model simulations from the POLMIP multi-model comparison exercise. In model air masses dominated by fire emissions, ΔO3/ΔCO values ranged between 0.039 and 0.196 ppbv ppbv−1 (mean: 0.113 ppbv ppbv−1) in freshly fire-influenced air, and between 0.140 and 0.261 ppbv ppbv−1 (mean: 0.193 ppbv) in more aged fire-influenced air. These values are in broad agreement with the range of observational estimates from the literature. Model ΔPAN/ΔCO enhancement ratios show distinct groupings according to the meteorological data used to drive the models. ECMWF-forced models produce larger ΔPAN/ΔCO values (4.47 to 7.00 pptv ppbv−1) than GEOS5-forced models (1.87 to 3.28 pptv ppbv−1), which we show is likely linked to differences in efficiency of vertical transport during poleward export from mid-latitude source regions. ...
Ions versus ozone[edit]. Ionisers are distinct from ozone generators, although both devices operate in a similar way. Ionisers ... A study shows that the ozone generated can exceed guidelines in small, non ventilated areas.[10] One study showed that ozone ... Even the best ionisers will also produce a small amount of ozone-triatomic oxygen, O3-which is unwanted. Ozone generators are ... and has taken action against businesses that violate this regulation by offering therapeutic ozone generators or ozone therapy. ...
Ozone can degrade rubber parts. Many elastomers are sensitive to ozone cracking. Exposure to ozone creates deep penetrative ... Fires from cracked fuel lines have been a problem on vehicles, especially in the engine compartments where ozone can be ... Preventive measures include adding anti-ozonants to the rubber mix, or using an ozone-resistant elastomer. ... A static discharge in the presence of air or oxygen can create ozone. ...
Role in ground-level ozone formation[edit]. Main article: Tropospheric ozone. Carbon monoxide is, along with aldehydes, part of ... Although the creation of NO2 is the critical step leading to low level ozone formation, it also increases this ozone in another ... 1989). Global climate change linkages: acid rain, air quality, and stratospheric ozone. Springer. p. 106. ISBN 0-444-01515-9.. ... Ozone and other photochemical oxidants. National Academies. 1977. p. 23. ISBN 0-309-02531-1.. ...
Reduction in ozone and particulate matter[edit]. The reduction in ozone and other particulate matter can benefit human health.[ ... 38] Reducing these particulates and ozone gases could reduce mortality rates in urban areas along with increase the health of ...
Ozone disinfection. Ozone is an unstable molecule which readily gives up one atom of oxygen providing a powerful oxidizing ... Ozone is made by passing oxygen through ultraviolet light or a "cold" electrical discharge. To use ozone as a disinfectant, it ... Another advantage of ozone is that it leaves no residual disinfectant in the water. Ozone has been used in drinking water ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has accepted ozone as being safe; and it is applied as an anti-microbiological agent for ...
Ozone[edit]. Main article: Ozone. Triatomic oxygen (ozone, O3), is a very reactive allotrope of oxygen that is destructive to ... see ozone layer).[10] Ozone is formed near the Earth's surface by the photochemical disintegration of nitrogen dioxide from the ... Ozone is a pale blue gas condensable to a dark blue liquid. It is formed whenever air is subjected to an electrical discharge, ... Ozone is thermodynamically unstable toward the more common dioxygen form, and is formed by reaction of O2 with atomic oxygen ...
Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment[edit]. The objective of the Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment (SOLSE) is to ... This will be performed using Charged Coupled Device (CCD) technology to eliminate moving parts in a simpler, low cost, ozone ... Earth viewing observations will enable SOLSE to correlate the data with other nadir viewing, ozone instruments. ... SOLSE is intended to perform ozone distribution that a nadir instrument can achieve. ...
However, some ozone escapes the filtering process in commercial printers, and ozone filters are not used at all in most smaller ... Ozone hazards[edit]. As a normal part of the printing process, the high voltages inside the printer can produce a corona ... these gases can build up to levels at which the odor of ozone or irritation may be noticed. A potential for creating a health ... discharge that generates a small amount of ionized oxygen and nitrogen, which react to form ozone and nitrogen oxides. In ...
Ozone layer[edit]. On 16 September 1987 the United Nations General Assembly signed the Montreal Protocol to address the ... From the big hole in Earth's ozone layer to over-fishing to the uncertainties of climate change, the world is confronted by ... implementation of Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer in some countries with "economies in transition ... Donations are used for projects covering biodiversity, climate change, international waters, destruction of the ozone layer, ...
For ozone (O3) which is also a bent molecule, the bond dipole moments are not zero even though the O−O bonds are between ... This agrees with the Lewis structures for the resonance forms of ozone which show a positive charge on the central oxygen atom ...
Ozone (O3) is now used extensively for sanitizing in wineries due to its efficacy, and because it does not affect the wine or ... Use of ozone for winery and environmental sanitation, Practical Winery & Vineyard Journal. ...
"Ozone. Retrieved 23 March 2017.. *^ Steed, Mike. "2010 US Paragliding Injury Summary". The United States Hang Gliding and ... "Ozone Paragliders , InfoZone , Tipps und Ratschläge".. *^ "PRODUCTS THE ANTI-G :: INFO". ... Gain of height - 5,854 m (19,206 ft): Antoine Girard (France); Aconcagua (Argentina); 15 February 2019, flying an Ozone LM6[41] ... both flying an Ozone Enzo 2 with Samuel Nascimento (Brazil) flying a Gin Boomerang 10; Tacima (Brazil) - Paraíba (Brazil) - 13 ...
Ozone Rupestris speckle Physiological disorder Stem necrosis (water berry, grape peduncle necrosis) Physiological disorder ...
Halocarbons have an indirect effect because they destroy stratospheric ozone. Finally, hydrogen can lead to ozone production ... Ozone. O. 3. 2-8(B). 3-7% notes:. (A) Water vapor strongly varies locally[29]. (B) The concentration in stratosphere. About 90 ... contribution to ozone depletion rather than by their contribution to global warming. Note that ozone depletion has only a minor ... Halocarbons are dissociated by UV light releasing Cl· and F· as free radicals in the stratosphere with harmful effects on ozone ...
Aerosol, cloud water vapor, ozone MxD10A1 MxD10A2 - - - - 500 m SIN Terra, Aqua Snow cover ...
Ozone Gas O3 143 Phosphorus White phosphorus Solid P4 0 ...
"Ozone Information.. *^ "SAGE Journals: Your gateway to world-class journal research". International Journal of Toxicology. 20 ( ... Ozone (O. 3). While not properly a peroxide, its mechanism of action is similar. It is used in the manufacture of paper ...
CFCs have been proven to damage the ozone layer and caused the ozone hole. Thus, in 1996, CFCs were banned directly as a result ... As aforementioned, products packaged in aerosol cans currently contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which damages the ozone ... "Ozone Layer". Our World in Data.. *^ a b Gilbert, P. A.; DeJong, A. L. (13-15 September 1977). "The use of phosphate in ... which called for action to reduce and eliminate ozone-depleting substances.[13] Following the ban of CFCs, aerosols are now ...
Deleted: 'Name' ('Ozone' -, '', SET 'Ozone'). *05:07:34 (2, 5, 5) (EDIT) User: (contribs, talk) edited Ozone (diff ... Changed: 'Name' ('' -, 'Ozone', SET 'Ozone'). *05:08:40 (2, 4, 5) (EDIT) User:The High Fin Sperm Whale (contribs, talk) edited ... 05:07:35 (2, 5, 5) (EDIT) User: (contribs, talk) edited Ozone (diff, hist). Deleted: 'ImageFileL2' ('Ozone-CRC-MW- ... 05:07:34 (2, 5, 5) (EDIT) User: (contribs, talk) edited Ozone (diff, hist). Deleted: 'ImageFileR1' ('Ozone-1,3- ...
In the UK, the Ozone Regulations[62] came into force in 2000 and banned the use of ozone depleting HCFC refrigerants such as ... These chlorine radicals catalyze the breakdown of ozone into diatomic oxygen, depleting the ozone layer that shields the ... Benedick, Richard Elliot Ozone Diplomacy Cambridge, MA: Harvard University 1991. *^ a b "Happy birthday, Greenfreeze!". ... "Ozone Secretariat". United Nations Environment Programme. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2015.. ...
Ozone. Hydrazine. Hydrogen disulfide. Dioxygen difluoride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ... Hydrogen peroxide reacts with acetone to form acetone peroxide and with ozone to form trioxidane. Hydrogen peroxide forms ... This makes it similar to other oxygen-based therapies, such as ozone therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. ...
by triatomic oxygen (ozone): ozone therapy. *by fluoride: fluoride therapy. *by other gases: medical gas therapy ...
"Ozone Information.. *^ Herman Harry Szmant (1989). Organic building blocks of the chemical industry. John Wiley and Sons. p. ... Peracetic acid and ozone are used in the manufacture of paper products, especially newsprint and white Kraft paper.[25] In the ...
Ozone - O3. P[edit]. Pd[edit]. *Palladium(II) chloride - PdCl2 ...
Use of Ozone Depleting Substances in Laboratories. TemaNord 516/2003 Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine ... Ozone layer impact. Irritant to the upper respiratory tract. Causes severe irritation and swelling to eyes. ... The Montreal Protocol targeted 1,1,1-trichloroethane as one of those compounds responsible for ozone depletion and banned its ... It is regulated by the Montreal Protocol as an ozone-depleting substance and its use is being rapidly phased out. ...
The ozone hole - J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner and J. D. Shanklin (1985). "Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal ...
Meulemans, C. C. E. (1987-09-01). "The Basic Principles of UV-Disinfection of Water". Ozone: Science & Engineering. 9 (4): 299- ...
Ozone pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Pantazone-D. 10 mg domperidone and 40 mg pantoprazole ...
1995: Recipient of the Global Ozone Award for "Outstanding Contribution for the Protection of the Ozone Layer" by United ... 24 Will commercial supersonic aircraft damage the ozone layer?".. *^ "Scientific Interest of Prof. Dr. Paul J. Crutzen". Mpch- ... "his article is from the Ozone Depletion FAQ, by Robert Parson with numerous contributions by others. ... Thus human activity could affect the stratospheric ozone layer. In the following year, Crutzen and (independently) Harold ...
"Basic Information about Ozone , US EPA". US EPA. Retrieved 2018-01-23.. ... Some VOCs, such as styrene and limonene, can react with nitrogen oxides or with ozone to produce new oxidation products and ... secondary aerosols, which can cause sensory irritation symptoms.[47] VOCs contribute to the formation of Tropospheric ozone and ...
Ozone hole and its causes[edit]. Ozone hole in North America during 1984 (abnormally warm, reducing ozone depletion) and 1997 ( ... Observations on ozone layer depletion[edit]. The ozone hole is usually measured by reduction in the total column ozone above a ... "Ozone Facts: What is the Ozone Hole?". Ozone Hole Watch. NASA. November 18, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2011.. ... Consequences of ozone layer depletion[edit]. Since the ozone layer absorbs UVB ultraviolet light from the sun, ozone layer ...
Exposure to ozone may cause headaches, coughing, dry throat, shortness of breath, a heavy feeling in chest, and fluid in the ... Ozone (O₃) is a colorless to blue gas with a pungent odor. ... EPA: Ozone and Your Healthpdf iconexternal icon. *EPA: Ozone ... Ozone (O₃) is a colorless to blue gas with a pungent odor. Exposure to ozone may cause headaches, coughing, dry throat, ... OSHA Chemical Sampling Information: Ozoneexternal icon. *New Jersey Hazardous Substance Fact Sheets: Ozonepdf iconexternal icon ...
The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). This layer ... Origin of ozone. The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were discovered by the British physicist Sidney ... The ozone molecule is also unstable (although, in the stratosphere, long-lived) and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits ... About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. Ozone concentrations are greatest between about 20 ... brings you the latest images, videos and news from Americas space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, watch NASA TV live, and learn about our quest to reveal the unknown and benefit all humankind.
Good ozone is 10-30 miles above Earths surface while bad ozone is at ground level. Read more about both. ... Ozone is a gas that can be good or bad. ... Ozone is a gas. It can be good or bad, depending on where it is ... Ozone (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) * Ozone Air Purifiers: Can They Improve Asthma Symptoms? (Mayo ... Ozone Generators That Are Sold as Air Cleaners (Environmental Protection Agency) * Ozone Layer Protection (Environmental ...
"Компания O3 Ozone - российская компания-производитель высокотехнологичной одежды для экстремальных видов спорта и активного ... Видосики O3 Ozone Play all * 1:51 Совет. Как правильно выбрать экипировку для активного отдыха - Duration: 111 seconds.. ... Одежда и экипировка для спорта и активного отдыха O3 Ozone 576 views 2 years ago ... Компания O3 Ozone, с учетом специальных потребностей, разрабатывает и изготавливает одежду для инструкторов и спасателей горных ...
Ozone Help, a new organisation, plans to send clusters of 100 ozone generators slung beneath balloons into the ozone layer ... a team of industrialists from Britain launched a plan to solve the problem of the missing stratospheric ozone. ... Ozone Help, a new. organisation, plans to send clusters of 100 ozone generators slung beneath. balloons into the ozone layer ... Ozone patch. 29 April 1989 LAST week, a team of industrialists from Britain launched a plan to. solve the problem of the ...
THERE was good news for the ozone layer as the 150 countries that have signed the Montreal Protocol met in Costa Rica earlier ... Ozone optimism. 30 November 1996 THERE was good news for the ozone layer as the 150 countries that have. signed the Montreal ...
The substance is irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system. This may result in impaired vigilance and performance. Inhalation of the gas may cause lung oedema. See Notes. The effects may be delayed. The liquid may cause frostbite ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Ozone is a colorless gas that is a major constituent of smog. This pollutant alone contributes to the majority of unhealthy air ... Ozone Fact Sheet Annual Summary of Ozone Monitoring Data Air Quality Trends - Ozone EPA Analysis of National and Regional Ozone ... Ozone. Ozone is a colorless gas that is a major constituent of smog. This pollutant alone contributes to the majority of ... Ozone does not come directly from any source. The VOCs that form ozone come from vehicle and industrial exhaust as well as ...
Several cocktails at OZONE incorporate grapefruit, mixing its zesty flavor with absinthe, tequila and gin among other ...
Depending on where it is located, ozone can be beneficial (good ozone) or detrimental (bad ozone). On average, every ten ... Ozone Ozone is a gas found in the atmosphere in very trace amounts. ... million air molecules contains only about three molecules of ozone. ... Ozone will also absorb infrared radiation at wavelengths in the range 9-10 μm. Ozone occurs naturally in the ozonosphere (ozone ...
Its helpful to follow the realclimate blogs explanation of the vast difference between ozones behavior on the earths ... explication of the recent ozone research over on the realclimate blog. ... Ozone revisited. Theres a detailed, delightful (if youre a chemist) explication of the recent ozone research over on the ... Theres a detailed, delightful (if youre a chemist) explication of the recent ozone research over on the realclimate blog. ...
One chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 ozone molecules. The net effect is to destroy ozone faster than it is naturally ... In the early 1970s, researchers began to investigate the effects of various chemicals on the ozone layer, particularly CFCs, ... Because they release chlorine or bromine when they break down, they damage the protective ozone layer. ...
Good News! The Hole in the Ozone Layer Appears to Be Closing ... The Ozone Layer Needs at Least 50 Years to Recover 78 comments ...
... focuses chiefly on the ozones effects on human respiratory health and and the productivity of ... Ozone in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) is toxic to human beings and many species of plants, causing harm without visible ... The Ozone We Breathe. Introduction Ozones Effects on Human Health Ozones Effects on Plants Ozones Role in Atmospheric ... Ozone may have similar effects on human lungs. Studies in animals also suggest that ozone may reduce the human immune systems ...
... focuses chiefly on the ozones effects on human respiratory health and and the productivity of ... Ozone in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) is toxic to human beings and many species of plants, causing harm without visible ... The Ozone We Breathe. Introduction Ozones Effects on Human Health Ozones Effects on Plants Ozones Role in Atmospheric ... Ozones Effects on Plants Because ozone formation requires sunlight, periods of high ozone concentration coincide with the ...
However, even the small amount of ozone plays a key role in the atmosphere. The ozone layer absorbs a portion of the radiation ... Ozone is a molecule containing three oxygen atoms. It is blue in color and has a strong odor. Normal oxygen, which we breathe, ... Ozone is much less common than normal oxygen. Out of each 10 million air molecules, about 2 million are normal oxygen, but only ... Most atmospheric ozone is concentrated in a layer in the stratosphere, about 15?30 kilometers above the Earths surface. ...
... because ozone contributes to the greenhouse effect [2], the ozone hole is a separate issue. ... Ozone Hole The so-called ozone hole sometimes is confused with the problem of global warming [1]. Even though there is a ... Ozone Layer Environmental Science: In Context COPYRIGHT 2009 Gale. Ozone Layer. Introduction. The ozone layer refers to ozone-a ... A global thinning of the ozone layer results as ozone-rich air from the remaining ozone layer flows into the ozone-poor areas. ...
A look inside the 2012 ozone hole with the Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite.jpg 1,235 × 605; 198 KB. ... "Ozone" 분류에 속하는 미디어. 다음은 이 분류에 속하는 파일 60개 가운데 60개입니다. ... THC 2003.902.021 E. H. Johnson Ozone Production.jpg 3,139 × 2,941; 10.89 MB. ... 원본 주소 "" ...
... According to the authors, "Before you begin exploring these chapters, keep in mind that this is indeed a ... You just viewed Stratospheric Ozone. Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
The Environmental Protection Agency weakened one part of its new limits on smog-forming ozone after an unusual last-minute ... The other part is known as the "public health" standard, which sets a legal limit on how high ozone levels can be at any one ... Ozone, which is formed when pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and other chemical compounds released by industry and motor ... The preamble went on to say that the decision to make the two ozone limits identical "reflects the view of the Administration ...
This shows the potential for breeding more ozone-tolerant varieties.. Since ozone concentrations have been rising for decades, ... The researchers found that exposure to 82 parts per billion (ppb) ozone reduced soybean yields by an average 23 percent across ... At that time, ozone concentrations are expected to be 50 percent higher than todays concentrations. ... But the scientists didnt see any significant improvement in ozone tolerance in soybean varieties released since the 1980s. ...
The reduction in the NRCs estimate of CFC-induced ozone depletion does not mean there is no threat at all to the ozone shield ... There is considerable natural variation in stratospheric ozone. Also, complicated chemical processes destroy ozone at a rate ... Ozone is a form of oxygen in which molecules contain three oxygen atoms rather than the normal complement of two. It is formed ... There, the ozone absorbs much of the incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunshine. Since UV, which causes sunburn, is ...
ozone. ozone peaks associated with a subtropical fold and with a subtropical tropopause fold and with the trade wind inversion ... The stratospheric origin of the 7.5-km ozone peak is inferred from negative correlations between ozone and its precursors and ... Ozone peaks associated with a subtropical tropopause. fold and with the trade wind inversion: a case study from the. airbone ... During the aircraft descent down to Pointe-á-Pitre (16.3°N, 61.5°W), at 2100 UTC on January 12, 1991, two ozone peaks (75 ppb) ...
Ozone. Situated on the 118th floor of the International Commerce Centre, Ozone is the tallest bar in the world and features a ... Situated on the 118th floor of the International Commerce Centre, Ozone is the tallest bar in the world and features a light ...
Ten photocopying machines were tested for ozone emissions. All but one produced detectable amounts. Concentrations at the ...
Description of Ozone Injury Ozone enters leaves through stomata during normal gas exchange. As a strong oxidant, ozone (or ... This web page describes the ozone pollution situation, shows classical symptoms of ozone injury and shows how ozone affects ... Effects of Ozone Air Pollution on Plants Ambient ozone inury to sensitive and tolerant snap beans ... Ozone concentrations in rural areas can be higher than in urban areas while ozone levels at high elevations can be relatively ...
Tenants of a Ozone Park apartment building said they believe a three-alarm fire that destroyed their homes Monday evening may ... Tenants of a Ozone Park apartment building said they believe a three-alarm fire that destroyed their homes Monday evening may ...
  • Ozone depletion consists of two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere (the ozone layer ), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions. (
  • There are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events in addition to these stratospheric events. (
  • The main cause of ozone depletion and the ozone hole is manufactured chemicals, especially manufactured halocarbon refrigerants , solvents , propellants , and foam- blowing agents ( chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), HCFCs, halons ), referred to as ozone-depleting substances ( ODS ). (
  • [3] Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halocarbons increased. (
  • Ozone depletion and the ozone hole have generated worldwide concern over increased cancer risks and other negative effects. (
  • This article briefly addresses how ozone depletion is measured. (
  • It's the second time in five years that a study by the academy has cut what had been an alarming forecast of 15 to 18 percent ozone depletion over the next century - ozone that shields us from solar ultraviolet rays. (
  • More is known now about stratospheric chemistry and this improved knowledge has enabled the NRC to reduce its estimate of possible ozone depletion due to CFCs. (
  • The reduction in the NRC's estimate of CFC-induced ozone depletion does not mean there is no threat at all to the ozone shield. (
  • According to researchers at Cambridge University, it's not increased pollution but instead climate change that is making ozone depletion worse. (
  • ODS A compound that contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. (
  • ozone depletion potential A number that refers to the amount of ozone depletion caused by a substance. (
  • Since ozone holes were first studied in the early 1980s, there has never been another region of ozone depletion so extensive. (
  • By providing crucial evidence on ozone depletion and the substances responsible, researchers at the Department of Chemistry have helped tackle a global environmental threat. (
  • Following the discovery of the ozone hole above Antarctica by scientists at British Antarctic Survey, Professor John Pyle and Dr Neil Harris in the Department of Chemistry have broadened and deepened our understanding of the ozone layer and the chemical processes driving its depletion. (
  • Their research in the Arctic has complemented what was known about patterns of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. (
  • And as well as improving our understanding of the chemical reactions that drive seasonal ozone loss, Pyle and Harris have also discovered much about the links between ozone-depleting substances and ozone depletion itself. (
  • After leading major international studies of ozone depletion in the Arctic, they worked on long-term, multinational projects using ground-based and satellite measurements to investigate ozone trends in the Northern Hemisphere. (
  • And according to the readings it has gathered since 2005, the reductions in the use of CFCs has led to a 20% decrease in ozone depletion. (
  • In the past, statistical analysis studies have indicated that ozone depletion has increased since. (
  • However, this study - which was the first to use measurements of the chemical composition inside the ozone hole - indicated that ozone depletion is decreasing. (
  • As Susan Strahan explained in a recent NASA press release , "We see very clearly that chlorine from CFCs is going down in the ozone hole, and that less ozone depletion is occurring because of it. (
  • It also sheds light on the challenges still remaining and the links between ozone depletion and climate change, both in physico-chemical and political terms. (
  • Ozone depletion refers to the steady decline in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere and the decrease in stratospheric ozone in the polar regions during the spring season. (
  • The unique chemistry that causes dramatic ozone depletion in the polar springtime lower stratosphere has been studied intensely for the past 2-3 decades and much that was speculated about 30 years ago when the problem first emerged has been verified and made more coherent. (
  • The past decades of study have developed a comprehensive understanding of how polar ozone depletion ("Ozone Holes") takes place. (
  • Atmospheric observations show that in both these situations, there is indeed enhanced reactive chlorine and simultaneous depletion of ozone. (
  • As there are other cycles that do not involve the Cl2O2 molecule but cause similar dramatic ozone depletion, such as cycles including both ClO and BrO (its bromine-containing analogue), any revision to current understanding would most likely simply shift the relative importance of the various ozone-destroying cycles. (
  • Standard (Nobel-prize winning) stratospheric chemistry has tied ozone depletion to the increasing chlorine (Cl) load in the stratosphere which catalytically destroys ozone and comes from the photolytic dissolution of human-sourced chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFCs) high in the stratosphere. (
  • Since PSCs are very sensitive to temperature, cold winter vortex conditions often presage a large ozone depletion the following spring (note that polar ozone depletion only occurs in sunlight and so is a spring time phenomena in both hemispheres). (
  • We here at RealClimate even used this relationship to predict ( successfully ) a particularly large Arctic ozone depletion event in 2005. (
  • It was inevitable that the headline link between GCR and ozone holes would entice the old-school ozone depletion skeptics and 'everything-is-solar" proponents out of their burrows. (
  • The data revealed that ozone depletion rates were higher in the chambers that contained plants than in the control chambers without plants, but there were no differences in effectiveness among the three plants. (
  • Learn what CFCs are, how they have contributed to the ozone hole, and how the 1989 Montreal Protocol sought to put an end to ozone depletion. (
  • After completing the Preliminary Activity, you will first use reference sources to find out more about ultraviolet radiation and ozone depletion before you choose and investigate a researchable question. (
  • Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson , who developed a simple spectrophotometer (the Dobsonmeter ) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground. (
  • LAST week, a team of industrialists from Britain launched a plan to solve the problem of the missing stratospheric ozone. (
  • Yet stratospheric ozone serves an invaluable function to life on Earth. (
  • You just viewed Stratospheric Ozone . (
  • There is considerable natural variation in stratospheric ozone. (
  • The stratospheric origin of the 7.5-km ozone peak is inferred from negative correlations between ozone and its precursors and from diagnoses based on potential vorticity and ageostrophic circulations depicting the structure of the tropopause fold embedded in the subtropical jet front system. (
  • Various possibilities are examined: (1) an earlier stratospheric intrusion event, (2) long-range transport by the trade winds of biomass burning species emitted over West Africa, and (3) fast photochemical ozone formation occurring just below the trade wind inversion within already polluted air parcels originating from remote regions (United States and Gulf of Mexico) after eastward and southward transport around the western Atlantic anticyclone. (
  • Although ozone depleting substances, they are less potent at destroying stratospheric ozone than chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). (
  • Stratospheric ozone has been called 'good' ozone because it protects the Earth's surface from dangerous ultraviolet light . (
  • Hegglin and Shepherd, at Toronto, developed a model of climate and stratospheric chemistry to simulate the effect of climate change on ozone distribution. (
  • Production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances ODSs are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine and/or bromine and can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. (
  • As proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--a hate object to many Republicans--the rule would have reduced ambient ozone, a toxic gas created by power-plant emissions and exhaust fumes, to less deadly levels than America currently permits. (
  • Emissions of a major ozone-destroying chemical have been rising for the past decade without anyone noticing. (
  • Ten photocopying machines were tested for ozone emissions. (
  • Due to the very distinctive daily cycle for ozone and the strong influence of spatially very different nitrogen oxide emissions on the ozone concentration, the consideration of temporal and spatial median values makes little sense. (
  • TEHRAN - Due to an increased concern about the influence of ozone emissions on human health and on the capital's air quality, notably gasoline vapor emissions at petrol stations must be reduced, clunker cars should be scrapped and diesel vehicles also have to be discarded, Tehran Air Quality Control Company caretaker said. (
  • New ozone standards could significantly damage the economy by imposing unachievable emissions limits and reduction targets on almost every part of our country, including rural and undeveloped areas. (
  • The organizations point out that states currently are committing significant resources to achieving ozone emissions reductions under current standards and warn that stricter standards would directly impact local and state growth. (
  • This is most likely a result of increases in emissions of the ozone precursors NO x and VOC since the beginning of the 20th century. (
  • Under his plan the House will vote each week to roll back regulations on everything from more stringent ozone standards to coal ash emissions, a by-product of coal-burning power plants. (
  • The ozone layer prevents most harmful wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) light from passing through the Earth's atmosphere . (
  • The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O 3 ). (
  • About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. (
  • The presence of such large amounts of the halon in the atmosphere could delay the recovery of the ozone layer by several years. (
  • Ozone occurs in the lower atmosphere in very low concentrations, but it is present in significantly higher concentrations in the upper atmosphere. (
  • Most of the ozone in our atmosphere is concentrated in a region of the stratosphere between 15 and 30 kilometers (9 and 18 miles) above Earth's surface. (
  • However, even the small amount of ozone plays a key role in the atmosphere. (
  • Ozone is a colorless, gaseous form of oxygen found in the Earth's atmosphere, primarily in the upper region known as the stratosphere, where it is naturally produced and destroyed. (
  • In the stratosphere, the concentration of ozone is 1,000 times greater than in the lower region of Earth's atmosphere known as the troposphere. (
  • Scientists assess ozone by calculating how much there would be if all the ozone over a particular spot on Earth were compressed to a standard atmosphere of pressure - that is, the average pressure of air at sea level . (
  • The unit of measure used to represent the amount of ozone above a particular position on the surface is the Dobson unit (DU), with one unitrepresenting 0.01 mm of ozone compressed to one standard atmosphere. (
  • Dobson found that the ozone in the atmosphere is far from uniformly spread. (
  • In the 1970s a research group with the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) was monitoring the atmosphere above Antarctica when the scientists first noticed a loss of ozone in the lower stratosphere. (
  • Say the scientists involved, "The pollution levels have levelled off but changes in the atmosphere have made it easier for the chemical reactions to take place that allow pollutants to destroy ozone. (
  • NOx and VOCs can be transported long distances by regional weather patterns before they react to create ozone in the atmosphere, where it can persist for several weeks. (
  • Where it occurs in the upper atmosphere, ozone forms a shield that protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun. (
  • The somewhat complicated connections between generation and decomposition of ozone in the different layers of the atmosphere as well as its effect on living and inanimate environment are elucidated in the schematic depiction of Map 03.06.1. (
  • High ozone concentrations in the near ground atmosphere can be caused both locally as well as nationally. (
  • The high atmosphere over the Arctic lost an unprecedented amount of its protective ozone earlier this year, so much that conditions echoed the infamous ozone hole that forms annually over the opposite side of the planet, the Antarctic, scientists say. (
  • Global warming is implicated in the loss of Arctic ozone because greenhouse gases trap energy lower down, heating up the atmosphere nearer the ground but cooling the stratosphere, creating conditions conducive to the formation of the reactive chemicals that break apart the three-oxygen molecules of ozone. (
  • Less ozone in the atmosphere leads to higher UV levels, and vice versa. (
  • Since they are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere, CFCs drift into the upper atmosphere where, given suitable conditions, they break down ozone. (
  • In the upper atmosphere, a layer of ozone gas protects the earth from the sun's UV radiation. (
  • Scientists have identified four new man-made gases in the atmosphere that are contributing to the destruction of the ozone layer. (
  • The ozone hole is an area where natural occurring ozone in the atmosphere becomes depleted. (
  • In about 20 years, those chemicals are expected to cycle out of the atmosphere, and the ozone hole will be a total function of natural phenomena. (
  • Under certain conditions, photochemical reactions between nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in the lower atmosphere can produce ozone in concentrations high enough to cause irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes. (
  • Having launched in 2004, the purpose of the Aura satellite was to conduct measurements of ozone, aerosols and key gases in the Earth's atmosphere. (
  • To determine how ozone and other chemicals in the atmosphere have changed from year to year, scientists have relied on data from the Aura satellite's Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). (
  • It features 30+ new graphics explaining physical, technical, economic and political aspects of the disconcerting process of ozone destruction in the atmosphere and the human action that has been taken to stop the process. (
  • Ozone is found naturally in small concentrations in the stratosphere , a layer of Earth's upper atmosphere. (
  • In this upper atmosphere, ozone is made when ultraviolet light from the sun splits an oxygen molecule ( O2 ), forming two single oxygen atoms . (
  • Ozone can also be found in the troposphere , the lowest layer of the atmosphere. (
  • This breakdown of ozone is slow in the stratosphere, the part of the atmosphere after the first 16 km and till 50 km from the earth. (
  • One model of flow across the boundary, which also explains the accumulation of ozone in the stratosphere is the Brewer-Dobson circulation, which relies on the earth's radiation equilibrium and the behaviour of waves in the atmosphere when they pass over deformities on the surface. (
  • A matching hole above the Arctic was always much smaller, until March this year, when a combination of powerful wind patterns and intense cold high in the atmosphere created the right conditions for ozone-eating chlorine chemicals to damage the layer. (
  • Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (
  • Concentrations of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have leveled off in the stratosphere and actually declined in the lower atmosphere, raising hopes for a recovery of the ozone layer. (
  • And, sooner than expected, the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), which is implemented by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) on behalf of the European Union, is now including near-realtime Sentinel-5P ozone data in their daily analysis and forecast system. (
  • But lower down in the atmosphere, ozone is an air pollutant - the main ingredient of urban smog. (
  • Context: the ozone layer refers to a region of the Earth's atmosphere (the stratosphere) in which ozone ( O 3 ) is present in concentrations high enough to absorb most of the sun's ultraviolet ( UV) radiation. (
  • This phenomenon was first observed during the 1970s, when it was shown that the ozone hole was caused by complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving so-called ODSs, which are almost exclusively a result of human industrial activity. (
  • Ozone (molecular formula O 3 ) is a minor constituent of the Earth's atmosphere , but its effects are highly significant. (
  • About 90 percent of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere (part of the upper atmosphere), and about 10 percent is contained in the troposphere (lower atmosphere). (
  • On the other hand, ozone in the upper atmosphere protects living organisms by preventing damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's surface. (
  • Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet (UV) light and electrical discharges within the Earth's atmosphere. (
  • There is quite a different atmosphere [at higher elevation] with enough ozone to sustain the necessary energy [to work]", wrote naturalist Henry Henshaw, working in Hawaii. (
  • [2] Once in the stratosphere, they release halogen atoms through photodissociation , which catalyze the breakdown of ozone (O 3 ) into oxygen (O 2 ). (
  • Cl and Br atoms destroy ozone molecules through a variety of catalytic cycles. (
  • This, say the project's coordinators, would split oxygen molecules into atoms that form ozone. (
  • This formula shows that each molecule of ozone consists of three atoms. (
  • Chemical bonds break and reform in different ways with the addition of oxygen atoms (the process of oxidation) from ozone, and this causes acute inflammation. (
  • Ozone is a molecule containing three oxygen atoms. (
  • The molecule of three oxygen atoms is called ozone. (
  • Ozone is a form of oxygen in which molecules contain three oxygen atoms rather than the normal complement of two. (
  • Ozone is a gas made of three atoms of oxygen. (
  • When they break down, they release chlorine or bromine atoms, which then deplete ozone. (
  • Ozone , (O 3 ), triatomic allotrope of oxygen (a form of oxygen in which the molecule contains three atoms instead of two as in the common form) that accounts for the distinctive odour of the air after a thunderstorm or around electrical equipment. (
  • These chlorine atoms play havoc with the ozone layer, where they catalyze to form oxygen gas (O²). (
  • -Ozone is a molecule of three oxygen atoms bound together ( O3 ). (
  • Ozone production from NOx pollutants: Oxygen atoms freed from nitrogen dioxide by the action of sunlight attack oxygen molecules to make ozone. (
  • But ozone also combines with free oxygen atoms to form ordinary oxygen. (
  • What has now been questioned is not the link between the chlorine released from CFCs and ozone loss, but rather the rate at which the chlorine atoms can destroy ozone via a particular cycle involving the Cl2O2 molecule. (
  • A wealth of observational data supports the role of chlorine and bromine in polar ozone loss, and uncertainty in a single step of the relevant chemistry does not undermine the Montreal Protocol controlling substances that release these atoms into the stratosphere. (
  • Each molecule of ozone consists of three oxygen atoms , and its molecular formula is therefore written as O 3 . (
  • In appropriate contexts, ozone can be viewed as trioxidane with two hydrogen atoms removed, and as such, trioxidanylidene may be used as a systematic name, according to substitutive nomenclature. (
  • The EPA has designated ozone one of six "criteria air pollutants" and therefore a pollutant that must be kept in check. (
  • But when ozone occurs at ground level, it is a harmful pollutant produced when oxides of nitrogen (NOx) react with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. (
  • Production and destruction of ozone as well as the action of this pollutant gas are greatly dependent on the respective weather conditions. (
  • On the Earth's surface, ozone is a pollutant, but in the stratosphere it forms a protective layer that reflects ultraviolet radiation back out into space. (
  • as the statistics show concentration of this pollutant increases in the capital mostly during summer, so, ground level ozone became the main contributor to pollution in the capital's hot seasons. (
  • The Obama administration on Wednesday proposed stricter curbs on ground-level ozone, a pollutant linked to several serious health conditions. (
  • At ground level (in the troposphere), ozone is considered an air pollutant that can seriously affect the human respiratory system. (
  • On ground level, however, ozone is "a harmful air pollutant . (
  • Ground-level ozone is an air pollutant with harmful effects on our respiratory system. (
  • While this makes ozone a potent respiratory hazard and pollutant near ground level, a higher concentration in the ozone layer (from two to eight ppm) is beneficial, preventing damaging UV light from reaching the Earth's surface. (
  • The total amount of ozone in the stratosphere is determined by a balance between photochemical production and recombination. (
  • The total amount of ozone in this band is actually relatively small. (
  • In fact, the amount of ozone dropped to such a low level that the term "hole" was used to describe the condition. (
  • Students expose a chemically sensitive strip to the air for an hour and determine the amount of ozone present using an ozone strip reader. (
  • There are two situations in which a substantial amount of chlorine, the more important of the two, can come out of the reservoirs in large enough amounts to destroy a substantial amount of ozone. (
  • Responses to ozone pollution vary from one individual to another, sometimes for reasons we don't yet understand. (
  • Yet few state governments have enforced regulations designed to bring ozone air pollution under control. (
  • Tropospheric ozone levels in the more polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere appear to be rising at about 1 percent per year (Turco 1997) The American Lung Association reports that scientists' estimates of the annual number of deaths in the United States associated with air pollution range from 50,000 to 100,000. (
  • Although research shows that ozone pollution harms forests and that prolonged exposure has serious consequences, the precise extent of ozone damage to mature forests has proven a difficult issue to resolve. (
  • With these changes likely to continue and get worse as global warming increases, then ozone will be further depleted even if the level of pollution is going down. (
  • This web page describes the ozone pollution situation, shows classical symptoms of ozone injury and shows how ozone affects yield of several major crops. (
  • TEHRAN - Temperature dropped by 1.1 degrees Celsius in Tehran over the Iranian calendar month of Mordad (July 22- August 23) compared to a month earlier, so that ozone pollution is dissipating dramatically, Hossein Shahidzadeh, the caretaker for Air Quality Control Company has said. (
  • TEHRAN - Following consistent ozone pollution in Tehran's hot season, motorcycles running on carbureted engines are considered as the main contributors to air pollution, Khabaronline reported on Wednesday. (
  • In this article, we will examine what ozone is, how it is produced, what health hazards it poses and what you can do to reduce ozone pollution. (
  • Tropospheric ozone (often termed 'bad' ozone) is man-made, a result of air pollution from internal combustion engines and power plants . (
  • Although ozone pollution is formed mainly in urban and suburban areas, it ends up in rural areas as well, carried by prevailing winds or resulting from cars and trucks that travel into rural areas. (
  • Significant levels of ozone pollution can be detected in rural areas as far as 250 miles (402 kilometers) downwind from urban industrial zones. (
  • Ozone pollution can travel from urban to rural areas. (
  • As the weather heats up during the summer months, ground-level ozone pollution increases as pollutants react to heat and sunlight. (
  • ozone pollution is one of these. (
  • Ozone, the main component of air pollution, or smog, is a highly reactive, colorless gas formed when oxygen reacts with other chemicals. (
  • Although ozone pollution is most often associated with outdoor air, the gas also infiltrates indoor environments like homes and offices. (
  • As indoor air pollution poses new concerns worldwide, cost effective and easy-to-implement methods are needed to eliminate or reduce ozone concentrations. (
  • 2 ). The ClO can react with a second molecule of ozone, releasing the chlorine atom and yielding two molecules of oxygen. (
  • Because they release chlorine or bromine when they break down, they damage the protective ozone layer. (
  • In the early 1970s, researchers began to investigate the effects of various chemicals on the ozone layer, particularly CFCs, which contain chlorine. (
  • One chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 ozone molecules. (
  • Chlorine helps dissipate the ozone, but it is also assisted by very low temperatures. (
  • The good news on the ozone hole front is that chemicals that release chlorine, such as chlorofluorocarbons, seem to have reached their peak. (
  • This they did by looking for telltale signs of hydrochloric acid in the MLS data, which chlorine will form by reacting with methane (but only when all available ozone is depleted). (
  • During this period, Antarctic temperatures are always very low, so the rate of ozone destruction depends mostly on how much chlorine there is. (
  • The crystals provide a surface for a chemical reaction that changes chlorine in molecules that do not affect ozone (such as hydrogen chloride) into more active forms that do destroy ozone. (
  • Measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground-based instruments all give independent, consistent information verifying the links between cold temperatures in the polar springtime lower stratosphere and chlorine, and between chlorine and ozone. (
  • Ozone Help, a new organisation, plans to send clusters of 100 'ozone generators' slung beneath balloons into the ozone layer above the Antarctic. (
  • Gardiner says that the generators would have to supply power equivalent to the entire power consumption of the US for six weeks each Antarctic spring in order to form enough ozone to equal that being destroyed. (
  • A term invented to describe a region of very low ozone concentration above the Antarctic that appears and disappears with each austral (Southern Hemisphere) summer. (
  • In 1984, scientists reported that the ozone layer above the Antarctic appeared to be thinning. (
  • The hole was a circular area above the Antarctic in which ozone had virtually disappeared. (
  • Some degree of ozone loss above the Arctic , and the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole, are annual events during the poles' respective winters. (
  • Since the 1980s, scientists have recorded an ozone hole every summer above the Antarctic at the bottom of the globe. (
  • The chemical ozone destruction over the Arctic in early 2011 was, for the first time in the observational record, comparable to that in the Antarctic ozone hole," say the scientists, led by Gloria Manney of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. (
  • Concentrations of ozone-destroying gases are down, but the Antarctic ozone hole is bigger than ever. (
  • The bad news is that NASA satellites spotted the largest Antarctic ozone hole ever recorded on September 9, 2000, and the effects of global climate change may exacerbate the problem. (
  • Notice the "croissant" of high ozone concentrations formed when the Antarctic vortex blocks the southerly migration of ozone formed in the tropics. (
  • The story hit the 'tubes earlier this year when researcher Q.B. Lu predicted that this years Antarctic ozone hole would be the biggest ever due to the actions of increased galactic cosmic rays (GCR) (because we are at solar minimum and GCR are inversely correlated to solar activity). (
  • Hence the presence of an ozone hole in the very cold Antarctic polar vortex. (
  • Ozone is formed in the stratosphere when oxygen molecules photodissociate after absorbing ultraviolet photons. (
  • Fortunately for living things on Earth, ozone molecules absorb radiation in the ultraviolet region. (
  • Ozone reacts with molecules in the lining of our airways. (
  • Out of each 10 million air molecules, about 2 million are normal oxygen, but only 3 are ozone. (
  • At any given time, ozone molecules are constantly formed and destroyed in the stratosphere. (
  • Ozone forms in the air from other pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO 2 ) in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. (
  • Ozone, which is formed when pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and other chemical compounds released by industry and motor vehicles are exposed to sunlight, is linked to an array of heart and respiratory illnesses. (
  • Ground-level ozone causes more damage to plants than all other air pollutants combined. (
  • Concentrations of ozone are highest during calm, sunny, spring and summer days when primary pollutants from urban areas are present. (
  • Over the study period, the team measured indoor and outdoor ozone levels, as well as other pollutants. (
  • The low measuring point density and above all the specific chemical behavior of ozone allow no extensive depiction of the emission loads as is possible with other air pollutants (cf. (
  • They are driven by a combination of cold temperatures and lingering ozone-depleting pollutants. (
  • TEHRAN - A special working group consisting of environmental experts has been formed to find solutions for tackling ozone pollutants hitting the capital, deputy mayor of Tehran for traffic and transport affairs has said. (
  • TEHRAN - Tehran province's department of environment will hold a meeting to address the effects of temperature rise in increased ozone gas index (O3), the DOE's deputy director for monitoring pollutants has said. (
  • The AQI measures concentrations of five air pollutants: ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. (
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • Ozone is a highly reactive molecule that easily reduces to the more stable oxygen form with the assistance of a catalyst. (
  • As a strong oxidant, ozone (or secondary products resulting from oxidation by ozone such as reactive oxygen species) causes several types of symptoms including chlorosis and necrosis. (
  • The reactions that convert less reactive chemicals into ozone-destroying ones take place within what is known as the polar vortex, an atmospheric circulation pattern created by the rotation of the Earth and cold temperatures. (
  • These concerns led to the adoption of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which bans the production of CFCs, halons, and other ozone-depleting chemicals. (
  • Eventually, however, the evidence seemed to suggest that chemicals produced and made by humans might be causing the destruction of the ozone. (
  • Ozone loss is expected to improve in the coming decades as atmospheric levels of these chemicals decline. (
  • international cooperation in research involving ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) and empowered the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to lay the groundwork for the Montreal Protocol. (
  • Ozone-destroying chemicals once thought to be successfully banished are now making their way into the air again, slowing down our atmosphere's recovery after those same chemicals effectively ripped a hole in it in the mid-20th century. (
  • of chemicals that damage the ozone layer appears to be working. (
  • Their studies provided the evidence that the UK government used to strengthen the Montreal Protocol, and to accelerate the phase out at European level of hydro-fluorocarbons, chemicals that do not deplete ozone but which are potent greenhouse gases. (
  • Scientists say man-made chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons destroy ozone in the stratosphere. (
  • Sunlight breaks up the complex chemicals into simpler forms that react with ozone. (
  • A decade ago, F. Sherwood Rowland of the University of California (Irvine) and Mario J. Molina of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory suggested that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) migrate into the stratosphere to take part in the ozone-destroying chemistry. (
  • Their hypothesis - fleshed out with laboratory studies, mathematical simulations, and very limited sampling of the lower stratosphere - gradually gained enough credibility for some atmospheric chemists to consider the CFCs a likely threat to the ozone layer. (
  • At no point has any expert claimed to have substantial proof that CFCs do, in fact, threaten the ozone layer. (
  • While these measurements indicated a decrease in ozone loss, Strahan and Douglass wanted to be certain reductions in the use of CFCs was what was responsible. (
  • The trouble is that even in the stratosphere, the breakdown of ozone hastens when some chemical groups are present, particularly of CFCs present in aerosol sprays and refrigerants. (
  • It turns out there's more to ozone destruction than just CFCs. (
  • Since these CFCs would eventually work their way up to the stratosphere -- where the ozone is -- this finding gave hope that CFC concentrations in the stratosphere would also soon begin to decline. (
  • Although the concentration of CFCs in the stratosphere appears to have leveled off, the size of the ozone hole won't necessarily level off with it. (
  • What's happening right now is you have the CFCs at a very high level, and this gives you a background of low ozone," McPeters explained. (
  • Worldwide seasonal changes in tropospheric ozone: Tropospheric ozone increases during summers in the northern and southern hemispheres when the climate is hot. (
  • The most tropospheric ozone is observed during summer in the northern hemisphere. (
  • [5] In 2019, NASA reported that the ozone hole was the smallest ever since it was first discovered in 1982. (
  • The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has also launched many scientific studies to investigate ozone. (
  • This was an unsettling discovery because NASA had been monitoring ozone levels globally since 1979 with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite. (
  • And according to recent study by a team of NASA scientists, the ozone hole is showing signs of significant recovery as a result. (
  • Image of the record-size ozone hole taken by NASA satellites on September 9, 2000. (
  • The first point is that these processes are really slow," said Dr. Richard McPeters, principal investigator for NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). (
  • Without enough good ozone, people may get too much ultraviolet radiation. (
  • High altitude ozone is beneficial because it shields the earth from the sun's ultraviolet radiation. (
  • Increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation because of a thinner ozone layer would almost certainly mean higher rates of skin cancer . (
  • Ozone in the stratosphere is beneficial because it protects Earth's inhabitants from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation . (
  • In the stratosphere, ozone is created primarily by ultraviolet radiation. (
  • High up in the stratosphere, ozone is important because it protects life on Earth from the Sun's harmful rays of ultraviolet radiation. (
  • Far above Earth's surface, the ozone layer helps to protect life from harmful ultraviolet radiation. (
  • Breathing bad ozone can be harmful. (
  • Ground level ozone is harmful because it reacts with the mucus membranes of the respiratory system and causes inflammation. (
  • Among crop plants, tobacco is a "canary in the mine" (or early warning) for detecting harmful levels of ozone. (
  • Researchers from China and the United States have recently shown that exposure to harmful ozone levels can lead to elevated blood pressure, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Ozone gas is harmful when a person inhales it, leading to lung and throat irritation, coughing, and worsened asthma symptoms. (
  • Ozone gas itself is harmful to humans. (
  • As associations representing many businesses, both large and small, that employ millions of Americans, and local governments in which those businesses thrive, we are deeply concerned about the harmful impact that the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recently proposed rule to make ozone standards more stringent could have on the still struggling economy. (
  • The useful feature of ozone is that it can absorb ultraviolet light at the frequency that is the most harmful. (
  • And it can take decades for it to be converted by sunlight into a form that is harmful to ozone, according to Dr. Charles Jackman, an atmospheric modeler at GSFC. (
  • Why is ozone harmful to plant tissue? (
  • In a jobs agenda memo to House Republicans, Cantor said the proposed ozone regulations would be "possibly the most harmful of all the currently anticipated Obama administration regulations" and would cost at least $1 trillion over a decade to implement. (
  • The net effect is to destroy ozone faster than it is naturally created. (
  • Also, complicated chemical processes destroy ozone at a rate that maintains a rough balance with its creation. (
  • High levels of ozone can destroy agricultural crops and forest vegetation. (
  • It's important to note that none of the laboratory data on the direct chemical reactions that destroy ozone have been questioned. (
  • A region of the stratosphere in which the concentration of ozone is relatively high. (
  • The type and severity of injury is dependent on several factors including duration and concentration of ozone exposure, weather conditions and plant genetics. (
  • The stratosphere contains a layer in which the concentration of ozone is greatest, the so called ozone layer. (
  • Thus, various human activities have raised the concentration of ozone in the troposphere. (
  • Browning on potato leaves shows evidence of exposure to high concentrations of ozone. (
  • Some species of crop plants react more strongly to high concentrations of ozone than others. (
  • Foliar symptoms shown on this web site mainly occurred on plants exposed to ambient concentrations of ozone. (
  • TOKYO (Reuters) - Japanese researchers said on Wednesday that low concentrations of ozone can neutralise coronavirus particles, potentially providing a way for hospitals to disinfect examination rooms and waiting areas. (
  • Countries agreed to end their production of the substances ultimately responsible for destruction of the ozone in 1987 with the Montreal Protocol. (
  • A detailed list ( of class I and class II substances with their ODPs, GWPs, and CAS numbers are available. (
  • A table of all ozone-depleting substances ( shows their ODPs, GWPs, and CAS numbers. (
  • A table of all ozone-depleting substances ( shows their ODPs, GWPs, and CAS numbers, and another table shows the GWPs for many non-ozone-depleting substances ( (
  • The Montreal Protocol - which banned the substances responsible for destroying the ozone layer - shows that global environmental problems can be tackled when politicians, scientists and industry work together. (
  • Since the 1980s, Pyle and Harris's research has advanced our understanding of the ozone layer and the substances that destroyed it. (
  • More recently, Pyle and Harris modeled the effect of climate change on delivery of ozone- depleting substances to the ozone layer, and measured natural halo-carbons in the tropics, the importance of which is increasing now that levels of man-made halo-carbons have fallen following the Montreal Protocol. (
  • These efforts culminated with the signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which called for the complete phasing out of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). (
  • The Ozone Secretariat is the Secretariat for the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and for the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. (
  • Exposure to ozone may cause headaches, coughing, dry throat, shortness of breath, a heavy feeling in chest, and fluid in the lungs. (
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to ozone. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to ozone. (
  • Microscopic views of human lung tissue (epithelium, or lining) show damage resulting from exposure to relatively low levels of ozone. (
  • Ozone concentrations can make the small bands of muscles that help control breathing more sensitive to dry air, cold or dust, so ozone exposure may increase allergic responses in susceptible people. (
  • While the effects of acute, short-term episodes of ozone exposure are reversible, the human body's response to long-term exposure may not be reversible. (
  • Exposure to ozone at levels we commonly encounter in many of our own communities permanently scars the lungs of experimental animals, causing long-term impairment of lung capacity, or the volume of air that can be expelled from fully inflated lungs. (
  • The same study showed that ozone exposure causes the loss of 6-8 percent of winter wheat and 5 percent of the corn crop yields to Maryland farmers. (
  • Effects of crops' exposure to ozone appear in the soil as well as in the plants themselves. (
  • Under conditions of high ozone exposure, soybean farmers who want to maximize their soybean crop production must add more nitrogen to the soil than it normally requires. (
  • The researchers found that exposure to 82 parts per billion (ppb) ozone reduced soybean yields by an average 23 percent across all 10 varieties. (
  • Several additional symptom types are commonly associated with ozone exposure, however. (
  • With continuing daily ozone exposure, classical symptoms (stippling, flecking, bronzing, and reddening) are gradually obscured by chlorosis and necrosis. (
  • Field research to measure effects of seasonal exposure to ozone on crop yield has been in progress for more than 40 years. (
  • Exposure to ozone has long been linked to reductions in lung function. (
  • However, he and his co-authors note that while exposure to ozone has been linked to deaths from cardiovascular disease, there is no clear biological understanding of how it affects the cardiovascular system. (
  • Exposure to ozone is associated with "a significant increase in the risk of death from respiratory diseases," and it has well-known toxic effects on people's lungs when present with nitrogen dioxide in smog. (
  • Repeated exposure to ozone can inflame lung tissues and cause respiratory infections. (
  • Ozone exposure can aggravate existing respiratory conditions such as asthma, reduce your lung function and capacity for exercise and cause chest pains and coughing. (
  • To protect yourself from ozone exposure, you should be aware of the Air Quality Index (AQI) in your area everyday -- you can usually find it in the newspaper or on a morning weather forecast on TV or radio. (
  • Exposure to ground-level ozone can exacerbate chronic respiratory symptoms, reduce lung capacity and be a trigger for asthma attacks. (
  • Ozone (O₃) is a colorless to blue gas with a pungent odor. (
  • Ozone is a colorless gas that is a major constituent of smog. (
  • The ozone layer absorbs a portion of the radiation from the sun, preventing it from reaching the planet's surface. (
  • There, the ozone absorbs much of the incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunshine. (
  • To record the typical course on days with high solar radiation and thus good conditions for photochemical ozone formation, only the days with maximum temperatures over 25 °C, so-called summer days, were considered. (
  • The ozone layer completely absorbs UVC radiation and attenuates UVB radiation from the sun. (
  • The ozone layer is known to shield the earth from high energy radiation. (
  • The ozone layer high in the stratosphere acts like a giant shield against the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which can cause skin cancers and cataracts. (
  • It is present in very low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. (
  • According to the EPA, this would by 2020 have saved up to 12,000 lives and 2.5m working days and school days lost to the toxic effect of ozone on American lungs each year. (
  • This animation shows the daily ozone levels over the Arctic from 9 March 2020 until 1 April 2020. (
  • Compounds resulting from oxidation by ozone interfere with the cell's energy production in the mitochondria. (
  • Ozone is a powerful oxidant (far more so than dioxygen) and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation. (
  • The same dynamics create the infamous ozone hole over Antarctica. (
  • The infamous ozone hole over Antarctica is starting to heal. (
  • This year's record ozone hole occurred largely as a result of the particularly cold winter in Antarctica, McPeters said. (
  • The subject concerns the polar ozone hole in Antarctica and a possible role for cosmic rays in its variability on solar cycle timescales. (
  • At first, scientists disagreed as to the cause of the thinning ozone layer. (
  • Since the late 1970s scientists have used satellites, aircraft, and balloons to measure ozone levels from above Earth. (
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists working with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign found that future levels of ground-level ozone could reduce soybean yields by an average 23 percent. (
  • Since ozone concentrations have been rising for decades, the scientists initially thought that varieties developed more recently would be more ozone-tolerant. (
  • But the scientists didn't see any significant improvement in ozone tolerance in soybean varieties released since the 1980s. (
  • The protective ozone layer over the Arctic has thinned this winter to the lowest levels since records began, alarming scientists who believed it had begun to heal. (
  • Scientists discovered in the 1970s that chlorofluorocarbons such as Freon were hurting Earth's ozone layer. (
  • By September (i.e. spring in the southern hemisphere), the activity peaks, resulting on the "ozone hole" that scientists first noted in 1985. (
  • A huge hole that appeared in the Earth's protective ozone layer above the Arctic in 2011 was the largest recorded in the Northern Hemisphere, triggering worries the event could occur again and be even worse, scientists said in a report on Monday. (
  • Scientists at Fujita Health University told a news conference they had proven that ozone gas in concentrations of 0.05 to 0.1 parts per million (ppm), levels considered harmless to humans, could kill the virus. (
  • October 2, 2000 -- Scientists have some good news and some bad news for ozone watchers. (
  • Scientists from the German Aereospace Center (DLR), usinsg data from the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite, have noticed an unusual ozone hole form over the Arctic. (
  • Useful search terms for ozone include " triatomic oxygen. (
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on Ozone -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (
  • Ozone levels stabilized by the mid-1990s and began to recover in the 2000s, as the shifting of the jet stream in the southern hemisphere towards the south pole has stopped and might even be reversing. (
  • [4] Recovery is projected to continue over the next century, and the ozone hole is expected to reach pre-1980 levels by around 2075. (
  • Otherwise healthy people can expect to experience acute but reversible effects if they exercise regularly outdoors when ozone levels are high. (
  • Studies of soybean yield at the University of Maryland found a 10 percent loss of soybean crop due to current levels of ozone in that state, which are commonly 40-80 ppb during the growing season, with particular episodes much higher. (
  • Mulchi 2001) The National Crop Loss Assessment Network in Raleigh, North Carolina, found a 2-5 percent loss for winter wheat at current levels of ozone (which usually average between 50 and 55 ppb). (
  • Each natural reduction in ozone levels has been followed by a recovery. (
  • By 1985 the BAS was reporting a dramatic decline of 50 percent in springtime ozone levels above Halley Bay Station when compared to the previous decade. (
  • The dispute involved one of two distinct parts of the EPA's ozone restrictions: the "public welfare" standard, which is designed to protect against long-term harm from high ozone levels. (
  • The other part is known as the "public health" standard, which sets a legal limit on how high ozone levels can be at any one time. (
  • Ozone concentrations in rural areas can be higher than in urban areas while ozone levels at high elevations can be relatively constant throughout the day and night. (
  • Studies in open-top field chambers have repeatedly verified that flecking,stippling, bronzing and reddening on plant leaves are classical responses to ambient levels of ozone. (
  • This year, the temperatures at the ozone levels were the lowest they have been in 20 years. (
  • Two factors that play a key role in climate change - increased climate warming and elevated ozone levels - appear to have detrimental effects on soybean plant roots, their relationship with symbiotic microorganisms in the soil and the ways the plants sequester carbon. (
  • North Carolina State University researchers examined the interplay of warming and increased ozone levels with certain important underground organisms - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) - that promote chemical interactions that hold carbon in the ground by preventing the decomposition of soil organic matter, thereby halting the escape of carbon from the decomposing material. (
  • In the study, researchers set up plots of soybeans with increased air temperatures of about 3 degrees Celsius, plots with higher levels of ozone, plots with higher levels of both warming and ozone, and control plots with no modifications. (
  • The resulting experiments showed that warming and increased ozone levels make soybean roots thinner as they save resources to get the nutrients they need. (
  • Ozone levels have been somewhat stable or even declining in some parts of the United States over the past decade but have risen dramatically in areas of rapid industrialization, like India and China, for example. (
  • The study showed that levels of an AMF species called Glomus decreased with more warming and ozone, while a species called Paraglomus increased. (
  • The change in ozone levels from the beginning to the end of Southern Hemisphere's winter (early July to mid-September) was computed daily using MLS measurements every year from 2005 to 2016. (
  • High levels of ozone are usually formed in the heat of the afternoon and early evening, dissipating during the cooler nights. (
  • Young children, adults who are active outdoors and people with respiratory diseases are most susceptible to the high levels of ozone encountered during the summer. (
  • According to a paper by Michaela Hegglin and Theodore Shepherd, of Toronto, Canada, in Nature Geoscience, the levels of ozone in the stratosphere and the intensity of ultraviolet light striking the earth would also change. (
  • Ozone levels often increase with summer wildfires, further worsening the air quality and ozone-related breathing issues. (
  • Other conditions affected by high ozone levels in the summertime include COPD, heart disease and diabetes. (
  • Blue denotes low ozone concentrations and yellow and red denote higher levels of ozone. (
  • Why are we seeing the worst-ever ozone hole when 13 years of regulation are finally bringing CFC levels under control? (
  • Model calculations suggest that ozone recovery to pre-1980 levels could take 20 to 40 years, he explained. (
  • Why does an elevated carbon dioxide level prevent yield reduction in crops exposed to toxic ozone levels? (
  • Ozone can be released by ordinary copy machines, laser printers, ultraviolet lights, and some electrostatic air purification systems, all of which contribute to increased indoor ozone levels. (
  • A research team from the Pennsylvania State University published the results of a new study of the effects of three common houseplants on indoor ozone levels in a recent issue of the American Society of Horticultural Science's journal HortTechnology. (
  • Some types of electrical equipment generate significant levels of ozone. (
  • The Environmental Protection Agency weakened one part of its new limits on smog-forming ozone after an unusual last-minute intervention by President Bush, according to documents released by the EPA. (
  • Ozone is a major component of smog. (
  • PremAir® Direct Ozone Reduction Catalyst: A patented catalyst coating that transforms ground level ozone, the main component of smog, into oxygen by simply driving down the road. (
  • A patented catalyst coating that transforms ground level ozone, the main component of smog, into oxygen by simply driving down the road. (
  • Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. (
  • Hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and ozone are the major components of smog that frequently occurs in urban and suburban areas. (
  • Whatever Happened to the Ozone Hole? (
  • [1] The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole . (
  • The so-called ozone hole sometimes is confused with the problem of global warming . (
  • Even though there is a connection between the two environmental issues, because ozone contributes to the greenhouse effect , the ozone hole is a separate issue. (
  • For the first time, sufficient loss occurred to reasonably be described as an Arctic ozone hole,' write researchers in an article released Oct. 2 by the journal Nature. (
  • Unusual weather patterns have sharply shrunk the ozone hole this year. (
  • Among the many meteorological firsts for 1998 is the largest ozone hole on record. (
  • The ozone hole develops every October and fades by November and December. (
  • This year, the ozone hole was larger than the area of North America. (
  • Global problems such as the hole in the ozone layer demand global solutions. (
  • This latter phenomena, known as the "ozone hole", has been a major concern for decades. (
  • This on-line version features additional materials such as story ideas, contacts, a comprehensive glossary and more links to information related to the ozone hole and the Montreal Protocol. (
  • Because of the overwhelming role of weather in the ozone hole, it means it's really unpredictable," McPeters said. (
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • This years peak ozone hole has now come and gone, and the prediction can therefore be evaluated. (
  • Because ozone formation requires sunlight, periods of high ozone concentration coincide with the growing season. (
  • Ozone is formed in the troposphere when sunlight causes complex photochemical reactions involving oxides of nitrogen (NOx), volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOC) and carbon monoxide that originate chiefly from gasoline engines and burning of other fossil fuels. (
  • This may be explained by the fact that formation of ozone depends on complex chemical processes, as well as on sunlight and climatic conditions . (
  • In 1989, the European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit was set up in the Department of Chemistry to coordinate atmospheric research across Europe. (
  • Thus, the ozone layer in the stratosphere protects plants and animals on Earth's surface from most of these dangerous effects. (
  • Abstract: Climate warming and elevated ozone (eO3) are important climate change components that can significantly affect plant growth and plant-microbe interactions. (
  • Nitrogen oxides from fertilizers and industrial sources also attack the ozone. (
  • Ozone was discovered in 1840 by Christian Friedrich Schönbein, who named it after the Greek word for smell ( ozein ), associating it with the peculiar odor in the air after lightning storms. (
  • In 2019, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned against using ozone therapy. (
  • In 2019, the FDA published a statement against using ozone as a medical therapy. (
  • Ozone is found both at high altitude and ground level. (
  • The International Geophysical Year * of 1957 - 1958 witnessed the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) take responsibility for establishing uniform and high quality ozone measurement world wide. (
  • EPA officials answered in a letter that high ozone concentrations can cause 'adverse effects on agricultural crops, trees in managed and unmanaged forests, and vegetation species growing in natural settings. (
  • Seasonal exposures at low elevations consist of days when ozone concentrations are relatively low or average, punctuated by days when concentrations are high. (
  • With the help of two successive days with high ozone loads from summer 1992, the different influences are elucidated in Maps 03.06.4 to 03.06.6. (
  • NOx and VOC combine chemically with oxygen to form ozone during sunny, high-temperature conditions of late spring, summer and early fall. (
  • Ozone, a type of oxygen molecule, is known to inactivate many pathogens, and previously experiments have shown that high concentrations, between 1-6 ppm, were effective against the coronavirus but potentially toxic to humans. (
  • Zox Ozone have been manufacturing and distributing high quality ozone generators and related products for over 10 years including commercial ozonators, air applicators, oxygen concentrators, enzyme for water management and accessories. (
  • This same high oxidizing potential, however, causes ozone to damage mucous and respiratory tissues in animals, and also tissues in plants, and above concentrations of about 0.1 ppm. (
  • Pyle and Harris's research has helped inform amendments to the Montreal Protocol, and by modeling the decline and recovery of the ozone layer before and after the protocol's introduction, their research has charted the effectiveness of this key international instrument. (
  • Pyle and Harris have made major contributions to international assessments of the state of the ozone layer, mandated every four years under the Montreal Protocol and the route by which scientific understanding is feed into the policy arena. (
  • By contributing to the science underpinning the Montreal Protocol, Pyle and Harris's research will continue to contribute to healing the ozone layer for decades to come, bene ting human health and the health of the planet. (
  • This indicator quantifies the current state of the ozone layer, the progress being made towards meeting the EU's Montreal Protocol commitments and trends in the remaining uses of ODSs within the EU. (
  • Studies in animals also suggest that ozone may reduce the human immune system's ability to fight bacterial infections in the respiratory system. (
  • Senior author Junfeng Zhang, a professor in global and environmental health at Duke University, says, "We know that ozone can damage the respiratory system, reduce lung function, and cause asthma attacks. (
  • In fact, it can take a CFC molecule about 2 years after being released at the ground to make it to the stratosphere where the ozone is. (
  • Good" ozone occurs naturally about 10 to 30 miles above the Earth's surface. (
  • While ozone concentrations vary naturally with sunspots, the seasons, and latitude, these processes are well understood and predictable. (
  • Among other things, the NRC has urged monitoring the ozone layer through two full sunspot cycles (some 22 years) to see how ozone varies naturally with solar activity. (
  • Ozone is naturally a gas. (
  • In addition, ozone is naturally produced by white blood cells and the roots of marigolds as a means of destroying foreign bodies. (
  • Plants grown in chambers receiving air filtered with activated charcoal to reduce ozone concentrations do not develop symptoms that occur on plants grown in nonfiltered air at ambient ozone concentrations. (
  • That's what makes it fun to measure ozone -- every year it surprises us. (
  • Most atmospheric ozone is concentrated in a layer in the stratosphere, about 15?30 kilometers above the Earth's surface. (
  • G. M. B. Dobson was a British physicist who initiated the first regular monitoring of atmospheric ozone using spectrographic instruments in the 1920s. (
  • Measurements of atmospheric ozone from the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite are now being used in daily forecasts of air quality. (
  • Against these economic consequences, scientific uncertainties regarding the benefits of more stringent ozone standards are significant. (
  • Indeed, stringent ozone standards may have severe unintended consequences for public health. (
  • The ozone molecule is also unstable (although, in the stratosphere, long-lived) and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits into a molecule of O 2 and an atom of atomic oxygen, a continuing process called the ozone-oxygen cycle , thus creating an ozone layer in the stratosphere , the region from about 10 to 50 kilometres (33,000 to 160,000 ft) above Earth's surface. (
  • If you work in an industry that uses ozone, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (
  • Ozone is an allotrope (a physically or chemically different form of the same substance) of oxygen with the chemical formula O 3 . (
  • The ODP is the ratio of the impact on ozone of a chemical compared to the impact of a similar mass of CFC-11. (
  • It is important, however, that the new results be tested so that we can be confident we understand the potential effects of future changes in temperature on polar ozone loss (as different chemical reactions have different sensitivities to temperature). (
  • [1] . The odor from a lightning strike, however, is from electrons freed during rapid chemical changes, not from the ozone itself [2] . (
  • Ozone (/ˈoʊzoʊn/), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O 3. (
  • Ozone enters the plant's leaves through its gas exchange pores (stomata), just as other atmospheric gases do in normal gas exchange. (
  • misc{etde_20478182, title = {Ozone modeling} author = {McIllvaine, C M} abstractNote = {Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. (
  • EHP has a small report on EPA's troubled ozone standard that's worth a look, especially if you don't know much about the issue. (
  • NOx and VOCs are called ozone precursors. (
  • Although these precursors often originate in urban areas, winds can carry NOx hundreds of kilometers, causing ozone formation to occur in less populated regions as well. (