A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
A synthetic analog of vasopressin with ORNITHINE substitution at residue 8 of the cyclic nonapeptide. It is used as a local vasoconstrictor and hemostatic.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
The porcine antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSINS). It is a cyclic nonapeptide that differs from ARG-VASOPRESSIN by one amino acid, containing a LYSINE at residue 8 instead of an ARGININE. Lys-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
The final period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the expulsion of the FETUS to the expulsion of the PLACENTA.
Failure of the UTERUS to contract with normal strength, duration, and intervals during childbirth (LABOR, OBSTETRIC). It is also called uterine atony.
Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

Vasopressin stimulation of acetate incorporation into lipids in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor cell line. (1/1958)

In a preliminary report we described the effects of rat prolactin on the incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids by a cell line from a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumor. The characteristics of the response to prolactin were very similar to those described for the normal rat mammary gland; namely, insulin was required for full expression of the response, maximal activity was not seen until 36 hr after the addition of the hormones, and growth hormone was able to elicit the same response. However, we were unable to detect binding of 125I-labeled prolactin to these cells, and furthermore, other more purified prolactin preparations were inactive. Upon further investigation we discovered that the activity resided in a low-molecular-weight fraction of the rat prolactin B-1 preparation and was probably either vasopressin or oxytocin or both. These data suggest the possibility that vasopressin may play a role in rodent mammary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Central peptidergic neurons are hyperactive during collateral sprouting and inhibition of activity suppresses sprouting. (2/1958)

Little is known regarding the effect of chronic changes in neuronal activity on the extent of collateral sprouting by identified CNS neurons. We have investigated the relationship between activity and sprouting in oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system (MNS). Uninjured MNS neurons undergo a robust collateral-sprouting response that restores the axon population of the neural lobe (NL) after a lesion of the contralateral MNS (). Simultaneously, lesioned rats develop chronic urinary hyperosmolality indicative of heightened neurosecretory activity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sprouting MNS neurons are hyperactive by measuring changes in cell and nuclear diameters, OT and VP mRNA pools, and axonal cytochrome oxidase activity (COX). Each of these measures was significantly elevated during the period of most rapid axonal growth between 1 and 4 weeks after the lesion, confirming that both OT and VP neurons are hyperactive while undergoing collateral sprouting. In a second study the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of neuronal activity would interfere with the sprouting response was tested. Chronic hyponatremia (CH) was induced 3 d before the hypothalamic lesion and sustained for 4 weeks to suppress neurosecretory activity. CH abolished the lesion-induced increases in OT and VP mRNA pools and virtually eliminated measurable COX activity in MNS terminals. Counts of the total number of axon profiles in the NL revealed that CH also prevented axonal sprouting from occurring. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased neuronal activity is required for denervation-induced collateral sprouting to occur in the MNS.  (+info)

Production of prostaglandin f2alpha and its metabolite by endometrium and yolk sac placenta in late gestation in the tammar wallaby, Macropus Eugenii. (3/1958)

In this study, we investigated production of prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha and its metabolite, PGFM, by uterine tissues from tammar wallabies in late pregnancy. Endometrial explants were prepared from gravid and nongravid uteri of tammars between Day 18 of gestation (primitive streak) and Day 26.5 (term) and were incubated in Ham's F-10 medium supplemented with glutamine and antibiotics for 20 h. PGF2alpha and PGFM in the medium were assayed by specific, validated RIAs. Control tissues (leg muscle) did not produce detectable amounts of either PG. Both gravid and nongravid endometria secreted PGF2alpha, and production increased significantly in both gravid and nongravid uteri towards term. PGFM was produced in small amounts by both gravid and nongravid uteri, and the rate of production did not increase. Neither oxytocin nor dexamethasone stimulated PG production in vitro in any tissue at any stage. Thus, the surge in peripheral plasma PGFM levels seen at parturition may arise from increased uterine PG production, but further study is needed to define what triggers this release.  (+info)

Down-regulation of oxytocin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin F synthase expression by interferon-tau in bovine endometrial cells. (4/1958)

Oxytocin (OT) is responsible for the episodic release of luteolytic prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha from the uterus in ruminants. The attenuation of OT-stimulated uterine PGF2alpha secretion by interferon-tau (IFN-tau) is essential for prevention of luteolysis during pregnancy in cows. To better understand the mechanisms involved, the effect of recombinant bovine IFN-tau (rbIFN-tau) on OT-induced PG production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGF synthase (PGFS) expression in cultured endometrial epithelial cells was investigated. Cells were obtained from cows at Days 1-3 of the estrous cycle and cultured to confluence in RPMI medium supplemented with 5% steroid-free fetal calf serum. The cells were then incubated in the presence or absence of either 100 ng/ml OT or OT+100 ng/ml rbIFN-tau for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. OT significantly increased PGF2alpha and PGE2 secretion at all time points (p < 0.01), while rbIFN-tau inhibited the OT-induced PG production and reduced OT receptor binding in a time-dependent manner. OT increased the steady-state level of COX-2 mRNA, measured by Northern blot, which was maximal at 3 h (9-fold increase) and then decreased with time (p < 0.01). OT also caused an increase in COX-2 protein, which peaked at 12 h (11-fold increase), as measured by Western blot. Addition of rbIFN-tau suppressed the induction of COX-2 mRNA (89%, p < 0.01) and COX-2 protein (50%, p < 0.01) by OT. OT also increased PGFS mRNA, and this stimulation was attenuated by rbIFN-tau (p < 0.01). To ensure that the decrease in COX-2 was not solely due to down-regulation of the OT receptor, cells were stimulated with a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA) in the presence and absence of rbIFN-tau. The results showed that rbIFN-tau also decreased PMA-stimulated PG production and COX-2 protein. It can be concluded that rbIFN-tau inhibition of OT-stimulated PG production is due to down-regulation of OT receptor, COX-2, and PGFS.  (+info)

Oxytocin and vasopressin receptors in human and uterine myomas during menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. (5/1958)

The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity and concentration of oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) binding sites in non-pregnant (NP) human and rhesus monkey endometrium, myometrium and fibromyomas, and to determine the cellular localization of OT receptor (OTR). Besides [3H]AVP, [125I]LVA, a specific VP1 receptor subtype antagonist, was used to determine vasopressin receptor (VPR) concentrations. Samples were obtained from 42 pre-menopausal and three pregnant women (5, 13 and 35 weeks gestation), and several NP and pregnant monkeys. Specificity of binding was assessed in competition experiments with unlabelled agonists and antagonists of known pharmacological potency. Cellular localization of OTR was determined by immunohistochemistry. In NP human uterine tissues, [3H]AVP was bound with higher affinity and greater binding capacity than [3H]OT, whereas in pregnant women and in NP and pregnant rhesus monkeys, uterine OT binding capacity was greater. OT and AVP binding sites discriminated very poorly between OT and AVP; [125I]LVA binding sites were more selective than [3H]AVP. Their ligand specificity and binding kinetics indicated the presence of two distinct populations of binding sites for OT and AVP in primate uterus. Endometrium of NP women and monkeys had low OTR and VPR concentrations. Myometrial and endometrial OTR and VPR were down-regulated in midcycle and in early human pregnancy, they were up-regulated in the secretory phase and second half of pregnancy. Immunoreactive OTR in NP uterus was localized in patches of myometrial muscle cells and small numbers of endometrial epithelial cells.  (+info)

Desensitization of oxytocin receptors in human myometrium. (6/1958)

In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanisms by which oxytocin might regulate oxytocin receptor (OTR) density. Exposure of cultured myometrial cells to oxytocin for a prolonged period caused desensitization: the steady-state level of oxytocin binding was 210 x 10(3) binding sites/cell, but this was time-dependently reduced to 20.1 x 10(3) sites/cell by exposing the cells to oxytocin for up to 20 h. In contrast, Western blotting data showed that the total amount of OTR protein was not affected by oxytocin treatment for up to 24 h. Flow cytometry experiments demonstrated that OTRs were not internalized during this treatment. However, RNase protection assays and Northern analysis showed that in cultured myometrial cells OTR mRNA was reduced by oxytocin treatment to reach a new low steady-state concentration. Analysis of this mRNA in myometrial biopsies from 17 patients undergoing emergency Caesarean section showed how it decreased with advancing labour. Samples obtained after 12 h of labour contained approximately 50 times less OTR mRNA than samples obtained from patients in labour for less than 12 h. We speculate that this decrease in OTR mRNA represents in-vivo OTR desensitization.  (+info)

Uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle: effects of oestrogen, antioestrogen and oxytocin. (7/1958)

Uterine peristalsis, directing sustained and rapid sperm transport from the external cervical os or the cervical crypts to the isthmic part of the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, changes in direction and frequency during the menstrual cycle, with lowest activity during menstruation and highest activity at mid cycle. It was therefore suggested that uterine peristalsis is under the control of the dominant follicle with the additional involvement of oxytocin. To test this hypothesis, vaginal sonography of uterine peristalsis was performed in the early, mid and late proliferative phases, respectively, of cycles of women treated with oestradiol valerate and with human menopausal gonadotrophin following pituitary downregulation, with clomiphene citrate and with intravenous oxytocin, respectively. Administration of oestradiol valerate resulted in oestradiol serum concentrations comparable with the normal cycle with a simulation of the normal frequency of peristaltic contractions. Elevated oestradiol concentrations and bolus injections of oxytocin resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of peristaltic contractions in the early and mid follicular phases, respectively. Chlomiphene tended, though insignificantly so, to suppress the frequency of peristaltic waves in the presence of elevated oestradiol concentrations. In the late follicular phase of the cycle extremely elevated oestradiol concentrations as well as the injection of oxytocin resulted only in an insignificant further increase of peristaltic frequency. In the normal cycles, as well as during extremely elevated oestradiol concentrations and following oxytocin administration, the peristaltic contractions were always confined to the subendometrial layer of the muscular wall. The results and the review of literature indicate that uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is controlled by oestradiol released from the dominant follicle with the probable involvement of oxytocin, which is presumably stimulated together with its receptor within the endometrial-subendometrial unit and therefore acting in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. Since unphysiological stimulation with oestradiol and oxytocin did not significantly increase the frequency of uterine peristalsis in the late follicular phase of the cycle it is assumed that normal preovulatory frequency of uterine peristalsis is at a level which cannot be significantly surpassed due to phenomena of refractoriness of the system.  (+info)

Sperm transport in the human female genital tract and its modulation by oxytocin as assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, hysterotonography, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography. (8/1958)

The transport function of the uterus and oviducts and its modulation by oxytocin has been examined using hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, recording of intrauterine pressure, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography of the Fallopian tubes. After application to the posterior vaginal fornix, a rapid (within minutes) uptake of the labelled particles into the uterus was observed during the follicular and during the luteal phase of the cycle in all patients. Transport into the oviducts, however, could only be demonstrated during the follicular phase. Transport was directed predominantly into the tube ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle; the contralateral oviduct appeared to be functionally closed. The proportion of patients exhibiting ipsilateral transport did increase concomitant with the increase of the diameter of the dominant follicle. That ipsilateral transport has biological significance is suggested by the observation that the pregnancy rate following spontaneous intercourse or insemination was significantly higher in those women in whom ipsilateral transport could be demonstrated than in those who failed to exhibit lateralization. Oxytocin administration was followed by a dramatic increase in the amount of material transported to the ipsilateral tube, as demonstrated by radionuclide imaging and by Doppler sonography following instillation of ultrasound contrast medium. Continuous recording of intrauterine pressure before and after oxytocin administration did show an increase in basal tonus and amplitude of contractions and a reversal of the pressure gradient from a fundo-cervical to a cervico-fundal direction. These actions of oxytocin were accompanied by an increase in amplitude of potentials recorded by electrohysterography. These data support the view that uterus and Fallopian tubes represent a functional unit that is acting as a peristaltic pump and that the increasing activity of this pump during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is reflected by an increased transport into the oviduct ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle. In addition, they strongly suggest a critical role of oxytocin in this process. Failure of this mechanism appears to be a cause of subfertility or infertility, as indicated by the low pregnancy rate following intrauterine insemination or normal intercourse in the presence of patent Fallopian tubes. It may be regarded as a new nosological entity for which we propose the term tubal transport disorder (TTD). Since pregnancy rate of such patients is normal when treated with in-vitro fertilization (IVF), hysterosalpingoscintigraphy seems to be useful for the choice of treatment modalities in patients with patent Fallopian tubes suffering from infertility.  (+info)

Oxytocin and Personality. Evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin plays a role in social affiliation. This behavior may be related more to personality dimensions than specific psychiatric diagnoses. This study investigated the relationship between plasma oxytocin levels and personality dimensions using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 60 outpatients with major depression. The strongest correlation was between plasma oxytocin levels and the temperament dimension of Reward Dependence (0.425 Pearson correlation). This suggested that 17% of the variance in plasma oxytocin levels was explained by the Reward Dependence scores. There was a significant positive correlation between plasma oxytocin levels and the Reward Dependence personality dimension.. Nicknamed the cuddle chemical because it renders a warm and fuzzy feeling inside, oxytocin, (a naturally produced hormone) has been shown via brain scan to lower activity in the amygdala - a region which is overactive in social ...
Oxytocin is both a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland and also a brain neurotransmitter. The actions of oxytocin are mediated by specific, high affinity oxytocin receptors. Oxytocin has a well-recognized role in breastfeeding, and uterine contraction.. In sexual medicine, oxytocin has a role in orgasm. Several studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm. Plasma oxytocin levels are notably increased around the time of orgasm and are still higher than baseline when measured 5 minutes after self-arousal. It is possible that oxytocins effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate male sperm and female egg transport. Oxytocin levels in women before and after sexual stimulation suggests that oxytocin serves an important role in sexual arousal. One study showed that genital tract stimulation resulted in increased oxytocin immediately after orgasm. Another study reported increases of oxytocin during sexual arousal in response to nipple/areola, genital, and/or genital tract ...
Chronic neck and shoulder pain (CNSP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder in adults, which is linked to hypersensitivity to noxious stimuli. The hormone oxytocin has been implicated as a potential therapeutic for the management of chronic pain disorders, and has been suggested to have sex-specific effects on the salience of threatening stimuli. This study investigated the influence of intranasal oxytocin on the perception of noxious thermal stimuli. Participants were 24 individuals with CNSP lasting |12months (eight women), and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy, pain-free controls. In a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, participants attended two sessions, self-administering intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in one session, and placebo in another. Participants rated intensity and unpleasantness of thermal heat stimuli at three body sites: the cervical spine, deltoid, and tibialis anterior, on 11-point numerical rating scales. Compared with placebo, intranasal oxytocin increased the
BACKGROUND A synthetic oxytocin analogue, barusiban, was shown to potently inhibit oxytocin-induced activity of myometrium from term pregnant women. The responsiveness to vasopressin was not influenced by the compound. OBJECTIVE To test the effect of barusiban and a reference compound, atosiban, on oxytocin-induced activity of myometrium from women at preterm pregnancy in comparison to myometrium from women at term. METHODS Fifteen preterm (30-36 gestational weeks) and 12 term pregnant women (38-41 weeks) who underwent cesarean delivery donated myometrial tissue for the study. Concentration-response curves following oxytocin administration to isolated myometrial strips were recorded in control experiments, in the presence of barusiban at concentrations of 2.5, 25, and 250 nM, and of atosiban at concentrations of 25, 250, and 750 nM. Effective concentration 50% (EC50) and pA2 values were calculated. RESULTS Both antagonists in higher concentrations increased the EC50 values to oxytocin. The median
[Besides its effect on the uterus and breasts, oxytocin also regulates affiliative behaviour. The so-called central oxytocin effect influences pair bonding, maternal care and attachment through the regulatory functions of oxytocin that acts as a neurotransmitter within the brain. The central oxytocin effect increases trust and social support, decreases fear and anxiety, and promotes wound healing. These effects form the basis of the stress-triggered, oxytocin-based calm and connection reaction. Some methods that are widely used in modern obstretric practice - such as the use of synthetic oxytocin for inducing or speeding up labour or epidural anaesthesia - hinder the psycho-emotive effects that are based on natural oxytocin. Epigenetic studies performed in animals indicate that the oxytocin effect experienced at birth can be transgenerational.]
Plasma oxytocin levels are significantly higher in oral contraceptive (OC) users than in to non-users, according to a study in Scientific Reports. The cross-sectional study of nearly 200 women also found that scores for satisfaction with life were higher among OC users.
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A recent study demonstrated that pregnant women with low oxytocin have a higher risk of postpartum depression. This should come as a surprise to no one. Studies have already demonstrated that low oxytocin release inhibits happy parenting. High oxytocin the opposite. Young non depressed fathers given oxytocin spray seem happier and are more likely to encourage their children to explore during playtime and are less likely to be hostile, compared to fathers given an oxytocin placebo. Mothers with higher oxytocin levels are less likely to be depressed adn more likely to coo to their babies in a playful voice, a speech scientists call motherese. High oxytocin mothers smile more at their babies and are more flexible to changes in its moods. The additional touching, looking into the eyes, lullabys releases even more oxytocin in both mother, father and child. Parents that look into each others eyes release more oxytocin. A test for parents with low oxytocin may one day help to identify mothers and ...
The aim of this thesis was to determine any association between plasma oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations and renal water and sodium excretion during normal pregnancy. In addition to investigate changes in concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, oxytocin, cortisol, and glucose in the blood before and in the nearest hours after delivery and if treatment with oxytocin affected these concentrations and the fluid balance during the different stages of labour.. Oxytocin, vasopressin, estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were analysed in blood plasma or serum by radioimmunoassay or ELISA: serum glucose, and osmolality, and sodium in plasma and urine were analysed by standard laboratory techniques.. Fifty-seven women were studied during pregnancy and fifty-one during parturition and post partum. The low plasma vasopressin and increasing plasma oxytocin concentrations with unchanged water and sodium excretion indicate that oxytocin assists vasopressin in concentrating urine during ...
Oxytocin increases the salience of both positive and negative social contexts and it is thought that these diverse actions on behavior are mediated in part through circuit-specific action. This hypothesis is based primarily on manipulations of oxytocin receptor function, leaving open the question of whether different populations of oxytocin neurons mediate different effects on behavior. Here we inhibited oxytocin synthesis in a stress-sensitive population of oxytocin neurons specifically within the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTmv). Oxytocin knockdown prevented social stress-induced increases in social vigilance and decreases in social approach. Viral tracing of BNSTmv oxytocin neurons revealed fibers in regions controlling defensive behaviors, including lateral hypothalamus, anterior hypothalamus, and anteromedial BNST (BNSTam). Oxytocin infusion into BNSTam in stress naïve mice increased social vigilance and reduced social approach. These results show that a population ...
The aim of this study was to use functional neuroimaging to investigate whether oxytocin modulates the neural response to visual food cues in brain regions involved in the control of food intake. Twenty-four normal weight volunteers received intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) or placebo in a double-blind, randomized crossover study. Measurements were made forty-five minutes after dosing. On two occasions, functional MRI (fMRI) scans were performed in the fasted state; the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to images of high-calorie foods versus low-calorie foods was measured. Given its critical role in eating behaviour, the primary region of interest was the hypothalamus. Secondary analyses examined the parabrachial nuclei and other brain regions involved in food intake and food reward. Intranasal oxytocin administration suppressed hypothalamic activation to images of high-calorie compared to low-calorie food (P = 0.0125). There was also a trend towards suppression of activation in the ...
Oxytocin is a hormone produced by the brain that appears to have important roles in social cognition and emotion in humans. In a pilot study, the effects of a single dose of oxytocin on measures of emotion recognition and behaviour in patients with Frontotemporal Dementia were investigated. The results from the pilot study suggested that oxytocin may be associated with a modest improvement in neuropsychiatric behaviours seen in patients with Frontotemporal Dementia. To further examine the safety and tolerability of oxytocin in this disorder, the present study will examine the safety and tolerability of three different doses of intranasal oxytocin administered to patients with Frontotemporal Dementia twice daily for 1 week ...
The oxytocin-inactivating activity (OIA) of liver, kidney, uterus, pancreas, spleen and duodenum homogenates of hens was studied. The first-order constant of oxytocin inactivation was higher in the liver and pancreas than in the uterus and kidney or in the duodenum and spleen. Using synthetic analogues of oxytocin (deamino-oxytocin, deamino-carba1-oxytocin and carba1-oxytocin the mechanism of enzymic inactivation of oxytocin by hen tissue was investigated.. Enzymic hydrolysis by the CH2-terminal cleavage was most marked in duodenum (about 86% OIA) and kidney (54·8% OIA). Reduction of the disulphide bridge was most marked in the uterus (about 80% OIA) and pancreas (about 73% OIA). Splitting by non-specific aminopeptidases after reduction of the disulphide bridge occurred mainly in the liver (72% OIA) and in the spleen (44% OIA). ...
PART 2 The endogenous oxytocin system changes and matures over time as part of normal development. This paper postulates that individual factors and early external influences (i.e. parenting, stress and illness) affect the developing endogenous oxytocin system and its connectivity with other systems affecting oxytocin levels and alter responsiveness of the oxytocin system. When…
Abstract: Background: Oxytocin, a commonly used drug to prevent uterine atony after caesarean section, should be administered as dilute rapid infusion rather than as a bolus. This study was conducted to calculate ED90 of oxytocin infusion during caesarean delivery in parturients at high risk of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty parturients having one or more risk factors for PPH received a blinded infusion of oxytocin following emergency caesarean delivery. The initial dose of oxytocin infusion was started as 0.4 IU min−1. The dose of oxytocin infusion for the next parturient was based on the response of preceding patient in increments or decrements of 0.1 IU min−1 as per a biased-coin design up-down sequential method (UDM). Measurements of non-invasive blood pressure and heart rate were taken at 2 min intervals from the time of oxytocin infusion. Intraoperative blood loss was noted. Side effects such as tachycardia, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, ...
Background: Oxytocin infusion is used for induction or augmentation of labor to prevent prolonged labor. A cheap and nonaggressive alternative which is effectively used for contraction stress test is nipple stimulation. However research regarding its efficacy and safety is still limited. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of nipple stimulation and oxytocin infusion on the duration of phases of labor.Methods: This randomized clinical trial included 132 low-risk pregnant women admitted to Asali hospital in 2006 -2007. Those having poor contractions in active phase of labor were randomly assigned into two groups of nipple stimulation and oxytocin infusion. Women in the nipple stimulation group had their nipples messaged by hands moving in circle and using lubricant gel. The oxytocin infusion was started at 0.25 mIU/min for the oxytocin infusion group. Data collection was carried out through observation, examination and interviews. Data were analyzed using statistical tests, repeated measure test,
Anxious patients treated with even the best currently available anti-anxiety drugs continue to experience significant symptoms.. A variety of basic science, animal studies, and human studies support the idea that the neuropeptide oxytocin may be effective against anxiety in humans. For example, plasma oxytocin levels may function as an index of central serotonin (5-HT) function in human subjects, and serotonin is well-known to be involved in clinical anxiety disorders. Since oxytocin is released directly from limbic-hypothalamic cells, this response presumably represents a direct central assessment of 5-HT response in limbic-hypothalamus (Lee 2003). In animal models, Ring 2006 examined the effects of oxytocin on both behavioral and autonomic parameters of the anxiety response in male mice using three pharmacologically validated preclinical models of anxiety: the four-plate test (FPT), elevated zero maze (EZM), and stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH). The results from this study provide specific ...
Oxytocin is a neurohormone that has been correlated with lactation, uterine-contractions, postpartum behavior, pro-social behavior, trust, empathy, and decreased anxiety. In addition, oxytocin is believed to underscore the tend-and-befriend response to stress. In this study, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and oxytocin levels were measured in response to a social stressor in human participants. Oxytocin was initially seen to increase with ACTH and cortisol in response to a social stressor. As levels of oxytocin increase, levels of ACTH and cortisol were shown to decrease or plateau. I conclude that oxytocin is released in response to a perceived stressor and display inhibitory effects over ACTH and cortisol.
A highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for oxytocin was developed and used to measure oxytocin concentrations during both suckling and parturition in individual rats. In urethane-anaesthetized rats, the suckling stimuli, provided by ten pups, induced intermittent increases in intramammary pressure of about 10 mmHg. This was associated with a significant (P , 0·01) increase in serum oxytocin levels from 19·5 ± 4·5 (s.e.m., n = 9) to 49·1 ± 7·4 pmol/l (n = 9) in the samples taken within 30 s from the time of the peak in the pressure. These rises in serum oxytocin returned rapidly to the basal levels as expected from the short half-life (1·46 min) of oxytocin in general circulation.. On day 22 or 23 of gestation, serum oxytocin levels remained stable until 0-0·5 h before the first fetus was expelled. They then increased significantly (P , 0·01) from 27·6± 4·6 pmol/l (n = 19) in samples taken 0-0·5 h before to 45·1 ± 5·6 pmol/l in samples taken after the expulsion of ...
Maybe Im jumping too quickly to put two and two together but juxtaposing the description of the effect of Smiths Nambian root with the actions of oxytocin, I cant but wonder if there is some connection. There are numerous examples of other plants which contain hormones. Could this root contain oxytocin or could something in it stimulate oxytocin release in people? Food for thought, eh?. Here is concise but partial summary of oxytocins actions in the brain from Wikipedia:. 1. Sexual arousal. Oxytocin injected into the cerebrospinal fluid causes spontaneous erections in rats, reflecting actions in the hypothalamus and spinal cord. 2. Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males. In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has ...
Hypothalamic oxytocin (OT) is released into the brain by cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) with or without depolarizing stimulation. Previously, we showed that the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) that seems to trigger OT release can be elevated by -NAD+, cADPR, and ADP in mouse oxytocinergic neurons. As these -NAD+ metabolites activate warm-sensitive TRPM2 cation channels, when the incubation temperature is increased, the [Ca2+]i in hypothalamic neurons is elevated. However, it has not been determined whether OT release is facilitated by heat in vitro or hyperthermia in vivo in combination with cADPR. Furthermore, it has not been examined whether CD38 and TRPM2 exert their functions on OT release during stress or stress-induced hyperthermia in relation to the anxiolytic roles and social behaviors of OT under stress conditions. Here, we report that OT release from the isolated hypothalami of male mice in culture was enhanced by extracellular application of cADPR or increasing the
AMHERST, Mass. - The hormone oxytocin appears to increase social behaviors in newborn rhesus monkeys, say researchers at the National Institutes of Health, the University of Parma, Italy, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Findings suggest that oxytocin is a promising candidate for new treatments for developmental disorders affecting social skills and bonding.. Oxytocin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, is involved in labor, birth and breast milk production. Studies have also shown that oxytocin plays a role in parental bonding, mating and social interactions. Because of this, many researchers have suggested that oxytocin might be useful in treating conditions affecting social behavior such as autism spectrum disorders.. Earlier research in adults has shown that oxytocin increases certain social behaviors, says behavioral endocrinologist Jerrold Meyer of UMass Amherst, but the current study is the first to show that it may have the same effect in primate infants, including ...
The effect of oxytocin on phosphoinositide metabolism as well as on membrane protein phosphorylation in myometrial tissue was studied. Oxytocin enhanced the 32P incorporation into phospholipids in myometrial tissue. The effect of oxytocin on phosphoinositide metabolism was also detected in plasma membrane of 20 days pregnant rats. Phosphorylated membrane lipids have been analysed and phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate proved to be the main reaction product. Oxytocin enhanced the 32P incorporation into phospholipids measured in the first 30 sec then the labeling decreased more rapidly then in case of the control. The effect of oxytocin proved to be concentration dependent. The protein phosphorylation was also influenced by oxytocin. However the amount of alkylphosphate formed depended on the presence or absence of Ca2+, Ca2+-calmodulin and cyclic AMP, oxytocin influenced the protein phosphorylation in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin only.
Oxytocin Injection may be used as a uterine contractor to precipitate and accelerate normal parturition, the postpartum evacuation of uterine debris, and to facilitate udder milk-letdown.
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Oxytocin is critical for lactation and maternal care, but oxytocin and the related nonapeptide vasopressin are important for caregiving behaviors in fathers and alloparents as well. This experiment tested the effects of vasopressin and oxytocin on food sharing in marmoset families. We treated caregivers (parents, siblings) with intranasal vasopressin, oxytocin, or saline, and then paired them with the youngest marmoset in the family. Caregivers were given preferred food, and then observed for food sharing and aggressive behavior with young marmosets. Oxytocin reduced food sharing from male alloparents to youngest siblings, and fathers that received vasopressin refused to share food with their youngest offspring more often than when treated with oxytocin. Vasopressin increased aggressive vocalizations directed toward potential food recipients in all classes of caregivers. These results indicate that vasopressin and oxytocin do not always enhance prosocial behavior: modulation of food sharing depends on
Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.. Chemistry - A nonapeptide hypothalamic hormone stored in the posterior pituitary (in mammals), oxytocin occurs as a white powder that is soluble in water. The commercially available preparations are highly purified and have virtually no antidiuretic or vasopressor activity when administered at usual doses. Oxytocin potency is standardized according to its vasopressor activity in chickens and is expressed in USP Posterior Pituitary Units. One unit is equivalent of approximately 2.0 - 2.2 micrograms of pure hormone.. Commercial preparations of oxytocin injection have their pH adjusted with acetic acid to 2.5-4.5 and multi-dose vials generally contain chlorbutanol 0.5% as a preservative.. Storage/Stability/Compatibility - Oxytocin injection should be stored at temperatures of less than 25°C, but should not be frozen. Some manufacturers recommend storing the product under refrigeration (2-8°C), but some products have been demonstrated to be ...
Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys: © 2015 the Am
The main goal of the study is to look at the effects of intranasal oxytocin on the brain in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Oxytocin is a hormone that exists
Question: What is oxytocin?. Paul: Oxytocin is a mammalian neurochemical that your brain makes and is released during almost any positive social interaction. It motivates us to engage with other people. When your brain makes oxytocin, you have an increased sense of empathy for about ½ hour and reduced stress. During that time, you are more motivated to connect to people around you . The release of oxytocin also activates a much larger network in the brain, called the HOME Network: Human Oxytocin Mediated Empathy system. Oxytocin facilitates the mid-brain to release a chemical called dopamine that is essentially the reward signal. It makes us feel good. Nature has set up a system that rewards us we connect to others, as we relax and feel good.. The HOME Network directly improves the systems of depression, anxiety, and loneliness. It can also directly impact and potentially slow tumor growth by reducing the production of the stress hormone cortisol. Question: What has your oxytocin research ...
© 2014, PLOS ONE. Recent work has shown that oxytocin is involved in more than lactation and uterine contraction. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) contains neuroendocrine neurons that control the release of hormones, including vasopressin and oxytocin. Other populations of PVN neurons do not release hormones, but rather project to and release neurotransmitters onto other neurons in the CNS involved in fluid retention, thermoregulation, sexual behavior and responses to stress. Activation of oxytocin receptors can be cardioprotective and reduces the adverse cardiovascular consequences of anxiety and stress, yet how oxytocin can affect heart rate and cardiac function is unknown. While anatomical work has shown the presence of peptides, including oxytocin, in the projections from the PVN to parasympathetic nuclei, electrophysiological studies to date have only demonstrated release of glutamate and activation of fast ligand gated receptors in these pathways. In this study, using rats,
The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in social behavior and is being evaluated as a possible treatment for autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the neural mechanisms through which oxytocin modulates social behavior remain largely unknown. One possibility is that social interaction recruits the brains reward circuits and that oxytocin plays a role in this process, which ultimately reinforces social behavior. In a recent study, Dolen et al. elucidate key circuits and mechanisms through which oxytocin can modulate social behavior via actions on the nucleus accumbems, a key component of the brains reward circuitry.. Dolen et al. studied social conditioned place preference (social CPP), in which mice prefer to spend time in a chamber that was previously associated with social interaction instead of in a chamber previously associated with social isolation. This task measures the rewarding effects of social interactions. Dolen et al. found that ablating presynaptic oxytocin ...
Oxytocin production increases the more you get the stress out of your life. A very interesting aspect of this hormone is, the more you increase it, the more you make!
The first bit of evidence that points to oxytocin as natures love glue comes from researchers who measured the hormone in couples. Psychology professor Ruth Feldman at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, spent years studying oxytocins role in the mother-child bond and recently decided to dive into the uncharted waters of romantic bonds by comparing oxytocin levels in new lovers and singles. The increase in oxytocin during the period of falling in love was the highest that we ever found, she says of a study she and her colleagues published in Psychoneuroendocrinology. New lovers had double the amount Feldman usually sees in pregnant women ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats.. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups.. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were applied after pretreatment with intracerebroventricular infusion of saline or different 5-HT antagonists.. RESULTS: Restraint stress (5 min), hypotensive hemorrhage or dehydration for 24 h increased AVP secretion fivefold and OT secretion threefold. Swim stress for 3 min had no effect on AVP secretion, but increased OT secretion threefold. Ether vapor or hypoglycemia had no effect on AVP or OT secretion. The restraint stress-induced AVP response was inhibited by pretreatment with the 5-HT(2A+2C) antagonists ketanserin (KET) and LY-53857 (LY) and the 5-HT(3+4) antagonist ICS-205930 (ICS), whereas the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-100635 (WAY) had no effect. The OT response to restraint stress was inhibited by ...
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This study used population-based data to examine the relationship between peripartum synthetic oxytocin administration and the development of depressive and anxiety disorders within the first year postpartum.
Human beings make decisions based on implicit and explicit processes. The implicit processes are regulated by hormones; however, the same hormone could affect multiple behaviors. In this study, I will modify oxytocin levels by manipulating feelings of trustworthiness and observe if the changes in oxytocin levels affect a distinct construct controlled by this hormone: evaluative processes of romantic stimuli. I will utilize a neuroeconomic game to manipulate endogenous oxytocin levels and observe whether this manipulation changes peoples attitudes towards romantic pictures and their overall desire for a romantic connection.
Oxytocin, a peptide produced in the brain, may bring hearts together or it can help induce aggression. That conclusion arises from unique research by scientist in which mice living in semi-natural conditions had their oxytocin producing brain cells manipulated in a highly precise manner. The findings could shed new light on efforts to use oxytocin to treat a variety of psychiatric conditions, from social anxiety and autism to schizophrenia.
Background: Research in mammals has demonstrated the involvement of oxytocin (OT) in social bond formation; yet, its role in human bonding remains unclear. Plasma OT has been used as a proxy for central activity and studies indicate its association with human affiliative behaviors. Molecular genetic studies also reveal a role for OT neuropathways in shaping the social brain. However, the links between peripheral OT, genetic markers, and their combined contribution to human parenting are unknown. Methods: Participants included 352 individuals: 272 mothers and fathers and their 4- to 6-month-old-infants and 80 nonparents. Plasma OT was assayed from adults who were genotyped for oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and CD38 risk alleles associated with social dysfunctions. CD38 is an ectoenzyme that mediates the release of brain OT. Parent-infant interactions were microcoded for parental touch and gaze synchrony and participants reported on parental care in childhood. Results: OXTR (rs2254298 and rs1042778) ...
Oxytocin analogues (pitocin, Syntocinon®) are used to induce labour and support labour in case of non-progression of the parturition. It has largely replaced ergotamine as the principal agent to increase uterine tone in acute postpartum haemorrhage. An oxytocin nose spray may be a useful adjunct to stimulate breastfeeding. Inhibition of oxytocin action is the mode of action of the new tocolytic agent atosiban (Tractocile®), which is registered in many countries to suppress premature labour between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation. It has fewer side-effects than drugs previously used for this purpose (ritodrine, salbutamol and terbutaline). A 2005 study by Fehr et al suggested that nasally administered oxytocin worked to generate trust in humans. They demonstrated that in a risky investment game, experimental subjects given the hormone displayed what the researchers deemed the highest level of trust twice as often as the control group who were given placebos. The same experiment with the subjects ...
Development of myometrium in young female rats was stimulated by administration of diethylstilboestrol. Plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum from rat myometrium were separated by a new and rapid method using a Percoll gradient. Calcium uptake was inhibited in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from oxytocin-treated myometrium, while no consistent effect of oxytocin was found on the Ca2+ uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Oxytocin regulated the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump by decreasing its apparent affinity for Ca2+ without affecting its maximal velocity. The K1/2 for Ca2+ in the absence of calmodulin was 0.41 +/- 0.04 microM in normal membranes; this was increased to 0.93 +/- 0.12 microM in oxytocin-treated membranes. Calmodulin decreased the K1/2 for Ca2+ to 0.27 +/- 0.027 microM and oxytocin also increased this, to 0.46 +/- 0.061 microM. The effect of oxytocin on the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump was highly dependent on the hormonal status of the animals. When the diethylstilboestrol was ...
Oxytocin is a hormone primarily known for increasing bonding, social behaviour and closeness between parents, children and couples. Increased oxytocin levels have been found, for example, in partners in functional relationships. In women, it is also produced during the childbirth process and during breastfeeding to increase the mothers bond with the baby.
Answer: Real. Researchers in Poland recently looked into the issue of retained placenta in draft mares, desiring to answer the question of why treatment of a retained placenta with repeated injections of oxytocin so often fails. They put forth the hypothesis that it may be the expression of oxytocin receptors that differs in mares that retain fetal membranes due to secondary uterine atony (lack of physiologic tone, muscle weakness). The objective of this study was to determine whether the expression of oxytocin receptors in equine placental tissue differs in these draft mares that normally pass their fetal membranes vs. those mares that retain them. Placental biopsies were taken from 8 draft mares during foaling. 4 mares passed their placenta shortly after foaling (control group) and 4 mares retained their placenta due to secondary uterine atony. The number of oxytocin receptors was estimated and the presence and location of these receptors determined. Results showed that the oxytocin receptor ...
Trust pervades human societies. Trust is indispensable in friendship, love, families and organizations, and plays a key role in economic exchange and politics. In the absence of trust among trading partners, market transactions break down. In the absence of trust in a countrys institutions and leaders, political legitimacy breaks down. Much recent evidence indicates that trust contributes to economic, political and social success. Little is known, however, about the biological basis of trust among humans. Here we show that intranasal administration of oxytocin, a neuropeptide that plays a key role in social attachment and affiliation in non-human mammals, causes a substantial increase in trust among humans, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. We also show that the effect of oxytocin on trust is not due to a general increase in the readiness to bear risks. On the contrary, oxytocin specifically affects an individuals willingness to accept social risks arising through
Ive linked before to this article that speculates that women with low oxytocin levels may experience depression associated with weaning from breastfeeding. Specifically, previous studies have suggested that women who have naturally low levels of oxytocin will suffer from depression. That made sense to me. When you breastfeed, your body is supposed to release oxytocin,…
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide oxytocin is increasing the focus of many studies investigating human and animal social behaviours and diseases. However, interpretation and comparison of results is made difficult by a lack of consistent methodological approaches towards analysing this hormone. NEW METHOD: This study determined the sample collection and analysis protocols that cause the least amounts of protocol dependant variation in plasma oxytocin concentrations detected by ELISA. The effect of vacutainer type, sample extraction prior to analysis and capture and restraint protocol were investigated while validating an assay protocol for two novel species, grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina). RESULTS: Where samples are extracted prior to analysis, vacutainer type (EDTA mean: 8.25±0.56pg/ml, heparin mean: 8.25±0.62pg/ml, p=0.82), time taken to obtain a sample and restraint protocol did not affect the concentration of oxytocin detected. However, concentrations of ...
Oxytocin, a hormone that promotes emotional bonding, also benefits people having trouble dealing with stress. A new study suggests that giving oxytocin for a week shortly following a traumatic experience reduces the risk that the recipient will develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).. In the study by researcher Mirjam van Zuiden and colleagues, people who visited an emergency room following some kind of trauma were randomized to receive either a placebo nasal spray or intranasal oxytocin twice daily for 7.5 days beginning within 12 days after the trauma. The dosage was 40 IU twice daily.. For those participants with severe PTSD symptoms at baseline, repeated oxytocin administration prevented worsening PTSD. The research was presented at the 2016 meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry.. ...
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All patients receiving intravenous oxytocin must be under continuous observation by trained personnel with a thorough knowledge of the drug and qualified to identify complications. A physician qualified to manage any complications should be immediately available.. When properly administered, oxytocin should stimulate uterine contractions similar to those seen in normal labor. Overstimulation of the uterus by improper administration can be hazardous to both mother and fetus. Even with proper administration and adequate supervision, hypertonic contractions can occur in patients whose uteri are hypersensitive to oxytocin.. Except in unusual circumstances, oxytocin should not be administered in the following conditions: prematurity, borderline cephalopelvic disproportion, previous major surgery on the cervix or uterus including Caesarean section, overdistention of the uterus, grand multiparity or invasive cervical carcinoma. Because of the variability of the combinations of factors which may be ...
Background: Oxytocin is widely used for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. In the setting of Caesarean section (CS), the dosage and mode of administrating oxytocin differs according to different guidelines. Inappropriate oxytocin doses have been identified as contributory to some cases of maternal deaths. The main aim of this study was to audit the current standard of clinical practice with regard to the use of oxytocin during CS at a referral hospital in Botswana. Methods: A clinical audit of pregnant women having CS and given oxytocin at the time of the operation was conducted over a period of three months. Data included indications for CS, oxytocin dose regimen, prescribing clinicians designation, type of anaesthesia for the CS and estimated blood loss. Results: A total of 139 case records were included. The commonest dose was 20 IU infusion (31.7%). The potentially dangerous regimen of 10 IU intravenous bolus of oxytocin was used in 12.9% of CS. Further doses were utilized in 57 ...
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Oxytocin is released in response to a fatty meal. Blockage of the oxytocin receptor led to slower gastric emptying whereas stimulation resulted in less satiety in healthy volunteers. Patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis lack oxytocin elevation, and dyspepsia is partly caused by reduced fundus accommodation causing early satiety and related symptoms. The aim of this study was thus to examine the effect of oxytocin on gastric emptying, satiety and volume intake in patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Gastric emptying scintigraphy was performed twice in 12 patients with diabetic gastroparesis, once with oxytocin and once with saline as intravenous infusions. The patients scored their sensation of satiety using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis was prolonged during oxytocin infusion (p = 0.034) without affecting satiety. A slow satiety drinking test was performed in 14 patients with functional dyspepsia. The patients scored their satiety
BioAssay record AID 513723 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [3H]-oxytocin from human oxytocin receptor expressed in HEK293-EBNA cells.
Autism spectrum disorder is associated with deficits in three main behavioral areas: social behaviors, repetitive behaviors, and language abnormalities. Accumulating evidence suggests a potential role for oxytocin signaling in the etiology of autism. Oxytocin signaling is integral to complex social behaviors such as fear, social recognition, and monogamous pair bonding initiation (Wang and Aragona 2004; Kirsch, Esslinger et al. 2005; Choleris, Little et al. 2007). Furthermore, evidence of a causal relationship between altered oxytocin levels and repetitive behaviors exists both humans and animals (Drago, Pederson et al. 1986; Hollander, Novotny et al. 2003). However, limited research exists to document a role for oxytocin and oxytocin related peptides in communication related behavior either in humans or animal models. Oxytocin immunoreactive neurons have been found in brain areas associated with the vocal behaviors of both the mustached bat and the plainfin midshipman fish and increased plasma ...
Oxytocin is a hormone produced in an area of the brain known as the hypothalamus, whose release activates a variety of brain regions resulting in many different functions, including birth (labor), breast feeding (lactation), maternal behavior, parental care, social bonding, affiliation (such as couples being together), and well-being. In recent studies in humans, oxytocin has been shown to be associated with increases in prosocial behaviors such as trust, altruism, generosity, cooperation and empathy. These various functions suggest that oxytocin may promote health by reducing stress and increasing calm/relaxed states, resulting in improved quality of life and well-being.. Given oxytocins stress-reducing and calming properties, and its capacity to increase well-being, its action may be relevant to those fighting cancer. We conducted a study to look at the effects of two mind-body therapies on changes in salivary oxytocin levels in a cancer survivor population with self-reported sleep ...
How is Dysphoric Milk Ejection Reflex abbreviated? D-MER stands for Dysphoric Milk Ejection Reflex. D-MER is defined as Dysphoric Milk Ejection Reflex somewhat frequently.
The purpose of this study is to compare the change in suck and swallow competency from baseline to day 5 with intranasal oxytocin spray vs placebo in
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of early versus delayed oxytocin augmentation on the obstetrical and neonatal outcome in nulliparous women with spontaneous but prolonged labour. DESIGN: Randomised controlled study. SETTING: Two delivery units in Sweden. POPULATION: Healthy nulliparous women with normal pregnancies, spontaneous onset of active labour, a cervical dilatation of 4-9 cm and no progress in cervical dilatation for 2 hours and for an additional hour if amniotomy was performed due to slow progress. METHODS: Women (n = 630) were randomly allocated either to labour augmentation by oxytocin infusion (early oxytocin group) or to postponement of oxytocin augmentation for another 3 hours (expectant group). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mode of delivery (spontaneous vaginal or instrumental vaginal delivery or caesarean section) and time from randomisation to delivery. RESULTS: The caesarean section rate was 29 of 314 (9%) in the early oxytocin group and 34 of 316 (11%) in the expectant group (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is multifactorial and is likely the result of complex interactions between multiple environmental and genetic factors. Recently, it has been suggested that each symptom cluster of the disorder, such as poor social communication, may be mediated by different genetic influences. Genes in the oxytocin pathway, which mediates social behaviours in humans, have been studied with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) being implicated in ASD. This thesis examines the presence of different oxytocin receptor genotypes, and their associations with ASD and resulting social communication deficits. Methods: The relationship between four OXTR variants and ASD was evaluated in 607 ASD simplex (SPX) families. Cases were compared to their unaffected siblings using a conditional logistic approach. Odds ratios and associated 95 percent confidence intervals were obtained. A second sample of 235 individuals with a diagnosis of ASD was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of particle-associated progesterone and oxytocin in the ovine corpus luteum. AU - Rice, G. E.. AU - Jenkin, G.. AU - Thorburn, G. D.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - The subcellular distribution of progesterone and oxytocin within the ovine corpus luteum was investigated using differential and density gradient centrifugation. Progesterone and oxytocin were associated with particles which sedimented to a density of 1.049-1.054 g/ml and 1.054-1.061 g/ml respectively. Particle-associated progesterone did not, however, display physical or biochemical characteristics consistent with its storage within secretory granules. When particle-associated progesterone was incubated in HEPES buffer at 37°C, 70% of the total progesterone was recovered in the incubation medium. The remaining stable particle-associated progesterone was not affected by treatments which stimulated oxytocin release and which have been shown to cause the release of peptides and biogenic amines from ...
MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) is used recreationally, reportedly because it increases feelings of empathy, sociability, and interpersonal closeness. One line of evidence suggests that MDMA produces these effects by releasing oxytocin, a peptide involved in social bonding. In the current study, we investigated the acute effects of MDMA and oxytocin on social and emotional processing in healthy human volunteers. MDMA users (N=65) participated in a 4-session, within-between-subjects study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75, 1.5 mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20 or 40 IU), or placebo under double-blind conditions. The primary outcomes included measures of emotion recognition and sociability (desire to be with others). Cardiovascular and subjective effects were also assessed. As expected, MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate and blood pressure and feelings of euphoria (eg, High and Like Drug). On measures of social function, MDMA impaired recognition of angry and ...
Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Hammersmith Hospital Campus (S.H.K., A.D.J.F., P.R.B., V.T.) and Chelsea and Westminster Hospital (V.T.), Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; and ObsEva SA, Geneva, Switzerland (O.P., A.C., J.-P.G ...
The 1980s heralded the discovery and identification of extra-pituitary sources of the neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin in non-neural tissues of several animal species. The presence, location and biosynthesis of significant amounts of oxytocin in the ovarian corpus luteum was followed by the immunocytochemical demonstration of an oxytocin-like peptide in the testicular interstitial cells. Leydig cells, which comprise up to 80% of the testicular intertubular cell population, are known to synthesize testosterone in situ. Indirect evidence indicated that an oxytocin-like peptide was also present in Leydig cells.. The question arose whether this peptide was synthesized de novo by Leydig cells or was taken up and stored by the cells following biosynthesis at some other intra- and/or extra-gonadal source(s). Since luteinizing hormone (LH) and ascorbate are known to augment the production of oxytocin in ovarian granulosa cells, varying concentrations of these two stimulants were used to monitor the ...
4): 270-77) The autistic group appeared to have significantly lower blood oxytocin levels than the normal group.... ... Artificial induction of labour creates situations that undoubtedly interfere with the development and the reorganization of the oxytocin system in such a critical period. This fact alone is a reason for further epidemiological studies focusing on labour induction as a possible risk factor. It would be useful to know also how autistic children release oxytocin. Oxytocin is more effective when released rhythmically, in a succession of fast pulsations. Today it is possible to measure the rhythmicity the pulsatility of oxytocin release. In other words, the time has come to study autism as an impaired capacity to love.. Midwifery Todays Editor Jan Triton notes: Oxytocin is a hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland. Its mechanical effects, particularly its stimulating effects on uterine contractions during labour, have been known for a long time. Recently we learned ...
Recent research has suggested that oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variants may account for individual differences in social behavior, the effects of stress and parenting styles. Little is known, however, on a putative role of the gene in heritable temperamental traits. We addressed effects of two common OXTR variants, rs237900 and rs237902, on personality dimensions in 99 healthy subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory. When sex was controlled for and an OXTR genotype*sex interaction term was included in the regression model, 11% of the variance in Harm Avoidance could be explained (uncorrected p ≤ 0.01). Female carriers of the minor alleles scored highest, and a novel A217T mutation emerged in the most harm avoidant male participant. Findings lend support to a modulatory effect of common OXTR variants on Harm Avoidance in healthy caucasian women and invite resequencing of the gene in anxiety phenotypes to identify more explanatory functional variation.
I will be writing more about each speakers presentation when time permits. I was very interested in Dr. Nanit Gordons presentation about Oxytocins Impact on Social Cognitive Brain Function in Youth with ASD which seemed to follow directly from a presentation I heard earlier in a preconference session about parental behaviors and childrens capacity to become members of the social group, understand complex social signals and develop social collaboration. I reference that session in paragraph 2). Dr. Gordon presented data including fMRI images showing the effect of Oxytocin on areas of the brain important to the aforementioned social capacities. Oxytocin was one of the response items to certain types of interaction, particularly parental interaction. My concern and my questions concerned whether if parental interaction increases a hormonal response, oxytocin, which improves capacity for at risk children to develop social capacity does that imply that our current research is indicating a return ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits neuropeptide hormone activity (ortholog); oxytocin receptor binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN drinking behavior (ortholog); eating behavior (ortholog); female pregnancy (ortholog); PARTICIPATES IN oxytocin signaling pathway; ASSOCIATED WITH anxiety disorder (ortholog); autistic disorder (ortholog); Burns (ortholog); FOUND IN cytoplasm (ortholog); extracellular region (ortholog); extracellular space (ortholog)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcriptional regulation of the oxytocin receptor gene. AU - Bale, Tracy L.. AU - Dorsa, Daniel M.. PY - 1998/12/29. Y1 - 1998/12/29. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031647807&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031647807&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Review article. C2 - 10026818. AN - SCOPUS:0031647807. VL - 449. SP - 307. EP - 315. JO - Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. JF - Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. SN - 0065-2598. ER - ...
The Role of Oxytocin as a Potential Biomarker for Psychosis Dr. Woolley has been studying the underpinnings of social deficits in schizophrenia and is currently examining oxytocins potential as a treatment for the social dysfunction observed in patients with schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia often demonstrate significant social cognitive deficits that can impair the formation and maintenance of healthy relationships, and negatively impact social interactions and community participation. However, there are currently no pharmacological treatments available to target these deficits. In healthy individuals, the natural hormone oxytocin has been shown to enhance social abilities such as understanding emotions and trusting others. Thus, a primary focus of our research has been to examine whether supplementary oxytocin administration can improve social cognition in individuals with schizophrenia, which may ultimately lead to stronger relationships, improved social and occupational ...
This review describes the recent literature surveyed regarding the synthesis of 2,4-diaryl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanone (3-ABNs) and their biological activities in the last six years (2008-2014). These heterocyclic compounds are obtained from the Mannich reaction of ketones, aldehydes and ammonium acetate in polar aprotic solvents.
The Dublin High Court has heard that the misuse of syntocinon resulted in birth injuries to a young girl who now suffers from dyskinetic cerebral palsy.. Grace Orchard (8) from Carrigaline in County Cork was born at St Finbarr´s Maternity Hospital on 23rd February 2006. Prior to her delivery, her mother had been administered the drug syntocinon to speed up her contractions.. However, syntocinon also has the effect of exacerbating foetal distress and rather than conduct a Caesarean section on her mother, Grace was delivered by forceps after four previous attempts to bring her into the world - including one using a vacuum cup - had failed.. Grace had to be resuscitated after she was born, and was in a poor condition due to the trauma she had suffered in the womb. She was subsequently diagnosed with dyskinetic cerebral palsy which - according to her solicitor - was attributable to appalling poor handling by hospital staff during her delivery.. Through her mother - Deidre O´Callaghan - Grace ...
Trust plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of human social relationships. But trusting others is associated with a cost, given the prevalence of cheaters and deceivers in human society. Recent research has shown that the peptide hormone oxytocin increases trust in humans. However, oxytocin also makes individuals susceptible to betrayal, because under influence of oxytocin, subjects perseverate in giving trust to others they know are untrustworthy. Testosterone, a steroid hormone associated with competition and dominance, is often viewed as an inhibitor of sociality, and may have antagonistic properties with oxytocin. The following experiment tests this possibility in a placebo-controlled, within-subjects design involving the administration of testosterone to 24 female subjects. We show that compared with the placebo, testosterone significantly decreases interpersonal trust, and, as further analyses established, this effect is determined by those who give trust easily. We ...
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This proposal research focuses on the biology underlying prosociality, which centers on emotions and behaviors that benefit others, in mother-baby-grandmother triads. One specific aim will center on how moral elevation, an emotional state generated through witnessing great acts of compassion, is related to caregiving behaviors and variations in the oxytocin system, a hormone important for an array of prosocial behaviors, including social bonding. In addition, the mothers and grandmothers will answer questionnaires to capture other aspects of their experiences. Our main investigation is to show that the emotional state of moral elevation is linked to epigenetic and genetic profiles of the oxytocin receptor gene, autonomic physiology, psychological profiles, behavioral displays, and oxytocin release. Altogether, this multimethod approach will explore the relationship between static (genetic) and dynamic (hormone, epigenetic) oxytocinergic profiles in the context of socioemotional processing influenced by
So, this study is suggesting that oxytocin, the love and bonding neurotransmitter, may play a bigger role in other activities than previously thought. This makes a lot of sense intuitively - of course, if you are in a state of liking, bonding, attraction, inhibition-reduction, and novelty-seeking, you are more likely to be creative, or be able to quickly adopt new ideas or new ways of thinking.. http://scan.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/07/16/scan.nst094.abstract Oxytonergic circuitry sustains and enables creative cognition in humans. Using double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects designs, Studies 3-6 (N = 191) finally showed that intranasal oxytocin (vs matching placebo) reduced analytical reasoning, and increased holistic processing, divergent thinking and creative performance. We conclude that the oxytonergic circuitry sustains and enables the day-to-day creativity humans need for survival and prosperity and discuss implications. . ...
Syntocinon (Oxytocin) Nasal Spray is used for the inducement of contractions. In addition it is used for the stimulation of labour in woman who have too week contractions.
INJECTABLE SOLUTION. Composition:. Each ml solution contains:. 10 I.U. synthetic oxytocin.. Spectrum of activity:. Oxytocin (pituitary posterior lobe extract) is a hormone, influencing sensibilized uterine musculature in the late stage of pregnancy, during and a few days after parturition.. It is used for speeding expulsion of the foetus or foetuses, and after parturition it promotes the expulsion of the placenta and the involution of the uterus. Owing to its effect on myoepithelial cells around the alveoli of the udder, it stimulates and increases the secretion of milk.. Indications:. Weak pains in the course of delivery, puerperal atonia of the uterus, retention of the placenta, post partum haemorrhage, prolapse of uterus, post partum agalactia, in mares, cows, sows, ewes, goats, bitches, cats.. Contra-indications:. Incomplete cervical dilatation, disposition of the foetus; too big foetus.. Side-effects:. Short vasodilatation, decreased blood pressure and/or hyper stimulation of the uterus if ...
Before you shop for the cuddle hormone oxytocin to relieve stress and enhance your social life, read this: a new study from the University of California, Davis, suggests that sometimes, blocking the action of oxytocin in the brain may be a better option. The results are published online in the journal Biological Psychiatry.
Women have a very important hormone named oxytocin that is found to play a huge role in building social interaction and relationships in mammals, especially humans. This hormone is also found to help connect us to others. The trust, closeness, pleasant touch, eye contact, and empathy are all triggered in an individual with the help of the hormone. The oxytocin levels in the mother are found to have an impact on the childs behavior and also help mothers build a stronger bond with their baby. According to Tobias Grossmann from the Max Planck Institute and Jessica Connelly and Kathleen Krol from the University of Virginia, the development of oxytocin system in a child is found to rely on the mothers behavior.. During childhood, an individual has his/her systems maturing either physiologically or behavior-wise as a step to adulthood. Oxytocin plays an important role in early social, perceptual, & cognitive functions and even complex social behaviors also depend on the hormone. The recent study has ...
Happy Thanksgiving Week! This is your brain on Oxytocin after a passionate kiss! Im going to give you a Thanksgiving assignment this year with a twist of Oxytocin!
Read Regionally Specific Effects of Oxytocin on Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Male and Female Rats, International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Consequence of Exogenous Administration of Oxytocin on Reproductive and Productive Parameters during Postpartum Involution Period in Newly Calved Nili-Ravi Buffaloes
How childhood trauma can impair our capacity to love others with particular reference to oxytocin and how to naturally increase oxytocin levels.
Oxytocin Sprays: oxytocin squirt contain oxytocin which helps you to build trust and others. Following using it, you can be a lot more believe in worthy person for other people. This will help you connect with other people effortlessly. These sprays can be applied to various areas of the body like neck wrists cloths and so on. These days many different varieties of oxytocin sprays are available in market. Most of them have incredible effects and have helped many people to achieve results goals. When these types of oxytocins are usually smelled simply by other people their oxytocin degree increase and immediately creates an automatics developing ...
Introduction: Co-administration of phenylephrine prevents oxytocin-induced hypotension during caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia (SA), but higher doses cause reflex bradycardia. This study compares the effects of co-administration of two different doses of phenylephrine on oxytocin-induced hypotension during caesarean section under SA. Methods: In this prospective, double-blind study, 90 parturients belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, undergoing caesarean section under SA were randomised into Group A: oxytocin 3U and phenylephrine 50 μg, Group B: oxytocin 3U and phenylephrine 75 μg, Group C: oxytocin 3U and normal saline, administered intravenously over 5 min after baby extraction ...
NEUROHYPOPHYSIAL FUNCTION DURING ACUTE OSMOTIC STIMULATION IN RATS : ROLE OF VASOPRESSIN IN REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND OXYTOCIN RELEASE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Wing-Tai Savio Cheng DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire August 1986 ...
S]tudies are finding that oxytocin can increase the amount of money people will donate to a charity. One study in particular lent credence to the time honored method charities use to pull money from magazine readers: Feature a woebegone child in your advertisement. In the study, researchers had subjects watch a tearjerker film of a father talking about his sons brain tumor. They sampled subjects blood before and after the film. Following the film the blood was awash in oxytocin, and their donations to charity rose 47 percent, compared to those of subjects who saw a film of the same father talking about a trip to the zoo. The tearjerker technique was more effective on women than men. Experiments wherein people sniff oxytocin to bolster the chemical in their brain show that the chemical may work in two ways. It may operate first by dampening our natural fear of one another. Oxytocin is very active in the amygdala, which monitors the world for danger. Extra oxytocin fights fear. Then, with that ...
Scientists recently found the gene responsible for constructing social memory. According to the July issue of Nature Genetics, researchers at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, discovered that the oxytocin gene enables an individual to recognize someone previously encountered.. If the oxytocin gene is missing or defective, then severe deficits in social memory occur. Without this fundamental ability, even your own mother would remain a stranger, study author James T. Winslow told the press. With the help of some transgenic or knockout male mice who lacked the oxytocin gene, researchers were able to expose the link between genetics and social memory. In order to test the social behaviors of mice, Winslow and his team closely observed the way mice use their sense of smell. A normal male mouse will use its sense of smell in order to get to know a female mouse until she becomes familiar. If a male and female are reintroduced 30 or 60 minutes after separation, the male ...
Background: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4?10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most... ...
Oxytocin (OXT). Most mammals, ratfish Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Pro-Gly-NH2. Prol-Oxytocin. Some New World monkeys, northern ... Structure and relation to oxytocin[edit]. Chemical structure of the arginine vasopressin (argipressin) with an arginine at the ... Vertebrate Oxytocin Family Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2. ... The structure of oxytocin is very similar to that of the vasopressins: It is also a nonapeptide with a disulfide bridge and its ...
Main article: Oxytocin. In a meta-analysis and review of the effect of oxytocin on social behavior done by Carsten De Dreu, the ... Oxytocin has also been implicated in lying when lying would prove beneficial to other in-group members. In a study where such a ... Oxytocin is not only correlated with the preferences of individuals to associate with members of their own group, but it is ... Further, oxytocin influences the responses of individuals in a particular group to those of another group. The in-group bias is ...
Oxytocin is further released during labour when the fetus stimulates the cervix and vagina, and it is believed that it plays a ... Oxytocin is the most common method used to increase the rate of vaginal delivery. The World Health Organization recommends its ... The act of nursing a child also causes a release of oxytocin. Between 70% and 80% of mothers in the United States report some ... During the later stages of gestation there is an increase in abundance of oxytocin, a hormone that is known to evoke feelings ...
... oxytocin; ADH: vasopressin; SubP: Substance P; NPY: Neuropeptide Y; KOR, MOR, DOR: kappa-, mu- and delta-opioid receptors ...
Furthermore, the oxytocin levels of the couples correlate positively; when the oxytocin secretion of one increases the other ... As the level of oxytocin increases so does sexual motivation. While oxytocin plays a major role in parent child relationships, ... while lower levels of oxytocin reduce motivation for these activities.[citation needed] Research on oxytocin's role in the ... Oxytocin plays a similar role in non-human primates as it does in humans. Grooming, sex, and cuddling frequencies correlate ...
Oxytocin and coitus. Sexual and Relationship Therapy (1988);3:29-36 Carter CS. Oxytocin and sexual behavior. Neuroscience & ... Oxytocin has been suggested as critical to the thoughts and behaviors required to maintain close relationships.[verification ... Both prolactin and oxytocin stimulate milk production in women.[citation needed] Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is ... Sexual intimacy and orgasms increase levels of oxytocin, which helps people bond and build trust. A long-term study of 3,500 ...
Oxytocin and coitus. Sexual and Relationship Therapy (1988);3:29-36 Carter, CS. (1992). "Oxytocin and sexual behavior". ... Lee HJ, Macbeth AH, Pagani JH, Young WS (June 2009). "Oxytocin: the great facilitator of life". Prog. Neurobiol. 88 (2): 127-51 ... increases levels of the hormone oxytocin, also known as "the love hormone", which helps people bond and build trust. Sexual ...
"Oxytocin and social norms reduce xenophobia". University of Bonn. 12 August 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged ... Scheele, D. (2012). "Oxytocin Modulates Social Distance between Males and Females". The Journal of Neuroscience. 32 (46): 16074 ... The same year, Hurlemann published research showing that oxytocin combined with a prominent social norm, could lead to ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Oxytocin and social norms reduce xenophobia". University of Bonn. 12 August 2017. ...
... is a non-peptide partial agonist of the oxytocin and vasopressin V2 receptors (Ki = 147 nM and >1000 nM, respectively ... "Non-peptide oxytocin agonists". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 14 (17): 4585-4589. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2004.04.107. ...
I.D. Neumann, R.K. Liedtke, M. Ludwig, R. Langraf: Intranasally applied Oxytocin: Brain uptake and effects on neuronal ... Annual Meeting 2000, Melbourne R. K. Liedtke, R. Landgraf, I. D. Neumann, Intranasally applied Oxytocin: A novel route of ... Antidepressive effect of oxytocin. This has been predicted with a new biocybernetics model (1998/99), hereafter these effects ...
Neurophysins are binding proteins, of which there are two types: neurophysin I and neurophysin II, which bind to oxytocin and ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin are both stored in Herring bodies, but are not stored simultaneously in the same ... Fibers from supraoptic nuclei are concerned with ADH secretion; paraventricular nuclei with oxytocin. This anatomical structure ...
Greg Miller (2010), The prickly side of oxytocin, Science, 328, 1343 De Dreu, C.K.W., Greer, L.L., Van Kleef, G.A., Shalvi, S ... Using behavioral game theory and neuroscience methods, he showed how the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin modelates self- ... "The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict among humans." Science, 328, 1408 - 1411. Prof. ... Handgraaf, M.J.J. (2011). Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 108, 1262 ...
Oxytocin is associated with behaviors involving contact with the child. Increases in oxytocin following high contact ... Oxytocin has been shown to correlate with many aspects of paternal care, but its mechanisms and the systems involved are not ... Oxytocin's interactions with other hormones is thought to be responsible for creating variability in parent behaviors such as ... An increase in levels of oxytocin, glucocorticoids, estrogen and prolactin occur in the paternal brain. These hormonal changes ...
"Vasopressin and Oxytocin Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... The 424-amino-acid sequence of the V3R has homologies of 45%, 39%, and 45% with the V1R, V2R and oxytocin receptor (OTR), ...
The hormones oxytocin and vasopressin are implicated in regulating both male and female sexual motivation. Oxytocin is released ... Based on the pleasure model of sexual motivation, the increased sexual pleasure that occurs following oxytocin release may ... Emotional closeness can be an especially strong predictor of sexual motivation in females and insufficient oxytocin release may ... Keverne E. B.; Curley J. P. (2004). "Vasopressin, oxytocin and social behaviour". Neurobiology. 14 (6): 777-783. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Vincent du Vigneaud was awarded the 1955 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the total synthesis of the natural polypeptide oxytocin ... For instance, the peptide hormones oxytocin and vasopressin were isolated and their total syntheses were first reported in 1954 ... "The Synthesis of Oxytocin". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 76 (12): 3115-3121. doi:10.1021/ja01641a004. "The Nobel ...
"Trust, morality -- and oxytocin?". Anderson C, Kraus MW, Galinsky AD, Keltner D (July 2012). "The local-ladder effect: social ... Sasaki JY, Kim HS, Xu J (2011-11-01). "Religion and Well-being The Moderating Role of Culture and the Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) ... Neuroeconomist Paul Zak studies morality, oxytocin, and trust, among other variables. Based on research findings, Zak ...
He also discovered a series of structure-activity relationships for oxytocin and vasopressin, perhaps the first of their type ... Even before his Nobel-Prize-winning work on elucidating and synthesizing oxytocin and vasopressin via manipulating the AVP gene ... a reference to his work on the cyclic peptide oxytocin. Vincent du Vigneaud was born in Chicago in 1901 and graduated from ... "The Synthesis of Oxytocin". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 76 (12): 3115-3121. doi:10.1021/ja01641a004. Hofmann, ...
Algoe, Sara B.; Kurtz, Laura E.; Grewen, Karen (2017-10-02). "Oxytocin and Social Bonds: The Role of Oxytocin in Perceptions of ... Oxytocin has also been found to play many roles in the bonding between mother and child. In addition to pair-bonding and ... Thus oxytocin may play a flexible role in relationship maintenance, supporting both the feelings that bring us closer and the ... In mammals, oxytocin has been found to be released during childbirth, breastfeeding, sexual stimulation, bonding, and in some ...
This condition can also be treated with drugs that increase dopamine, such as oxytocin, along with other drugs. In general, it ... IsHak WW, Berman DS, Peters A (April 2008). "Male anorgasmia treated with oxytocin". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 5 (4): ... Other drugs which may be helpful in the treatment of this condition include dopamine agonists, oxytocin, phosphodiesterase type ...
Serotonin and oxytocin levels are minimised, and the general immune system shows a level of suppression. Such a pattern is ... Kosfeld, M.; Heinrichs, M; Zak, P.J.; Fischbacher, U.; Fehr, E. (2005). "Oxytocin increases trust in humans". Nature. 435 (7042 ...
The role of oxytocin in autism and schizophrenia has also been researched, and some findings and characterizations of the ... Oxytocin appears to have treatment potential in both autism and schizophrenia, likely including schizotypal personality ... Shilling PD, Feifel D (5 June 2017). "Potential of Oxytocin in the Treatment of Schizophrenia". CNS Drugs. 30 (3): 193-208. doi ... Perez-Rodriguez MM, Derish NE, New AS (2014). "The Use of Oxytocin in Personality Disorders: Rationale and Current Status". ...
AVP2 and oxytocin receptors. AVPR1B maps to chromosome region 1q32 and is a member of the vasopressin/oxytocin family subfamily ... "Vasopressin and Oxytocin Receptors: V1B". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... the first V1b-selective agonist for rat vasopressin/oxytocin receptors". Endocrinology. 148 (9): 4136-46. doi:10.1210/en.2006- ...
Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E (June 2005). "Oxytocin increases trust in humans". Nature. 435 (7042): ...
... has also been coined by Nature.com The injection of oxytocin (OXT) vs. oxytocin antagonist (OTA) at birth has sexually ... Wersinger SR, Temple JL, Caldwell HK, Young WS (Jan 2008). "Inactivation of the oxytocin and the vasopressin (Avp) 1b receptor ... Also, unlike vasopressin 1b receptor and oxytocin knockout mice, Avpr1a KO mice have a normal Bruce effect (appropriate failure ... Nair HP, Gutman AR, Davis M, Young LJ (Dec 2005). "Central oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor ...
For example, a recent study looked at the relationship between oxytocin and empathic accuracy. Oxytocin, known for its role in ... Bartz, J. A.; Zaki, J.; Bolger, N.; Hollander, E.; Ludwig, N. N.; Kolevzon, A. & Ochsner, K. N. (2010). "Oxytocin selectively ... meaning that increased levels of oxytocin helped people with poorer social skills but not those who were already socially ...
Oxytocin is a neurophysical hormone produced in the brain. It is known to cause a decrease in stress response. It also can ... Oxytocin decreases trust and prosocial behavior in individuals with interpersonal difficulties. This, coupled with its role in ... In the search for the root of intimate partner violence (IPV), intranasal oxytocin was administered to a control group and a ... Bartz, J., Simeon, D., Hamilton, H., Kim, S., Crystal, S., Braun, A., ... & Hollander, E. (2010). Oxytocin can hinder trust and ...
The book summarizes his findings on oxytocin and discusses the role of oxytocin in human experiences and behaviors such as ... His 2011 TED talk on oxytocin and trust has gained over a million views. He was named by Wired magazine as one of the 10 ... Oxytocin increases the salience of social cues, suggesting that priming effects in these experiments explain their findings. ... Yong, Ed (2012-07-17). "Oxytocin is not a love drug. Don't give it to kids with autism". Slate. Slate.com. Retrieved 2012-09-18 ...
Some studies indicate that trust can be altered e.g. by the application of oxytocin. In a social context, trust has several ... "Oxytocin increases trust in humans". Nature. 435 (7042): 673-676. Bibcode:2005Natur.435..673K. doi:10.1038/nature03701. PMID ...
In addition, there are various other antidiuretic drugs, some molecularly close to ADH or oxytocin and others not. ... The major endogenous antidiuretics are antidiuretic hormone (ADH; also called vasopressin) and oxytocin. Both of those are also ... The antidiuretic hormone class includes vasopressin (ADH), argipressin, desmopressin, lypressin, ornipressin, oxytocin, and ...
I call oxytocin the "moral molecule" because it motivates us to treat others with care and compassion. Oxytocin was classically ... If the stranger shaking your hand is attractive, oxytocin might increase 50 percent. Oxytocin is considered a reproductive ... If animals caused oxytocin release in humans, it would explain my surprise attachment to my dog Teddy, and perhaps why people ... The change in oxytocin, measured in blood, indexes the strength of the relationship between people. When your little daughter ...
Oxytocin (Oxt; /ˌɒksɪˈtoʊsɪn/) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide. Oxytocin is normally produced by the paraventricular ... Purified oxytocin is used clinically.. *^ "Oxytocin". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 1 June 2015. ... Consequently, oxytocin is often referred to as the "love hormone".[73][qualify evidence] However, oxytocin has a more complex ... Cardiac effects: oxytocin and oxytocin receptors are also found in the heart in some rodents, and the hormone may play a role ...
Oxytocin. Oxytocin (oxt) is a mammalian neurohypophysial hormone that acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain. oxytocin ...
Information for pregnant women about the reasons for and what to expect during labor induction from the American Academy of… ...
Buccal Oxytocin Br Med J 1964; 2 :1326 doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5420.1326-b ... Buccal Oxytocin. Br Med J 1964; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5420.1326-b (Published 21 November 1964) Cite this as: Br ...
Pet dogs release the same "love hormone" that humans feel when theyre head over heels, a new study claims. Dogs release oxytocin - the chemical found in humans who are ...
Oxytocin is a hormone with an important role in the female reproductive system, but it is also known as the love hormone, as it ... Oxytocin is important during childbirth and breast-feeding. Oxytocin is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is produced in ... How does oxytocin affect emotion?. Oxytocin appears to play a role in social interaction and relationships between people. ... Oxytocin as a drug. Oxytocin is used as a prescription drug under the brand name Pitocin. Under medical supervision, an ...
Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Some popular media have incorrectly labeled it the ... The actions of oxytocin are mediated by specific, high affinity oxytocin receptors. The peripheral actions of oxytocin mainly ... What Does Oxytocin Do in The Brain?. Oxytocin secreted from the pituitary gland cannot re-enter the brain because of the blood- ... In humans, oxytocin is thought to be released during hugging, touching, and orgasm in both genders. In the brain, oxytocin is ...
The oxytocin in the injection is man-made, but works in the same way as the natural hormone. ... Syntocinon injection contains oxytocin, which is a naturally-occuring hormone. ... Syntocinon (oxytocin). Syntocinon injection contains oxytocin, which is a naturally-occuring hormone. The oxytocin in the ... Syntocinon injection contains oxytocin, which is a naturally-occuring hormone. The oxytocin in the injection is man-made, but ...
Oxytocin Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before receiving oxytocin injection,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxytocin, any other medications, ... Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after ... Oxytocin should not be used to induce labor (to help start the birth process in a pregnant woman), unless there is a valid ...
Results show that oxytocin creates intergroup bias because oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism and, to a lesser extent, out- ... Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Carsten K. W. De Dreu, Lindred L. Greer, Gerben A. Van Kleef, Shaul Shalvi, Michel J. J. ... Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Carsten K. W. De Dreu, Lindred L. Greer, Gerben A. Van Kleef, Shaul Shalvi, Michel J. J. ... Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Carsten K. W. De Dreu, Lindred L. Greer, Gerben A. Van Kleef, Shaul Shalvi, and Michel J ...
The "love hormone" oxytocin is well known for its role in mother-infant bonding, but a new study suggests that it could also ... Additionally, oxytocin is believed to play a vital part in the social bonding between a mother and child. Studies have shown ... Oxytocin may increase fathers motivation to care for their children. Rilling and team note that recent studies have suggested ... oxytocin, known to play a role in social bonding, might someday be used to normalize deficits in paternal motivation, such as ...
"Oxytocin is a key neuropeptide that plays a key role in social cognition but the literature has shown inconsistent results, so ... "We were trying to show whether oxytocin affects social cognition," said study lead author Yina Ma, a post-doctoral fellow in ... The literature on the effects of oxytocin on in-group favoritism, however, had been mixed with some studies showing an increase ... An international team of researchers has found that the "love hormone" oxytocin has more nuanced effects on the brain than ...
Switching brain serotonin with oxytocin. Raphaelle Mottolese, Jérôme Redouté, Nicolas Costes, Didier Le Bars, and Angela Sirigu ... Serotonin (5-HT) and oxytocin (OXT) are two neuromodulators involved in human affect and sociality and in disorders like ... Serotonin (5-HT) and oxytocin (OXT) are two neuromodulators involved in human affect and sociality and in disorders like ...
The love hormone oxytocin, known to be plentiful in lactating women and released by men and women during orgasm, appears to do ... Oxytocin is known to be important in trust, Zak says.. "Those with higher oxytocin had more sex with fewer partners," he says, ... Oxytocin Boosts Happiness. The higher your oxytocin, the higher your happiness and well-being, at least for women, says Paul ... Oxytocin to Improve Social Cues?. Other animal studies have shown that oxytocin plays a role in bonding and social ...
DescriptionOxytocin color.svg. English: Chemical structure of oxytocin.. Polski: Wzór chemiczny oksytocyny z zaznaczeniem ... subst:low quality chem/notification,Oxytocin color.svg}}. If there is a better version of the image available, please link it ( ... Information ,Description=Chemical structure of oxytocin. ,Source=Selfmade with ChemDraw. ,Date=September 2006. ,Author=Calvero ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Oxytocin_color.svg&oldid=322927141" ...
Oxytocin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide first recognized as a regulator of parturition and lactation which has recently gained ... flanking region of the oxytocin gene contains a cell-type specific regulatory element for its selective expression in oxytocin ... Evidence that oxytocin exerts anxiolytic effects via oxytocin receptor expressed in serotonergic neurons in mice. J Neurosci 29 ... McCarthy MM (1990) Oxytocin inhibits infanticide in female house mice (Mus domesticus). Horm Behav 24(3):365-375CrossRefGoogle ...
Carter Porges, C. (2009). Oxytocin. In S. Lopez (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology (pp. 667-669). Waldon, MA: WILEY- ...
To get a closer look at what oxytocin was doing, the scientists reared muscle stem cells in a dish and added oxytocin to them. ... We dont even know if oxytocin is high in children and low in old people-not to mention what the "right" level of oxytocin ... When people are young, they produce lots of oxytocin. On top of whatever psychological effects it may have, that extra oxytocin ... When scientists prevent their cells from taking up oxytocin, the voles become more promiscuous. Likewise, oxytocin plays a part ...
Transplacental hyponatraemia due to oxytocin.. Br Med J 1978; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6106.152-a (Published 21 ...
The hormone oxytocin has come under intensive study in light of emerging evidence that its release contributes to the social ... At both time-points, fathers oxytocin levels were not different from levels observed in mothers. Thus, although oxytocin ... The neuroscientists also found a relationship between oxytocin levels in husbands and wives. Since oxytocin levels are highly ... Finally, the findings revealed that oxytocin levels were associated with parent-specific styles of interaction. Oxytocin was ...
Oxytocin is a powerful hormone in the human body. It starts contractions for pregnant mothers and gets childbirth underway. ... Explore this Article Boosting Oxytocin with Affection Stimulating Oxytocin with Daily Activities Increasing Oxytocin for New ... Get oxytocin medication at the hospital. When all else fails, you can be given a medicine called Pitocin - a form of oxytocin ... It boosts oxytocin, too. Oxytocin and the stress hormone cortisol have an inverse relationship: when one goes up, the other ...
Adding misoprostol to oxytocin immediately after birth did not additionally prevent postpartum hemorrhage and may have ... "We hypothesized that a combination of routine oxytocin and misoprostol, compared with oxytocin alone, both as part of active ... "All in all, the findings of this trial do not support the use of misoprostol in addition to oxytocin for the prevention of ... Adding misoprostol to oxytocin immediately after childbirth did not additionally prevent postpartum hemorrhage and may have ...
Role of Oxytocin in Autism and Social Phobia PSYC 342 Dr JC Pruessner Karen Falcicchio, Chelsey Lam,Yoojung Lee, Cand… ... Role of Oxytocin in Stress & Fear A) Oxytocin in CNS • Oxytocin has receptors in the limbic system (amygdala) • has an ... Role of Oxytocin in Stress & Fear B) Peripheral Oxytocin: • During social stress, oxytocin was found to inhibit secretion of ... Ica March 23 Oxytocin, Social Phobia, Autism * 1. Role of Oxytocin in Autism and Social Phobia PSYC 342 Dr JC Pruessner Karen ...
Oxytocin definition, a polypeptide hormone, produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, that stimulates contraction ... oxytocin. oxysulphide, oxytalan, oxytetracycline, oxytocia, oxytocic, oxytocin, oxytone, oxyuriasis, oxyuricide, oxyuridae, ... oxytocin. *. When fathers hold and play with their children, oxytocin and prolactin kick in, priming them for bonding. ... Oxytocin stimulates the contraction of smooth muscle of the uterus during childbirth and facilitates ejection of milk from the ...
A new study finds that oxytocin, commonly referred to as the love hormone, could also be called the love crisis hormone. ... Oxytocin levels were measured both before and during the tasks. When participants were feeling a strong personal investment in ... "Yes, oxytocin relates to ones feelings of involvement - but, this association is particularly strong when one feels more ... "We think that viewing oxytocin in this way can help us understand why it plays a role in other kinds of interdependent social ...
... has demonstrated that administering the hormone oxytocin to dogs promotes social behaviors toward both other dogs and human ... A new study, conducted by researchers at Tokyo University, has demonstrated that administering the hormone oxytocin to dogs ...
OXYTOCIN (UNII: 1JQS135EYN) (OXYTOCIN - UNII:1JQS135EYN) OXYTOCIN. 10 [USPU] in 1 mL. ... OXYTOCIN (UNII: 1JQS135EYN) (OXYTOCIN - UNII:1JQS135EYN) OXYTOCIN. 10 [USPU] in 1 mL. ... Each mL contains Oxytocin activity equivalent. to 10 USP Oxytocin Units; Chlorobutanol 0.5%;. Water for Injection q.s. Acetic ... Oxytocin injection (synthetic) is a sterile, clear, colorless solution of oxytocin in Water for Injection, USP prepared by ...
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that helps you engage in positive social interactions. Specifically, increases in oxytocin suppress ... Explore this Article Boosting Oxytocin with Intimacy Increasing Oxytocin Socially Raising Oxytocin Levels in Other Ways When to ... Tell your doctor about your health history before using medical oxytocin. Oxytocin treatments during labor arent safe for ... Be wary of so-called oxytocin "boosters." There are plenty of products, such as supplements, that claim to boost your oxytocin ...
Oxytocin receptors (OTR) are abundantly expressed in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) in the rat brain. While expression of ... MCF7 Cell Nerve Growth Factor Phorbol Ester Estrogen Response Element Oxytocin Receptor These keywords were added by machine ... Oxytocin receptors (OTR) are abundantly expressed in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) in the rat brain. While expression of ... Bale T.L., Dorsa D.M. (1998) Transcriptional Regulation of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene. In: Zingg H.H., Bourque C.W., Bichet D.G ...
  • Caldwell HK, Young WS (2006) Oxytocin and vasopressin: genetics and behavioral implications. (springer.com)
  • Chen Q, Schreiber SS, Brinton RD (2000) Vasopressin and oxytocin receptor mRNA expression during rat telencephalon development. (springer.com)
  • Dierickx K, Vandesande F (1979) Immunocytochemical demonstration of separate vasopressin-neurophysin and oxytocin-neurophysin neurons in the human hypothalamus. (springer.com)
  • Dumais KM, Veenema AH (2016) Vasopressin and oxytocin receptor systems in the brain: sex differences and sex-specific regulation of social behavior. (springer.com)
  • Synthetic oxytocin does not possess the cardiovascular effects, such as elevation of blood pressure, as exhibited by vasopressin found in posterior pituitary injection. (nih.gov)
  • Several selective ligands for the oxytocin receptor have recently been developed, but close similarity between the oxytocin and related vasopressin receptors make it difficult to achieve high selectivity with peptide derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps the important task of regulating the interaction between social and agonistic behaviors is managed, in part, by interactions between two related neurochemical systems that incorporate oxytocin and vasopressin in their functions. (bio.net)
  • The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin participate in important reproductive functions, such as parturition and lactation, and homeostatic responses, including modulation of the adrenal axis. (bio.net)
  • On the basis of the literature on the functions of these hormones and our own recent findings, we propose that dynamic interactions between oxytocin and vasopressin are components of a larger system which integrates the neuroendocrine and autonomic changes associated with mammalian social behaviors and the concurrent regulation of the stress axis. (bio.net)
  • Peptide hormones, including oxytocin and vasopressin, do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier and must be administered centrally (i.c.v.) to reach the brain. (bio.net)
  • vasopressin competes with oxytocin at receptors, with brain localization you could actually have more oxytocin at localized areas, and vasopressin localized to other areas. (halfbakery.com)
  • Oxytocin and vasopressin are the only known hormones released by the human posterior pituitary gland to act at a distance. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The magnocellular neurons that make oxytocin are adjacent to magnocellular neurons that make vasopressin, and are similar in many respects. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Oxytocin and vasopressin were isolated and synthesized by Vincent du Vigneaud in 1953, work for which he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1955. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Two neuropeptides, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), have been repeatedly implicated in mammalian social behaviours and emotional states that support sociality. (rti.org)
  • Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) are two closely related neuropeptides, widely known for their peripheral hormonal effects. (nih.gov)
  • As Bernard Crespi points out in a paper soon to appear in Biological Reviews ,* in humans, oxytocin -a hormone similar to vasopressin-"motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The Roles of Vasopressin and Oxytocin in Memory Processing reviews research progress in a subfield of Behavioral Pharmacology concerned with vasopressin's (VP's) and oxytocin (OT's) roles in memory processing (MP). (elsevier.com)
  • There is growing evidence that the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin modulate complex social behavior and social cognition. (sciencemag.org)
  • Within vertebrates, a majority of work relating neuropeptides to social behavior has focused on members of the oxytocin/vasopressin family. (sciencemag.org)
  • Homologs of oxytocin and vasopressin existed at least 700 million years ago and have been identified in such diverse organisms as hydra, worms, insects, and vertebrates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Among these distant taxa, oxytocin- and vasopressin-related peptides play a general role in the modulation of social and reproductive behaviors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Only recently have scientists begun to dissect the roles of oxytocin, vasopressin, and their related receptors in human social behavior. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we review the evidence of evolutionary conservation within the vasopressin/oxytocin peptide family, briefly discuss the role of these peptides and their respective receptors in modulating social behavior and bonding, and provide a synthesis of recent advances implicating the oxytocin and vasopressin systems in human trust, cooperation, and social behavior. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mammalian oxytocin and vasopressin nonapeptides, so called for their nine-amino acid composition, differ from each other at only two amino acid positions ( Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Oxytocin, vasopressin, and their respective nonmammalian vertebrate lineages are thought to have arisen from a gene-duplication event before vertebrate divergence. (sciencemag.org)
  • 12 There is no conclusive evidence for access of oxytocin to the brain through intranasal administration, however. (psychcentral.com)
  • In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin increased generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80% but has no effect in the Dictator Game that measures altruism. (psychcentral.com)
  • Oxytocin is also available in intranasal spray form for psychiatric, endocrine and weight management use as a supplement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intranasal oxytocin works on a different pathway than injected oxytocin, primarily along the olfactory nerve crossing the brain blood barrier to the olfactory lobe in the brain, where dense magnocellular oxytocin neurons receive the dose application. (wikipedia.org)
  • Healthy males administered intranasal oxytocin show improved memory for human faces, in particular happy faces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Important in the formation of attachment bonds, oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been shown to increase trust, empathy and social reciprocity when administered by intranasal methods . (redorbit.com)
  • Beate Ditzen, Marcel Schär, Barbara Gabriel, Guy Bodenmann, Ulrike Ehlert, Markus Heinrichs: Intranasal Oxytocin Increases Positive Communication and Reduces Cortisol Levels during Couple Conflict. (idw-online.de)
  • New research from Concordia University, published in the journal Psychopharmacology , has found that an intranasal form of oxytocin can improve self-perception in social situations. (eurekalert.org)
  • Participants who self-administered intranasal oxytocin reported higher ratings of extraversion and openness to experiences than those who received a placebo," says first author Christopher Cardoso, a graduate student in the Concordia Department of Psychology and a member of the Centre for Research in Human Development. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study builds on previous experimental research at Concordia that has shown intranasal oxytocin can influence how people perceive their ability to cope with difficult circumstances. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team have revealed that of their 25 experiments on oxytocin, only the original questionnaire study suggested that intranasal oxytocin does affect trust. (newscientist.com)
  • Our initial enthusiasm for the [intranasal oxytocin] findings has slowly faded away over the years and the studies have turned us from 'believers' into 'skeptics'," the researchers write. (newscientist.com)
  • This study will investigate the effects of intranasal administration of oxytocin, a social neuropeptide, on reducing stimulant use, enhancing therapeutic engagement, and susceptibility to stress-induced relapse in Veterans with stimulant use disorders and enrolled in opioid replacement therapy (ORT) program for co-occurring opioid use disorder (OUD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Such research is a necessary first step towards identifying whether intranasal oxytocin administration can serve as an adjunct treatment for social impairments in schizophrenia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Whether this is because intranasal oxytocin doesn't have a powerful effect on the brain or because oxytocin typically changes behavior without our conscious awareness is not known. (time.com)
  • Acute intranasal oxytocin temporarily enhances social cognition, empathy, and reciprocity in individuals with ASD ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Intranasal oxytocin attenuates attentional bias for eating and fat shape stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa' published in Psychoneuroendocrinology & Kim, Y-R. et al. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show that, in humans, the evolutionarily highly conserved neuropeptide oxytocin, after intranasal administration, specifically improves recognition memory for faces, but not for nonsocial stimuli. (jneurosci.org)
  • In double-blind, placebo-controlled designs, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo and privately performed computer-guided tasks to gauge different manifestations of ethnocentric in-group favoritism as well as out-group derogation. (pnas.org)
  • Half of the fathers were given doses of oxytocin, while the remaining half received a placebo . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To test that hypothesis, the researchers tested a group of 150 Chinese men in a double-blind study, giving them either an oxytocin nasal spray or a placebo. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Those on placebo donated to 21% of the ads, those on oxytocin 33%," he says. (webmd.com)
  • They were observed twice, once after oxytocin administration and again after placebo administration. (redorbit.com)
  • In this latest study, researchers at the University of Amsterdam gave 60 male participants either a dose of oxytocin or placebo. (upi.com)
  • Vor dieser Konfliktdiskussion erhielten die Paare entweder das Hormon Oxytocin oder Placebo als Nasenspray verabreicht. (idw-online.de)
  • Paare, die Oxytocin erhalten hatten, schnitten signifikant positiver ab als Paare mit Placebo', fasst Beate Ditzen das Resultat zusammen. (idw-online.de)
  • Zudem waren auch die Cortisolwerte der Paare, die Oxytocin erhalten hatten, nach dem Konflikt niedriger als diejenigen der Placebo-Gruppe. (idw-online.de)
  • They conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, giving 31 healthy adult men oxytocin or a placebo delivered nasally on two occasions. (redorbit.com)
  • About 90 minutes after administering the oxytocin or the placebo the researchers assessed participants' recollection of their mother's care and closeness in childhood. (redorbit.com)
  • They found that men who were less anxious and more securely attached remembered their mothers as more caring and remembered being closer to their mothers in childhood when they received oxytocin, compared to when they received placebo. (redorbit.com)
  • This could be because their recent studies made it harder for individual participants to tell whether they were receiving oxytocin or a placebo . (newscientist.com)
  • When we showed the oxytocin group the two faces again that had previously been associated with the shock, they no longer found them disagreeable, while those who had received the placebo still found them so," says Dr Predrag Petrovic from the Department of Clinical Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet. (innovations-report.com)
  • These activity levels then dropped when they were given oxytocin, but not when given the placebo. (innovations-report.com)
  • The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan 49 participants who were given either placebo or oxytocin via a nasal spray. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The investigators will piggy-back off this existing structure and randomize Veterans with stimulant use disorders and receiving MMT for co-occurring OUD to receive either oxytocin or placebo, to be administered twice daily for six weeks while in the MMT program. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hypothesis A: Patients and healthy comparison subjects will show enhanced social cognition (e.g., improved interpretation of paralinguistic and emotional cues, such as those involved in emotional or sarcastic communication) after administration of oxytocin versus placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hypothesis B: Patients and healthy comparison subjects will show increased attention to others' eyes and patients will exhibit increased facial affect expressivity after administration of oxytocin versus placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hypothesis A: Patients and healthy comparison subjects will demonstrate increased PNS activity during social tasks after administration of oxytocin versus placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The outcome will be the number of tasks that improve on the oxytocin day compared to the placebo day in a panel of tasks designed to measure the subject's level of social cognition. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • While in a brain scanner, they either inhaled oxytocin or placebo via nasal spray while they viewed pictures of either their partners, women they knew but were not dating or women they had never met. (time.com)
  • It really is very subtle," says Young, noting that the size of the difference between oxytocin and placebo was small. (time.com)
  • The fact that these biases are only seen in men when under the influence of oxytocin - not placebo - may even hold lessons for those who want to stay faithful. (time.com)
  • In the first study, published today in Psychoneuroendocrinology , 31 patients with anorexia and 33 healthy controls were given either a dose of oxytocin, delivered via nasal spray, or a placebo. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • The test was done before and after taking oxytocin or placebo. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • A similar test was done, before and after oxytocin or placebo, but this time testing the participants' reactions to facial expressions, such as anger, disgust or happiness. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • In a study published in Biological Psychiatry , 35 fathers played with their five month old daughters, once after being given a nasal spray containing either oxytocin and again after being given a placebo. (time.com)
  • Their babies also tended to respond more to their dads who had received the oxytocin sprays-with increased smiles, laughter, mirroring and play behavior-compared to their behavior when their dads were receiving the placebo. (time.com)
  • Dr. Josh Woolley of the University of California San Francisco studied 22 men with schizophrenia and 20 healthy participants, who were given either oxytocin or placebo in two sessions, a week apart. (time.com)
  • That's true in animals, at least, as Yee and his colleagues studied the effect of oxytocin and a buddy on calming anxious prairie voles. (webmd.com)
  • in other words, the effect of oxytocin on social behaviors is complicated . (ted.com)
  • The team of Drs. Valery Grinevich, Ron Stoop and Alexandre Charlet had identified a group of about thirty oxytocinergic neurons that act as taskmasters in order to coordinate the global analgesic effect of oxytocin. (dkfz.de)
  • This effect of oxytocin is yet to be shown in humans and the researchers plan to conduct these studies in the near future. (medindia.net)
  • The effect of oxytocin was particularly strong in patients with anorexia who had greater communication problems. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Sexual activity has been found to stimulate the release of oxytocin, and it appears to have a role in erection and orgasm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this chapter, we review several aspects of the oxytocinergic system, focusing on evidence for release of oxytocin and its receptor distribution in the cortex as the foundation for important networks that control social behavior. (springer.com)
  • When an infant suckles at his or her mother's breast, the stimulation causes a release of oxytocin, which, in turn, orders the body to "let down" milk for the baby to drink. (livescience.com)
  • The center contains about 30 neurons that coordinate the release of oxytocin into the bloodstream and in the central nervous system, all the way to the spinal cord. (dkfz.de)
  • Under these conditions, they first activate a family of magnocellular neurons in the neighboring supraoptic nucleus, thus triggering the release of oxytocin into the bloodstream. (dkfz.de)
  • Thus, the release of oxytocin acts via a dual pathway: first, it reduces the perception of pain and second, it filters the nociceptive input into the central nervous system. (dkfz.de)
  • The same thing is happening in the posterior pituitary - Viagra will not induce the release of oxytocin on its own, but it will enhance the amount of release you get in response to electrical stimulation. (news-medical.net)
  • When oxytocin enters the bloodstream, it affects the uterus and lactation, but when it is released into certain parts of the brain, it can impact emotional, cognitive, and social behaviors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One review of research into oxytocin states that the hormone's impact on "pro-social behaviors" and emotional responses contributes to relaxation, trust, and psychological stability. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans. (psychcentral.com)
  • 7 A 2003 study found a decrease in autism spectrum repetitive behaviors when oxytocin was administered intravenously. (psychcentral.com)
  • Oxytocin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide first recognized as a regulator of parturition and lactation which has recently gained attention for its ability to modulate social behaviors. (springer.com)
  • In fact, the effects of oxytocin range far beyond emotions and behaviors. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • It is very interesting that elevations in the same hormone were associated with different types of parenting behaviors in mothers and fathers even though the levels of oxytocin within couples were somewhat correlated. (elsevier.com)
  • A new study, conducted by researchers at Tokyo University, has demonstrated that administering the hormone oxytocin to dogs promotes social behaviors toward both other dogs and human partners. (scoop.it)
  • Dr. Ruth Feldman and her colleagues, Omri Weisman and Orna Zagoory-Sharon, examined oxytocin administration effects on the parent, looking for whether this administration would enhance physiological and behavioral processes that support social engagement with their infant and improve parenting behaviors. (redorbit.com)
  • Previous studies have shown increased levels of oxytocin are associated with greater empathy, lower social anxiety and other pro-social behaviors. (upi.com)
  • A research team from the Kinsey Institute, Indiana University, the University of Virginia and Northeastern University recently discovered that a single exposure to oxytocin near the time of birth can have effects in the offspring, including increases in social behaviors that may persist into adulthood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A 2007 study published in the journal Psychological Science found that the higher a mom's oxytocin levels in the first trimester of pregnancy, the more likely she was to engage in bonding behaviors such as singing to or bathing her baby. (livescience.com)
  • For example, oxytocin is important for a variety of positive social behaviors, including the regulation of maternal-infant interactions. (bio.net)
  • Given the involvement of oxytocin in prosocial behaviors such as attachment, affiliation, trust, and social support seeking, it is not surprising this neuropeptide might be involved in the development or maintenance of depressive disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Oxytocin, a hormone naturally released following childbirth or during social bonding periods, has recently been investigated for its impact on social behaviors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is involved in social behaviors, thermoregulation, and milk ejection, yet little is known about its role in breast cancer. (nature.com)
  • The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is associated with a plethora of social behaviors and is a key topic at the intersection of psychology and biology. (nature.com)
  • Oxytocin also affects key regions of the brain that influence social behaviors. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Research has also shown that autistic children who are given oxytocin are more trusting of others and engage in social behaviors more willingly. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Oxytocin is sometimes referred to as the "love hormone" or "love drug" for its roles in sexual bonding, parenting, and other social behaviors. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Oxytocin: The love hormone? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is sometimes referred to as the "love hormone," because levels of oxytocin increase during hugging and orgasm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The "love hormone" oxytocin is well known for its role in mother-infant bonding, but a new study suggests that it could also benefit the relationship between a father and child by boosting paternal caregiving. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An international team of researchers has found that the "love hormone" oxytocin has more nuanced effects on the brain than previously thought. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Nov. 15, 2010 (San Diego) -- The love hormone oxytocin, known to be plentiful in lactating women and released by men and women during orgasm, appears to do much more, according to new research presented here at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. (webmd.com)
  • A new study finds that oxytocin, commonly referred to as the "love hormone," could also be called the "love crisis hormone. (psychcentral.com)
  • When participants were feeling a strong personal investment in their bond, their oxytocin levels went up, seemingly confirming the chemical's reputation as a love hormone. (psychcentral.com)
  • Oxytocin is often referred to as the love hormone, because it is present in both males and females and affects sperm movement and testosterone production. (reference.com)
  • Washington D.C., Oct. 27 (ANI): A new study has revealed that the 'love hormone,' oxytocin, can enhance the pleasure of social interactions by stimulating production of marijuana-like neurotransmitters in the brain. (yahoo.com)
  • The research provides the first link between 'love hormone' oxytocin and anandamide, which has been called the 'bliss molecule' for its role in activating cannabinoid receptors in brain cells to heighten motivation and happiness. (yahoo.com)
  • Oxytocin has quite a reputation - but much of what we thought about the so-called " love hormone " may be wrong. (newscientist.com)
  • Oxytocin - a chemical commonly known as the "love hormone" - might help strengthen the bond between man and his best friend. (livescience.com)
  • Sometimes called the 'love hormone' or 'cuddle chemical,' oxytocin plays several important roles in social interactions and reproduction, including triggering uterine contractions and lactation. (news-medical.net)
  • Years of research has revealed the potent effects of oxytocin, a hormone that is naturally released during childbirth and has been nicknamed the "love hormone" for the role it appears to play in pair bonding, whether between couples or mother and baby. (parents.com)
  • Oxytocin, also known as the 'love hormone', could provide a new treatment for anorexia nervosa, according to new research by a team of British and Korean scientists. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • The so-called "love hormone," oxytocin plays an important role in pregnancy, birth, and emotional bonding. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Oxytocin is normally produced by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the hypothalamus , oxytocin is made in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, and is stored in Herring bodies at the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxytocin secreted from the pituitary gland cannot re-enter the brain because of the blood-brain barrier. (psychcentral.com)
  • Instead, the behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland. (psychcentral.com)
  • Oxytocin is normally released by the pituitary gland in the brain towards the end of pregnancy to stimulate the smooth muscle of the uterus (womb). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Oxytocin is a hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, a pea-sized structure at the base of the brain. (livescience.com)
  • Along with the antidiuretic hormone vassopressin, oxytocin is one of the two major hormones released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (Blakemore and Jennett 2001). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Oxytocin is made in magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and is released into the blood from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Oxytocin is released from the pituitary gland in the brain, on the command of specialised nerve cells. (newscientist.com)
  • In humans, oxytocin is naturally released from the pituitary gland - a tiny globe at the base of the brain - during special moments like snuggling, orgasms, childbirth or breastfeeding. (livescience.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison report this month that sildenafil increases the amount of oxytocin released by stimulation of the posterior pituitary gland, a small structure directly underneath the brain that regulates hormone levels in response to neural signals. (news-medical.net)
  • The cells that supply oxytocin to the pituitary come from a brain structure called the hypothalamus, which also sends hormones throughout the brain. (news-medical.net)
  • While oxytocin is normally released naturally in large amounts from the mother's pituitary gland during labor, Dr. Odent suggests a number of ways in which synthetic and administered oxytocin behaves differently. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Oxytocin is produced by the pituitary gland and is released during nursing or nipple stimulation. (wisegeek.com)
  • Oxytocin A hormone, produced by the pituitary gland, which stimulates contraction of the uterus. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Oxytocin (Syntocinon) is a very potent artificial hormone and its use in labour is intended to mimic the natural hormone which is stored and secreted in varying amounts by the posterior pituitary gland, and which causes the womb to contract. (aims.org.uk)
  • Oxytocin is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain. (uwhealth.org)
  • The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we conjecture that ethnocentrism may be modulated by brain oxytocin, a peptide shown to promote cooperation among in-group members. (pnas.org)
  • However the search for a druggable, non-peptide template has led to several potent, highly selective, orally bioavailable oxytocin antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic oxytocin, sold under the brand name Pitocin among others, is a medication made from the peptide oxytocin. (wikipedia.org)
  • One IU of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 μg or mcg of pure peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxytocin is a peptide produced in the brain that was first recognized for its role in the birth process, and also in nursing," said Larry Young, a behavioral neuroscientist at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. (livescience.com)
  • Oxytocin is a peptide hormone. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about two micrograms of pure peptide. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Oxytocin is a peptide synthesized by the hypothalamus. (dkfz.de)
  • Neurons in the medulla oblongata send projections to hypothalamic nuclei as the supraoptic nucleus, which synthetizes oxytocin and in its turn, this peptide is released in the circulation. (gu.se)
  • Oxytocin, a natural brain peptide produced in the hypothalamus, has received considerable attention as a potential treatment for social deficits in ASD. (sciencemag.org)
  • Female sheep and rats given oxytocin antagonists after giving birth do not exhibit typical maternal behavior. (psychcentral.com)
  • By contrast, virgin female sheep show maternal behavior towards foreign lambs upon cerebrospinal fluid infusion of oxytocin, which they would not do otherwise. (psychcentral.com)
  • Published in the journal Hormones and Behavior , the study reveals that doses of oxytocin boosted brain activity related to reward and empathy among fathers in response to images of their children. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For their study , the researchers set out to investigate how oxytocin affects brain activity to influence paternal behavior. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, the researchers believe that these current findings indicate that oxytocin could help to boost paternal behavior. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We examine the developmental timeline of the cortical oxytocin system as demonstrated by RNA, autoradiographic binding, and protein immunohistochemical studies, and describe how that might shape brain development and behavior. (springer.com)
  • Bales KL, Carter CS (2003b) Sex differences and developmental effects of oxytocin on aggression and social behavior in prairie voles ( Microtus ochrogaster ). (springer.com)
  • Champagne F, Diorio J, Sharma S, Meaney MJ (2001) Naturally occurring variations in maternal behavior in the rat are associated with differences in estrogen-inducible central oxytocin receptors. (springer.com)
  • Oxytocin also plays an important role in birth and maternal behavior, but until now, research had never addressed the involvement of oxytocin in the transition to fatherhood. (elsevier.com)
  • They evaluated 160 first-time parents (80 couples) twice after the birth of their first child, at 6 weeks and 6 months, by measuring each parents' oxytocin levels and monitoring and coding their parenting behavior. (elsevier.com)
  • The receptors for oxytocin (OXTR) have genetic differences with varied effects on individual behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pedersen, CA, Prange, AJ, Jr. 1979 Induction of maternal behavior in virgin rats after intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin. (springer.com)
  • The infants were also observed to see if oxytocin effects on the parental behavior would affect related physiological and behavioral processes in the infant. (redorbit.com)
  • In the oxytocin conditions, key parenting behavior, including father touch and social reciprocity, increased but infant social behavior, including social gaze and exploratory behavior, increased as well," explained Feldman in a statement . (redorbit.com)
  • The oxytocin receptor cells are present in the brain area and are thought to be involved in the regulation of maternal behavior. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Even playing with your dog can cause an oxytocin surge, according to a 2009 study published in the journal Hormones and Behavior. (livescience.com)
  • These results may seem surprising because researchers have assumed that the neuromodulator oxytocin has ubiquitous positive effects on social behavior and social perception in humans," said Jennifer Bartz, PhD, Assistant Professor, Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and lead author of the study. (redorbit.com)
  • But even at that time research challenging the role of oxytocin in human morality and behavior was already well known . (ted.com)
  • Maternal oxytocin circulation can predispose women to bond and show bonding behavior. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • The results provide evidence for anatomical and functional heterogeneity within the central oxytocin system and offer a new direction for research of mechanisms of coordinated oxytocin regulation of autonomic functions and behavior. (dkfz.de)
  • The dogs that got a hit of oxytocin also spent more time sitting closeby and staring into their owners' eyes - a friendly behavior that the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) recognizes as a sign that the dog hopes to be noticed. (livescience.com)
  • The study by Baumgartner and his colleagues highlights the neural mechanisms through which oxytocin acts to facilitate trust behavior by investigating what happens in the brain when trust breaks down. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Participants who received oxytocin, however, continued to invest at similar rates regardless of whether or not their trusting behavior had been taken advantage of. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Dr. Young has received two Autism Speaks research grants for studies into oxytocin and social behavior. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Aim 1: To quantify the effects of exogenous oxytocin on social cognition and behavior in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hypothesis B (exploratory): Patients and healthy comparison subjects' improvements in social cognition and behavior will be predicted by the degree to which oxytocin increases their PNS activity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Oxytocin enhances prosocial behavior, but its effect on humans' affective experience of others is not known. (mendeley.com)
  • These findings call into question the view of oxytocin as an indiscriminate "love drug" or "cuddle chemical" and suggest that oxytocin has a role in the emergence of intergroup conflict and violence. (pnas.org)
  • Our focus was the hormone oxytocin, sometimes dubbed the "cuddle chemical" for its role in promoting bonding, trust and generosity. (newscientist.com)
  • What if oxytocin is the empathy chemical as well as the cuddle chemical? (newscientist.com)
  • The hormone Oxytocin has been lovingly referred to as the 'cuddle chemical' or the 'love drug. (medindia.net)
  • Could the 'Cuddle Chemical' Oxytocin Improve Male Sexual Function? (time.com)
  • I call oxytocin the "moral molecule" because it motivates us to treat others with care and compassion. (theatlantic.com)
  • You may have heard of oxytocin as a love drug, or as a moral molecule . (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The talk focused on the benefits of the hormone oxytocin , which he dubbed the "moral molecule. (ted.com)
  • If there's any molecule that is consistently viewed through rose-tinted glasses, it's oxytocin. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • In the past decade, we have done dozens of studies showing that the brain produces the chemical oxytocin when someone treats us with kindness. (theatlantic.com)
  • Our experiments focus on what causes the brain to make oxytocin and its behavioral effects. (theatlantic.com)
  • Estrogen has been found to increase the secretion of oxytocin and to increase the expression of its receptor , the oxytocin receptor , in the brain . (wikipedia.org)
  • These axons (likely, but dendrites have not been ruled out) have collaterals that innervate neurons in the nucleus accumbens , a brain structure where oxytocin receptors are expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxytocin (oxt) is a mammalian neurohypophysial hormone that acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain. (thenextweb.com)
  • Oxytocin is produced in the hypothalamus, a part of the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Brain oxytocin also appears to reduce stress responses, including anxiety. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. (psychcentral.com)
  • In the brain, oxytocin is involved in social recognition and bonding, and may be involved in the formation of trust between people and generosity. (psychcentral.com)
  • What Does Oxytocin Do in The Brain? (psychcentral.com)
  • Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum and brainstem. (psychcentral.com)
  • In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. (psychcentral.com)
  • The researchers found that when fathers were shown an image of their offspring, those who received oxytocin experienced an increase in neural activity in the caudate nucleus, dorsal anterior cingulate, and visual cortex of the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We were trying to show whether oxytocin affects social cognition," said study lead author Yina Ma, a post-doctoral fellow in the Cognitive Neuroscience Division of the Lieber Institute for Brain Development. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Previous research had found that oxytocin and intuitive decision-making activate similar parts of the brain. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Ma said these results will be instrumental in understanding how oxytocin affects the brain before researchers can begin to look into clinical applications. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Currently, pharmaceutical companies are working on methods of increasing the oxytocin levels in the brain without having to directly dose a patient with oxytocin itself, allowing researchers to not have to depend on nasal sprays, Pelphrey said. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Oxytocin, Zak says, "seems to control the balance between self and others in the brain . (webmd.com)
  • Dumais KM, Bredewold R, Mayer TE, Veenema AH (2013) Sex differences in oxytocin receptor binding in forebrain regions: correlations with social interest in brain region- and sex-specific ways. (springer.com)
  • Oxytocin can relay important signals to cells throughout the body, not just in the brain. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • These differences may reflect the impact of culture-specific role expectations, but they also may be indicative of distinct circuit effects of oxytocin in the male and female brain," commented Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry . (elsevier.com)
  • Specifically, increases in oxytocin suppress the area of your brain that processes fear and anxiety. (wikihow.com)
  • Touch of all sorts releases oxytocin into your brain, but different types of touch give bigger boosts. (wikihow.com)
  • Oxytocin receptors (OTR) are abundantly expressed in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) in the rat brain. (springer.com)
  • Cligosiban acts on oxytocin cells in the brain and spinal cord to reduce blood levels of the hormone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • My view of what oxytocin is doing in the brain is making social information more salient," Young said. (livescience.com)
  • Also, oxytocin has been known to affect the brain by regulating circadian homeostasis, such as a person's body temperature, activity level, and wakefulness (Kraft 2007). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A team of researchers under the guidance of the University of Bonn Hospital has now been able to demonstrate in a study that the bonding hormone oxytocin inhibits the fear center in the brain and allows fear stimuli to subside more easily. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the men under the influence of oxytocin, the amygdala, as the fear center in the brain, was overall far less active than in the control group, whereas fear-inhibiting regions were more stimulated. (eurekalert.org)
  • As with all science, research is ongoing, including studies to compare the effects of oxytocin made in the brain versus oxytocin delivered from external sources. (ted.com)
  • How the brain translates mental processes into signals to release oxytocin, however, remains mysterious. (newscientist.com)
  • Oxytocin is made by the hypothalamus and acts on the brain, playing a role in bonding , sex and pregnancy . (newscientist.com)
  • There are now questions over whether it is even possible for nasally delivered oxytocin to cross the blood-brain barrier. (newscientist.com)
  • Though the hormone's exact mechanism in dogs is unclear, the researchers speculate that the spray increased the animals' heart rate as it traveled to the brain and prompted a further, natural secretion of oxytocin. (livescience.com)
  • In another study out last year in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, children with autism were given a dose of oxytocin , which caused certain areas of their brain linked to social interaction to become more active. (livescience.com)
  • The amygdala is a region of the brain involved in emotion and fear learning , and is rich in oxytocin receptors , whereas the caudate nucleus has been previously linked to reward-related responses and learning to trust . (scientificamerican.com)
  • Of particular concern is the possibility that giving oxytocin to children on a regular basis can interfere with brain development in unwanted ways. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Finally they propose that the inconsistent results from large studies might be because oxytocin delivered by nasal spray doesn't reach all areas of the brain. (autismspeaks.org)
  • They hold out hope for greater effectiveness from future treatments that stimulate brain cells to release more oxytocin. (autismspeaks.org)
  • We tested whether oxytocin influences affective ratings, and underlying brain activity, of faces that have been aversively conditioned. (mendeley.com)
  • His brain gets washed in oxytocin . (time.com)
  • A big question raised by our study is, will sildenafil do the same thing to the nerve terminals that release oxytocin [in the brain]'' he says. (news-medical.net)
  • Though sildenafil's effects on these pathways are still unknown, work by other researchers has shown that oxytocin-sensitive cells in the brain play a role in the neural control of erectile responses, suggesting that Viagra and its kin may work through multiple channels. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers demonstrated that oxytocin prevents alcohol from accessing specific sites in the brain that cause alcohol's intoxicating effects, sites known as delta-subunit GABA-A receptors. (medindia.net)
  • Dr Michael Bowen, School of Psychology, University of Sydney, said, "While oxytocin might reduce the level of intoxication, it won't actually change the blood alcohol level because it's preventing the alcohol from accessing the sites in the brain that make people intoxicated, it's not causing the alcohol to leave the system any faster. (medindia.net)
  • Their performance on the task was not different, but researchers think the brain signals indicate that oxytocin made the social stimuli more relevant and rewarding. (parents.com)
  • What's happening in the brain, we think, is that oxytocin is improving how well we are tuning in to social stimuli, to a social world," said Ilanit Gordon, an experimental psychologist who did the work at the Yale Child Study Center and is now an assistant professor at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. (parents.com)
  • A neuropeptide that can be consistently linked to positive emotions as well as to the social brain is oxytocin [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many of these differences affect the mother but not the child, such as the fact that administered oxytocin is injected intravenously and therefore cannot reach the mother's brain, unlike naturally released oxytocin. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Like other brain hormones and neurotransmitters, the role of oxytocin is complex - it does not play a simple role of rising to make people bond to each other. (newser.com)
  • After inhaled, oxytocin has been show to induce labor contractions, reduce the activity in the amygdala region of the brain, increase the production of breast milk and aid in the process of bonding between mothers and their infants. (wisegeek.com)
  • Oxytocin reduces the activity in this part of the brain, increasing the person's ability to trust and interact with others. (wisegeek.com)
  • Oxytocin reduces the oxygen supply to the baby's brain. (aims.org.uk)
  • Studies such as Thorp et al , (1988) seek to assure us that there are no inherent dangers in using a powerful artificial hormone like oxytocin, but there are other studies which imply that reducing oxygen levels to the baby's brain can have long-term effects, and these effects may be covert and not be evident in cord blood samples taken after birth. (aims.org.uk)
  • Can we be sure that escalating infusions of oxytocin will not cause long-term brain impairment? (aims.org.uk)
  • The brains of the children who had received the oxytocin showed that areas of the "social brain," were activated. (theatlantic.com)
  • Oxytocin has actions in the brain and the ear that may help in tinnitus treatment and provide immediate relief. (indiatimes.com)
  • Researchers from Yale School of Medicine found that oxytocin enhances brain activity while processing social information in children. (indiatimes.com)
  • As a result, researchers are interested in studying whether oxytocin could be a useful drug for treating these conditions, as well as those, such as autism, that are influenced by problems with brain development, which affect social skills. (time.com)
  • Oxytocin (pronounced /ˌɒksɨˈtoʊsɪn/) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. (phys.org)
  • Imagine this: If your brain releases oxytocin on a scale, with hugging on one end and sex on the other end, how much of this powerful chemical are you releasing into your system with all the actions in between? (boundless.org)
  • In recent years, scientific studies of the effects of oxytocin on the brain suggest its role goes well beyond childbirth and lactation. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Nasal sprays are commonly used in medical studies of psychiatric effects, because a nasal spray allows oxytocin to travel more readily from the bloodstream to the brain than an injection. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Oxytocin and brain response in men, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States . (everydayhealth.com)
  • [8] Oxytocin is also used as a medication to facilitate childbirth . (wikipedia.org)
  • oxytocin plays roles in sexual reproduction, in particular during and after childbirth. (thenextweb.com)
  • Oxytocin is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is involved in childbirth and breast-feeding. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oxytocin is produced in the hypothalamus and released during sex, childbirth, and lactation to aid reproductive functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oxytocin is prescribed as a drug for obstetric and gynecological reasons and can help in childbirth. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oxytocin is important during childbirth and breast-feeding. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Produced by the hypothalamus, oxytocin plays a vital role in childbirth, stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles to initiate labor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Adding misoprostol to oxytocin immediately after childbirth did not additionally prevent postpartum hemorrhage and may have increased women's risks for adverse events compared with administering oxytocin alone, according to a new randomized controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • Oxytocin stimulates the contraction of smooth muscle of the uterus during childbirth and facilitates ejection of milk from the mammary glands. (dictionary.com)
  • The use of synthetic oxytocin as an injectable medication for inducing childbirth can result in excessive contraction of the uterus that can risk the health of the baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • Labor induction: An intravenous infusion of oxytocin is used to induce labor and to support labor in case of slow childbirth if the oxytocin challenge test fails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxytocin acts as a chemical messenger and stimulates maternal bonding, while also stimulating the uterus to contract during child birth and lactation to occur after childbirth. (reference.com)
  • Childbirth is an experience that can strengthen the mother and child bond, production of oxytocin during childbirth and lactation increases parasympathetic activity. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is secreted by the body during massage, childbirth and breastfeeding to induce a calming, analgesic effect. (innovations-report.com)
  • Natural childbirth advocate Michel Odent, MD, has a pet theory that the use of synthetic oxytocin during labor could contribute to an increased risk of autism in the baby. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Oxytocin is secreted in large amounts during and after childbirth, and is thought to help a mother and her baby bond. (theatlantic.com)
  • Oxytocin is a hormone released naturally during bonding, including sex, childbirth and breastfeeding. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Pitocin ( oxytocin injection) is a natural hormone that causes the uterus to contract used to induce labor, strengthen labor contractions during childbirth, control bleeding after childbirth, or to induce an abortion . (rxlist.com)
  • Oxytocin is best known for its roles in sexual reproduction, in particular during and after childbirth. (spreadshirt.com)
  • Oxytocin is a nonapeptide that helps alleviate contractions during childbirth and stimulates milk production for breast-feeding. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Oxytocin is a hormone that is released in a woman during childbirth, nursing a child, and during sexual activity. (scarleteen.com)
  • Oxytocin is a hormone best known for its roles in childbirth and lactation. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The production of naturally occurring oxytocin in the body helps to stimulate the uterus to contract at the end of pregnancy, signaling the start of childbirth. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Oxytocin injections, childbirth, National Institutes of Health . (everydayhealth.com)
  • Oxytocin is used as a prescription drug under the brand name Pitocin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Synthetic oxytocin is sold as medication under the trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon as well as generic oxytocin. (psychcentral.com)
  • Synthetic oxytocin also goes by the trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon . (rationalwiki.org)
  • The initial dose of Pitocin should be 0.5-1 mU/min (equal to 3-6 mL of the dilute oxytocin solution per hour). (rxlist.com)
  • Our Pitocin (oxytocin injection, USP) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
  • Laboratory-made oxytocin, called Pitocin , has been used for many years to help start or strengthen uterine contractions during labor or to reduce bleeding after delivery. (everydayhealth.com)
  • During labor, oxytocin increases uterine motility, causing contractions in the muscles of the uterus, or womb. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Physical proximity increases oxytocin - which may even promote fidelity between partners. (wikihow.com)
  • The findings show that although our oxytocin levels tend to increase when we think about bonding with our partners - helping us feel more connected and generous - the hormone also increases when we notice that our partners seem less interested in the relationship than we are. (psychcentral.com)
  • Oxytocin stimulates rhythmic contractions of the uterus, increases the frequency of existing contractions and raises the tone of the uterine musculature. (nih.gov)
  • A new study from Bar-Ilan University reveals that oxytocin administrated to fathers increases their parental engagement, with parallel effects observed in the children as well. (redorbit.com)
  • We found that after oxytocin administration, fathers' salivary oxytocin rose dramatically, more than 10 fold, but moreover, similar increases were found in the infants' oxytocin. (redorbit.com)
  • However, we do not know whether oxytocin, when administered in drug form, increases a person's ability to accurately recall their mother's affections in childhood, or sets in motion a biased search for memories that support their more general beliefs about close relationships. (redorbit.com)
  • When people sniff oxytocin before playing a money-lending game, it increases how much they trust each other , he explained. (newscientist.com)
  • For instance, application of oxytocin to "investors" in experimental games increases their tendency to engage in social risks and trust someone else with their money (see this and this ). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Once men receive oxytocin, the attractiveness of the partner increases compared to the attractiveness value recorded for other females," says Hurlemann. (time.com)
  • The fact is that there is absolutely no conclusive evidence that synthetic oxytocin or labor induction/augmentation increases the risk of autism. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Oxytocin increases the risk of post-partum haemorrhage. (aims.org.uk)
  • Writers love to claim , to the point of absurdity , that oxytocin increases trust, generosity, cooperation and empathy, among a slew of other virtues. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that oxytocin increases certain types of eye movement and negative evaluation of emotions in people with autism . (goodtherapy.org)
  • Hugging is great, but an orgasm will usually give you an especially potent boost of oxytocin. (wikihow.com)
  • Dads who got a boost of oxytocin via a nasal spray played more closely with their 5-month-old babies than dads who didn't get the hormone zap, a 2012 study found. (livescience.com)
  • In a study reported in 2012, researchers observed that fathers who received a boost of oxytocin through the nose spent more time playing with their 5-month-old babies compared with fathers who didn't get the spritz. (livescience.com)
  • If a woman's contractions do not begin or are too weak to dilate the cervix completely, the boost of oxytocin from a nasal spray can aid in the birthing process. (wisegeek.com)
  • Other animal studies have shown that oxytocin plays a role in bonding and social relationships, helping to explain why some animals are highly social and form long-lasting bonds, according to researcher Larry Young, PhD, of Emory University in Atlanta. (webmd.com)
  • Animal studies have also shown that oxytocin promotes social interaction, such as during the courting process. (innovations-report.com)
  • Studies in humans have already shown that oxytocin affects our tendency to affiliate or cooperate with other people," veterinarian Miho Nagasawa at Japan's Azabu University told Discovery News . (livescience.com)
  • Only 30 percent of participants had an increase in oxytocin after playing with an animal. (theatlantic.com)
  • One study published in 2013, for example, demonstrated an increase in oxytocin among new fathers, which was associated with increased father-child bonding. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The women who showed a higher increase in oxytocin after receiving the money were the ones likely to say they were satisfied with their lives and shared the most money with the strangers. (webmd.com)
  • Considering both members together, it was the difference in investment between partners that predicted an increase in oxytocin. (psychcentral.com)
  • In these hopeless situations, the more invested partner did not show the same increase in oxytocin levels. (psychcentral.com)
  • Statements such as these will often lead to positive exchanges that give you both an increase in oxytocin. (wikihow.com)
  • The fact that oxytocin did not make all participants remember their mother as more caring, but in fact intensified the positivity or negativity of the men's pre-existing memories, suggests that oxytocin plays a more specific role in these attachment representations. (redorbit.com)
  • Our study suggests that oxytocin may similarly play a key role in human attachment by modulating these early memories of mom. (redorbit.com)
  • This suggests that oxytocin can reduce anxiety and increase the chances of social contact for people with certain types of psychiatric disorder", says Dr Petrovic. (innovations-report.com)
  • Young suggests that oxytocin may actually have a dual effect - by not only making partners more attractive but also actively deterring interest in other potential mates. (time.com)
  • Our findings provide the first, critical steps toward devising more effective treatments for the core social deficits in autism, which may involve a combination of clinical interventions with an administration of oxytocin," said study author Ilanit Gordon. (theatlantic.com)
  • The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the oxytocin receptor is encoded by the OXTR gene which has been localized to human chromosome 3p25. (wikipedia.org)
  • The OXTR protein belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor family, specifically Gq, and acts as a receptor for oxytocin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxytocin-oxytocin receptor system plays an important role as an inducer of uterine contractions during parturition and of milk ejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bale, TL, Dorsa, DM 1995 Regulation of oxytocin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the ventromedial hypothalamus by testosterone and its metabolites. (springer.com)
  • Bale, TL, Dorsa, DM 1995 Sex differences in and effects of estrogen on oxytocin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the ventromedial hypothalamus. (springer.com)
  • We also found by qPCR that the gene expression of oxytocin receptor is present in this tissue. (gu.se)
  • Oxytocin was classically associated with uterine contractions in humans, and in rodents caring for offspring. (theatlantic.com)
  • If animals caused oxytocin release in humans, it would explain my surprise attachment to my dog Teddy, and perhaps why people spend thousands of dollars to treat a pet medically rather than euthanize it and simply get a new animal. (theatlantic.com)
  • Our previous studies showed that when humans engage in social activities with each other, oxytocin levels typically increase between 10 percent and 50 percent. (theatlantic.com)
  • The dog and cat study showed that neither species consistently increased oxytocin in humans. (theatlantic.com)
  • Dogs release oxytocin - the chemical found in humans who are. (nypost.com)
  • In humans, oxytocin is thought to be released during hugging, touching, and orgasm in both genders. (psychcentral.com)
  • Bartz JA, Zaki J, Bolger N, Ochsner KN (2011) Social effects of oxytocin in humans: context and person matter. (springer.com)
  • A fascinating new paper by Gordon and colleagues reports the first longitudinal data on oxytocin levels during the initiation of parenting in humans. (elsevier.com)
  • The article is "Oxytocin and the Development of Parenting in Humans" by Ilanit Gordon, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, James F. Leckman, and Ruth Feldman. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, virtually nothing is known regarding the effects in humans of centrally administered oxytocin. (bio.net)
  • In humans, oxytocin is released during orgasm in both sexes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nasal sprays of oxytocin can have a warm-and-fuzzy effect in humans, too. (livescience.com)
  • However, scientists have suggested the involvement of the hormone oxytocin in intergroup conflict among humans. (mpg.de)
  • In humans, oxytocin has been found to trigger a tendency to defend and cooperate with fellow group members during intergroup social dilemma games. (mpg.de)
  • Oxytocin is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • NEGEV, Israel, April 4 (UPI) -- Oxytocin is a natural hormone and neurotransmitter produced in the brain's hypothalamus. (upi.com)
  • This view is supported by evidence that oxytocin interacts with various neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes that have previously been implicated in depression. (nih.gov)
  • Oxytocin (OXY) is a very abundant neuropeptide exerting a wide spectrum of central and peripheral effects as neurohormone, neurotransmitter, or neuromodulator. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers have found that the naturally-occurring hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin intensifies men's memories of their mother's affections during childhood. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers at the Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment at Mount Sinai School of Medicine wanted to determine whether oxytocin, a hormone and neurotransmitter that is known to regulate attachment and social memory in animals, is also involved in human attachment memories. (redorbit.com)
  • Its additional role as a neurotransmitter has been shown by several studies, highlighting oxytocin s involvement in social communication, development of anxiety, stress response and, recently, pain. (dkfz.de)
  • In this study, investigators will examine the behavioral effects and neurophysiological mechanisms of the pro-social neuropeptide oxytocin in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Neuroscientific research has shown that positive social interactions are linked to the neuropeptide oxytocin [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Serotonin (5-HT) and oxytocin (OXT) are two neuromodulators involved in human affect and sociality and in disorders like depression and autism. (pnas.org)
  • People with Asperger's syndrome, a mild form of autism, dramatically improve their social learning skills and spend more time gazing at pictures of faces after inhaling the social-bonding hormone oxytocin, researchers have found. (latimes.com)
  • It led some experts to speculate that supplementing the normally low oxytocin levels in people with autism disorders may help their social interactions. (latimes.com)
  • 4. Oxytocin, Autism & Social Phobia? (slideshare.net)
  • Oxytocin nose sprays also have been considered for use in treating autism . (livescience.com)
  • When you think about using oxytocin to treat diseases like autism, you want to make sure you do it in a context where the social information is positive," Young said. (livescience.com)
  • Doctor Larry Young discusses evidence of a relationship between oxytocin and autism, speculating that oxytocin may be used to treat autism. (curriki.org)
  • Piomelli also said that their findings open the exciting possibility that drugs that block the degradation of anandamide, which were currently being tested for various anxiety disorders, could give a boost to the brain's own oxytocin and help people with autism socialise more. (yahoo.com)
  • Can Oxytocin Treat Autism? (autismspeaks.org)
  • Autism Speaks Science Science News Can Oxytocin Treat Autism? (autismspeaks.org)
  • Recent studies have fanned interest in using oxytocin nasal spray to improve social abilities in children and adults on the autism spectrum. (autismspeaks.org)
  • In early studies - including a clinical trial supported by Autism Speaks - a spritz of oxytocin into the nose temporarily increased social responsiveness in those with autism. (autismspeaks.org)
  • It's also far from clear that autism involves a deficiency in oxytocin. (autismspeaks.org)
  • A recent study found that oxytocin levels in children with autism varied no more or less than did oxytocin levels in other children. (autismspeaks.org)
  • However, the same study suggested that low oxytocin levels worsened social disability in those affected by autism. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Oxytocin for Treating Autism? (autismspeaks.org)
  • Autism Speaks has funded twelve oxytocin studies at ten sites in the U.S. and abroad. (autismspeaks.org)
  • As the hormone's ability to enhance social responses was replicated in other studies, researchers began to wonder whether oxytocin might be helpful for people with autism spectrum disorders, which are characterized by impaired social functioning. (parents.com)
  • It is also believed to have an impact on social interaction, leading to a potential link between oxytocin and autism . (rationalwiki.org)
  • A recent study published in JAMA Pediatrics in August 2013 has shown a statistical link between children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and use of synthetic oxytocin to induce or augment labor. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Oxytocin nasal spray has been used in studies in which the participants' debilitating social phobias are greatly reduced, and it has shown positive outcomes when inhaled by people with autism or schizophrenia. (wisegeek.com)
  • Oxytocin, the "mother-infant bonding hormone," holds even more promise for helping treat the social deficits that are often part of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (theatlantic.com)
  • Averbeck believes this study provides clinical hope to those with schizophrenia and autism, and added, "This offers the potential in the future of integrating oxytocin treatment with psychological therapy using the window of opportunity created by the acute oxytocin effects. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Oxytocin has been promoted as a "wonder drug" that can help enhance positive feelings and social skills while also purportedly alleviating serious cognitive and psychiatric and behavioral conditions, including depression , post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD ), and autism. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Oxytocin is released naturally when the neurons in the brain's hypothalamus region are stimulated. (reference.com)
  • However, oxytocin neurons make other peptides, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and dynorphin, for example, that act locally. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Via long-range axons, these neurons reach the deep layers of the spinal cord and secrete oxytocin precisely at the level where the intensity of the nociceptive message is encoded in the central nervous system. (dkfz.de)
  • Thus, although oxytocin release is stimulated by birth and lactation in mothers, it appears that other aspects of parenthood serve to stimulate oxytocin release in fathers. (elsevier.com)
  • The study of human lactation, in conjunction with animal research, provides an opportunity to begin to develop viable hypotheses regarding the behavioral effects of oxytocin. (bio.net)
  • Women who have trouble lactating or adoptive mothers who wish to induce lactation may use oxytocin spray to aid in this process. (wisegeek.com)
  • Synthetic oxytocin is used to induce labour for medical reasons, or if labour has not started naturally. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Oxytocin should not be used to induce labor (to help start the birth process in a pregnant woman), unless there is a valid medical reason. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If oxytocin injection is given to induce labor or to increase contractions, it is usually given intravenously with medical supervision in a hospital. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Synthetic oxytocin is frequently used to medically induce or augment labor. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Oxytocin is a hormone drug used to induce labour in pregnant women and stall post-partum bleeding. (indiatimes.com)
  • Under medical supervision, an oxytocin injection is sometimes used to start birth contractions or strengthen them during labor, and it helps reduce bleeding after delivery. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Oxytocin Injection, USP (synthetic) is indicated for the initiation or improvement of uterine contractions, where this is desirable and considered suitable, in order to achieve early vaginal delivery for fetal or maternal reasons. (nih.gov)
  • Oxytocin Injection, USP (synthetic) is indicated to produce uterine contractions during the third stage of labor and to control postpartum bleeding or hemorrhage. (nih.gov)
  • When properly administered, oxytocin should stimulate uterine contractions similar to those seen in normal labor. (nih.gov)
  • Even with proper administration and adequate supervision, hypertonic contractions can occur in patients whose uteri are hypersensitive to oxytocin. (nih.gov)
  • Synthetic oxytocin is manufactured to help speed up labor for women who aren't having strong enough contractions. (reference.com)
  • Oxytocin can trigger or strengthen uterine contractions, thereby speeding up the labor. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Labor contractions, which dilate the cervix , can be induced or strengthened through the use of oxytocin nasal spray. (wisegeek.com)
  • Oxytocin is always present in the body, but near the end of a woman's pregnancy term, progesterone levels decrease, and the levels of oxytocin prompt the muscle contractions. (wisegeek.com)
  • During pregnancy, oxytocin causes labor contractions to begin. (uwhealth.org)
  • In the first few days after delivery, oxytocin also causes uterine contractions that help shrink the uterus back to its prepregnancy size. (uwhealth.org)
  • [16] In women, a single dose of estradiol has been found to be sufficient to increase circulating oxytocin concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • By chance, sodium ascorbate by itself was found to stimulate the production of oxytocin from ovarian tissue over a range of concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor may adjust your dose of oxytocin injection during your treatment, depending on your contraction pattern and on the side effects that you experience. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The team, including Yale professor of psychology, economics and management David Rand, gave participants a dose of oxytocin and found that the chemical's effect on decision-making differed based on the way the participants thought about those decisions. (yaledailynews.com)
  • In the end, they concluded that those who received a dose of oxytocin had a weakened desire to eat when they were shown photos of high-calorie foods. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In another study, published in PNAS in 2010, men were given a dose of oxytocin and asked to write about their mothers. (livescience.com)
  • Those who inhaled a dose of oxytocin before playing the game felt more like gloating when they won the most money, and more envy when their opponent was ahead Biological Psychiatry , vol 66, p 864) . (newscientist.com)
  • They found that when people filled out an anonymous questionnaire about their sex lives and fantasies, they were less likely to seal the envelopes they returned them in if given a nasal dose of oxytocin beforehand. (newscientist.com)
  • 40 IU of the oxytocin will be administered intranasally for a one time dose at the beginning of the visit. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The team gave half of a group of children aged 7-18 a single dose of a nasal spray containing oxytocin. (theatlantic.com)
  • After taking a dose of oxytocin, patients with anorexia were less likely to focus on the 'disgust' faces. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Oxytocin is released in the body after sex and during maternal bonding. (yaledailynews.com)
  • van Leengoed, E, Kerker, E, Swanson, HH 1987 Inhibition of post-partum maternal behaviour in the rat by injecting an oxytocin antagonist into the cerebral ventricles. (springer.com)
  • Although maternal bonding may not always be hardwired - after all, human females can adopt babies and take care of them - oxytocin released during pregnancy "does seem to have a role in motivation and feelings of connectedness to a baby," Young said. (livescience.com)
  • Non-pregnant rats and sheep that are given oxytocin show rapid behavioral changes that are maternal in nature. (reference.com)
  • Oxytocin use, duration of labor, prolonged infant hospitalization, and maternal fever followed a similar pattern. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Oxytocin, an ancient and highly conserved hormone in mammals, is key in instigating mother-infant bonding and maternal defense. (mpg.de)
  • Maternal death due to oxytocin-induced water intoxication has been reported. (rxlist.com)
  • Oxytocin injected into the cerebrospinal fluid causes spontaneous erections in rats, reflecting actions in the hypothalamus and spinal cord. (psychcentral.com)
  • In 2012, researchers reported that people in the first stages of romantic attachment had higher levels of oxytocin, compared with non-attached single people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 1 2 3 Oxytocin first became of interest to researchers when they discovered that breastfeeding women are calmer when exercising and experiencing stress than moms who were bottle-feeding. (psychcentral.com)
  • Studies measuring the effects of oxytocin on autistic children are currently being conducted, but if these treatments become standard, researchers need to understand that kids in different contexts will react differently to oxytocin, he said. (yaledailynews.com)
  • We hypothesized that a combination of routine oxytocin and misoprostol, compared with oxytocin alone, both as part of active management of the third stage of labor, would decrease the postpartum hemorrhage rate," the researchers explain. (medscape.com)
  • So researchers are asking: In this case, is oxytocin urging us to move closer to our less interested partners or prompting us to seek other relationships? (psychcentral.com)
  • Researchers from NTNU and the University of New Mexico teamed up to study the connection between oxytocin and relationship investment among 75 American couples and 148 Norwegian individuals who were in relationships. (psychcentral.com)
  • In the study, researchers analyzed the interaction between 16 dogs and their owners both before and after they gave the dogs a nasal spray of oxytocin. (livescience.com)
  • In a 2009 study, researchers found that when owners played with their dogs, the owners experienced a natural surge of oxytocin. (livescience.com)
  • When researchers gave mice pups oxytocin, Dr. Young and Barrett note, the treatment reduced their brain's sensitivity to the hormone and the mice grew up to be less social than untreated mice. (autismspeaks.org)
  • A prior study by the same researchers, in fact, found that men in monogamous relationships who were given oxytocin actually kept a greater physical distance from an attractive research associate, compared with single men. (time.com)
  • Oxytocin may play a crucial role in blocking the effects of alcohol, revealed researchers from the University of Sydney and the University of Regensburg. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have measured the concentration of the hormone oxytocin in the urine of wild chimpanzees before and during intergroup conflicts and found that their social affiliations enable chimpanzees, too, to stand by each other against rivals. (mpg.de)
  • Throughout the study the researchers followed 10 males and 10 females and collected every possible urine sample for oxytocin analysis. (mpg.de)
  • Researchers measured oxytocin levels in both the dads and their babies before and after the exercise. (time.com)
  • Some have proposed a correlation between the concentration of oxytocin and the intensity of orgasm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • You may get an extra oxytocin boost if you have an orgasm, but if you don't, it's okay - you'll still get the positive benefits of sex with a loving partner. (wikihow.com)
  • While this is generally true for women, men are more likely to get an oxytocin boost from an orgasm when they're having sex with someone they love. (wikihow.com)
  • Think about when oxytocin is released," says Hurlemann, noting that this occurs during kissing, hugging, orgasm and other intimate moments. (time.com)
  • Oxytocin is also released during sexual arousal and orgasm, and some companies market oxytocin nasal spray as an aid in increasing arousal. (wisegeek.com)
  • Syntocinon injection contains oxytocin, which is a naturally-occuring hormone. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The oxytocin in the injection is man-made, but works in the same way as the natural hormone. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling during your treatment with oxytocin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxytocin, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in oxytocin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will probably not give you oxytocin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Oxytocin injection may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to oxytocin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about oxytocin injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • All women received active management of the third stage of labor, including a prophylactic intravenous injection of 10 IU oxytocin after the delivery of the baby's anterior shoulder, early umbilical cord clamping, and controlled cord traction. (medscape.com)
  • Oxytocin injection (synthetic) is a sterile, clear, colorless solution of oxytocin in Water for Injection, USP prepared by synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Oxytocin Injection, USP (synthetic) is indicated for the medical rather than the elective induction of labor. (nih.gov)
  • Oxytocin injection (synthetic) when given for induction or stimulation of labor, must be administered only by the intravenous route, and with adequate medical supervision in a hospital. (nih.gov)
  • Injection: Clinical doses of oxytocin are given by injection either into a muscle or into a vein to cause contraction of the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the effects of intravenous injection of oxytocin (OT) on the urinary bladder in sham and ovariectomized rats. (gu.se)
  • The health ministry banned the sale of veterinary drug Oxytocin through pharmacies to curb the misuse of the injection by dairy farmers. (indiatimes.com)
  • Oxytocin may be administered either as an injection or a nasal spray. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In addition, a recent perspective has entertained the possible role for oxytocin in depressive disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Last year, Zak suggested a new role for oxytocin. (newscientist.com)
  • There is a considerable difference in the amount of oxytocin each of these acts will release. (wikihow.com)
  • The suggested mechanism is based on the role that oxytocin appears to play in social bonding and the idea that a significant increase in the amount of oxytocin the baby is exposed to could suppress the response of the baby's oxytocin receptors. (rationalwiki.org)
  • The data suggest that oxytocin modulates the expression of evaluative conditioning for socially relevant faces via influences on amygdala and fusiform gyrus, an effect that may explain its prosocial effects. (mendeley.com)
  • However, there's little clinical evidence to suggest that oxytocin is an effective treatment for psychiatric conditions. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Some scientists believe that oxytocin is released primarily to enhance a relationship and make it stronger when you're with someone you love," says Andreas Aarseth Kristoffersen, a research assistant in Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) Department of psychology. (psychcentral.com)
  • But others believe that oxytocin levels increase primarily when we find ourselves in difficult or even threatening situations. (psychcentral.com)
  • We believe that oxytocin may help people form memories about important social information in their environment and attach incentive value to those memories. (redorbit.com)
  • We believe that oxytocin is a hormonal mechanism that facilitates the maintenance of close social bonds not only in dogs or cats, but also in any mammal species, since the oxytocin system is very ancient and has similar functions in a wide number of taxa. (livescience.com)
  • [4] Oxytocin is released into the bloodstream as a hormone in response to stretching of the cervix and uterus during labor and with stimulation of the nipples from breastfeeding . (wikipedia.org)
  • If too much oxytocin is delivered too rapidly, it can lead to a rupture of the uterus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oxytocin can also be given to make the uterus contract and control bleeding after a delivery or a termination. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The oxytocin causes the muscle of the uterus to contract during labour so that the baby can be pushed out. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • In second trimester abortion, oxytocin infusion will often be successful in emptying the uterus. (nih.gov)
  • Except in unusual circumstances, oxytocin should not be administered in the following conditions: prematurity, borderline cephalopelvic disproportion, previous major surgery on the cervix or uterus including Caesarean section, overdistention of the uterus, grand multiparity or invasive cervical carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Oxytocin receptors are expressed by the myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland, and in both the myometrium and endometrium of the uterus at the end of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxytocin stimulates the contraction of the uterus by increasing sodium permeability of uterine myofibrils. (ratguide.com)
  • Oxytocin not only contributes to feelings of empathy and compassion (two key components of love), it is also boosted when you verbally express these sentiments. (wikihow.com)
  • If oxytocin really is the empathy chemical, those close to us might have a hormone surge as they witness our public pair-bonding. (newscientist.com)
  • Enhanced monitoring of gaze and increased empathy have been reported after oxytocin administration, and along with intensification of existing pro-social tendencies, oxytocin facilitates memory of faces. (psychologytoday.com)
  • We will argue that since oxytocin is linked to key processes relevant to team sport, such as empathy, trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and motivation, it provides an important biopsychological basis for expert performance in (team) sports. (hindawi.com)
  • It's not clear that synthetic oxytocin works in the same manner as the naturally occurring hormone. (psychcentral.com)
  • Synthetic oxytocin can also be used to stimulate labour that has started naturally, but is considered too weak to push out the baby. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Pregnant women who do not naturally begin labor within a typical time frame, or who have complications which indicate a necessity for starting labor early, may have their labor induced through the administration of synthetic oxytocin. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Note that synthetic oxytocin is not the only way in which labor may be induced). (rationalwiki.org)
  • Women who do enter labor naturally, but whose labor then fails to progress, or who for medical reasons require labor to be expedited, can receive labor augmentation through synthetic oxytocin or other means. (rationalwiki.org)
  • There has been nothing specifically put forth to contradict Odent's theory, but there has also been very little research on the subject, and most opponents of synthetic oxytocin for induction or augmentation of labor simply cite Odent. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Oxytocin is a synthetic compound. (ratguide.com)
  • Cite this: Oxytocin Without Misoprostol Best for Postpartum Hemorrhage Prevention - Medscape - Sep 09, 2016. (medscape.com)
  • Bales KL, Carter CS (2003a) Developmental exposure to oxytocin facilitates partner preferences in male prairie voles ( Microtus ochrogaster ). (springer.com)
  • In men, as in women, oxytocin facilitates bonding. (livescience.com)
  • Administering oxytocin, a mammalian neuropeptide, intranasally to healthy controls facilitates the stress-buffering properties of social support. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All patients receiving intravenous oxytocin must be under continuous observation by trained personnel with a thorough knowledge of the drug and qualified to identify complications. (nih.gov)
  • Patients were divided into two groups (n=45), group-A received oxytocin (5 IU) approximately over 10 seconds as an intravenous bolus and group-B received (5 IU) over 5 minutes as an infusion in infusion pump. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore, the findings suggest that (1) intravenous oxytocin decreases IP due to bladder relaxation and (2) OT has local bladder effect, binding directly in receptors located in the bladder. (gu.se)
  • Even though oxytocin has only weak antidiuretic properties, water intoxication can omlur if it is administered at a rapid rate, and/or if excessively large volumes of electrolyte-free intravenous fluids are administered. (ratguide.com)
  • Studies on the eventual relationships between central oxytocin neurotransmission and gamma-hydroxybutyrate,MDMA,are urgently needed. (bio.net)
  • [31] The endocrine effects of hormonal oxytocin and the cognitive or behavioral effects of oxytocin neuropeptides are thought to be coordinated through its common release through these collaterals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased processing could mean that a burst of oxytocin might help cement behavioral therapy for kids with the disorder. (livescience.com)
  • These behavioral group differences were accompanied by differences in neural responses, as participants in the oxytocin group showed decreases in responses in the amygdala and caudate nucleus. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Oxytocin is a key neuropeptide that plays a key role in social cognition but the literature has shown inconsistent results, so we are trying to explain why - one of the key things we are thinking about is cognitive style. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The participants weren't any better at identifying the emotions after the oxytocin burst, but the regions of their brains associated with social interaction became more active. (livescience.com)
  • Participants inhaled oxytocin from a nasal spray and completed questionnaires on how they felt 90 minutes later. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, after receiving the oxytocin, the schizophrenic participants showed dramatic improvement. (goodtherapy.org)
  • GG carriers, with their naturally higher levels of oxytocin , were better able to distinguish between emotions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its two arms come with interlocking clasps at the end that wrap around your waist, shoulder, or neck, mimicking an embrace and helping fight stress and nervousness by boosting the release of endorphins and oxytocin to make you naturally feel confident and happy. (yankodesign.com)
  • As a naturally occurring hormone, oxytocin enhances social bonding. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Men naturally produce lower levels of oxytocin than women. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A Pennsylvania study measured hormonal responses to kissing in long-term relationships, and found that oxytocin levels decreased. (newser.com)
  • Chemical structure of oxytocin. (wikimedia.org)
  • Description=Chemical structure of oxytocin. (wikimedia.org)
  • Oxytocin has the chemical formula C 43 H 66 N 12 O 12 S 2 . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Though the hormone is often associated with the connection between lovers and the chemical bonds between mothers and their children, the new findings suggest oxytocin might also help maintain nonromantic social relationships between different species. (livescience.com)
  • These lines of evidence might seem contradictory, but only if we hold the naive view that oxytocin is a chemical force for good. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The chemical we know oxytocin is found in all mammals, but it's part of an ancient group of chemicals found throughout the animal kingdom. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • If more details are given, we are told the facts such as: When you have sex, you bind yourself to a person who may hurt or leave you (through a chemical called oxytocin, for starters), you may get STDs, you may get pregnant, you're not treating yourself with the respect you deserve (or the other person for that matter), etc. (boundless.org)
  • The literature on the effects of oxytocin on in-group favoritism, however, had been mixed with some studies showing an increase in in-group favoritism and some showing no effect from the oxytocin. (yaledailynews.com)
  • She said a future project may be to closely examine the anti-anxiety effects of oxytocin. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Bales KL, Pfeifer LA, Carter CS (2004) Sex differences and developmental effects of manipulations of oxytocin on alloparenting and anxiety in prairie voles. (springer.com)
  • Reckless use of oxytocin could have some unwanted effects. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The study, published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, is the first to demonstrate the effects of oxytocin -- a hormone that promotes mother-infant bonding, socialization, trust and cooperation -- in people diagnosed with Asperger's. (latimes.com)
  • While the effects of oxytocin are still being studied, oxytocin may help you develop and maintain strong social bonds by encouraging intimacy, trust, and other components of a healthy relationship. (wikihow.com)
  • These results were not due to more general effects of oxytocin on mood or well-being. (redorbit.com)
  • Under the effects of oxytocin, a person can perceive themselves as more extroverted, more open to new ideas and more trusting. (eurekalert.org)
  • Unaware of which type of spray their pet received, the owners met their dogs again and were told to ignore any affectionate advances so that the effects of oxytocin would be clear. (livescience.com)
  • Indeed, he notes that "oxytocin is also apparently represented culturally by specific words (e. g . 'hygge' in Danish and 'gemütlichkeit' in German) whose meanings correspond closely to its documented endocrine effects" (coziness/friendliness, according to Google Translate). (psychologytoday.com)
  • For example, in animal models of addiction, oxytocin administration directly reduces tolerance, withdrawal effects, self-administration, and stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking for a range of addictive substances. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Aim 2: To examine the effects of exogenous oxytocin on persistent negative symptoms in schizophrenia (PNS) activity in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Not feeling the effects of oxytocin? (mothering.com)
  • Assuming that she is able to labor, birth and nurse without any interventions, what might explain why a mother would not feel the positive effects of oxytocin, such as post birth 'high,' bonding/loving feelings with a newborn and positive feelings during breastfeeding? (mothering.com)
  • The positive effects of oxytocin on autistic children prompted B. B. Averbeck of the Laboratory of Neuropsychology at the National Institutes of Health in Maryland to conduct a study exploring how oxytocin would influence social deficits in individuals with schizophrenia. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Because the results of this study were evident after only 3 weeks of oxytocin use, Averbeck believes more extensive research should be conducted to further the exploration of the positive effects of oxytocin. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Oxytocin is a mammalian hormone closely associated with labor and delivery. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Since oxytocin levels are highly stable within individuals, this finding suggests that some mechanisms, perhaps social or hormonal factors, regulate oxytocin levels in an interactive way within couples. (elsevier.com)
  • Oxytocin involves harmonious interaction between neural and hormonal systems. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Greater amounts of oxytocin hormone levels appear to be associated with greater relaxation, more willingness to trust others, and general psychological stability. (psychcentral.com)
  • A 1998 study found significantly lower levels of oxytocin in blood plasma of autistic children. (psychcentral.com)
  • When scientists remove the ovaries from female mice, for example, their levels of oxytocin drop dramatically. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • At both time-points, fathers' oxytocin levels were not different from levels observed in mothers. (elsevier.com)
  • The neuroscientists also found a relationship between oxytocin levels in husbands and wives. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, the findings revealed that oxytocin levels were associated with parent-specific styles of interaction. (elsevier.com)
  • And the people with higher levels of oxytocin were more generous in the amounts they chose to return to the original investor. (dictionary.com)
  • Oxytocin levels were measured both before and during the tasks. (psychcentral.com)
  • The GG allele is connected with oxytocin levels in people[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, any sentiments associated with giving or receiving love and admiration will increase your oxytocin levels. (wikihow.com)
  • Giving and receiving also boost oxytocin levels. (wikihow.com)
  • Both infant and father's salivary oxytocin levels were measured both before and several times after the drug was administered. (redorbit.com)
  • Paul Zak, the author of the book Trust Factor: The Science of Creating High-Performance Companies, suggested various ways to increase the levels of oxytocin in the human body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Studies also show that interacting with a baby causes the infant's own oxytocin levels to increase, he added. (livescience.com)
  • What Foods Increase Oxytocin Levels? (reference.com)
  • The plan was to measure blood levels of oxytocin in the bride, groom, three close members of our families and eight friends both before and after the ceremony. (newscientist.com)
  • Studies have also shown that mothers who breast feed and produce high levels of oxytocin have lower blood pressure and are calmer about stressful situations. (wisegeek.com)
  • From the scientific benefits of chanting 'Om' to the improved levels of oxytocin among schizophrenia patients who practised yoga, the group of Indian neuroscientists presented clinical evidence trying to support claims that practicing yoga helps treat several ailments. (indiatimes.com)
  • With increased oxytocin levels, previously presented faces were more correctly assessed as "known," whereas the ability of recollecting faces was unchanged. (jneurosci.org)
  • Liran Samuni and colleagues measured the animals' urinary oxytocin hormone levels immediately before and during intergroup conflict events. (mpg.de)
  • They assessed the impact of the type of event on urinary oxytocin levels, as well as the impact of the subject's sex, dominance rank, group identity, and proximity to the territory border - as a measure of potential risk. (mpg.de)
  • We found high urinary oxytocin levels in hunting and intergroup conflict. (mpg.de)
  • The results are the first to track oxytocin levels between parent and child interactions, and its potential role in framing future social interactions. (time.com)
  • According to Psychology Today, eating any type of food stimulates release of the hormone oxytocin, which affects the brain's responses to intimacy. (reference.com)
  • And it shows that oxytocin affects our social interactions in both positive and negative ways, depending on the situation we're in, or our personality and disposition. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Where earlier work piqued interest in oxytocin as a possible treatment, a new study goes further to support its role in treating the disorder, which now affects one in 88 children born today, according to the CDC. (theatlantic.com)