Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.
Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.
A transient dilatation of the lymphatic vessels.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.

Oncocytic biliary cystadenocarcinoma is a form of intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm of the liver. (1/26)

Biliary cystadenocarcinoma with oncocytic differentiation was first reported in 1992. This is a report of a second case. The patient (a 71-year-old man) was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal fullness. Multicystic lesions were identified in the left hepatic lobe radiologically. The patient died of peritoneal dissemination of carcinoma 20 months later. At autopsy, the tumor of the left hepatic lobe was found to be composed of adjoining multiple cystic lesions and a solid lesion with infiltration of the hepatic hilus and peritoneal dissemination. Histologically, the multicystic lesions were covered by papillary neoplastic epithelial cells with an eosinophilic granular cytoplasm resembling that of oncocytes and a fine fibrovascular core. The cyst wall was fibrous, but there was no mesenchymal stroma. In the solid lesion and infiltrated areas, acidophilic and granular carcinoma cells formed small glandular or solid cord patterns with much mucin secretion (mucinous carcinoma). Immunohistochemically, carcinoma cells of both components were found to contain many mitochondria and showed the phenotypes of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Interestingly, the intrahepatic biliary tree also was invaded by carcinoma cells. This may be a case of intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm of the left hepatic lobe followed by secondary cystic dilatation of the affected bile duct.  (+info)

The usefulness of 99mTc-SestaMIBI scan in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules with oncocytic cytology. (2/26)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relevance of (99m)Tc-SestaMIBI (MIBI) scan in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules with oncocytic cytology. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with a single (or prevalent) 'cold' solid nodule with Hurthle cells (HC) at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were studied. Cytological diagnosis of oncocytic metaplasia (OM) or HC tumor (HCT) was made when HC on the smear were comprised 10-75%, or >75%. Nodules concentrating MIBI at early and late (2 h after washout) stages were considered MIBI-positive. In all cases histological findings were obtained after total thyroidectomy. RESULTS: FNAC was malignant or suspect for malignancy in 16 cases (six HCT and 10 OM) and not suspect in eight (two HCT and six OM). Histological examination revealed 14 malignant tumors (11 HCT and three OM), and 10 benign thyroid lesions (three HCT and seven OM). Sensitivity of FNAC for malignancy was 92.8% and specificity was 70.0%; HCT were identified by FNAC in only 35.7% and OM in 70.0% of cases. No significant difference in MIBI positivity was found between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. The highest percentage of MIBI positivity was found in HCT (78.5%), but MIBI-positive nodules were also observed in thyroid lesions with HC metaplasia (40.0%). CONCLUSIONS: MIBI scintiscan has no value in differentiating malignant from benign HC thyroid neoplasias. Most HCT are MIBI-positive, but this scan is not sufficiently specific to differentiate true HC neoplasias from other thyroid lesions showing HC at FNAC, although an MIBI-negative scan strongly supports the absence of true HCT.  (+info)

Apoptosis and P53, Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression in parathyroid glands of patients with hyperparathyroidism. (3/26)

Altogether 107 patients were operated on at the Department of Transplantation and Surgery of Semmelweis University in the past four years, for clinical symptoms of hyperparathyroidism. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients supported the diagnosis of primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Chronically impaired renal function was found in 52 cases. The removed parathyroid glands showed hyperplasia in 54, adenoma in 50 and carcinoma in 3 cases. The majority of parathyroid lesions in primary hyperparathyroidism were adenomas (41 cases) and in secondary hyperparathyroidism were hyperplasias (43 cases). The ratio of oxyphil to chief cells as well as occasional mitotic and apoptotic figures were determined. The oxyphil component was present in both hyperplastic and tumorous lesions. Apoptosis and mitosis were rarely seen in hyperplasias and adenomas (under 2%), whereas in carcinomas 3% of the tumor cells were apoptotic and 4% showed mitosis. Cytoplasmic p53 positivity could be observed in 3 of the adenomas and in 2 of the hyperplasias. The carcinomas, four adenomas and 3 hyperplasias showed nuclear p53 positivity. Bcl-2 and Bax were detected in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells in the majority of adenomas and in the cells of hyperplasias. Oxyphil cells were more frequently positive than chief cells or clear cells. Colocalization of Bcl-2 and Bax was found randomly in all types of lesions. The very low incidence of carcinoma, the low mitotic and apoptotic ratio in adenomas and hyperplasias suggest a potent antiproliferative defense mechanism in the parathyroid cell population. This may also be reflected in the cytoplasmic colocalization of various gene products which regulate cell death and cell proliferation. No significant differences in the p53, Bcl-2 and Bax spectrum were found between the primary and secondary (i.e. renal failure) parathyroid alterations.  (+info)

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland: A cytomorphologic study of 139 cases with statistical analysis. (4/26)

BACKGROUND: Lesions of the thyroid gland composed of Hurthle cells encompass pathologic entities ranging from hyperplastic nodules with Hurthle cell metaplasia to Hurthle cell carcinomas. The cytologic distinction between these entities can be diagnostically challenging. Many cytologic features of Hurthle cell lesions that distinguish neoplastic Hurthle cell lesions requiring surgery from those that are benign and nonneoplastic have been described, but with variable usefulness. This is due, in part, to the small numbers of cases examined in previous studies and the limited application of statistical analysis. A morphologic study was made of 139 Hurthle cell lesions of the thyroid gland and statistical analysis applied to identify a set of cytomorphologic features that distinguish benign Hurthle cell lesions (BHCL) from Hurthle cell neoplasms (HCN). METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of thyroid nodules with a predominant Hurthle cell component and corresponding histologic followup were included in the study. Cases were divided into BHCL and HCN groups on the basis of the histologic diagnosis. All cases were reviewed to assess the following 14 cytologic features: overall cellularity, cytoarchitecture, percentage of Hurthle cells, percentage of single cells, percentage of follicular cells observed as naked Hurthle cell nuclei, background colloid, chronic inflammation, cystic change, transgressing blood vessels (TBV), intracytoplasmic lumina, presence of multinucleated Hurthle cells, nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear pleomorphism/atypia, and nucleolar prominence. The results were evaluated by using univariate and stepwise logistic regression (SLR) analysis; statistical significance was achieved at P-values < 0.05. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine FNAB specimens, corresponding to 56 HCN and 83 BHCL, fulfilled the study criteria. Six of the 14 cytologic features evaluated were shown by univariate analysis to be statistically significant in predicting HCN: nonmacrofollicular architecture (P < 0.001), absence of background colloid (P < 0.001), absence of chronic inflammation (P < 0.001), presence of TBV (P < 0.001), > 90% Hurthle cells (P < 0.001), and >10% single Hurthle cells (P = 0.014). The first four of these features were also shown to be statistically significant in the SLR analysis (P = 0.005, 0.010, 0.016, and 0.045, respectively), and when all four of these features were present HCN was correctly identified 86% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study of 139 FNAB specimens of thyroid Hurthle cell nodules, 14 cytologic features were examined and 6 were found to be statistically significant in identifying HCN. The following four features, when found in combination, were found to be highly predictive of HCN: nonmacrofollicular architecture, absence of colloid, absence of inflammation, and presence of TBV.  (+info)

Rectal adenocarcinoma with oncocytic features: possible relationship with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. (5/26)

BACKGROUND: The introduction of preoperative chemoradiation into the treatment protocol of rectal adenocarcinomas has affected the microscopical morphology in subsequent resection specimens. The constellation of histopathological changes is varied and well documented. AIM: To describe oncocytic change in rectal cancers that have been treated with chemoradiation before surgery. METHODS: 7 of 54 patients with rectal cancer were identified with a history of chemoradiation, specifically directed to the rectal tumours in fractions of 4500-5000 cGy of radiation and 5-fluorouracil. The rectal tumours in five of these seven patients were composed of oncocytes that constituted 30-80% of the cancers. The patients were three men and two women aged 65-73 years, all with T3 N0 tumours. The intervals between chemoradiation and resection varied from 3 to 12 weeks. RESULTS: The tumour cells conformed to oncocytes morphologically (large size with abundant, granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei and prominent acidophilic nucleoli), immunohistochemically (positive for carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 20 and caudal type homeo box transcription factor 2, but negative for both chromogranin and synaptophysin) and ultrastructurally (large cells showing tight junctions, cytoplasmic engorgement by mitochondria and absence of neurosecretory granules). CONCLUSIONS: The changes in these cells differ from those described previously in endocrine cells encountered in pretreated rectal cancers. Oncocytic change in this particular clinical context occurs as a reflection of cytotoxic damage or cellular hypoxia induced by chemoradiation resulting in degeneration of the cell and the oncocytic phenotype. Oncocytic change may be an under-recognised histopathological change in rectal cancers receiving preoperative chemoradiation.  (+info)

Oncocytic change in pleomorphic adenoma: molecular evidence in support of an origin in neoplastic cells. (6/26)

BACKGROUND: Cells with oncocytic change (OC) are a common finding in salivary glands (SGs) and in SG tumours. When found within pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), cells with OC may be perceived as evidence of malignancy, and lead to a misdiagnosis of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CaExPa). AIM: To describe a case of PA with atypical OC, resembling a CaExPa. A genomewide molecular analysis was carried out to compare the molecular genetic features of the two components and to determine whether the oncocytic cells originated from PA cells, entrapped normal cells, or whether these cells constitute an independent tumour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Representative blocks were immunohistochemically analysed with antibodies raised against cytokeratin (Ck) 5/6, Ck8/18, Ck14, vimentin, p63, alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA), S100 protein, anti-mitochondria antibody, beta-catenin, HER2, Ki67, p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor. Typical areas of PA and OC were microdissected and subjected to microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH). Chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) was performed with in-house generated probes to validate the aCGH findings. RESULTS: PA cells showed the typical immunohistochemical profile, including positivity for Ck5/6, Ck8/18, Ck14, vimentin, ASMA, S100 protein, p63, epidermal growth factor receptor and beta-catenin, whereas oncocytic cells showed a luminal phenotype, expression of anti-mitochondria antibody and reduced beta-catenin staining. Both components showed low proliferation rates and lacked p53 reactivity. aCGH revealed a similar amplification in both components, mapping to 12q13.3-q21.1, which was further validated by CISH. No HER2 gene amplification or overexpression was observed. The foci of oncocytic metaplasia showed an additional low-level gain of 6p25.2-p21.31. CONCLUSION: The present data demonstrate that the bizarre atypical cells of the present case show evidence of clonality but no features of malignancy. In addition, owing to the presence of a similar genome amplification pattern in both components, it is proposed that at least in some cases, OC may originate from PA cells.  (+info)

Interobserver variability with the interpretation of thyroid FNA specimens showing predominantly Hurthle cells. (7/26)

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is used for the diagnosis and triaging of thyroid lesions. Recently, it has been shown that the pathologic interpretation of selected thyroid specimens can show a high degree of interobserver variability (IV). Because Hurthle cells may be seen in neoplastic and nonneoplastic disease, we investigated whether pathologists consistently interpret FNA specimens from these lesions. In the present study, 22 FNA specimens that showed Hurthle cells as the predominant cell type were reviewed by 7 pathologists. Cytologic features were assessed semiquantitatively. IV was calculated, and individual case diagnoses were compared with cytologic features. IV was high before diagnoses were collapsed into like diagnoses and triage recommendations (k = 0.17, 0.44, and 0.51, respectively). Overall cellularity, number of Hurthle cells, and number of lymphocytes all correlated with collapsed diagnostic agreement, and the number of air-dried rapid Romanowsky-stained slides, overall cellularity, number of Hurthle cells, and number of lymphocytes all correlated with collapsed triage recommendations.  (+info)

Disruptive mitochondrial DNA mutations in complex I subunits are markers of oncocytic phenotype in thyroid tumors. (8/26)

Oncocytic tumors are a distinctive class of proliferative lesions composed of cells with a striking degree of mitochondrial hyperplasia that are particularly frequent in the thyroid gland. To understand whether specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are associated with the accumulation of mitochondria, we sequenced the entire mtDNA in 50 oncocytic lesions (45 thyroid tumors of epithelial cell derivation and 5 mitochondrion-rich breast tumors) and 52 control cases (21 nononcocytic thyroid tumors, 15 breast carcinomas, and 16 gliomas) by using recently developed technology that allows specific and reliable amplification of the whole mtDNA with quick mutation scanning. Thirteen oncocytic lesions (26%) presented disruptive mutations (nonsense or frameshift), whereas only two samples (3.8%) presented such mutations in the nononcocytic control group. In one case with multiple thyroid nodules analyzed separately, a disruptive mutation was found in the only nodule with oncocytic features. In one of the five mitochondrion-rich breast tumors, a disruptive mutation was identified. All disruptive mutations were found in complex I subunit genes, and the association between these mutations and the oncocytic phenotype was statistically significant (P=0.001). To study the pathogenicity of these mitochondrial mutations, primary cultures from oncocytic tumors and corresponding normal tissues were established. Electron microscopy and biochemical and molecular analyses showed that primary cultures derived from tumors bearing disruptive mutations failed to maintain the mutations and the oncocytic phenotype. We conclude that disruptive mutations in complex I subunits are markers of thyroid oncocytic tumors.  (+info)

Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are large granular cells with abundant mitochondria. They can be found in various organs, including the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, salivary glands, and skin. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are often observed in the context of follicular adenomas or follicular carcinomas, where they can make up a significant portion of the tumor. The exact function of oxyphil cells is not well understood, but it is thought that they may play a role in the production and metabolism of hormones or other substances. In general, the presence of oxyphil cells in a tumor is not considered to be indicative of a specific type or behavior of the tumor, but rather a histological feature that can be observed in a variety of contexts.

Parathyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the parathyroid glands, which are small endocrine glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parathyroid neoplasms are typically called parathyroid adenomas and are the most common type of parathyroid disorder. They result in overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to a condition known as primary hyperparathyroidism. Symptoms may include kidney stones, osteoporosis, fatigue, depression, and abdominal pain.

Malignant parathyroid neoplasms are called parathyroid carcinomas. They are rare but more aggressive than adenomas, with a higher risk of recurrence and metastasis. Symptoms are similar to those of benign neoplasms but may also include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.

It is important to note that parathyroid neoplasms can only be definitively diagnosed through biopsy or surgical removal and subsequent histopathological examination.

The parathyroid glands are four small endocrine glands located in the neck, usually near or behind the thyroid gland. They secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which plays a critical role in regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the blood and bones. PTH helps maintain the balance of these minerals by increasing the absorption of calcium from food in the intestines, promoting reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys, and stimulating the release of calcium from bones when needed. Additionally, PTH decreases the excretion of calcium through urine and reduces phosphate reabsorption in the kidneys, leading to increased phosphate excretion. Disorders of the parathyroid glands can result in conditions such as hyperparathyroidism (overactive glands) or hypoparathyroidism (underactive glands), which can have significant impacts on calcium and phosphate homeostasis and overall health.

An oxyphilic adenoma is a type of benign tumor that develops in the endocrine glands, specifically in the parathyroid gland. This type of adenoma is characterized by the presence of cells called oxyphils, which have an abundance of mitochondria and appear pink on histological examination due to their high oxidative enzyme activity. Oxyphilic adenomas are a common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to an imbalance of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism may include fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and psychological disturbances. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the affected parathyroid gland.

Lymphangiectasis is a medical condition characterized by the dilation and abnormal expansion of lymphatic vessels, which are responsible for transporting lymph fluid throughout the body. These dilated lymphatic vessels can be found in various tissues and organs, including the intestines, lungs, or other parts of the body.

In the case of intestinal lymphangiectasis (also known as Waldmann's disease), the lymphatic vessels in the small intestine become enlarged, leading to impaired absorption of nutrients and lymph fluid. This can result in protein-losing enteropathy, malnutrition, diarrhea, and edema (swelling) due to the loss of proteins and lymphatic fluids into the gastrointestinal tract.

Pulmonary lymphangiectasis is a rare congenital disorder where the lymphatic vessels in the lungs are abnormally developed and dilated, causing respiratory distress, recurrent lung infections, and chylous effusions (accumulation of milky lymph fluid in the pleural space surrounding the lungs).

Treatment for lymphangiectasis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. It may involve dietary modifications, medications to manage symptoms, or surgical interventions in some cases.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). There are four small parathyroid glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. They release PTH into the bloodstream to help regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

In hyperparathyroidism, overproduction of PTH can lead to an imbalance in these minerals, causing high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia) and low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). This can result in various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive issues.

There are two types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is a problem with one or more of the parathyroid glands, causing them to become overactive and produce too much PTH. Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops as a response to low calcium levels in the body due to conditions like vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, or malabsorption syndromes.

Treatment for hyperparathyroidism depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In primary hyperparathyroidism, surgery to remove the overactive parathyroid gland(s) is often recommended. For secondary hyperparathyroidism, treating the underlying condition and managing calcium levels with medications or dietary changes may be sufficient.

Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that play a crucial role in the regulation of extracellular calcium homeostasis. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the parathyroid gland, kidney, and bone.

The primary function of CaSR is to detect changes in extracellular calcium concentrations and transmit signals to regulate the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid gland. When the concentration of extracellular calcium increases, CaSR is activated, which leads to a decrease in PTH secretion, thereby preventing further elevation of calcium levels. Conversely, when calcium levels decrease, CaSR is inhibited, leading to an increase in PTH release and restoration of normal calcium levels.

In addition to regulating calcium homeostasis, CaSR also plays a role in other physiological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of CaSR has been implicated in various diseases, such as hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of CaSR is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

... may refer to: Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) Oxyphil cell (pathology) This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Oxyphil cell. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to ...
"Oxyphil cells - MeSH Browser". meshb.nlm.nih.gov. Oxyphil+Cells at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Oxyphil cells are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, endocrine glands, and salivary glands. " ... Cell biology, All stub articles, Pathology stubs). ...
... oxyphil cells and C cells are fairly similar. Oxyphil cells are much larger in size (12-20 μm) compared with chief cells (6-8 ... as they are not present at birth like chief cells. Oxyphil cells increase in number with age. Oxyphil cells may be binucleated ... Oxyphil cells appear at the onset of puberty, but have no known function. It is perceived that oxyphil cells may be derived ... Oxyphil cells have a cytoplasm filled with many, large mitochondria. Oxyphil cells have abundant cytoplasmic glycogen and ...
Adenoma Oncocytoma Oxyphil cell "Endocrine Pathology". Retrieved 2009-05-07. Grani, Giorgio; Lamartina, Livia; Durante, Cosimo ... Hürthle cells also tend to be large, polygonal cells with distinct cell borders. The cytoplasm of the oncocytes in Hürthle cell ... However, this is a misnomer since Hürthle actually described parafollicular C cells. The cell known as the Hürthle cell was ... Oncocytes in the thyroid are often called Hürthle cells. Although the terms oncocyte, oxyphilic cell, and Hürthle cell are used ...
The cells with orange/pink staining cytoplasm are oxyphil cells In the early development of the human embryo, a series of five ... Oxyphil cells, which are lighter in appearance and increase in number with age, have an unknown function. Intermediate ... Two unique types of cells are present in the parathyroid gland: Chief cells, which synthesize and release parathyroid hormone. ... The small, dark cells are chief cells, which are responsible for secreting parathyroid hormone. ...
Hürthle cell adenoma (oxyphil or oncocytic tumor) - have the potential for microinvasion. Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma ... in a single precursor cell. In contrast, a multinodular goiter is usually thought to result from a hyperplastic response of the ...
Histologically, these glands are composed of chief cells and oxyphil cells with the chief cell primarily responsible for the ... Parathyroid glands are normally composed of chief cells, adipocytes and scattered oxyphil cells. Chief cells are thought to be ... Oxyphil cells also appear hyperplasic however, these cells are much less prominent.[citation needed] Biochemically, there are ... These cells also contain prominent cytoplasmic adipose. Upon onset of hyperplasia these cells are described as having a nodular ...
The chief cells are much more prevalent in the parathyroid gland than the oxyphil cells. It is perceived that oxyphil cells may ... Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) List of human cell types derived from the germ layers List of distinct cell types in the adult human ... Parathyroid chief cells (also called parathyroid principal cells or simply parathyroid cells) are one of the two cell types of ... Chief cells appear as a dark purple in an H&E stain, with the oxyphil cells staining as a lighter pink. They are polygonal in ...
Parathyroid chief cells make up the majority of the parathyroid gland along with adipocytes and oxyphil cells. Parathyroid ... The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and ... These stem cells differentiate into mucous neck cells in the isthmus and transition into chief cells as they migrate towards ... Parietal cells may secrete factors that lead to transdifferentiation of chief cells, so if lost, chief cells do not normally ...
Melanotroph Chromophil Acidophil cell Basophil cell Oxyphil cell Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) Pituitary gland Neuroendocrine cell ... Chromophobe cells are one of three cell stain types present in the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland, the ... Amphophils are epithelial cells found in the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary. Together, these epithelial cells ... "clear cell"). Chromophobe renal cancer is part of a rare, genetic disorder known as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. While renal cell ...
Anterior pituitary acidophil Basophilic Oxyphil cell Eosinophil granulocyte Eosinophilic Acidophil cell Acidophile Ross MH, ... More specifically, acidophilia can be described by cationic groups of most often proteins in the cell readily reacting with ... It describes the microscopic appearance of cells and tissues, as seen through a microscope, after a histological section has ... Note that a single cell can have both acidophilic substances/organelles and basophilic substances/organelles, albeit some have ...
Chromophobe cell Melanotroph Chromophil Acidophil cell Oxyphil cell Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) Pituitary gland Neuroendocrine ... An anterior pituitary basophil is a type of cell in the anterior pituitary which manufactures hormones. It is called a basophil ... It is usually not possible to distinguish between these cell types using standard staining techniques.) *Produced only in ... cell Basophilic Histology image:14002loa from Vaughan, Deborah (2002). A Learning System in Histology: CD-ROM and Guide. Oxford ...
Basophilic Chromophobe cell Melanotroph Chromophil Basophil cell Oxyphil cell Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) Pituitary gland ... In the anterior pituitary, the term "acidophil" is used to describe two different types of cells which stain well with acidic ... Neuroendocrine cell Histology image:14002loa from Vaughan, Deborah (2002). A Learning System in Histology: CD-ROM and Guide. ...
Chromophobe cell Chromophil Acidophil cell Basophil cell Oxyphil cell Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) Pituitary gland Neuroendocrine ... A melanotroph (or melanotrope) is a cell in the pituitary gland that generates melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α‐MSH) from its ... cell List of distinct cell types in the adult human body Ogawa, Tokiko; Shishioh‐Ikejima, Nobue; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Makino, ...
Ding Y, Zou Q, Jin Y, Zhou J, Wang H (January 2020). "Relationship between parathyroid oxyphil cell proportion and clinical ... various healthy cells of different types such as immune cells and cells related to affected tissues in addition to tumor cells ... which separates the populations of cells belonging to different cell types based on their cell sizes, morphologies (shape), and ... "Coral cell separation and isolation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)". BMC Cell Biology. 18 (1): 30. doi:10.1186/ ...
... such that oxyphil cell parathyroid adenomas have a very high avidity for sestamibi, while chief cell parathyroid adenomas have ... Sestamibi imaging is correlated with the number and activity of the mitochondria within the parathyroid cells, ...
A second image is obtained after a washout time (approximately 2 hours), and mitochondria in the oxyphil cells of the abnormal ...
Neuroendocrinology Neurohormone Chromophobe cell Melanotroph Chromophil Acidophil cell Basophil cell Oxyphil cell Oxyphil cell ... Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells are also known as Kulchitsky cells or K cells. They are located in the respiratory epithelium of ... Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (through neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory ... These cells can be the source of several types of lung cancer, most notably small cell carcinoma of the lung, and bronchial ...
Chromophobe cell Melanotroph Acidophil cell Basophil cell Oxyphil cell Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) Pituitary gland ... Chromophil cells therefore belong to the group of APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cells. These cells are ... A chromophil biological cell is a cell which is easily stainable by absorbing chromium salts used in histology to increase the ... Chromophil cells are mostly hormone-producing cells containing so-called chromaffin granules. In these subcellular structures, ...
... cell Parafollicular cell Parathyroid gland Parathyroid chief cell Oxyphil cell Urothelial cell Germ layer List of distinct cell ... cell Pneumocyte Type I cell Type II cell Club cell Goblet cell Pulmonary neuroendocrine cell Enteroendocrine cell G cell Delta ... Hepatic stellate cell Cholecystocyte Centroacinar cell Pancreatic stellate cell alpha cell beta cell delta cell PP cell (F cell ... cell Gastric chief cell Parietal cell Foveolar cell Enteroendocrine cell Gastric inhibitory polypeptide S cell Delta cell ...
Head and neck anatomy Chromophobe cell Melanotroph Chromophil Acidophil cell Basophil cell Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) ... Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary are controlled by regulatory hormones released by parvocellular neurosecretory cells ... There is also a non-endocrine cell population called folliculostellate cells. The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes ... The posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized by cell bodies in the hypothalamus. The magnocellular neurosecretory cells, of ...
Oxyphil cell may refer to: Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) Oxyphil cell (pathology) This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Oxyphil cell. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to ...
In the former group the oxyphil cells are few in number except in advanced renal disease when there is a gross increase; in one ... It is postulated that the oxyphil cells are most likely called in to elaborate a hormone as a defence mechanism to maintain the ... A semi-quantitative study of the parathyroid oxyphil cells in over 500 cases is presented. They are divided into two age groups ... A preliminary investigation of the extent of proliferation of the oxyphil cells in various diseases strongly suggests that ...
The positive effect of adenoma weight and oxyphil cell content on preoperative localization with 99mTc-sestamibi scanning for ... Rethinking Approach to Manage Fever in ED for Children With Sickle Cell Disease ...
blood vessel.. dont get it confused with oxyphil cells which are also pink .. ... these cells are dying and will soon lyse. Ultimately, cells lyse and their lipid-filled cytoplasm becomes sebum* ... adrenal medulla has larger cells and has relatively pale cells that form clusters ... Paneth cell - bright red, found at base of the crypts *. secretes a lysoznyme that has anitbaterial activity (therefore ...
... cell cycle phase, and prevalence of mitochondria-rich oxyphil cells (84,85). As little as 100 mg hyperfunctioning parathyroid ... Parathyroid cells express a calcium ion receptor (CaR). Calcium ion regulates both the secretory balance and the cell ... It is also involved in cell-to-cell signaling, through the voltage-activating channels and interaction with the ryanodine ... relationship between technetium-99m-MIBI uptake and oxyphil cell content. J Nucl Med. 1998;39:1441-1444. ...
Names of cells and tissues that begin with the letter O. ... Oxyphil Cell. MH 154 Parathyroid. Chapter 13 - Endocrine Glands ...
Oxyphil Cells 35% * Thyroid Epithelial Cells 32% * Parathyroid Neoplasms 30% * Surgical Pathology 30% ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Oncocytes use Oxyphil Cells Oncocytoma use Adenoma, Oxyphilic Oncogene Fusion Oncogene Products use Oncogene Proteins ...
Pax8 as a useful adjunct marker to differentiate pancreatic serous cystadenoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma in both ... Hu, S., Peng, L., Kwak, Y. T., Tekippe, E. M., Pasare, C., Malter, J. S., Hooper, L. V. & Zaki, M. H., Dec 1 2015, In: Cell ... Udden, S. M. N., Peng, L., Gan, J. L., Shelton, J. M., Malter, J. S., Hooper, L. V. & Zaki, M. H., Jun 27 2017, In: Cell ... Targeted gene repair in mammalian cells using chimeric oligonucleotides.. Kmiec, E. B., Ye, S. & Peng, L., 2000, In: Genetic ...
Oxyphil Cells (0) * Pancreatic Stellate Cells (0) * Pericytes (0) * Phagocytes (0) * Plant Cells (0) ...
Oxyphil Cells 9% * Peptide Hydrolases 10% * Peptides 10% * Pituitary Gland 15% * poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(ethyleneimine) ...
Oxyphil Cells 48% * Neoplasms 31% * Papillary Thyroid Cancer 18% * Therapeutics 16% * European Continental Ancestry Group 15% ...
Chief cells and oxyphil cells) Increased Immunohistochemical factors Increased P-glycoprotien expression[18] Decreased ... So, the uptake of sestamibi into parathyroid adenoma cells depends on the activity of the P-gp[19]. ...
Hurthle cell carcinoma, also called oxyphil cell carcinoma, is a type of follicular thyroid cancer. Most patients diagnosed ... Medullary cancer cells usually make and release into the blood proteins called calcitonin and/or carcinoembryonic antigen, ... Hypothyroidism - If too little of the thyroid hormones are produced, the cells and organs of your body slow down. If you become ... Hyperthyroidism - If too much of the thyroid hormones are secreted, the body cells work faster than normal, and you have ...
Oxyphil cell carcinoma (See: Oxyphil cell carcinoma, also known asHurthle cell cancer) * * PAD (See: PAD, also known ... Period Differences Sprained ankle Sprains squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma ... White blood cell disorders in children (See: White blood cell disorders in children, also known asPediatric white blood cell ... basal cell (See: Cancer, basal cell, also known asBasal cell carcinoma) * Cancer, bladder (See: Cancer, bladder, also known ...
The heterogeneity of parathyroid cell subpopulations, especially in oxyphil cells, may be associated with the sex differences ... mainly contributed by fibroblast cells, endothelial cells, parathyroid cells, and myeloid cells, which also have significantly ... Single cells were isolated and sequenced for RNA expression profiles. The cell sequencing data were annotated by cell type, ... The cell pseudotime trajectory and pathway analyses show that the oxyphil cells may be more mature and functionally active than ...
13.1%, P , 0.001, respectively). Semiquantitative analysis revealed a significantly higher percentage of oxyphil cell area ... the oxyphil cell area of the PTGs was significantly larger in the CH than in the non-CH group. In nodular hyperplastic PTGs or ... and virtually fat-cell-free accumulation of parenchymal cells. Next, the presence of hemorrhagic necrosis and cystic lesions ... White blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (Plt), total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), serum urea nitrogen (UN), ...
... and percentage of oxyphil cells within the glands. [1] The yellow color may be confused with surrounding fat. A distinct hilar ... These cells differentiate into the parafollicular cells (C cells) that secrete calcitonin. [2] The superior parathyroid glands ... these cells detach from the pharyngeal wall and fuse with the posterior aspect of the main body of the thyroid as it descends ...
  • Oxyphil cell may refer to: Oxyphil cell (parathyroid) Oxyphil cell (pathology) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Oxyphil cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A semi-quantitative study of the parathyroid oxyphil cells in over 500 cases is presented. (bmj.com)
  • So, the uptake of sestamibi into parathyroid adenoma cells depends on the activity of the P-gp [19] . (wikidoc.org)
  • The color of the parathyroid glands is typically light brown to tan, which relates to their fat content, vascularity, and percentage of oxyphil cells within the glands. (medscape.com)
  • The thyroid gland forms as a proliferation of endodermal epithelial cells on the median surface of the developing pharyngeal floor. (medscape.com)
  • [7] Much smaller parvocellular neurosecretory cells , neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, release corticotropin-releasing hormone and other hormones into the hypophyseal portal system , where these hormones diffuse to the anterior pituitary . (cloudfront.net)
  • Chromaffin Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (jefferson.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Chromaffin Cells" by people in this website by year, and whether "Chromaffin Cells" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (jefferson.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Chromaffin Cells" by people in Profiles. (jefferson.edu)
  • These cells differentiate into the parafollicular cells (C cells) that secrete calcitonin. (medscape.com)
  • A preliminary investigation of the extent of proliferation of the oxyphil cells in various diseases strongly suggests that significant differences may be present. (bmj.com)
  • The rudimentary lateral thyroid develops from neural crest cells, while the median thyroid, which forms the bulk of the gland, arises from the primitive pharynx. (medscape.com)
  • what cell is this in the pancreas? (brainscape.com)
  • The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans . (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the beta cells in the pancreatic islets are selectively destroyed by an autoimmune process in type 1 diabetes , clinicians and researchers are actively pursuing islet transplantation as a means of restoring physiological beta cell function, which would offer an alternative to a complete pancreas transplant or artificial pancreas . (wikipedia.org)
  • These are hormones that governs metabolism, development, and growth of the organs, a few cells, and the endocrine glands. (neetexambooster.in)
  • Somatostatin: inhibits alpha cells and beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although at all ages the greatest average increase occurs in cases showing azotaemia, other cases demonstrating either minimal or no significant histological evidence of chronic renal disease in routine histological sections show a considerable increase in oxyphil cells. (bmj.com)
  • Finally attention is drawn to the fact that in the rare situation, but now likely to be more frequent, where a partial parathyroidectomy follows renal transplantation it will be possible to ascertain what happens to the oxyphil cells following relief of the azotaemic state. (bmj.com)
  • Efficient manufacturing of therapeutic mesenchymal stromal cells with the use of the Quantum Cell Expansion System. (ctsicn.org)
  • Manufacturing mesenchymal stromal cells for phase I clinical trials. (ctsicn.org)
  • Glycogen/Glucagon: activates alpha cells which activates beta cells and delta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • both mucous and serous cells that secrete into a common lumen. (brainscape.com)
  • The beta cells of the pancreatic islets secrete insulin , and so play a significant role in diabetes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose/Insulin: activates beta cells and inhibits alpha cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • FLT3 ligand regulates thymic precursor cells and hematopoietic stem cells through interactions with CXCR4 and the marrow niche. (ctsicn.org)
  • Desmosomes, molecular complexes of adhesion proteins, connect the cells, keeping follicular contents confined within the lumen. (medscape.com)
  • Hormones produced in the pancreatic islets are secreted directly into the blood flow by (at least) five types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pancreatic islet, showing beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hormones are necessary for all the cells in your body to work normally. (ronnyallan.net)
  • Hormones that do not enter the target cells, communicate with specific receptors situated on surfaces of the targeted cell membranes and produces the second messengers on plasma membrane(inner side). (neetexambooster.in)
  • In mammals, magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus produce neurohypophysial hormones , oxytocin and vasopressin . (cloudfront.net)
  • An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. (lookformedical.com)
  • Direct immunofluorescence technique: it is a one-step histological staining procedure for identifying in vivo antibodies that are bound to tissue antigens, using a single antibody labeled with a fluorophore [ 5 ] for staining the tissues or cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Curiously this decodes to "an abnormality is present, but it could either be a benign (non-cancerous) growth or a malignant cancerous growth of the follicular cells. (ronnyallan.net)
  • The ultimobranchial bodies also develop from the fourth pharyngeal pouch, and, during the fifth week of development, these cells detach from the pharyngeal wall and fuse with the posterior aspect of the main body of the thyroid as it descends into the neck. (medscape.com)
  • Intracellular canaliculi form connections with adjacent cells, and these spaces subsequently fuse, forming a confluent lumen. (medscape.com)
  • The peptide hormone erythropoietin i.e. produced from juxtaglomerular cells of kidney triggers the erythropoiesis. (neetexambooster.in)
  • Islets can influence each other through paracrine and autocrine communication, and beta cells are coupled electrically to six to seven other beta cells, but not to other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Correlation of the histological changes with alterations of electrolyte and acid base studies may well elucidate the significance of these cells. (bmj.com)
  • when you close condense, appears striated due to the parallel arrays of the mitochondria within the infolds of the plasma membrane at the basal surface of the cells. (brainscape.com)
  • intralobular duct of submandibular has striations at the basal surface of their cells. (brainscape.com)
  • It is postulated that the oxyphil cells are most likely called in to elaborate a hormone as a defence mechanism to maintain the equilibrium of certain as yet undetermined biochemical constituents. (bmj.com)
  • Name the hormone that aids in the cell-mediated immunity? (neetexambooster.in)
  • Thymosins hormone plays a significant role in differentiation and development of the T-lymphocytes that provides the cell-mediated immunity. (neetexambooster.in)
  • Li CS, Tang F, Zhang P, Jiang T, Saunders TL, Zheng P, Liu Y. Trap1a is an X-linked and cell-intrinsic regulator of thymocyte development. (ctsicn.org)
  • and the immediate precursors of most blood cells. (ctsicn.org)
  • A simple method is outlined for making a quantitative assessment of the number of oxyphil cells. (bmj.com)
  • Quantitative activation suppression assay to evaluate human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell potency. (ctsicn.org)