Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.
Diseases of plants.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
A genus of ascomycetous soil yeast in the family Lipomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (1/1093)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Inverse relationship between systemic resistance of plants to microorganisms and to insect herbivory. (2/1093)

Pre-inoculation of plants with a pathogen that induces necrosis leads to the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to subsequent pathogen attack [1]. The phenylpropanoid-derived compound salicylic acid (SA) is necessary for the full expression of both local resistance and SAR [2] [3]. A separate signaling pathway involving jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in systemic responses to wounding and insect herbivory [4] [5]. There is evidence both supporting and opposing the idea of cross-protection against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores [6] [7]. This is a controversial area because pharmacological experiments point to negative cross-talk between responses to systemic pathogens and responses to wounding [8] [9] [10], although this has not been demonstrated functionally in vivo. Here, we report that reducing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by silencing the expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) reduces SAR to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), whereas overexpression of PAL enhances SAR. Tobacco plants with reduced SAR exhibited more effective grazing-induced systemic resistance to larvae of Heliothis virescens, but larval resistance was reduced in plants with elevated phenylpropanoid levels. Furthermore, genetic modification of components involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis revealed an inverse relationship between SA and JA levels. These results demonstrate phenylpropanoid-mediated cross-talk in vivo between microbially induced and herbivore-induced pathways of systemic resistance.  (+info)

EIN2, a bifunctional transducer of ethylene and stress responses in Arabidopsis. (3/1093)

Ethylene regulates plant growth, development, and responsiveness to a variety of stresses. Cloning of the Arabidopsis EIN2 gene identifies a central component of the ethylene signaling pathway. The amino-terminal integral membrane domain of EIN2 shows similarity to the disease-related Nramp family of metal-ion transporters. Expression of the EIN2 CEND is sufficient to constitutively activate ethylene responses and restores responsiveness to jasmonic acid and paraquat-induced oxygen radicals to mutant plants. EIN2 is thus recognized as a molecular link between previously distinct hormone response pathways. Plants may use a combinatorial mechanism for assessing various stresses by enlisting a common set of signaling molecules.  (+info)

The jasmonate-induced 60 kDa protein of barley exhibits N-glycosidase activity in vivo. (4/1093)

Upon jasmonate treatment barley leaf segments express a putative ribosome-inactivating protein (JIP60). The influence of this protein on translation in planta has been analysed by using barley plants and tobacco plants transformed with a barley cDNA encoding JIP60. In both plant systems JIP60 exhibited N-glycosidase activity in vivo. The depurination of the 25S rRNA of tobacco and barley ribosomes led to accumulation of translationally inactive polysomes.  (+info)

A novel jasmonate- and elicitor-responsive element in the periwinkle secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Str interacts with a jasmonate- and elicitor-inducible AP2-domain transcription factor, ORCA2. (5/1093)

Jasmonate (JA) is an important plant stress hormone that induces various plant defense responses, including the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. The induction of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Strictosidine synthase (Str) in Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) cells by elicitor requires JA as a second messenger. A 42 bp region in the Str promoter is both necessary and sufficient for JA- and elicitor-responsive expression. This region is unlike other previously identified JA-responsive regions, and contains a GCC-box-like element. Yeast one-hybrid screening identified cDNAs encoding two AP2-domain proteins. These octadecanoid-derivative responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain (ORCA) proteins bind in a sequence-specific manner the JA- and elicitor-responsive element. ORCA2 trans-activates the Str promoter and its expression is rapidly inducible with JA and elicitor, whereas Orca1 is expressed constitutively. The results indicate that a GCC-box-like element and ORCA2 play key roles in JA- and elicitor-responsive expression of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic gene Str.  (+info)

Oligogalacturonide-mediated induction of a gene involved in jasmonic acid synthesis in response to the cell-wall-degrading enzymes of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora. (6/1093)

Identification of Arabidopsis thaliana genes responsive to plant cell-wall-degrading enzymes of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora led to the isolation of a cDNA clone with high sequence homology to the gene for allene oxide synthase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonates. Expression of the corresponding gene was induced by the extracellular enzymes from this pathogen as well as by treatment with methyl jasmonate and short oligogalacturonides (OGAs). This suggests that OGAs are involved in the induction of the jasmonate pathway during plant defense response to E. carotovora subsp. carotovora attack.  (+info)

Differential induction of plant volatile biosynthesis in the lima bean by early and late intermediates of the octadecanoid-signaling pathway. (7/1093)

Plants are able to respond to herbivore damage with de novo biosynthesis of an herbivore-characteristic blend of volatiles. The signal transduction initiating volatile biosynthesis may involve the activation of the octadecanoid pathway, as exemplified by the transient increase of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) in leaves of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) after treatment with the macromolecular elicitor cellulysin. Within this pathway lima bean possesses at least two different biologically active signals that trigger different biosynthetic activities. Early intermediates of the pathway, especially 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (PDA), are able to induce the biosynthesis of the diterpenoid-derived 4,8, 12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene. High concentrations of PDA result in more complex patterns of additional volatiles. JA, the last compound in the sequence, lacks the ability to induce diterpenoid-derived compounds, but is highly effective at triggering the biosynthesis of other volatiles. The phytotoxin coronatine and amino acid conjugates of linolenic acid (e.g. linolenoyl-L-glutamine) mimic the action of PDA, but coronatine does not increase the level of endogenous JA. The structural analog of coronatine, the isoleucine conjugate of 1-oxo-indanoyl-4-carboxylic acid, effectively mimics the action of JA, but does not increase the level of endogenous JA. The differential induction of volatiles resembles previous findings on signal transduction in mechanically stimulated tendrils of Bryonia dioica.  (+info)

Requirement of functional ethylene-insensitive 2 gene for efficient resistance of Arabidopsis to infection by Botrytis cinerea. (8/1093)

Inoculation of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola results in systemic induction of genes encoding a plant defensin (PDF1.2), a basic chitinase (PR-3), and an acidic hevein-like protein (PR-4). Pathogen-induced induction of these three genes is almost completely abolished in the ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein2-1. This indicates that a functional ethylene signal transduction component (EIN2) is required in this response. The ein2-1 mutants were found to be markedly more susceptible than wild-type plants to infection by two different strains of the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. In contrast, no increased fungal colonization of ein2-1 mutants was observed after challenge with avirulent strains of either Peronospora parasitica or A. brassicicola. Our data support the conclusion that ethylene-controlled responses play a role in resistance of Arabidopsis to some but not all types of pathogens.  (+info)

Oxylipins including jasmonates are signaling compounds in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) most mutants affected in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signaling are male sterile, whereas the JA-insensitive tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant jai1 is female sterile. The diminished seed formation in jai1 together with the ovule-specific accumulation of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase (AOC), which correlates with elevated levels of JAs, suggest a role of oxylipins in tomato flower/seed development. Here, we show that 35S::SlAOC-RNAi lines with strongly reduced AOC in ovules exhibited reduced seed set similarly to the jai1 plants. Investigation of embryo development of wild-type tomato plants showed preferential occurrence of AOC promoter activity and AOC protein accumulation in the developing seed coat and the embryo, whereas 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was the dominant oxylipin occurring nearly ...
Author Summary The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide range of plant immune responses involving genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming that are regulated by the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Leu zipper transcription factor MYC2. As a master regulator of JA signaling, MYC2 differentially regulates the transcription of different branches of JA-responsive genes through distinct molecular mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence that phosphorylation-dependent turnover of MYC2 is coupled with its function. We show that, during JA response, high accumulation of the MYC2 protein correlates with peaked expression of early wound-responsive genes that are positively regulated by MYC2, whereas low accumulation of the MYC2 protein correlates with peaked expression of late pathogen-responsive genes that are negatively regulated by MYC2. We discovered a 12-amino-acid element in the transcription activation domain of MYC2 that is required for both the proteolysis and the transcriptional activity of MYC2
Oxylipins are lipid peroxidation products that participate in nociceptive, inflammatory, and vascular responses to injury. Effects of oxylipins depend on tissue-specific differences in accumulation of precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids and the expression of specific enzymes to transform the precursors. The study of oxylipins in nociception has presented technical challenges leading to critical knowledge gaps in the way these molecules operate in nociception. We applied a systems-based approach to characterize oxylipin precursor fatty acids, and expression of genes coding for proteins involved in biosynthesis, transport, signaling and inactivation of pro- and anti-nociceptive oxylipins in pain circuit tissues. We further linked these pathways to nociception by demonstrating intraplantar carrageenan injection induced gene expression changes in oxylipin biosynthetic pathways. We determined functional-biochemical relevance of the proposed pathways in rat hind paw and dorsal spinal cord by ...
The response of individual members of the lipoxygenase multigene family in soybeans to sink deprivation was analyzed. RNase protection assays indicated that a novel vegetative lipoxygenase gene, vlxC, and three other vegetative lipoxygenase mRNAs accumulated in mature leaves in response to a variety of sink limitations. These data suggest that several members of the lipoxygenase multigene family are involved in assimilate partitioning. The possible involvement of jasmonic acid as a signaling molecule regulating assimilate partitioning into the vegetative storage proteins and lipoxygenases was directly assessed by determining the endogenous level of jasmonic acid in leaves from plants with their pods removed. There was no rise in the level of endogenous jasmonic acid coincident with the strong increase in both vlxC and vegetative storage protein VspB transcripts in response to sink limitation. Thus, expression of the vegetative lipoxygenases and vegetative storage proteins is not regulated by ...
Interpretive Summary: For many years, treatment of plants with the mineral silicon has been known to improve their ability to withstand the effects of a wide variety of stresses, although silicon is not considered essential or necessarily beneficial for the normal growth and development of non-stressed plants. This phenomenon has been observed for both so-called abiotic stresses such as tolerance to cold and drought, as well as biotic stresses such as insect attack and infection by pathogenic microorganisms. While the role of silicon in enhancing resistance to various stresses has been unequivocally established, details surrounding the underlying mechanism for how its effects are mediated remain largely unknown. In this study we have established a link between the stress-associated plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA), which regulates plant responses to diverse stresses, and the effects of silicon. Attack of rice plants by the destructive leaf folder (LF) insect herbivore was used as the focus of ...
In a second approach, we compared the AtPep-PEPR system to systemins - well described DAMPs in tomato with generally similar molecular features to AtPeps. Following up the lead that systemins are important mediators of defense responses against herbivorous insects, we checked whether a similar role would apply to the AtPep-PEPR system. Here, we could show that the AtPep-PEPR system is indeed induced by herbivore feeding and strongly interacts with the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) to orchestrate defense responses. Accordingly, mutants deficient in AtPep-PEPR signaling are strongly impaired in defense responses against the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis, underlining the importance of AtPep signaling in plant defense against herbivores ...
Diseases caused by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens result in enormous reductions in yield and quality from agricultural crops around the world. However, although plants are continuously challenged by pathogenic microorganisms, the development of disease is a relatively rare event. It is clear, therefore, that plants possess efficient defense systems. Effective induction of the defense response requires pathogen recognition followed by a network of signal transduction processes, resulting in the rapid activation of defense gene expression. A number of secondary signal molecules such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ethylene act to amplify and regulate defense responses after initial activation (Dong, 1998; Reymond and Farmer, 1998; Schenk et al., 2000). Interestingly, the SA- and jasmonate/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways appear to modulate plant defense responses against different classes of pathogens (for review, see ...
Jasmonic Acid JA Definition - Jasmonic acid (JA), also known commercially as Jasmonate, is a plant hormone produced by many plants, but one that plays an....
Jasmonates are important signals in plant stress responses and plant development. An essential step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is catalysed by ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) which establishes the naturally occurring enantiomeric structure of jasmonates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four genes encode four functional AOC polypeptides (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3, and AOC4) raising the question of functional redundancy or diversification. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed an organ-specific expression pattern, whereas detailed inspection of transgenic lines expressing the GUS reporter gene under the control of individual AOC promoters showed partially redundant promoter activities during development: (i) In fully developed leaves, promoter activities of AOC1, AOC2, and AOC3 appeared throughout all leaf tissue, but AOC4 promoter activity was vascular bundle-specific; (ii) only AOC3 and AOC4 showed promoter activities in roots; and (iii) partially specific promoter activities were found for ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The Oxylipins 12-OPDA and KODA are Potent Inducers of ISR. Wild-type maize receiver plants display dose-dependent resistance to C. graminicola infection when transfused with xylem sap supplemented with increasing concentrations of 12-OPDA (A) or KODA (B). In each case, the level of resistance is compared against untreated controls (−) or T. virens-treated control plants (+) displaying ISR. Letters indicate statistically significant differences (ANOVA, Tukeys HSD P , 0.05) between samples. (Adapted from Wang et al. [2019], Figure 7.) ...
Project context and objectives Oxylipin synthesis is triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses as well as also taking place during...
Proteinase inhibitor proteins are synthesized in leaves of several plant genera in response to localized and systemic signals that are released from sites of insect and pathogen attacks. Several...
Jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives play a crucial role in plant adaptation to environmental stress. The exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) results in activation of stress-related genes...
The role of jasmonic acid (JA) in plant wounding response has been demonstrated. However, the source of JA in wound signaling remains unclear. In the present study, pea seedlings were used as material to investigate the systemic induction of JA and the activation of lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent octadecanoid pathway upon wounding. The results showed that endogenous JA could induce two peaks in the ...
Jasmonic acid and other fatty‐acid‐derived compounds called oxylipins are signals in stress responses and development of plants
Spraying a corn plant with one of its own compounds - 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, or OPDA - can help deter the virus-carrying, pollination-disrupting insect known as the corn-leaf aphid.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 26:977-986...Carlos Augusto Avila,1 Lirio Milenka Arevalo-Soliz,1 Argelia Lorence,2,3 and Fiona L. Goggin1...© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society...Plant α-dioxygenases (α-DOX) are fatty acid-hydroperoxidases that contribute to the synthesis of oxylipins, a diverse group of compounds primarily generated through oxidation of linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA). Oxylipins are implicated in plant signaling against biotic and abiotic stresses....
Jual meja operasi lengkap dan resmi dengan harga yang terjangkau. Dapatkan harga meja operasi murah dan alat kesehatan lainnya di Medicalogy |✓ Pengiriman cepat ✓ Original
Yi Jin Jing ( Tendon-Muscle Strengthening Exercises ) is a health and fitness exercise handed down from ancient China. Based on the 12 routines, Yi Jin Jing features key points of the original exercises while putting the theory, skills and effects on the same solid foundation as knowledge of...
Qiang Pu Jin is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Qiang Pu Jin is available on the Drugs.com website.
Mis on tööga seotud luu- ja lihaskonna vaevuste käsitlemisel tegelikult tõhus? Meie uues aruandes loetletakse 25 mitmesugust algatust - alates teabekampaaniatest kuni kontrollide ja õigusaktideni -, mida kasutatakse 14 riigis, ning rõhutatakse, mida saab teha luu- ja lihaskonna vaevuste ennetamisel, eelkõige VKEdes. Neist kuut uuritakse põhjalikumalt, andes ülevaate, kuidas toimivad luu- ja lihaskonna vaevuste ennetamise meetmed praktikas.
Muudatuse eesmärgiks on kaitsta rahva tervist selle kaudu, et piiratakse uute psühhoaktiivsete ainete laiemat levikut, kättesaadavust ning vähendatakse väärtarvitamise tõenäosust. Uute psühhoaktiivsete ainete tarbimine võib kahjustada inimeste elu ja tervist, põhjustades haigusi, õnnetusi ning ainete tarvitamisest tingitud surmasid. Lisatavaid aineid ei ole üldjuhul uuritud inimkatsetes ning nende farmakokineetilised ja farmakodünaamilised omadused ning toksikoloogiline profiil on teadmata. Uute psühhoaktiivsete ainete tarvitajatel on muuhulgas tõsine oht aineid üle doseerida. Samuti ei ole sageli teada uusi psühhoaktiivseid aineid sisaldavate toodete täpne koostis ja päritolu.. Narkootiliste ja psühhotroopsete ainete ning nende lähteainete seaduse kohaselt on nimetatud ainete käitlemine alates 06.12.2014 keelatud, välja arvatud seaduse alusel meditsiinilisel või teaduslikul eesmärgil, narkootiliste ja psühhotroopsete ainetega seotud kuritegude ennetamiseks, ...
Ühe ja mitme koostisosaga ainete ning UVCB-ainete erinõudeid kirjeldatakse ainete REACH- ja CLP-määruse kohase identifitseerimise ja nimetamise juhendis.. ECHA otsustab, kas olete aine identifitseerinud õigesti. Selleks tuleb toimikusse lisada nõuetekohase kvaliteediga spektrid ja kromatogrammid ning muu analüütiline teave. Tähtis on spektreid, kromatogramme ja muud analüütilist teavet põhjalikult hinnata ning esitada toimikus nende tõlgendused.. REACH-registreerimistoimikus aine identifitseerimisandmete osa koostamise lisateave on andmete esitamise käsiraamatu 18. osas „Kuidas esitada REACH-registreerimisel aine identifitseerimisandmeid IUCLID 5-s.,/. ...
Ergutav šampoon kofeiini, tsingi ja kukeseene biopolümeeridega on niatsiinirikas [B3] ja soodustab juuksekasvu, pantoteenhape [B5] muudab juuksed kohevamaks. Taaselustab peanahka, silub juuksepinda ja lisab juustele pehmust ja kohevust.. Kanna märgadesse juustesse. Aja vahule ja 2 minuti pärast loputa hoolikalt. Sobib ka värvitud juustele. Ideaalne igapäevaseks kasutamiseks.. Parima tulemuse saavutamiseks kasuta koos MÁDARA GROW VOLUME palsamiga. ...
Assalamualaikum korang... huh, terkezutzz kan dengan tajuk post tu... Ya Allah, sakit rasanya bila terkena penyakit ni... ni bukan lah 1 penyakit ludah jin.. Buat takut mak je kan?? Memandai je ludah jin.. kesian jin tak bersalah jadi mangsa.. hehee.. Tapi, wallahualam, kalau penyakit ni mungkin dari jin.. boleh jadi kan???~ Anyway, tak tau la penyakit mende ni.. tapi setahu Cik Iman, ini adalah penyakit GEGATA aka GATAL2 ...
感冒咳液 KANMOCO SOLUTION "TEN JIN" / 緩解感冒之各種症狀(鼻塞、流鼻水、打噴嚏、咽喉痛、發燒、頭痛、喀痰,關節痛,肌肉痛) / 藥要看提供簡單的介面檢索國內有註冊登記的藥品資訊
EBM ja laboratorio Kristina Hotakainen HY ja HUSLAB EBLM Arvioidaan laboratoriokokeiden vaikutuksia kliiniseen päätöksentekoon ja potilaan hoitotuloksiin mm. kliinistä epidemiologiaa, tilastotiedettä,
Tänu oma koostisele puhastab nahka sügavuti. Aitab tasakaalustada naha rasu- ja niiskusesisaldust ning võitleb akne ja komedoonide vastu.. Sisaldab E-vitamiini ja D-pantenooli.. Ei sisalda parabeene ega kunstlikke lõhna - värvaineid.. ...
KOOSTISAINETE KOHTA:. Kofeiin (300 mg) energia, vaimse erksuse ja kognitiivsete ülesannete täitmise toetamiseks. Kliiniliselt on tõestatud, et kofeiini kogus C4® Ultimate On The Gois suurendab energiakulu ja aeroobset treeningvõimet.. CarnoSyn® beeta-alaniin (3,2 g) on kliiniliselt uuritud beeta-alaniini vorm, mis on osutunud lihaste vastupidavust toetavaks. Kreatiinitraat (1,5 g) on patenteeritud vorm kreatiin, mis suurendab tugevust ilma seedeprobleemideta ja puhituseta. Samuti on tõestatud, et kreatiinitraat® suurendab pumbad ja teiste koostisosade imendumist.. Tsitrulliin-malaat (6 g) toetab lämmastikoksiidi taseme tõusu ja kui see on ühendatud Arginine AKG-ga (1 g purgi kohta), toetab see Ultimatei pumpa.. BetaPower® betaiin (1,5g on kliiniliselt tõestatud, et see toetab vedelikku ja füüsilise jõudluse, jõu, jõu ja vastupidavuse paranemist).. N-atsetüül-L-türosiin toetab noradrenaliini ja dopamiini tootmist, mis mõlemad toetavad vaimset ja kognitiivset tervist ...
Na. Za-pad-nom Bal-ka-nu su po-treb-ni do-dat-ni ko-ra-ci za ra-zvoj ma-log i sred-njeg po-du-zet-niš-tva (SME) te je nuž-no pro-na-ći me-ha-niz-me za pot-po-ru ras-ta tog sek-to-ra, po-ru-čio je Pi-er-re He-il-bronn, pot-pred-sjed-nik EBRDa za po-li-ti-ke i part-ner-stva. Na pa-ne-lu o fi-nan-cij-skim ins-tru-men-ti-ma SMEu, odr-ža-nom u sklo-pu sum-mi-ta ze-ma-lja Za-pad-nog Bal-ka-na u Tr-stu, He-il-bronn je seg-ment ma-log i sred-njeg po-du-zet-niš-tva oci-je-nio mo-to-rom ino-va-ci-ja u re-gi-ji i ge-ne-ra-to-rom eko-nom-skog ras-ta.. Re-kao je da potpora mo-ra ići kroz po-bolj-ša-nja u fi-nan-cij-skom me-nadž-men-tu i kor-po-ra-tiv-nom uprav-lja-nju, ključ-nim fak-to-ri-ma da ma-li po-du-zet-ni-ci pos-ta-nu kre-di-bil-ni kli-jen-ti ba-na-ka. U sri-je-du su EBRD, Svjet-ska ban-ka, EK i EIF pot-pi-sa-li pi-smo na-mje-re za osi-gu-ra-nje dalj-njih 48 mi-li-ju-na eura ma-lom po-du-zet-niš-tvu.. ...
Selles tootes sulanduvad harmooniliselt kahe eksootilise seene maitsed ning olemas on kõik inimese organismile kasulikud eelised. Kas teadsid, et valges šiitake seenes sisalduvad ained vähendavad vähiriski, aitavad reguleerida vererõhku ja puhastavad verd? Must fungus-seen reguleerib veres olevat kolesteroolikogust. Samuti sisaldab see organismi puhastavat pektiini. Rikkalik, maitsev ja tervislik.. Koostisosad:. Nisujahu, mustad fungus-seened, valged šiitake seened, kapsas, vesi, sojakaste, kuivatatud sibul, rapsiõli, sool ja jahvatatud must pipar.. ...
Pakume teenuseid Korterühistutele elektri- ja valgustussüsteemide tehnilise teenindamise alal. See on käit mis hooldab käidukorraldaja. Iga hoone, mille peakaitselüliti nimivooluga üle 100 amprit, vajab käidukorraldajat seaduse järgi. (mitte segi ajama avariitalitusega). Vajadusel teeme hoonetele ja ehitistele elektrivarustusprojekte, odavalt ja kvaliteetselt. Meil on olemas kõrgkategoorialitsens - klass A.. Elektriarvestite, veearvestite ja soojusarvestite näidiste korjamine Korterühistute objektidel ja edasiandmine neid raamatupidamisele. Pea- ja jagamiskilpide, elektriarvestite, valgustusarmatuuri,valgustite, padrunite, kaablite, pistikupesade ja lülititening paigutuskarpide tehnilise seisundi kontroll. Kontaktklemmide kokku tõmbamine, tolmust kilpide koristamine, avarii- ja elektrisüsteemide kontroll, elektrilampide vahetamine treppikojas ...
HIUSTEN SYVÄKORJAUS Palauttaa vaurioituneiden hiusten rakenteen Antaa hiuksille joustavuutta ja kiiltoa Edistää hiuskasvua Tekee hiuksista paksummat Palauttaa erittäin vaurioituneiden hiusten rakenteen, suojaa lämpökäsittelyn aikana. Sopii erityisesti hoitamaan tottelemattomia ja värikäsiteltyjä hiuksia. Altain tyrnimarjanöljy ja marokkolainen argaaniöljy tuottavat keratiinia, ja antavat hiuksille vahvuutta ja kiiltoa. Setriöljy ja macadamiapähkinäöljy säilyttävät kosteuden hiusrakenteessa. Keratiini muodostaa hiusten ympärille suojakerroksen, korjaa hiusten rakenteen, tasoittaa ja tekee hiuksista kauniin ja terveen näköiset.
Juukse- ja näohooldustooted. Pakume sulle rikkalikku valikut sinu ilutooteid alati parima soodustusega, garanteerides kaupade originaalsuse ja kõrge kvaliteedi.
Tsütokiinid (inglise keeles cytokines) on selgrootutel ja selgroogsetel loomadel tuumaga rakkude poolt komplekteeritavate ja vabastatavate mitmesuguste väikesemolekuliliste lahustuvate valkude või glükoproteiinide koondnimetus, mis vahendavad lühiajaliselt ja lokaalselt erinevaid bioloogilisi toimeid ja rakkudevahelist informatsiooni.[1] Tsütokiinidesarnaseid valke on tuvastatud ka bakteritel ja viirustel. Tsütokiinid on erineva keemilise koostisega. Igale tsütokiinile vastab kindel tsütokiini retseptor. Need võivad võrgustikke moodustada. Tsütokiine komplekteerivad eri liiki rakud, kuid enim on uuritud lümfoid(-immuun)süsteemile toimet avaldavaid tsütokiine, mis reguleerivad immuunrakkude kasvu, diferentseerumist, aktivatsiooni ja immuunvastust. Tsütokiine komplekteeritakse ja vabastatakse ka kasvajarakkude poolt kasvaja mikrokeskkonnas. Tsütokiine toodetakse ka biotehnoloogilisel teel ja neid kasutatakse mitmete bioloogiliste ravimite koosseisus. Rakkudevahelise informatsiooni ...
Integriinid on olulised, sest nad on põhilised retseptorvalgud, mida rakud kasutavad ekstratsellulaarsele maatriksile seondumiseks. Integriini molekul koosneb kahest omavahel mittekovalentselt seotud glükoproteiini alaühikust (α ja β). Erinevad rakkudes asuvad integriinid võivad ligandiga seonduda väga erinevalt. Integriinide seondumine ligandidega sõltub rakuvälistest divalentsetest katioonidest (Ca2+ ja Mg2+). Divalentse katiooni tüüp võib mõjutada nii integriini ja ligandi seostumise afiinsust kui ka spetsiifilisust. Selgroosetel on palju selliseid valke, mis tuntakse ära mitme integriini poolt. Näiteks fibronektiiniga seondumiseks on vaja vähemalt 8 integriini ja laminiini sidumiseks vähemalt 5 integriini. Inimese integriini heterodimeeride mitmekesisus tuleneb 9 erinevast β alaühikust ja 24 erinevast α alaühikust. Lisaks erinevate α ja β alaühikute olemasolule mõjutab integriinide mitmekesisust veel osade integriinide RNAs toimuv alternatiivne splaissimine. ...
Letsitiin on taimne valk mida saadakse toidust (väikeses koguses) ja mida toodab organism ka ise (veidi). Letsitiin on ülimalt vajalik organismi kõikide süsteemide toimimiseks, võtab osa raku membraanide moodustamisest ( eriti maksas, neerudes ja ajus), seega on inimorganismi ülesehituslikuks aluseks.. Eriti palju vajab letsitiini närvisüsteem (mälu, aju verevarustus, närvide innervatsioon). Tagab normaalse maksa ja neerude töö, kaitseb maksa tsirroosi eest, vastutab normaalse verevarustuse eest - eriti kapillaarse, osaleb naharakkude ülesehituses ja rasvade ainevahetuses. Letsitiini põhilisteks looduslikeks allikateks loetakse muna, piima, maksa, mereande, kaunvilju (eriti sojauba ja sojaõli), päevalilleseemneid, rapsiseemneid, pähkleid ja idandeid.. ...
Südamepuudulikkuse korral nõustatakse patsiente ka toitumuse osas. Südamepuudulikkus on kataboolne seisund, kus südame erinevad rakkude, kudede signalisatsioonimolekulid aktiveerivad neuroendokriinseid (reniin-angiotensiin-aldosteroon-süsteem jt) ja põletikulisi protsesse, mille kulgemisel kulutab organism palju energiat ja mis panevad südamele ja organismile lisakoormuse. Osalt lisakoormuse aga ka sissevõetavate ravimite toime tõttu, võib südamepuudulikkus põhjustada rasvkoe kiirenenud metabolismi (koos sellega rasvlahustuvate vitamiinide varude ja omastatavuse vähenemist) ning vitamiinide, mineraalide ja elektrolüütide (nt kaaliumi ja magneesiumi) koguse vähenemist (ka diureetikumide toimel). ...
Juukse- ja näohooldustooted. Pakume sulle rikkalikku valikut sinu ilutooteid alati parima soodustusega, garanteerides kaupade originaalsuse ja kõrge kvaliteedi.
Kotieläinten energia- ja typpiaineenvaihdunnan tutkimus keskittyy erityisesti lypsylehmien ruokintaan ennen ja jälkeen poikimista
ju, see on sama keerukas ja tähtis organ kui peaaju. Soolestik reguleerib meie immuunsust ja kehas toimuvat ning mõjutab nii meie enesetunnet kui ka tervist. Soolestikus toimub pidev võitlus heade ja halbade bakterite vahel, mis ohustab organismis valitsevat habrast tasakaalu. Valio Gefilus piimatooted sisaldavad maailma enimuuritud piimhappebakterit LGG, mis kinnitub pehmete karvakeste abil Sinu soolestiku seinale ja tugevdab heade bakterite toimet. Kui kannad soolestiku eest hoolt, on Sinu siseorganid heas korras ja Sina ise tervem.. ...
ju, see on sama keerukas ja tähtis organ kui peaaju. Soolestik reguleerib meie immuunsust ja kehas toimuvat ning mõjutab nii meie enesetunnet kui ka tervist. Soolestikus toimub pidev võitlus heade ja halbade bakterite vahel, mis ohustab organismis valitsevat habrast tasakaalu. Valio Gefilus piimatooted sisaldavad maailma enimuuritud piimhappebakterit LGG, mis kinnitub pehmete karvakeste abil Sinu soolestiku seinale ja tugevdab heade bakterite toimet. Kui kannad soolestiku eest hoolt, on Sinu siseorganid heas korras ja Sina ise tervem.. ...
ÜRO Pagulasameti rahastus koosneb peaaegu täielikult vabatahtlikest annetustest, millest enamik tuleb valitsustelt ja Euroopa Liidult ning kuus protsenti teistelt valitsustevahelistelt organisatsioonidelt ja rahastusmehhanismidelt. Täiendav kuus protsenti tuleb erasektorist, sealhulgas fondidelt, suurfirmadelt ja avalikkuselt. Lisaks saame piiratud toetust (kahe protsendi ulatuses) ÜRO halduseelarvest ning võtame vastu ka mitterahalisi annetusi nagu telgid, ravimid ja sõidukid.. ÜRO Pagulasamet alustas 300 000 dollarise aastaeelarvega 1950. aastal. Organisatsiooni ja selle tööpõllu kasvades on suurenenud ka kulud. Meie aastaeelarve paisus 1990ndate algul üle ühe miljardi USA dollari ning saavutas aastal 2013 rekordtaseme 5,3 miljardit dollarit. Meie eelarve hõlmab nii püsitegevusi toetavaid programme kui ka kõrvalprogramme hädajuhtudeks nagu Süüria kriis või suuremahulised tagasisaatmised.. Kui soovite värskeimat teavet ÜRO Pagulastameti finantseerimise kohta, külastage ...
Allene oxide synthase (AOS) mediates the conversion of lipoxygenase-derived fatty acid hydroperoxides to unstable allene epoxides, which supply the precursors for the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). In this study the characterization of AOS gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum) is reported. AOS was constitutively expressed in different organs of flax plants. Additionally, AOS gene expression was enhanced after mechanical wounding in both the directly damaged leaves and in the systemic tissue located distal to the treated leaves. This wound-induced accumulation of AOS required the de novo biosynthesis of other unknown proteins involved in the signaling pathway modulating wound-induced AOS gene expression. Furthermore, the wound-induced AOS mRNA accumulation was correlated with the increase in the levels of JA. Both JA and its precursor, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, activated AOS gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, JA could activate its own biosynthetic pathway ...
Cross talk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways plays an important role in the regulation and fine tuning of induced defenses that are activated upon pathogen or insect attack. Pharmacological experiments revealed that transcription of JA-responsive marker genes, such as PDF1.2 and VSP2, is highly sensitive to ... read more suppression by SA. This antagonistic effect of SA on JA signaling was also observed when the JA pathway was biologically activated by necrotrophic pathogens or insect herbivores, and when the SA pathway was triggered by a biotrophic pathogen. Furthermore, all 18 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions tested displayed SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression, highlighting the potential significance of this phenomenon in induced plant defenses in nature. During plant-attacker interactions, the kinetics of SA and JA signaling are highly dynamic. Mimicking this dynamic response by applying SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) at ...
Jasmonate (JA) and its derivatives are lipid-based hormone signals that regulate a wide range of processes in plants, ranging from growth and photosynthesis to reproductive development. In particular, JAs are critical for plant defense against herbivory and plant responses to poor environmental conditions and other kinds of abiotic and biotic challenges. Some JAs can also be released as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to permit communication between plants in anticipation of mutual dangers. The isolation of methyl jasmonate from jasmine oil derived from Jasminum grandiflorum led to the discovery of the molecular structure of jasmonates and their name. Jasmonates (JA) are an oxylipin, i.e. a derivative of oxygenated fatty acid. It is biosynthesized from linolenic acid in chloroplast membranes. Synthesis is initiated with the conversion of linolenic acid to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), which then undergoes a reduction and three rounds of oxidation to form (+)-7-iso-JA, jasmonic acid. Only ...
Jasmonic acid (JA) plays important roles in plant resistance to insect herbivores. One important derivative of JA is 12-OH-JA, which is produced by two independent pathways: direct hydroxylation of JA by jasmonate-induced oxygenases (JOXs) or hydrolyzation of 12-OH-JA-Ile.Yet the function of 12-OH-JA in plant-herbivore interactions remains largely unknown. In this study, we silenced four JOX homologs independently in the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), and found that all four JOX homologs are involved in JA hydroxylation. Simultaneously silencing the four JA hydroxylases in VIGS-NaJOXs plants decreased herbivory-induced 12-OH-JA by 33%, but JA and JA-Ile levels increased by 45% and 30%, respectively, compared to those in control plants. Compared to direct hydroxylation from JA, hydrolyzation from 12-OH-JA-Ile is equally important for herbivory-induced 12-OH-JA accumulation: in the 12-OH-JA-Ile deficient irJAR4/6 plants, 12-OH-JA decreased 34%. Moreover, ...
Plants develop an enhanced defensive capacity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens after colonization of the roots by selected strains of nonpathogenic, fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) functions independently of salicylic acid but requires responsiveness to the plant hormones jasmonic acid and ethylene. ... read more In contrast to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance, rhizobacteria-mediated ISR is not associated with changes in the expression of genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. To identify ISR-related genes, we surveyed the transcriptional response of over 8,000 Arabidopsis genes during rhizobacteria-mediated ISR. Locally in the roots, ISR-inducing Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r bacteria elicited a substantial change in the expression of 97 genes. However, systemically in the leaves, none of the approximately 8,000 genes tested showed a consistent change in expression in response to ...
The phytohormone JA plays a critical role in wound responses (Wasternack, 2007). It is massively produced within a few minutes after wounding by chloroplast- and peroxisome-localized biosynthetic enzymes and is involved both in local and long-distance signaling (Koo et al., 2009; Wasternack and Hause, 2013). Plants impaired in JA biosynthesis or signaling exhibit weakened responses to wounding and are much more susceptible to chewing insects (Howe and Jander, 2008). The JA core signaling pathway is well described (Chini et al., 2007; Thines et al., 2007): JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins sequester transcription factors, notably basic helix-loop-helix factors such as MYC2 to prevent their activation of JA-responsive genes. The binding of the bioactive form of JA, JA-Ile, to the COI1 receptor, an F-box protein that forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF) containing complex with Skp and Cullin proteins, increases the affinity of COI1 for JAZ proteins, triggering their ...
Herbivore damage by chewing insects activates jasmonate (JA) signalling that can elicit systemic defense responses in rice. Few details are known, however, concerning the mechanism, whereby JA signalling modulates nutrient status in rice in response to herbivory. (15NH4)2SO4 labelling experiments, proteomic surveys, and RT‐qPCR analyses were used to identify the roles of JA signalling in nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation in rice plants. Exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to rice seedlings led to significantly reduced N uptake in roots and reduced translocation of recently‐absorbed 15N from roots to leaves, likely occurring as a result of down‐regulation of glutamine synthetase cytosolic isozyme 1-2 and ferredoxin-nitrite reductase. Shoot MeJA treatment resulted in a remobilization of endogenous unlabelled 14N from leaves to roots, and root MeJA treatment also increased 14N accumulation in roots but did not affect 14N accumulation in leaves of rice. Additionally, proteomic and RT
Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12436 Interpretive Summary: Insects are one of the biggest constraints on plant productivity. Plants respond to insect attack by launching two types of defenses: direct defense and indirect defense. Direct defense includes all plant responses that suppress attacking insects by directly affecting the physiology and/or behavior of the attackers. Indirect defense includes all plant traits that by themselves do not affect host resistance, but can attract natural enemies of the attacking insects and thus reduce plant loss. This paper provides a detailed review of current literature on plant indirect defense. A better understanding of indirect plant defense may lead to novel cost-effective insect control strategies. Technical Abstract: Plants respond to herbivore attack by launching two types of defenses: direct defense and indirect defense. Direct defense includes all plant traits that increase the resistance of host plants to attacking insect herbivores by ...
Specifically cleaves olefinic bonds in cyclic enones. Involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) and perhaps in biosynthesis or metabolism of other oxylipin signaling moleclules. It is required for the spatial and temporal regulation of JA levels during dehiscence of anthers, promoting the stomium degeneration program (By similarity). In vitro, reduces 9S,13S-12-oxophytodienoic acid (9S,13S-OPDA) and 9R,13R-OPDA to 9S,13S-OPC-8:0 and 9R,13R-OPC-8:0, respectively.
Plants cannot avoid to be attacked by an almost infinite number of microorganisms and insects. Consequently they armed themselves with molecular weapons against their attackers. Plant defense responses are the result of a complex signaling network, in which the hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) are the usual suspects under the magnifying glass when researchers investigate host-pest interactions. However, also Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs), C6 molecules, which are very quickly produced and/or emitted upon herbivory or pathogen infection by almost every green plant play an important role in plant defenses. GLVs are semiochemicals used by insects to find their food, their prey or their conspecifics. They have also been reported to be fundamental in indirect defenses and to have a direct effect on pests, but these are not the only roles of GLVs. These volatiles, being probably one of the fastest weapons exploited, are also able to directly elicit or prime plant defense
Nicotiana attenuata[5] INSECT HERBIVORES[3] ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA[3] SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION[3] DEFENSE[2] defense[2] PLANT-RESPONSES[2] ORAL SECRETIONS[2] DITERPENE GLYCOSIDES[2] CROSS-TALK[2] GENE-EXPRESSION[2] herbivore[2] MANDUCA-SEXTA[2] jasmonic acid[2] insect[2] ...
Remarkably, only a few low molecular mass signals, including jasmonic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid, upregulate the expression of scores of defense-related genes. Using these regulators, the plant fine-tunes its defense gene expression against aggressors which, in some cases, may be able to disr …
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 13:347-351...Dhirendra Kumar and Daniel F. Klessig...© 2000 The American Phytopathological Society...In tobacco, two mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, designated salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wounding-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are activated in a disease resistance-specific manner following pathogen infection or elicitor treatment. To investigate whether nitric ox...
Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses r …
Plants have evolved robust mechanisms to perceive and respond to diverse environmental stimuli.ᅠ The plant phytohormones jasmonates and salicylates play key roles in activating biotic stress response pathways. Recent ...
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The Terpenes and Testing Bi-Monthly print magazine is a complete technical reference. This blog is separate from the magazine as it addresses the latest cannabis news, product reviews, and more colloquial subject matter. Please refer to our editorial content for a comprehensive assessment of these complicated practices ...
The Terpenes and Testing Bi-Monthly print magazine is a complete technical reference. This blog is separate from the magazine as it addresses the latest cannabis news, product reviews, and more colloquial subject matter. Please refer to our editorial content for a comprehensive assessment of these complicated practices ...
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Ba Duan Jin is effective to improve functions of internal Zang-Fu organs and eliminate pathogenic factors. Extending, pronating, shaking etc can benefit different organs like heart, spleen and stomach, kidney, triple energizer, so Ba Duan Jin get good functions to strengthen muscles, moisten...
Tartumaa, Konguta Vald, Annikoru küla. 10.00 - 10.30 Kogunemine ja registreerimine Annikoru Teraviljakeskus. Talirüps LEGATO tootmiskatse. Hernekasvatus, sordid ja tehnoloogia. Lea Narits. Tatra kasvatamine seemneks. Pille Ardel, Sarmīte Rancān (Läti Maaviljeluse Instituut). Taliviljade võrdluskatse ja talvitumine 2013/2014 aasta talvel. Ilme Tupits, Reine Koppel. Suviteraviljade võrdluskatse, toidunisu ja õlleodra kvaliteeti mõjutavad tegurid. Anne Ingver, Ülle Tamm. Haiguste ja kahjurite levik ja prognoos 2014 aastaks. Pille Sooväli. 14.30 Lõuna. Registreerimine avatud kuni 26.05 telefonil 7766901 või osalejad[A]etki.ee ...
Eesti keelest erineva emakeelega täiskasvanute eesti keele õpe lõimumis- ja tööhõivepoliitikas: kvaliteet, mõju ja korraldus. Faktilehed ehk uuringu peamised tulemused ja soovitused (EST / RUS) (2.67 MB, PDF). Eesti keele õpe täiskasvanutele: poliitikasoovitused (296.88 KB, PPTX). Uuring:. 1. osa: ülevaade uuringust ja tulemuste kokkuvõte (1.18 MB, PDF). Part I: Overview of the study and summary of results (1.05 MB, PDF). 1. часть: Oбзор исследования и итог результатов (1.36 MB, PDF). 2. osa: elanikkonna senine kogemus eesti keele omandamisel ja vajadus eesti keele õpe järele (3.59 MB, PDF). 3. osa: keeleõppe pakkujate analüüs (1.34 MB, PDF). 4. osa: tööturuteenusena osutatav eesti keele õpe (4.7 MB, PDF). ...
Mét siduh Zarathuštrasud marás kurgot, rainaikal öldjeben ja öldjen uzirban, ja aikal galadattul. Kar úlpihal menhejenél ja erksôljenél, ja de éredhel hursurjan sangoroš. Ó világihukol zamorja baighunor ja sümböjörs erke rítû jagánnál ithünnél, jömöl múghun athar ja vaghol irdül jus: Odh arjun sahul! Saun žaghzulak, mér de medhet zalsud ambarat, ithil kattúm? Imluk hursurjan sangoroš ezdür megghöridül: éredhingek thürren ja urtohlan, de mezlen rún, ja rújot mešer ja ahsun. Ó zédhlen zalban katrú rítû, vašlin zalban amplúdúkis, ja ághingalun zalas sesüd. Uksunak. Éredhür orssularban, gaddhor péhmür thól vogh tasran; thurbar kájais alhursungukis gadhulsud. Aldaralgur ja rankodungulgur duhúm dirhizmit úzor orsot ambarjat hórol úlpas dürvihûiter, ja morgot burhámjaitar. Ezzüd rúlam nidhaikul dúhtul: zalmur kíghuno, katruduh aikathuk úlur rüsér, ja thürüngüthük angaghkandas, odh kaunata sahul! Zalmur rúlam nidhaikul, vómurs ...
Inimkehas ja kaaviaris on kaks ühist elementi - vesi ja proteiin. Nahk ja kaaviar koosneb enamjaolt veest ja proteiinist. Rakustruktuuri sarnasuse tõttu suudab meie nahk kaaviariekstraktist omandada hõlpsasti kõik toitained. Veel ja proteiinil on oluline roll noorusliku ja niisutatud naha saavutamisel. Samuti võib see kooslus aeglustada naha vananemist, täites naharakke ja parandades naha elastsust. EQ Collagen Booster Serum on muljet avaldava innovatsiooni võimas tulemus, mis nihutab tõhususe piire. Sellel on erakordne tõstev ja pinguldav toime koos tipptasemel tulemustega. Põhja-Jäämerest pärineval kalamarjaekstraktil on antioksüdatiivsed omadused, et kaitsta nahka ohtlike UVA- ja UVB-kiirte eest. See aitab ennetada kollageeni ja elastiini vähenemist. Toode teeb kortsude vähendamisel imet, sest see sisaldab rikkalikult proteiini ja antioksüdante. Kas teadsite, et kaaviaritootjate tehastes lõhemarja sorteerivate tööliste käed on siledad ja pehmed, hoolimata sellest, et ...
Felsővégtag és kéz contracturáinak etiologiája, pathologiája és terápiája (Posttraumás-, ischaemiás-. Dupuytren-, perinatalis, cerebralis spasticus-, és congenitális)
Jin S. Hahn, MD is on CAP Network. CAP Network is a virtual workspace, to support collaboration among faculty, graduate students, postdocs and staff.
by Ko, Tae Hee and Ko, Tae Hee and Marquez, Jubert C and Marquez, Jubert C and Kim, Hyoung Kyu and Kim, Hyoung Kyu and Jeong, Seung Hun and Jeong, Seung Hun and Lee, SungRyul and Lee, SungRyul and Youm, Jae Boum and Youm, Jae Boum and Song, In Sung and Song, In Sung and Seo, Dae Yun and Seo, Dae Yun and Kim, Hye Jin and Kim, Hye Jin and Won, Du Nam and Won, Du Nam and Cho, Kyoung Im and Cho, Kyoung Im and Choi, Mun Gi and Choi, Mun Gi and Rhee, Byoung Doo and Rhee, Byoung Doo and Ko, Kyung Soo and Ko, Kyung Soo and Kim, Nari and Kim, Nari and Won, Jong Chul and Won, Jong Chul and Han, Jin and Han, Jin ...
Esimese täissünteetilise plastiku polüamiidi avastamisega 1930. aastatel algas plastikatööstuse revolutsioon. Polüamiidi teatakse paremini kui nailon. Harvardi teadlased, kes selle avastasid (tuntud ka kui Fibre66), olid katsetanud 12 aastat, keemiafirma DuPont aga investeerinud 27 miljonit dollarit eesmärgiga leiutada kunstsiid sukkade tootmiseks. Ja peagi olidki nailonsukad naiste seas ülipopulaarsed. Tänaseks toodetakse nailonist nii riideid, jalatseid, mänguasju kui muid tarbeid, mis peavad olema vastupidavad, vettpidavad ja kangalaadsed.. Siia esimese laine plastikute hulka kuulub ka polüstüreen (PS), mis toodeti esimesena 30. aastatel Berliinis ja polüvinüülkloriid (PVC), mis leiti 1872. aastal Saksamaal (1835 komistas selle otsa kogemata ka üks prantslane) , kuid läks tootmisesse alles 20. aastatel. Tuntud keemiafirma Dow Chemical avastas 54. aastal, et polüstüreeni saab paisutada ning nii leidis see kasutust hoonete soojustamisel, pakendamisel ja ühekordsete ...
Teine võimalus on, et Euroopa Liidu importijate nimel esitab rühmateate kolmas isik, kes ise ei ole tootja ega importija (nt juba varem REACH-registreerimiseks määratud ainuesindaja). Kolmas isik saab esitada teate, kuid ei saa üle võtta rühmaliikmetest importijate kohustusi. Sellise lahenduse kasutamisel peab esitaja suutma dokumentaalselt tõendada, et tal on rühmaliikmetest tootjate ja importijate volitus ning tootjad ja importijad kinnitavad oma jätkuvat ja täielikku ainuvastutust teatamisega kaasnevate kohustuste täitmise eest ...
TALLINN, 9. aprill 2012 – Riigikontroll leiab veoste Eesti ja Venemaa vahelise maismaapiiri ületuse probleeme käsitlevas auditis, et elektrooniliste ootejärjekordade rakendumine ja piirieelsete ootealade ehitamine aitas parandada Eesti-poolset piiriületuse korraldust ja kaotada kilomeetrite pikkused järjekorrad siinsetelt maanteelt. Samas – ooteaeg piiriületusel küll mõnevõrra lühenes, kuid paraku mitte oluliselt.
Laadukkaisiin terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin tuotteisiin ja palveluihin keskittyvä Suomalainen yritys. Tällä hetkellä löydät meiltä koko genomin sekvenssoinnin, kehon toimintaa ja terveydentilaa analysoivat kattavat laboratoriotutkimukset. Storesta löydät
Monotsüüt (ladina monocytys) on paljude selgroogsete lümfoid(-immuun)süsteemi tuumaga rakud.[1]. Monotsüüdid küpsevad luuüdis monoblastidest ja liiguvad vereringesse. Vereringes ringlevad nad mõned tunnid kuni mõned päevad ja migreeruvad siis kudedesse nagu põrn, maks, kopsud ja luuüdi, kus küpsevad makrofaagideks.[2] Makrofaagideks või dendriitrakkudeks transformeerumine ja kudedesse liikumine toimub sagedasti põletikuliste signaalide kuhjudes (mitte kõik makrofaagid ja dendriitrakud ei küpse monotsüütidest). Monotsüüdid kuuluvad leukotsüütide hulka. Monotsüüdid on multifunktsionaalsed ja osalevad organismi homöostaasis, immunkaitses ja kudede reparatsioonis aga on võimelised ka nakatunud rakke hävitama. Läbi kappillaaride seinte kudedesse migreeruvad monotsüüdid komplekteerivad kohalike kasvufaktorite toimel proinflammatoorseid tsütokiine, haaravad mikroobide ja rakkude jäänukeid ning toksilisi molekule. Monotsüüdid on eellasrakud erinevatele ...
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Raamatus ka lk-l 258 tüübist Kotta-luuletaja e luuletaja Kotta, IV osa Seaduskeele- ja nimeteooriast: Nimi ja nimetus ja silmapiiril terenduv nimeseadus. Viimane avaldatud esmakordselt; püüab ühitada nime loogikalist ja keelelist käsitust ning annab terminitele nimi, nimetus, üldnimi, pärisnimi hoopis uue sisu. Sisu: (Nimesid käsitlev osa alapealkirjaga Ümberhindavaid mõtisklusi ühest vanast ortograafiaprobleemist, mis ei ole kaugeltki ainult ortograafia probleem) Kas viga ei peitu nimeteoorias? - Mida peaks andma probleemi lahendus - Reeglipärasust varjava segaduse esimene läbivalgustus - Nimeprobleem keele(teaduse) ja loogika vaatekohast - Kirjakeele seletussõnaraamatu tolerantsus - Teaduslik grammatika ja praktiline keelekäsiraamat - Keelelisus ja semiootilisus - Nimetamisprobleem on olemuselt semiootiline - Kõik täistähenduslikud sõnad on nimed! - Nime kui sõnaliiki ei ole olemas! - Kas üldnimi on või ei ole pärisnime vastandmõiste? - Üldnimi on suhteline ...
Kami masing2 diberi satu meja dlm pejabat..tp segan kot nak g duduk situ..last2 sume duduk lam satu group kat satu meja besar..tu pun kdg2 cikgu2 take over lepak2..last2 kitorang berpecah in pairs g observe persekitaran..gi lawat kelas khas..amek gamba apa yg patut.. g interview cikgu media ( Puan Edawati ) kat library..n then berkumpul balik kat bilik guru interview cikgu Inggeris ( Puan Harjit Kaur ) & discuss pasal aktiviti yg kene handle ngn bebudak minggu ke-2 nnt..harini byk jugak dpt kumpul bahan utk portfolio ...
Ja jū-su ap-ņem-ša-nās ir jaun-ajā ga-dā pa-da-rīt sa-vus ēša-nas pa-ra-du-mus kaut ne-daudz ve-se-lī-gā-kus, tad viens no plā-na pun-ktiem, ko var īs-te-not bez īpa-šām grū-tī-bām, ir skāb-pie-na pro-duk-tu re-gu-lā-ra lie-to-ša-na.. Ke-fīrs, rū-guš-piens, jo-gurts, pa-ni-ņas, rja-žen-ka, tīr-kul-tū-ra, airans, las-si - kā re-dzat, skāb-pie-na dzē-rie-nu ir pat vai-rāk ne-kā ne-dē-ļā die-nu. Ci-ti jau la-bi pa-zīs-ta-mi, ci-ti ma-zāk zi-nā-mi un ne vi-sur no-pēr-ka-mi, to-mēr arī ar tiem, kas ir kat-rā pār-ti-kas vei-ka-lā, var no-dro-ši-nāt pie-tie-ka-mu da-žā-dī-bu. Or-ga-nisms sa-cīs pal-dies, jo sa-ņems la-bās bak-tē-ri-jas, vēr-tī-gas ol-bal-tum-vie-las, kal-ci-ju, fos-fo-ru, mag-ni-ju, kā-li-ju un zi-nā-mu dau-dzu-mu vi-ta-mī-nu. Pro-tams, tam tiks arī pie-na tau-ki, ku-ros ir ap-tu-ve-ni 60 da-žā-du tauk-skāb-ju, no tām da-ļa pie-sā-ti-nā-tās. Ja ne-pie-cie-šams tau-ku dau-dzu-mu uz-tu-rā ie-ro-be-žot, var ...
28. juulil linastub legendaarse Luc Bessoni (Viies element, Lucy, The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc) seni kõige ambitsioonikam film: Euroopa kõige suurema eelarvega (200 miljonit dollarit) valminud film Valerian ja tuhande planeedi linn, mis põhineb 60ndatel alguse saanud prantsuse ulmekoomiksil Valérian and Laureline, mis oli omakorda Bessoni Viienda elemendi ja näiteks George Lucase Star Warsi suur mõjutaja. - DELFI
A HOLOCÉN KLÍMA- ÉS KÖRNYEZET NAGYFELBONTÁSÚ, MULTI-PROXI REKONSTRUKCIÓJA A KÁRPÁTI RÉGIÓBAN: A VEGETÁCIÓ VÁLASZREAKCIÓJA A KORAHOLOCÉN FELMELEGEDÉSI HULLÁMOKRA MAGASHEGYSÉGI ÉS ALFÖLDI KÖRNYEZETBEN
Soovitused sõltuvad sellest, mis liiki reis on ja kui kaua kestab. Lähtuvalt sellest ja nakatumisriskist jagatakse reisid nelja rühma ...
Ja Tebe Hocu - Ceca Raznatovic zobacz tekst, tłumaczenie piosenki, obejrzyj teledysk. Na odsłonie znajdują się słowa utworu - Ja Tebe Hocu.
Göbel, C; Feussner, I.; Hamberg M, M.; Rosahl, S. (5 September 2002). "Oxylipin profiling in pathogen-infected potato leaves". ... Jiang, Z. D.; Gerwick, William H. (1 March 1997). "Novel oxylipins from the temperate red alga Polyneura latissima". Lipids. 32 ... detection of the novel divinyl ether oxylipins". FEBS Letters. 371 (2): 159-162. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00895-G. Hamberg, M ...
2006). "Cytotoxic oxylipins from a marine sponge Topsentia sp". J Nat Prod. 69 (4): 567-71. doi:10.1021/np0503552. PMID ...
Gabbs M, Leng S, Devassy JG, Monirujjaman M, Aukema HM (2015). "Advances in Our Understanding of Oxylipins Derived from Dietary ... KenjiMatsui (2006). "Green leaf volatiles: hydroperoxide lyase pathway of oxylipin metabolism". Current Opinion in Plant ...
... s are a sub-category of oxylipins, i.e. oxidized fatty acids of diverse carbon units in length, and are distinguished ... dead link] Gabbs M, Leng S, Devassy JG, Monirujjaman M, Aukema HM (2015). "Advances in Our Understanding of Oxylipins Derived ... from other oxylipins by their overwhelming importance as cell signaling molecules. Eicosanoids function in diverse ...
"Chemistry of Oxylipin Pathways in Marine Diatoms." Pure and Applied Chemistry 79.4 (2007): n. pag. Web. Ribalet, François, ... Polyunsaturated aldehydes are oxylipins that are formed from lipids (specifically the fatty acid portion of lipids) when ...
doi:10.1016/S0168-9525(03)00138-0. Christie, William W. Plant oxylipins: Chemistry and biology, 22 May 2014. Archived from the ...
One such class is the oxidized fatty acid derivatives called oxylipins. Members of this family have been found to have anti- ...
Matsui K (2006). "Green leaf volatiles: hydroperoxide lyase pathway of oxylipin metabolism". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. ...
... hydroperoxide lyase pathway of oxylipin metabolism". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 9: 274-280. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2006.03. ...
Wu J, Gouveia-Figueria S, Domellöf M, Zivkovic AM, Nording ML (2016). "Oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds in ...
Wu J, Gouveia-Figueria S, Domellöf M, Zivkovic AM, Nording ML (2016). "Oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds in ...
... s (JA) are an oxylipin, i.e. a derivative of oxygenated fatty acid. It is biosynthesized from linolenic acid in ... Reinbothe, C; Springer, A; Samol, I; Reinbothe, S (September 2009). "Plant oxylipins: role of jasmonic acid during programmed ...
... a new oxylipin inhibiting DNA polymerases α and γ from sponge Plakortis species". Tetrahedron. 59 (8): 1137. doi:10.1016/S0040- ...
The oxylipins ecklonialactones A, B, C, D, E and F and fucosterol can also be isolated from the species. Kuda, Takashi; Kunii, ... Novel Oxylipins from Brown Algae of the Genera Ecklonia and Egregia". Journal of Natural Products. 57 (1): 171-4. doi:10.1021/ ...
Vellosillo, T.; Martinez, M.; Lopez, M.A.; Vicente, J.; Cascon, T.; Dolan, L.; Hamberg, M.; Castresana, C. (2007). "Oxylipins ...
Browse J (2005). "Jasmonate: an oxylipin signal with many roles in plants". Vitamins and Hormones. 72: 431-56. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Profiling the Oxylipin and Endocannabinoid Metabolome by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS in Human Plasma to Monitor Postprandial Inflammation" ...
12-octadecadienoate Linoleate 10R-lipoxygenase is involved in biosynthesis of oxylipins. Garscha, U.; Oliw, E.H. (2009). " ...
It is likely that VOC production is upregulated through different pathways, including oxylipin pathway that synthesises ...
The fruit body of T. floccosus produces oxylipin (biologically active lipids generated from fatty acids) that have antifungal ...
... induce differential changes in volatile compound release and oxylipin synthesis. J. Exp. Bot. 60, 1231-1240 (2009). Wenke, K., ...
15-trienoate In cyanobacteria the enzyme is involved in oxylipin biosynthesis. Jerneren, F.; Hoffmann, I.; Oliw, E.H. (2010). " ...
Most oxylipins in the body are derived from linoleic acid or alpha-linolenic acid. Linoleic acid oxylipins are usually present ... Many of oxylipins have physiological significance. Typically, oxylipins are not stored in tissues but are formed on demand by ... despite the fact that alpha-linolenic acid is more readily metabolized to oxylipin. Linoleic acid oxylipins can be anti- ... Oxylipins constitute a family of oxygenated natural products which are formed from fatty acids by pathways involving at least ...
August 2009) Detection of omega-3 oxylipins in human plasma and response to treatment with omega-3 acid ethyl esters. J Lipid ...
The study of oxylipins in nociception has presented technical challenges leading to critical knowledge gaps in the way these ... Effects of oxylipins depend on tissue-specific differences in accumulation of precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids and the ... Oxylipins are lipid peroxidation products that participate in nociceptive, inflammatory, and vascular responses to injury. ... Finally, when oxylipins were administered by intradermal injection we observed modulation of nociceptive thermal ...
Project context and objectives Oxylipin synthesis is triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses as well as also taking ... Final Report Summary - OXYLIPIN SIGNALLING (Oxylipin signalling in plant defence against pathogens). Project context and ... Oxylipin synthesis is triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses as well as also taking place during specific ... Oxylipins of the 9-LOX pathway, like Hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid (9-HOT), have been shown to accumulate after pathogen ...
The Oxylipins 12-OPDA and KODA are Potent Inducers of ISR. Wild-type maize receiver plants display dose-dependent resistance to ... Xylem-Mobile Oxylipins Are Critical Regulators of Induced Systemic Resistance in Maize. Philip Carella ... Xylem-Mobile Oxylipins Are Critical Regulators of Induced Systemic Resistance in Maize ... Xylem-Mobile Oxylipins Are Critical Regulators of Induced Systemic Resistance in Maize ...
... derived compounds called oxylipins are signals in stress responses and development of plants ... Staswick PE and Tiryaki I (2004) The oxylipin signal jasmonic acid is activated by an enzyme that conjugates it to isoleucine ... 2015a) Axial and radial oxylipin transport. Plant Physiology 169: 2244-2254.. Gasperini D, Chételat A, Acosta IF, et al. (2015b ... Jasmonic acid and other fatty‐acid‐derived compounds called oxylipins are signals in stress responses and development of plants ...
Oxylipins are implicated in plant signaling against biotic and abiotic stresses.... ... are fatty acid-hydroperoxidases that contribute to the synthesis of oxylipins, a diverse group of compounds primarily generated ... Plant α-dioxygenases (α-DOX) are fatty acid-hydroperoxidases that contribute to the synthesis of oxylipins, a diverse group of ... These results suggest that aphid reproduction is influenced by oxylipins synthesized from LA by Slα-DOX1. In agreement with our ...
Most oxylipins in the body are derived from linoleic acid or alpha-linolenic acid. Linoleic acid oxylipins are usually present ... Many of oxylipins have physiological significance. Typically, oxylipins are not stored in tissues but are formed on demand by ... despite the fact that alpha-linolenic acid is more readily metabolized to oxylipin. Linoleic acid oxylipins can be anti- ... Oxylipins constitute a family of oxygenated natural products which are formed from fatty acids by pathways involving at least ...
Oxylipin analysis methods.. Mueller MJ1, Mène-Saffrané L, Grun C, Karg K, Farmer EE. ... Additional information on oxylipin quantification and novel protocols for preparing oxygen isotope-labelled internal standards ... Four developing areas of research are identified: (i) profiling of the unbound cellular pools of oxylipins; (ii) profiling of ... enes and hydroxy-fatty acids as well as detecting the presence of novel oxylipins are presented. Additionally, a protocol for ...
Oxylipins in Plant Defence Reactions Chairperson: Jose Sanchez-Serrano 9.10-9.40 David Hannapel (Ames, IA, USA): "The role of ... Oxylipins in Plant Development Delker C., Halle/D: The allene oxide cyclase family of Arabidopsis thaliana. Miersch O., Halle/ ... Oxylipins in Plant Development I Chairperson: Ivo Feussner 16.30-17.00 John Browse (Pullman, WA, USA): "Transcript Profiling ... Oxylipins in Plant Development II. Chairperson: Ivo Feussner 8.30-8.50 George Sellhorn (Pullman, WA, USA): Linking cellular ...
... oxylipins; endocannabinoids; endovanilloids; biochemistry; lipids; neurochemistry; cell biology; neurodegeneration; cancer; ... oxylipin.ibch.ru oxylipins; endocannabinoids; endovanilloids; biochemistry; lipids; neurochemistry; cell biology; ... Laboratory of oxylipins Department of molecular bases of neurosignalization Head: Vladimir Bezuglov, D.Sc, professor. [email protected] ... The main object of the Laboratorys research is natural oxylipins (prostaglandins, etc.), natural neurolypes (conjugates of ...
The oxylipin production may represent an independent line of defense of the resistant alga, acting in addition to the ... Here, we show that the diatom Chaetoceros didymus releases eicosanoid oxylipins into the medium, and that the lytic algicidal ... Among the upregulated oxylipins, hydroxylated eicosapentaenoic acids (HEPEs) dominate. However, also, resolvins, known lipid ... bacterium, Kordia algicida, induces the production of several wound-activated oxylipins in this resistant diatom. Neither ...
The dysregulation of these oxylipins revealed the presence of ROS-generated oxylipins and an increase of inflammation in CIA ... Oxylipins play important roles in various biological processes and are considered as mediators of inflammation for a wide range ... Collagen Induced Arthritis in DBA/1J Mice Associates with Oxylipin Changes in Plasma article. 2015 ... Biology · Collagen type 2 · Lipopolysaccharide · Oxylipin · Animal experiment · Animal model · Arthritis · Articular cartilage ...
This increase in LOX5 expression is paralleled by an increase in LOX5-synthesized oxylipins in the root and petiole exudates of ... Nalam, Vamsi J. 9-Lipoxygenase Oxylipin Pathway in Plant Response to Biotic Stress, dissertation, May 2012; Denton, Texas. ( ... This increase in LOX5 expression is paralleled by an increase in LOX5-synthesized oxylipins in the root and petiole exudates of ...
... and subsequent formation of oxylipins with specific anti-inflammatory or anti-arrhythmic effects. In this study, we report the ... as well as plasma oxylipin patterns, in a patient population with severe hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease who are on ... Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids; oxylipins; lipidomics; lipid clinic; hyperlipidemia omega-3 fatty acids; oxylipins; lipidomics; ... Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Oxylipins in a Routine Clinical Setting by Christoph Schmöcker 1,2,†, Ingrid W ...
... Surowiec, Izabella Umeå ... Three oxylipins (13-HODE, 9-HODE and 13-oxo-ODE) were higher in severe compared to uncomplicated malaria cases according to the ... Oxylipins, Endocannabinoids, Malaria infection, Plasmodium falciparum HSV kategori Identifikatorer. URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva- ... Observed changes in oxylipin levels can be connected to activation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) ...
Blée E (2002) Impact of phyto-oxylipins in plant defense. Trends Plant Sci 7: 315-321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Stelmach BA, Müller A, Henning P, Gebhardt S, Schu-bert-Zsilavecz M and Weiler EW (2001) A novel class of oxylipins, sn-1-O-(12 ... Matsui K (2006) Green leaf volatiles: hydroperoxide lyase pathway of oxylipin metabolism. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9: 274-280PubMed ... Staswick P and Tiryaki I (2004) The oxylipin signal jas-monic acid is activated by an enzyme that conjugates it to isoleucine ...
Bioprospecting for novel oxylipins in fungi: the presence of 3-hydroxy oxylipins in Pilobolus. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 80:93-99 ... OXYLIPIN PRODUCTION AS A TARGET OF INHIBITION. As has been discussed above, many parasites possess a unique system of oxylipin ... Oxylipins are oxygenated metabolites of fatty acids. Eicosanoids are a subset of oxylipins and include the prostaglandins and ... Oxygenated lipids are collectively known as oxylipins. One of the most biologically important groups of oxylipins in mammals is ...
Studies on the response of plants to 9-HOT revealed that the defensive activity of this oxylipin was, at least in part, due to ... The JA pathway of the oxylipin metabolome is initiated by 13-lipoxygenase and results in the formation of (+)-7-iso-JA and its ... 2012) Role of 9-lipoxygenase and α-dioxygenase oxylipin pathways as modulators of local and systemic defense. Mol Plant 5: 914- ... In addition, these results support previous findings pointing to the involvement of 9-HOT and of the 9-LOX oxylipin pathway in ...
Transcriptomic analysis of oxylipin biosynthesis genes and chemical profiling reveal an early induction of jasmonates in ... Aim of the present work was to clarify the potential impact of the phyto-oxylipins pathway on drought tolerance of chickpea ( ... Therefore, we measured the expression of key genes involved in oxylipins metabolism by qPCR on samples from stressed and non- ... We further show that gene over-expression positively correlates with the levels of major oxylipin metabolites from the AOS ...
Intimal smooth muscle cells are a source but not a sensor of anti-inflammatory CYP450 derived oxylipins.. [Scott Thomson, ... The CYP450-oxylipin - soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway is currently of great interest in targeting for cardiovascular ... iSMCs are a rich source but not a sensor of anti-inflammatory epoxy-oxylipins. Complex lesions that contain high levels of ... We have investigated the expression of CYP450-oxylipin-sEH pathway enzymes and their metabolites in paired intimal (iSMC) and ...
... we examined whether particular urinary oxylipins (isoprostanes (IsoPs), leukotrienes (LTs), prostaglandins (PGs), and ... The beverage was a mixture of citrus juice (95%) and Aronia melanocarpa juice (5%) (ACJ). Fifty-two oxylipins were analyzed in ... In the present study, we examined whether particular urinary oxylipins (isoprostanes (IsoPs), leukotrienes (LTs), ... a lipidomic approach using representative oxylipins in urine L. A. García-Flores, S. Medina, C. Gómez, C. E. Wheelock, R. ...
Oxylipins. The oxylipins used in this study are listed in Table I and Figure 1. Many of them were prepared from the ... Estimation of the Stability of Oxylipins. Oxylipins (13-HPOT, 9-HPOT, 13-HOT, 9-HOT, 12-Oxo-PDA, 13-KOT, and CLn, 100 μm each) ... Structures of oxylipins and other compounds used in this work. Abbreviated names for oxylipins are as in Table I. ... Stability of Selected Oxylipins. Many oxylipins are chemically unstable and/or prone to degradation in the presence of ...
4.2 Plasma oxylipin profile is more stable than serum and total oxylipins are more stable than free oxylipins. The extended ... 2.3 Extraction and quantification of oxylipins. Free oxylipins as well as total, i.e. free and esterified oxylipins were ... Free oxylipins. Total, i.e. free and esterified oxylipins. LLOQ [nM]. Mean ± SD [nM]. RSD [%]. ACL. LLOQ [nM]. Mean ± SD [nM]. ... 3.1 Levels of oxylipins in plasma and serum after immediate processing. Comparing free oxylipin levels in plasma and serum ...
Dietary polyacetylenic oxylipins falcarinol and falcarindiol prevent inflammation and colorectal neoplastic transformation: A ... Dietary polyacetylenic oxylipins falcarinol and falcarindiol prevent inflammation and colorectal neoplastic transformation: A ... Dietary polyacetylenic oxylipins falcarinol and falcarindiol prevent inflammation and colorectal neoplastic transformation : A ... Dietary polyacetylenic oxylipins falcarinol and falcarindiol prevent inflammation and colorectal neoplastic transformation : A ...
The purpose of our study was to quantify changes in N-acylethanolamine species and their oxylipin derivatives in the retina of ... Methods : Levels of five N-acylethanolamine species and three NAE oxylipin derivatives were quantified in the retinae of 1.5 ( ... N-Acylethanolamines and NAE-oxylipins in retinal extracts were separated by reverse phase HPLC and derivatized with N,O-Bis( ... Changes in retinal N-acylethanolamines and their oxylipin derivatives during the development of visual impairment in a mouse ...
Modulation of the endogenous omega-3 fatty acid and oxylipin profile in vivo-A comparison of the fat-1 transgenic mouse with ... 7.8% following feeding). Changes in PUFAs were reflected in most oxylipins in plasma, brain and colon: Compared to wild-type ... In order to assess their power to modulate the fatty acid and oxylipin pattern, we thoroughly compared fat-1 and wild-type ... mice on a standard diet, arachidonic acid metabolites were overall decreased while EPA and DHA oxylipins increased with feeding ...
Based on our results we propose that under K-deficiency plants produce oxylipins and glucosinolates to enhance their defense ... Oxylipin production and signaling in K-deficient plants. We have shown here that the levels of several oxylipins increase in K- ... Putative benefits of oxylipin and GLS accumulation under K-deficiency. The similarity of the changes of transcripts, oxylipins ... Response of oxylipin biosynthetic genes to K deficiency. Quantitative PCR analysis of selected oxylipin biosynthesis genes in ...
In this work, we developed a high-throughput LC-MS method for analysis of 51 LCFAs and oxylipins. LCFAs and oxylipins were ... Oxylipins, oxygenated derivatives of LCFAs, regulate the activity of many cellular processes. Existing methods for the analysis ... Saturated and monounsaturated LCFAs were analyzed in single ion reaction mode, while polyunsaturated LCFAs and oxylipins were ... Using this method, we successfully quantified 31 LCFAs and oxylipins from mouse livers. ...
We conclude the altered metabolism in dyslipidemic subjects produces TGRL with a unique oxylipin signature that promotes a pro- ... This study investigates how the relative abundance of oxygenated metabolites of PUFA, oxylipins, is altered in TGRL ... Concentrations of esterified and non-esterified fatty acids and oxylipins in TGRL were quantified by mass spectrometry. ... Oxylipins in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins of dyslipidemic subjects promote endothelial inflammation following a high fat meal ...
... a lipoxygenase in the transcriptomic data and of its products in the metabolomic data also indicate an involvement of oxylipins ... Oxylipins. Oxylipins are FA derivatives with a signalling role in plants and animals, involved in plant defence reactions such ... with a LOX transcript and probable oxylipins downregulated. Cell damage induced by crunching should induce oxylipin production ... Here we provide evidence that GPCRs, oxylipins and NO might be an important part of the response of diatoms to copepod cues. ...
Omega-6 and omega-3 oxylipins are implicated in soybean oil-induced obesity in mice. Scientific Reports. 2017 Dec 1;7(1). 12488 ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Omega-6 and omega-3 oxylipins are implicated in soybean oil-induced obesity in ... Omega-6 and omega-3 oxylipins are implicated in soybean oil-induced obesity in mice. / Deol, Poonamjot; Fahrmann, Johannes; ... Metabolomic analysis of the liver and plasma shows a positive correlation between obesity and hepatic C18 oxylipin metabolites ...
3-OH oxylipins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In: Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 2013 ; Vol. 119, No. 3. pp. 85. ... Speers RA, Potter G, Budge S. 3-OH oxylipins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 2013 Aug 15;119( ... Speers, RA, Potter, G & Budge, S 2013, 3-OH oxylipins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Journal of the Institute of Brewing, vol. ... Speers, R. A., Potter, G., & Budge, S. (2013). 3-OH oxylipins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of the Institute of Brewing ...
... oxylipin biosynthesis. This protein is involved in the pathway oxylipin biosynthesis, which is part of Lipid metabolism.PROSITE ... View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway oxylipin biosynthesis and in Lipid metabolism. ... Fatty acid biosynthesis, Fatty acid metabolism, Lipid biosynthesis, Lipid metabolism, Oxylipin biosynthesis. ...
  • We applied a systems-based approach to characterize oxylipin precursor fatty acids, and expression of genes coding for proteins involved in biosynthesis, transport, signaling and inactivation of pro- and anti-nociceptive oxylipins in pain circuit tissues. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • 2005). The best-characterised oxylipin is jasmonic acid (JA) with its well-defined role in developmental and defence signalling (Turner et al. (europa.eu)
  • In a recent study, Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown in-vitro in the presence of distinct oxylipins to study their effect on the plant's physiology, development and defence system (Vellosillo et al. (europa.eu)
  • Perform an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the NOXY mutants and the transgenic NOXY over-expressing Arabidopsis lines, with a focus on testing their resistance to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, and testing their responsiveness to various oxylipins. (europa.eu)
  • We further linked these pathways to nociception by demonstrating intraplantar carrageenan injection induced gene expression changes in oxylipin biosynthetic pathways. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • It is known that oxylipins regulate gene expression, impact plant cell death and display direct antimicrobial activity (Almeras et al. (europa.eu)
  • Plant α-dioxygenases (α-DOX) are fatty acid-hydroperoxidases that contribute to the synthesis of oxylipins, a diverse group of compounds primarily generated through oxidation of linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA). (apsnet.org)
  • Oxylipin synthesis is triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses as well as also taking place during specific developmental stages (Howe and Schilmiller, 2002). (europa.eu)
  • Finally, when oxylipins were administered by intradermal injection we observed modulation of nociceptive thermal hypersensitivity, providing a functional-behavioral link between oxylipins, their molecular biosynthetic pathways, and involvement in pain and nociception. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The objective of the project was to identify and functionally characterise genes involved in oxylipin signalling with a focus on the still elusive 9-LOX pathway. (europa.eu)
  • Oxylipins are implicated in plant signaling against biotic and abiotic stresses. (apsnet.org)
  • 2007). Ample evidence also implies that a fundamental role is played in plant immunity by the 9-LOX pathway-derived oxylipins. (europa.eu)
  • Oxylipins of the 9-LOX pathway, like Hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid (9-HOT), have been shown to accumulate after pathogen inoculation (Jalloul et al. (europa.eu)
  • The fact that the application of 9-HOT induces a prominent root-waving phenotype was used to identify approximately 70 9-HOT insensitive mutants (non-responding to oxylipins, NOXY) within a mutagenised A. thaliana population (Vellosillo et al. (europa.eu)
  • PERSPECTIVE: We applied a systems approach to characterize molecular pathways linking precursor lipids and oxylipins to nociceptive signaling. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Effects of oxylipins depend on tissue-specific differences in accumulation of precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids and the expression of specific enzymes to transform the precursors. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Together, these findings advance our understanding of molecular lipidomic systems linking oxylipins and their precursors to nociceptive and inflammatory signaling pathways in rats. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • This systematic, quantitative evaluation of the molecular pathways linking oxylipins to nociception provides a framework for future basic and clinical research investigating the role of oxylipins in pain. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Molecular pathways linking oxylipins to nociception in rats. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We determined functional-biochemical relevance of the proposed pathways in rat hind paw and dorsal spinal cord by measuring basal and stimulated levels of oxylipins throughout the time-course of carrageenan-induced inflammation. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • 2007). Among the different oxylipins (9-LOX- and 13-LOX-derived) tested, the 9-LOX derivate 9-HOT was shown to be one of the most potent inducers of a characteristic root waving phenotype as well as an inhibitor of lateral root formation. (europa.eu)
  • These results suggest that aphid reproduction is influenced by oxylipins synthesized from LA by Slα-DOX1. (apsnet.org)
  • Oxylipins are derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by COX enzymes (cyclooxygenases), by LOX enzymes (lipoxygenases), or by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of oxylipins depend on tissue-specific differences in accumulation of precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids and the expression of specific enzymes to transform the precursors. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), i.e. eicosanoids and other oxylipins, are highly potent endogenous mediators of physiological and pathophysiological processes including regulation of endothelial function, blood pressure, thrombosis and inflammation. (rsc.org)
  • Oxylipins, oxygenated derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are derived from PUFAs via cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 (CYP450), and nonenzymatic oxidation pathways (1,2). (spectroscopyonline.com)
  • Oxylipins are so numerous and have such a range of biological activities that they must provide a substantial component of the reason for the essentiality these polyunsaturated fatty acids to the survival and well-being of animals. (lipidhome.co.uk)
  • Oxylipins are routinely made in the body from polyunsaturated fatty acids, and they include what are called the "omega-3 oxylipins" made from omega-3 fatty acids like alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). (whfoods.com)
  • Possible mechanisms include competition between n -3 and n -6 PUFAs at the cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 levels, and subsequent formation of oxylipins with specific anti-inflammatory or anti-arrhythmic effects. (mdpi.com)
  • Accumulating data suggest that phase change and differentiation in these organisms are controlled by oxylipins, including prostaglandins and lipoxygenase products. (asm.org)
  • Downregulation of a lipoxygenase in the transcriptomic data and of its products in the metabolomic data also indicate an involvement of oxylipins. (nature.com)
  • Lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes and oxylipins play important roles in the defense reactions of virus-infected pepper and tobacco plants. (mtak.hu)
  • Both algae rely on a rapid lipoxygenase mediated transformation of arachidonic acid to known and novel oxylipins. (jove.com)
  • 9-Lipoxygenases ( 9-LOXs ) initiate fatty acid oxygenation, resulting in the formation of oxylipins activating plant defense against hemibiotrophic pathogenic bacteria. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Dioxygenase genes with homology to mammalian prostaglandin synthase (PGS) have been connected to the formation of oxylipins in A. nidulans . (beds.ac.uk)
  • 2013 Feb;161(2):617-27 Vellosillo T, Aguilera V, Marcos R, Bartsch M, Vicente J, Cascón T, Hamberg M, Castresana C . 9-Lipoxygenases ( 9-LOXs ) initiate fatty acid oxygenation, resulting in the formation of oxylipins activating plant. (csic.es)
  • Linoleic acid oxylipins can be anti-inflammatory, but are more often pro-inflammatory, associated with atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived oxylipins are anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intimal smooth muscle cells are a source but not a sensor of anti-inflammatory CYP450 derived oxylipins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • iSMCs are a rich source but not a sensor of anti-inflammatory epoxy-oxylipins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Dysregulation of oxylipin formation is implicated among others in cardiovascular, immune or metabolic diseases 11,12 and several pharmaceuticals act by modulating the oxylipin profile ( e.g. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-thrombotic drugs, the asthma drug zileuton). (rsc.org)
  • Falcarinol (FaOH) and falcarindiol (FaDOH) are cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory polyacetylenic oxylipins, which are commonly found in the carrot family (Apiaceae). (aau.dk)
  • The main object of the Laboratory's research is natural oxylipins (prostaglandins, etc.), natural neurolypes (conjugates of fatty acids with biogenic amines, neurotransmitters and amino acids) and their synthetic analogues. (ibch.ru)
  • To get a better insight into the biological activities of oxylipins, in vitro growth inhibition assays were used to investigate the direct antimicrobial activities of 43 natural oxylipins against a set of 13 plant pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, oomycetes, and fungi. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Methods: Detection of oxylipins and endocannabinoids from plasma samples from forty children with uncomplicated and severe malaria as well as twenty controls was done after solid phase extraction followed by chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Thus, eicosanoids and oxylipins (host or microbe) may be mediators of a direct host-pathogen "cross-talk" that promotes chronic infection and hypersensitivity disease, common features of infection by eukaryotic pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Based on previous results, we have supporting data that oxylipin mediators of arachidonic acid, epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EETs) play a major role in the attenuation of acute inflammatory response induced by tobacco smoke. (yes4yes.com)
  • We will explore correlations to cells infiltration, blood pressure, proliferation and apoptosis along with pathological events, all with chronic exposure to tobacco smoke and oxylipin mediators. (yes4yes.com)
  • Oxylipins are a superclass of lipid mediators with potent bioactivities in inflammation, vascular biology, and more. (elsevier.com)
  • Oxylipins may be important mediators between early life exposures and health outcomes later in life. (scilifelab.se)
  • Oxylipins, including the well-known eicosanoids, are potent lipid mediators involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. (usda.gov)
  • Eicosanoids are a subset of oxylipins and include the prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are potent regulators of host immune responses. (asm.org)
  • One of the most biologically important groups of oxylipins in mammals is the eicosanoids, which include prostaglandins and leukotrienes. (asm.org)
  • Descriptions of eicosanoid and oxylipin production by eukaryotic microbes have been scattered through the literature for decades, but they have begun to receive significant attention in the last few years following reports of prostaglandins and prostaglandin-like molecules being produced by pathogenic helminths, protozoa, and fungi. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, we examined whether particular urinary oxylipins (isoprostanes (IsoPs), leukotrienes (LTs), prostaglandins (PGs), and thromboxanes (TXs)) in 16 elite triathletes could alter during 145 days of training. (rsc.org)
  • In animals, oxylipins include prostaglandins, leucotriens, and thrombox-ans, of which the specific roles in the regulation of physiological processes are known to a large extent. (brainkart.com)
  • Both algae species are defended against this general herbivore by 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, whereas the prostaglandins and the novel oxylipins were inactive at naturally occurring concentrations. (jove.com)
  • Here, we show that the diatom Chaetoceros didymus releases eicosanoid oxylipins into the medium, and that the lytic algicidal bacterium, Kordia algicida , induces the production of several wound-activated oxylipins in this resistant diatom. (mdpi.com)
  • Also, the mechanism for catabolism of oxylipins is common to most eicosanoid classes and for convenience is discussed below. (lipidhome.co.uk)
  • Linoleic acid oxylipins are usually present in blood and tissue in higher concentrations than any other PUFA oxylipin, despite the fact that alpha-linolenic acid is more readily metabolized to oxylipin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we report the impact of routine long-term treatment with prescription-grade n -3 PUFA (either 840 mg or 1680 mg per day) on blood cell membrane fatty acid composition, as well as plasma oxylipin patterns, in a patient population with severe hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease who are on standard lipid-lowering and cardioprotective medications. (mdpi.com)
  • however, feeding Fads2-/- mice MD restored both omega-3 PUFA and oxylipin profiles. (uoguelph.ca)
  • The oxylipin production may represent an independent line of defense of the resistant alga, acting in addition to the previously reported upregulation of proteases. (mdpi.com)
  • Blée E (2002) Impact of phyto-oxylipins in plant defense. (springer.com)
  • Previous studies using nonresponding to oxylipins ( noxy ), a series of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) mutants insensitive to the 9-LOX product 9-hydroxy-10,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ( 9-HOT ), have demonstrated the importance of cell wall modifications as a component of 9-LOX -induced defense. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this context, presumed functions of oxylipins include direct antimicrobial effect, stimulation of plant defense gene expression, and regulation of plant cell death. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, the precise contribution of individual oxylipins to plant defense remains essentially unknown. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Interestingly, this first large-scale comparative assessment of the antimicrobial effects of oxylipins reveals that regulators of plant defense responses are also the most active oxylipins against eukaryotic microorganisms, suggesting that such oxylipins might contribute to plant defense through their effects both on the plant and on pathogens, possibly through related mechanisms. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Based on our results we propose that under K-deficiency plants produce oxylipins and glucosinolates to enhance their defense potential against herbivorous insects and create reversible storage for excess S and N. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consumption of onions has been shown to increase the levels of omega-3 oxylipins in the liver, and this increase in omega-3 oxylipins may help explain the ability of onions to help regulate proper blood fat levels as well as blood levels of cholesterol. (whfoods.com)
  • Oxylipins in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins of dyslipidemic subjects promote endothelial inflammation following a high fat meal. (escholarship.org)
  • While their role as locally produced agents is appreciated, most oxylipins in plasma are found in lipoproteins suggesting defective regulation of inflammation could be mediated by the elevated VLDL and low HDL levels characteristic of MetSyn. (elsevier.com)
  • In patients with hypertension and peripheral artery disease, flaxseed consumption for 1 year significantly decreased plasma oxylipins that are responsible for propagating inflammation and vascular constriction. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Although decreased risk of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in the blood vessels has previously been shown to be a welcomed result of onion intake, this recent research on oxylipins may lead to a better understanding of onions and their unique health benefits. (whfoods.com)
  • N -Acyletanolaminer (NAE) är en familj av lipider i kroppen som kan agera som en försvarsmekanism genom att exempelvis motverkar inflammation. (umu.se)
  • Most oxylipins in the body are derived from linoleic acid or alpha-linolenic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centenarians have shown reduced levels of linoleic acid oxylipins in their blood circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lowering dietary linoleic acid results in fewer linoleic acid oxylipins in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • iSMC basally released significantly larger amounts of epoxy-oxylipin CYP450 products from eicosapentaenoic acidxa0>xa0docosahexaenoic acidxa0>xa0arachidonic acidxa0>xa0linoleic acid, and expressed higher levels of CYP2C12, CYP2B1, but not CYP2J mRNA compared to mSMC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Modulation of the endogenous omega-3 fatty acid and oxylipin profile in vivo-A comparison of the fat-1 transgenic mouse with C57BL/6 wildtype mice on an omega-3 fatty acid enriched diet. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In order to assess their power to modulate the fatty acid and oxylipin pattern, we thoroughly compared fat-1 and wild-type C57BL/6 mice on a sunflower oil diet with wild-type mice on the same diet enriched with 1% EPA and 1% DHA for 0, 7, 14, 30 and 45 days. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In addition, acetylsalicylic acid was found to inhibit the production of 3-OH oxylipins by probably decreasing mitochondrial activity resulting in the inhibition of ascospore release. (ufs.ac.za)
  • Similarly, plant products such as the jasmonates and other oxylipins derived from 9 c ,12 c ,15 c -octadecatrienoic (α-linolenic or 18:3( n ‑3)) acid have some comparable structural features and functions. (lipidhome.co.uk)
  • Healthy older adults, who consumed flaxseed every day for 4 weeks, exhibited significantly decreased concentrations of plasma pro-inflammatory oxylipins such as 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Every 1 nM increase in plasma 16-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased the odds of a stroke by 55-fold, thus indicating the potential of particular oxylipins to act as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Spleen Oxylipin and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Profiles are Altered by Dietary Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and by Sex. (flaxresearch.com)
  • Nature has evolved numerous enzymes which metabolize oxylipins into secondary products, many of which possess strong biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study is titled Structural insights into the evolutionary paths of oxylipin biosynthetic enzymes. (webwire.com)
  • Why do these organisms produce oxylipins? (asm.org)
  • Using diverse sources to present a model of why these microbes produce oxylipins, we will also present evidence that these microbial oxylipins may play a significant role in a host-pathogen "cross-talk" that contributes to chronic infection. (asm.org)
  • 2007). Among the different oxylipins (9-LOX- and 13-LOX-derived) tested, the 9-LOX derivate 9-HOT was shown to be one of the most potent inducers of a characteristic root waving phenotype as well as an inhibitor of lateral root formation. (europa.eu)
  • In plants, oxylipins are synthesized primarily via lipoxygenases . (brainkart.com)
  • Polyunsaturated NAEs can also be oxidised to NAE‐oxylipins via lipoxygenases (LOX). (els.net)
  • Oxylipin synthesis is triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses as well as also taking place during specific developmental stages (Howe and Schilmiller, 2002). (europa.eu)
  • Additional information on oxylipin quantification and novel protocols for preparing oxygen isotope-labelled internal standards are provided. (nih.gov)
  • 16,17 Therefore, comprehensive and reliable quantification of the oxylipin pattern may be valuable to evaluate the disease state or monitor the action of drugs. (rsc.org)
  • In the plant and animal kingdoms the C18 and C20 polyenoic fatty acids, respectively, are the major precursors of oxylipins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that oxylipins regulate gene expression, impact plant cell death and display direct antimicrobial activity (Almeras et al. (europa.eu)
  • Oxylipins are implicated in plant signaling against biotic and abiotic stresses. (apsnet.org)
  • The fact that the application of 9-HOT induces a prominent root-waving phenotype was used to identify approximately 70 9-HOT insensitive mutants (non-responding to oxylipins, NOXY) within a mutagenised A. thaliana population (Vellosillo et al. (europa.eu)
  • Typically, oxylipins are not stored in tissues but are formed on demand by liberation of precursor fatty acids from esterified forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the proposed objectives we first examine the efficacy of EETs in chronic inflammatory model induced by tobacco smoke, followed by measuring endogenous levels of oxylipin and examining the cardio-pulmonary pathological endpoints associated with these exposure conditions. (yes4yes.com)
  • This review will focus on the potential of oxylipins as secreted virulence factors not in the same context as microbial toxins but rather as factors required for virulence that augment other virulence mechanisms of pathogenic eukaryotic microbes. (asm.org)
  • however also non-enzymatic autoxidative processes contribute to oxylipin formation (phytoprostanes, isoprostanes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions: It was possible to detect oxylipin and endocannabinoid molecules that can be potential biomarkers for differentiation between malaria infected individuals and controls and between different classes of malaria. (diva-portal.org)
  • The purpose of our study was to quantify changes in N -acylethanolamine species and their oxylipin derivatives in the retina of a mouse model for glaucoma and to identify relationships among changes of these signaling molecules and of parameters of glaucoma disease development. (arvojournals.org)
  • Levels of five N- acylethanolamine species and three NAE oxylipin derivatives were quantified in the retinae of 1.5 (healthy) and 8.5 month-old (glaucomatous) DBA/2Crl mice and correlated with intraocular pressure (IOP) measured by rebound tonometry, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity determined behaviorally assessing optomotor responses to stimuli of varying contrast or spatial frequency. (arvojournals.org)
  • Oxylipins, oxygenated derivatives of LCFAs, regulate the activity of many cellular processes. (spectroscopyonline.com)
  • Detection of the heptafluorobuyrate methyl ester derivatives using negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry allowed for the first quantitative analysis of 3-OH oxylipins in yeast. (dal.ca)
  • Many of oxylipins have physiological significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxylipin analysis methods. (nih.gov)
  • iv) analysis of unstable and reactive oxylipins. (nih.gov)
  • Three oxylipins (13-HODE, 9-HODE and 13-oxo-ODE) were higher in severe compared to uncomplicated malaria cases according to the results from multivariate analysis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Quantitative analysis of oxylipins in blood samples is of increasing interest in clinical studies. (rsc.org)
  • In this work, we developed a high-throughput LC-MS method for analysis of 51 LCFAs and oxylipins. (spectroscopyonline.com)
  • In earlier yeast 3-OH oxylipin investigations, these molecules were identified by diazomethane derivatization and then separation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Unfortunately, this approach only allowed for qualitative analysis of 3-OH oxylipins in yeast. (dal.ca)
  • TOF-SIMS analysis also showed a compositional difference at the interior and exterior of fermenting and respiring cells, while immunofluorescence results suggested contrasting 3-OH oxylipin profiles in fermenting vs. respiring SMA cells. (dal.ca)
  • For uncovering the molecular determinants that drive A. flavus in challenging oxidative stress conditions, we have evaluated a wide spectrum of several different parameters, ranging from metabolic (ROS and oxylipin profile) to transcriptional analysis (RNA-seq). (sequentiabiotech.com)
  • In a clinical trial of men with high triglycerides, 3 grams daily of DHA compared with placebo (olive oil) given for 91 days nearly tripled the DHA in red blood cells while reducing oxylipins in those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, our results indicate that total EDTA-plasma oxylipins are the most stable blood oxylipin marker for clinical samples. (rsc.org)
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been employed to detect a wide range of oxylipins (9). (spectroscopyonline.com)
  • Concentrations of esterified and non-esterified fatty acids and oxylipins in TGRL were quantified by mass spectrometry. (escholarship.org)
  • Consequently, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, the two varieties were compared regarding their morphologies, oxylipin production, mitochondrial activity as well as life cycles and ascospore release. (ufs.ac.za)
  • Using Nano scanning Auger microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and immunofluorescence microscopy with 3-OH oxylipin specific antibodies, bubble formation and 3-OH oxylipin production were studied in fermenting and respiring SMA cells. (dal.ca)