Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Plants, Genetically Modified
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent
E2F Transcription Factors
Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (1/1093)In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment. (+info)
Inverse relationship between systemic resistance of plants to microorganisms and to insect herbivory. (2/1093)Pre-inoculation of plants with a pathogen that induces necrosis leads to the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to subsequent pathogen attack . The phenylpropanoid-derived compound salicylic acid (SA) is necessary for the full expression of both local resistance and SAR  . A separate signaling pathway involving jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in systemic responses to wounding and insect herbivory  . There is evidence both supporting and opposing the idea of cross-protection against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores  . This is a controversial area because pharmacological experiments point to negative cross-talk between responses to systemic pathogens and responses to wounding   , although this has not been demonstrated functionally in vivo. Here, we report that reducing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by silencing the expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) reduces SAR to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), whereas overexpression of PAL enhances SAR. Tobacco plants with reduced SAR exhibited more effective grazing-induced systemic resistance to larvae of Heliothis virescens, but larval resistance was reduced in plants with elevated phenylpropanoid levels. Furthermore, genetic modification of components involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis revealed an inverse relationship between SA and JA levels. These results demonstrate phenylpropanoid-mediated cross-talk in vivo between microbially induced and herbivore-induced pathways of systemic resistance. (+info)
EIN2, a bifunctional transducer of ethylene and stress responses in Arabidopsis. (3/1093)Ethylene regulates plant growth, development, and responsiveness to a variety of stresses. Cloning of the Arabidopsis EIN2 gene identifies a central component of the ethylene signaling pathway. The amino-terminal integral membrane domain of EIN2 shows similarity to the disease-related Nramp family of metal-ion transporters. Expression of the EIN2 CEND is sufficient to constitutively activate ethylene responses and restores responsiveness to jasmonic acid and paraquat-induced oxygen radicals to mutant plants. EIN2 is thus recognized as a molecular link between previously distinct hormone response pathways. Plants may use a combinatorial mechanism for assessing various stresses by enlisting a common set of signaling molecules. (+info)
The jasmonate-induced 60 kDa protein of barley exhibits N-glycosidase activity in vivo. (4/1093)Upon jasmonate treatment barley leaf segments express a putative ribosome-inactivating protein (JIP60). The influence of this protein on translation in planta has been analysed by using barley plants and tobacco plants transformed with a barley cDNA encoding JIP60. In both plant systems JIP60 exhibited N-glycosidase activity in vivo. The depurination of the 25S rRNA of tobacco and barley ribosomes led to accumulation of translationally inactive polysomes. (+info)
A novel jasmonate- and elicitor-responsive element in the periwinkle secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Str interacts with a jasmonate- and elicitor-inducible AP2-domain transcription factor, ORCA2. (5/1093)Jasmonate (JA) is an important plant stress hormone that induces various plant defense responses, including the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. The induction of the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene Strictosidine synthase (Str) in Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) cells by elicitor requires JA as a second messenger. A 42 bp region in the Str promoter is both necessary and sufficient for JA- and elicitor-responsive expression. This region is unlike other previously identified JA-responsive regions, and contains a GCC-box-like element. Yeast one-hybrid screening identified cDNAs encoding two AP2-domain proteins. These octadecanoid-derivative responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain (ORCA) proteins bind in a sequence-specific manner the JA- and elicitor-responsive element. ORCA2 trans-activates the Str promoter and its expression is rapidly inducible with JA and elicitor, whereas Orca1 is expressed constitutively. The results indicate that a GCC-box-like element and ORCA2 play key roles in JA- and elicitor-responsive expression of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic gene Str. (+info)
Oligogalacturonide-mediated induction of a gene involved in jasmonic acid synthesis in response to the cell-wall-degrading enzymes of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora. (6/1093)Identification of Arabidopsis thaliana genes responsive to plant cell-wall-degrading enzymes of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora led to the isolation of a cDNA clone with high sequence homology to the gene for allene oxide synthase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonates. Expression of the corresponding gene was induced by the extracellular enzymes from this pathogen as well as by treatment with methyl jasmonate and short oligogalacturonides (OGAs). This suggests that OGAs are involved in the induction of the jasmonate pathway during plant defense response to E. carotovora subsp. carotovora attack. (+info)
Differential induction of plant volatile biosynthesis in the lima bean by early and late intermediates of the octadecanoid-signaling pathway. (7/1093)Plants are able to respond to herbivore damage with de novo biosynthesis of an herbivore-characteristic blend of volatiles. The signal transduction initiating volatile biosynthesis may involve the activation of the octadecanoid pathway, as exemplified by the transient increase of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) in leaves of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) after treatment with the macromolecular elicitor cellulysin. Within this pathway lima bean possesses at least two different biologically active signals that trigger different biosynthetic activities. Early intermediates of the pathway, especially 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (PDA), are able to induce the biosynthesis of the diterpenoid-derived 4,8, 12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene. High concentrations of PDA result in more complex patterns of additional volatiles. JA, the last compound in the sequence, lacks the ability to induce diterpenoid-derived compounds, but is highly effective at triggering the biosynthesis of other volatiles. The phytotoxin coronatine and amino acid conjugates of linolenic acid (e.g. linolenoyl-L-glutamine) mimic the action of PDA, but coronatine does not increase the level of endogenous JA. The structural analog of coronatine, the isoleucine conjugate of 1-oxo-indanoyl-4-carboxylic acid, effectively mimics the action of JA, but does not increase the level of endogenous JA. The differential induction of volatiles resembles previous findings on signal transduction in mechanically stimulated tendrils of Bryonia dioica. (+info)
Requirement of functional ethylene-insensitive 2 gene for efficient resistance of Arabidopsis to infection by Botrytis cinerea. (8/1093)Inoculation of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola results in systemic induction of genes encoding a plant defensin (PDF1.2), a basic chitinase (PR-3), and an acidic hevein-like protein (PR-4). Pathogen-induced induction of these three genes is almost completely abolished in the ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein2-1. This indicates that a functional ethylene signal transduction component (EIN2) is required in this response. The ein2-1 mutants were found to be markedly more susceptible than wild-type plants to infection by two different strains of the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. In contrast, no increased fungal colonization of ein2-1 mutants was observed after challenge with avirulent strains of either Peronospora parasitica or A. brassicicola. Our data support the conclusion that ethylene-controlled responses play a role in resistance of Arabidopsis to some but not all types of pathogens. (+info)
Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipids that are derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the action of enzymes called lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of fatty acids, leading to the formation of various oxylipins, including hydroxy fatty acids, epoxy fatty acids, and dihydroxy fatty acids. Oxylipins play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, blood pressure regulation, and cell signaling. They are also involved in the development and progression of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. In the medical field, oxylipins are often studied as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for these diseases. For example, some oxylipins have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, while others have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the metabolism and function of oxylipins is important for developing new treatments and improving patient outcomes.
Lipoxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid, to produce a variety of bioactive compounds called eicosanoids. These compounds play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood clotting, and immune responses. Lipoxygenase is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the lung, liver, and immune cells. In the medical field, lipoxygenase inhibitors are sometimes used to treat conditions such as asthma and inflammation.
Cyclopentanes are a type of organic compound that contain a five-membered ring of carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in chemical reactions, and as starting materials for the synthesis of other compounds. In the medical field, cyclopentanes are not typically used as drugs or therapeutic agents. However, some cyclopentane derivatives have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.
Plant exudates are natural substances secreted by plants, including roots, stems, leaves, and bark. These substances can be in the form of liquids, gases, or solids and are released into the surrounding environment through various mechanisms such as osmosis, diffusion, and pressure. In the medical field, plant exudates have been used for centuries as traditional remedies for various ailments. Some examples of plant exudates with medicinal properties include: 1. Resin: A sticky, gummy substance secreted by certain trees, such as pine and spruce, that has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. 2. Gum: A sticky substance secreted by certain plants, such as acacia and gum arabic, that has been used as a natural adhesive and has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. 3. Essential oils: Volatile oils extracted from plants that have a strong aroma and are used for their therapeutic properties, such as lavender oil for relaxation and peppermint oil for pain relief. 4. Tannins: A type of polyphenol found in many plants that have astringent properties and can be used to treat diarrhea and other digestive issues. 5. Saponins: A type of glycoside found in many plants that have detergent properties and can be used to treat skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. Overall, plant exudates have a wide range of potential medicinal applications and continue to be studied for their therapeutic properties.
Linolenic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for human health. It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in plant-based oils, such as flaxseed oil, soybean oil, and canola oil. Linolenic acid is important for maintaining healthy skin, hair, and nails, and it also plays a role in reducing inflammation in the body. In the medical field, linolenic acid is sometimes used to treat conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and other skin disorders. It may also be used to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke, as it can help to lower blood pressure and reduce inflammation in the arteries.
Galactolipids are a type of lipid molecule that contains a galactose (a type of sugar) and a fatty acid. They are found in the cell membranes of plants, algae, and some bacteria, and are important components of the structure and function of these membranes. In the medical field, galactolipids are of interest because they have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. They are also being studied as potential therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and cancer.
In the medical field, "Fatty Acids, Unsaturated" refers to a type of fatty acid that contains one or more double bonds in the carbon chain. Unsaturated fatty acids are classified into two categories: monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). MUFAs have one double bond in their carbon chain, while PUFAs have two or more double bonds. Unsaturated fatty acids are considered healthier than saturated fatty acids because they can lower cholesterol levels, reduce the risk of heart disease, and improve blood pressure. Some examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (a MUFA found in olive oil), linoleic acid (a PUFA found in vegetable oils), and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 PUFA found in fish oil). In medical contexts, the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids is often recommended as part of a healthy diet to promote cardiovascular health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
Protozoan infections are a group of diseases caused by single-celled organisms called protozoa. Protozoa are microscopic organisms that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. They can cause a wide range of infections in humans, including gastrointestinal, respiratory, and bloodstream infections. Protozoan infections can be transmitted through various routes, including contaminated food and water, sexual contact, and contact with infected animals. Some common examples of protozoan infections include giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, and malaria. The symptoms of protozoan infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness. Some common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, protozoan infections can lead to complications such as organ damage, anemia, and death. Treatment for protozoan infections typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications, which are designed to kill or inhibit the growth of the protozoa. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and electrolyte replacement may also be necessary. Prevention of protozoan infections involves practicing good hygiene, avoiding contaminated food and water, and taking precautions when traveling to areas where these infections are common.
Eicosanoids are a group of biologically active molecules derived from the 20-carbon fatty acid, arachidonic acid. They are produced by various cells in the body, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells, in response to various stimuli such as injury, inflammation, or stress. Eicosanoids play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including inflammation, blood clotting, and blood pressure regulation. They are also involved in the regulation of pain, fever, and immune responses. There are several types of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and lipoxins. Each type of eicosanoid has a specific function and can have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, depending on the context in which they are produced. In the medical field, eicosanoids are often targeted for therapeutic purposes, particularly in the treatment of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. For example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen work by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are key mediators of inflammation. Similarly, drugs that target specific eicosanoid receptors can be used to treat conditions such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiovascular disease.
Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant species that is widely used as a model organism in the field of plant biology. It is a member of the mustard family and is native to Europe and Asia. Arabidopsis is known for its rapid growth and short life cycle, which makes it an ideal model organism for studying plant development, genetics, and molecular biology. In the medical field, Arabidopsis is used to study a variety of biological processes, including plant growth and development, gene expression, and signaling pathways. Researchers use Arabidopsis to study the genetic basis of plant diseases, such as viral infections and bacterial blight, and to develop new strategies for crop improvement. Additionally, Arabidopsis is used to study the effects of environmental factors, such as light and temperature, on plant growth and development. Overall, Arabidopsis is a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant biology and has important implications for agriculture and medicine.
Intramolecular oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze redox reactions within a single molecule. These enzymes are involved in various biological processes, including metabolism, signal transduction, and gene expression. They typically contain a redox-active site that undergoes changes in oxidation state during the catalytic cycle, allowing them to transfer electrons between different parts of the molecule. Examples of intramolecular oxidoreductases include thioredoxins, glutaredoxins, and peroxiredoxins. These enzymes play important roles in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and protecting cells against oxidative stress.
Linoleic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid that is essential for human health. It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is a member of the omega-6 fatty acid family. Linoleic acid is a liquid at room temperature and is found in many plant-based oils, such as soybean oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. In the medical field, linoleic acid is considered an essential nutrient because the body cannot produce it on its own and must obtain it through the diet. It is important for maintaining healthy skin, hair, and nails, and for supporting the immune system. Linoleic acid is also important for brain function and may help to reduce the risk of certain diseases, such as heart disease and cancer. However, it is important to note that while linoleic acid is essential for health, it is also possible to consume too much of it. Consuming large amounts of linoleic acid can increase the risk of certain health problems, such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, it is important to consume linoleic acid in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.
Fatty acids are organic compounds that are composed of a long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them. They are a type of lipid, which are molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Fatty acids are an important source of energy for the body and are also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as hormones and cell membranes. In the medical field, fatty acids are often studied in relation to their role in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. They are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies.
High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique used in the medical field to separate and analyze complex mixtures of compounds. It involves the use of a liquid mobile phase that is forced through a column packed with a stationary phase under high pressure. The compounds in the mixture interact with the stationary phase to different extents, causing them to separate as they pass through the column. The separated compounds are then detected and quantified using a detector, such as a UV detector or a mass spectrometer. HPLC is commonly used in the analysis of drugs, biological samples, and other complex mixtures in the medical field.
Astroviridae is a family of non-enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. In the medical field, astroviruses are primarily associated with gastrointestinal illness, particularly in young children and immunocompromised individuals. There are several different types of astroviruses, including human astrovirus (HAstV), porcine astrovirus (PAstV), and feline astrovirus (FAstV). HAstV is the most common cause of viral diarrhea in children worldwide, and can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe, including vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and dehydration. PAstV and FAstV are less common, but can also cause gastrointestinal illness in animals. Diagnosis of astrovirus infection typically involves detection of viral RNA in stool samples using molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Treatment is generally supportive, focusing on rehydration and management of symptoms. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices and vaccination against rotavirus, which can also be caused by a similar mechanism.
Anticipatory vomiting is a type of vomiting that occurs in response to a specific trigger or anticipation of a trigger, such as the thought of food or the sight of a particular food. It is a common symptom of various medical conditions, including motion sickness, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and certain types of cancer and chemotherapy. Anticipatory vomiting can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antidepressants and chemotherapy drugs. Treatment for anticipatory vomiting may involve medications, behavioral therapy, or a combination of both.
Microfilament proteins are a type of cytoskeletal protein that make up the thinest filaments in the cytoskeleton of cells. They are composed of actin, a globular protein that polymerizes to form long, thin filaments. Microfilaments are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell shape maintenance, cell movement, and muscle contraction. They also play a role in the formation of cellular structures such as the contractile ring during cell division. In the medical field, microfilament proteins are important for understanding the function and behavior of cells, as well as for developing treatments for diseases that involve disruptions in the cytoskeleton.
E2F transcription factors are a family of proteins that play a critical role in regulating the cell cycle and controlling cell proliferation. They are named for their ability to bind to the E2 promoter region of genes that are involved in cell cycle progression. There are six known E2F transcription factors in humans, which are classified into three groups: E2F1-3, DP1-3, and E4F1. E2F1-3 are primarily involved in regulating cell cycle progression, while DP1-3 are required for the formation of stable E2F-DP complexes that are necessary for transcriptional activation. E4F1 is a transcriptional repressor that is involved in regulating DNA repair and cell death. E2F transcription factors are activated by the binding of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to cyclins, which occur during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Once activated, E2F transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of genes involved in cell cycle progression, such as those encoding cyclins and other cell cycle regulators. Abnormal regulation of E2F transcription factors has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. For example, overexpression of E2F1 has been associated with the development of several types of cancer, including breast, lung, and ovarian cancer. Conversely, loss of E2F1 function has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and improve the efficacy of cancer therapies.
Divinylether fatty acids
Green leaf volatiles
Wound response in plants
Effects of cannabis
Bacterial blight of cotton
Oxylipin - Wikipedia
Frontiers | A non-targeted metabolomics analysis identifies wound-induced oxylipins in Physcomitrium patens
Adipocyte autophagy limits gut inflammation by controlling oxylipin and IL-10. - The Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology
Chitooligosaccharide elicitor and oxylipins synergistically elevate phytoalexin production in rice<...
Oxylipin biosynthesis reinforces cellular senescence and allows detection of senolysis. | InStem
LDS1-produced oxylipins are negative regulators of growth, conidiation and fumonisin synthesis in the fungal maize pathogen...
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- Most oxylipins in the body are derived from linoleic acid or alpha-linolenic acid . (wikipedia.org)
- Linoleic acid oxylipins are usually present in blood and tissue in higher concentrations than any other PUFA oxylipin, despite the fact that alpha-linolenic acid is more readily metabolized to oxylipin. (wikipedia.org)
- Linoleic acid oxylipins can be anti-inflammatory, but are more often pro-inflammatory, associated with atherosclerosis , non-alcoholic fatty liver disease , and Alzheimer's disease . (wikipedia.org)
-  Centenarians have shown reduced levels of linoleic acid oxylipins in their blood circulation. (wikipedia.org)
-  Lowering dietary linoleic acid results in fewer linoleic acid oxylipins in humans. (wikipedia.org)
- A non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to reconstruct the metabolic pathways for the synthesis of oxylipins, derived from roughanic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and arachidonic acid in wild type, the oxylipin-deficient mutants of Ppaos1 and Ppaos2 , the mutants of Ppdes being deficient in all fatty acids harboring a Δ 6 -double bond and the C20-fatty acid-deficient mutants of Ppelo . (frontiersin.org)
- The plant C18 fatty acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, can be converted by the enzymes a -dioxygenase, 9- or 13-lipoxygenase, giving rise to a multitude of oxylipins. (gerli.com)
- As source of oxylipins, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) can be transformed into 9- and 13-derivatives (HODE, hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids). (gerli.com)
- Therefore, we followed the metabolism upon wounding by metabolite fingerprinting with the aim to identify jasmonates as well as novel oxylipins in P. patens . (frontiersin.org)
-  The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived oxylipins are anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory. (wikipedia.org)
- These results suggest an underappreciated fat-gut crosstalk through an autophagy-dependent regulation of anti-inflammatory oxylipins via the cytochrome P450-EPHX pathway, indicating a protective effect of adipose tissues for distant inflammation. (ox.ac.uk)
- One member, Dr Carolina Pohl, is an expert in lipid metabolism in yeasts and has been involved in the discovery of the antifungal effect of acetylsalicylic acid - an oxylipin that is a mitochondrial inhibitor and anti-inflammatory compound. (sasm.org.za)
- Lipids play a major role in inflammatory diseases by altering inflammatory cell functions, either through their function as energy substrates or as lipid mediators such as oxylipins. (ox.ac.uk)
- In silico data for a wide range of lipids, oxidized lipids, and oxylipins can be generated from user-supplied structural criteria with a database generation function. (tu-dortmund.de)
- A major class of oxylipins are the circular derivatives to which 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and its metabolite jasmonic acid (JA) belong. (frontiersin.org)
- Abstract: The core oxylipins, jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-Ile, are well-known as potent regulators of plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens and/or herbivores. (elsevierpure.com)
-  Oxylipins are derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by COX enzymes ( cyclooxygenases ), by LOX enzymes ( lipoxygenases ), or by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase . (wikipedia.org)
- These regio-specific enzymatic reactions between oxygen and polyunsaturated fatty acids formed new compounds, named oxylipins, which are most frequently with the S-configuration (5-HpETE, 12-HpETE or 15-HpETE). (gerli.com)
- Monooxygenases involved in oxylipin biosynthesis are members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily and can oxidize double bonds with epoxide formation or saturated carbons forming alcohols . (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, as CoP levels were compromised in the OPDA-treated Osjar1 mutant cells impaired in the oxylipin-amino acid conjugation, putative OPDA-amino acid conjugates emerged as hypothetical regulators of CoP biosynthesis. (elsevierpure.com)
- Oxylipin biosynthesis reinforces cellular senescence and allows detection of senolysis. (instem.res.in)
- We show that senescent cells activate the biosynthesis of several oxylipins that promote segments of the SASP and reinforce the proliferative arrest. (instem.res.in)
- Plant oxylipins are a class of lipid-derived signaling molecules being involved in the regulation of various biotic and abiotic stress responses. (frontiersin.org)
- Oxylipins most often act in an autocrine or paracrine manner, notably in targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) to modify adipocyte formation and function. (wikipedia.org)
- Oxylipins constitute a family of oxygenated natural products which are formed from fatty acids by pathways involving at least one step of dioxygen -dependent oxidation . (wikipedia.org)
-   Typically, oxylipins are not stored in tissues but are formed on demand by liberation of precursor fatty acids from esterified forms. (wikipedia.org)
- In the plant and animal kingdoms the C18 and C20 polyenoic fatty acids , respectively, are the major precursors of oxylipins. (wikipedia.org)
- In general, oxylipins derived from omega-6 fatty acids are more pro-inflammatory, vasoconstrictive, and proliferative than those derived from omega-3 fatty acids . (wikipedia.org)
- This group was the first to discover yeast oxylipins, or oxidised fatty acids, including prostaglandins. (sasm.org.za)
- Instead, Atg7-deficient adipose tissues exhibited an oxylipin imbalance, driven through an NRF2-mediated upregulation of Ephx1. (ox.ac.uk)
- To face the structural complexity of oxylipins , the study of isomers and isobars species relied on Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) and Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) in tandem mass spectrometry such as triple quadrupole, quadrupole- Time of Flight (TOF). (bvsalud.org)
- Here, we used a previously characterized metabolic defense marker, p-coumaroylputrescine (CoP), and fungal elicitor, chitooligosaccharide, to specifically test defense role of various oxylipins in rice (Oryza sativa). (elsevierpure.com)
- They found from 56 identified oxylipins, some species were significantly altered. (ndrinc.org)
- however also non- enzymatic autoxidative processes contribute to oxylipin formation (phytoprostanes, isoprostanes ). (wikipedia.org)
- Plant oxylipins are mainly involved in control of ontogenesis , reproductive processes and in the resistance to various microbial pathogens and other pests . (wikipedia.org)
- They investigated the nature and role of 126 major oxylipins by mass spectrometry in the plasma of asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of disease in a SOD1-G93A rat model. (ndrinc.org)
-  In a clinical trial of men with high triglycerides , 3 grams daily of DHA compared with placebo (olive oil) given for 91 days nearly tripled the DHA in red blood cells while reducing oxylipins in those cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Comprehensive analysis of oxylipins using reverse phase liquid chromatography and data dependent acquisition workflow on LTQ-Orbitrap® Velos Pro. (bvsalud.org)
- They concluded that the study provides a comprehensive overview of oxylipins involved in ALS disease progression suggesting potential targets for treatment of ALS and/or hypermetabolism. (ndrinc.org)
- Pohl's research has shown that some yeast oxylipins work by mimicking host signalling molecules to induce an immune response. (sasm.org.za)
- Using the versatile ability of LTQ-Orbitrap® Velos Pro mass spectrometer, we developed a novel method based on data dependent acquisition (DDA) workflow for oxylipins analysis . (bvsalud.org)
- Next, reverse genetic approach and oxylipin-deficient rice mutant (hebiba) were used to uncouple oxylipins from other elicitor-triggered signals. (elsevierpure.com)
- However, recent studies also suggest that other oxylipins, including 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), may contribute to plant defense. (elsevierpure.com)
- It appeared that, without oxylipins, residual elicitor signaling had only a minimal effect but, in synergy with OPDA, exerted a strong stimulatory activity towards CoP production. (elsevierpure.com)
- Oxylipins have ancient origins as signalling molecules, elements of which are conserved across different kingdoms of life. (sasm.org.za)
- Nature has evolved numerous enzymes which metabolize oxylipins into secondary products, many of which possess strong biological activity . (wikipedia.org)