The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The consumption of edible substances.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Freedom from activity.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The selection of one food over another.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The consumption of liquids.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Glucose in blood.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Solutions which, upon administration, will temporarily arrest cardiac activity. They are used in the performance of heart surgery.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (1/14332)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

Sympathetic nerve alterations assessed with 123I-MIBG in the failing human heart. (2/14332)

Norepinephrine (NE) reuptake function is impaired in heart failure and this may participate in myocyte hyperstimulation by the neurotransmitter. This alteration can be assessed by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. METHODS: To determine whether the impairment of neuronal NE reuptake was reversible after metoprolol therapy, we studied 18 patients (43+/-7 y) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were stabilized at least for 3 mo with captopril and diuretics. Patients underwent, before and after 6 mo of therapy with metoprolol, measurements of radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), maximal oxygen consumption and plasma NE concentration. The cardiac adrenergic innervation function was scintigraphically assessed with MIBG uptake and release measurements on the planar images obtained 20 min and 4 h after tracer injection. To evaluate whether metoprolol had a direct interaction with cardiac MIBG uptake and release, six normal subjects were studied before and after a 1-mo metoprolol intake. RESULTS: In controls, neither cardiac MIBG uptake and release nor circulating NE concentration changed after the 1-mo metoprolol intake. Conversely, after a 6-mo therapy with metoprolol, patients showed increased cardiac MIBG uptake (129%+/-10% versus 138%+/-17%; P = 0.009), unchanged cardiac MIBG release and decreased plasma NE concentration (0.930+/-412 versus 0.721+/-0.370 ng/mL; P = 0.02). In parallel, patients showed improved New York Heart Association class (2.44+/-0.51 versus 2.05+/-0.23; P = 0.004) and increased LVEF (20%+/-8% versus 27%+/-8%; P = 0.0005), whereas maximal oxygen uptake remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Thus, a parallel improvement of myocardial NE reuptake and of hemodynamics was observed after a 6-mo metoprolol therapy, suggesting that such agents may be beneficial in heart failure by directly protecting the myocardium against excessive NE stimulation.  (+info)

Effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and glucose and oxygen consumption in perfused tissue-isolated human melanoma xenografts. (3/14332)

The effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and consumption of oxygen and glucose was examined in a perfused tissue-isolated tumor model in nude mice. One experimental group was perfused with heparinized Krebs-Henseleit buffer, a second one was perfused with TNF-alpha (500 microgram/kg) 5 h before perfusion. The vascular resistance increased significantly 5 h after TNF-alpha injection. The increase in vascular resistance did not seem to be mediated by a decrease in tumor nitric oxide production, as determined by perfusate nitrate/nitrite concentrations, but may be due to aggregation of leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes and/or endothelial consumption among the three experimental groups. The oxygen consumption was linearly dependent on the amount of available oxygen in the perfusate, whereas the glucose consumption was constant and independent of the glucose delivery rate. The present experiments provide new insights into physiological and metabolic mechanisms of action of TNF- alpha for optimization of future treatment schedules involving TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Endogenous plasma endothelin concentrations and coronary circulation in patients with mild dilated cardiomyopathy. (4/14332)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients (eight male/six female; mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with IDCM (ejection fraction 36 (9)%) and five normotensive subjects (two male/three female; age 52 (7) years) serving as controls were studied. METHODS: Functional status was classified according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Endogenous ET-1 and BET plasma concentrations from the aorta and the coronary sinus were determined by radioimmunoassay. Coronary blood flow, using the inert chromatographic argon method, myocardial oxygen consumption, and coronary sinus oxygen content under basal conditions were determined. RESULTS: In the aorta, mean (SD) concentrations of ET-1 (IDCM 0.76 (0.25) v controls 0.31 (0.06) fmol/ml; p = 0.002) and BET (IDCM 3.58 (1.06) v controls 2.11 (0.58) fmol/ml; p = 0.014) were increased in patients with IDCM. Aortic ET-1 concentrations correlated positively with NYHA class (r = 0. 731; p < 0.001), myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.749; p < 0. 001), and coronary blood flow (r = 0.645; p = 0.003), but inversely with coronary sinus oxygen content (r = -0.633; p = 0.004), which was significantly decreased in IDCM patients (IDCM 4.68 (1.05) v controls 6.70 (1.06) vol%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The coronary circulation in patients with IDCM is exposed to an increased endothelin load. ET-1 concentrations correlate with functional deterioration. A decrease of the coronary sinus content of oxygen suggests a mismatch between coronary blood flow and metabolic demand. Thus, ET-1 might be a marker of a disequilibrium between myocardial oxygen demand and coronary blood flow in IDCM.  (+info)

Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers. (5/14332)

OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate concentration ([La(b)]), and heart rate (HR) response during indoor and outdoor sport climbing. METHODS: Seven climbers aged 25 (SE 1) years, with a personal best ascent without preview or fall (on sight) ranging from 6b to 7a were assessed using an indoor vertical treadmill with artificial rock hand/foot holds and a discontinuous protocol with climbing velocity incremented until voluntary fatigue. On a separate occasion the subjects performed a 23.4 m outdoor rock climb graded 5c and taking 7 min 36 s (SE 33 s) to complete. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using a telemetry system and [La(b)] collected at rest and after climbing. RESULTS: Indoor climbing elicited a peak oxygen uptake (VO2climb-peak) and peak HR (HRpeak) of 43.8 (SE 2.2) ml/kg/min and 190 (SE 4) bpm, respectively and increased blood lactate concentration [La(b)] from 1.4 (0.1) to 10.2 (0.6) mmol/l (p < 0.05). During outdoor climbing VO2 and HR increased to about 75% and 83% of VO2climb-peak and HRpeak, respectively. [La(b)] increased from 1.3 (0.1) at rest to 4.5 mmol/l (p < 0.05) at 2 min 32 s (8 s) after completion of the climb. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that for elite climbers outdoor sport rock climbs of five to 10 minutes' duration and moderate difficulty require a significant portion of the VO2climb-peak. The higher HR and VO2 for outdoor climbing and the increased [La(b)] could be the result of repeated isometric contractions, particularly from the arm and forearm muscles.  (+info)

Myocardial oxygenation during high work states in hearts with postinfarction remodeling. (6/14332)

BACKGROUND: Postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is associated with reductions in myocardial high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels, which are more severe in animals that develop overt congestive heart failure (CHF). During high work states, further HEP loss occurs, which suggests demand-induced ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that inadequate myocyte oxygen availability is the basis for these HEP abnormalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial infarction was produced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation in swine. Studies were performed in 20 normal animals, 14 animals with compensated LVR, and 9 animals with CHF. Phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP was determined with 31P NMR and deoxymyoglobin (Mb-delta) with 1H NMR in myocardium remote from the infarct. Basal PCr/ATP tended to be decreased in postinfarct hearts, and this was significant in animals with CHF. Infusion of dobutamine (20 microg x kg-1 x min-1 IV) caused doubling of the rate-pressure product in both normal and LVR hearts and resulted in comparable significant decreases of PCr/ATP in both groups. This decrease in PCr/ATP was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. In CHF hearts, rate-pressure product increased only 40% in response to dobutamine; this attenuated response also was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the decrease of PCr/ATP during dobutamine infusion is not the result of insufficient myocardial oxygen availability. Furthermore, in CHF hearts, the low basal PCr/ATP and the attenuated response to dobutamine occurred in the absence of myocardial hypoxia, indicating that the HEP and contractile abnormalities were not the result of insufficient oxygen availability.  (+info)

Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries. (7/14332)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

The respiratory responses of Carcinus maenas to declining oxygen tension. (8/14332)

The degree of respiratory independence shown by Carcinus under conditions of declining oxygen tension is dependent on the animal's level of activity. Inactive Carcinus are capable of maintaining respiratory independence down to a Po2 of 60-80 mmHg. This is achieved primarily by an increase in ventilation volume such that the amount of oxygen made available at the respiratory surfaces remains constant over a wide range of oxygen tension. The Po2 at which this can no longer be maintained corresponds closely to the Po2 at which respiratory independence is lost. Under normoxic conditions the Po2 of the post- and prebranchial blood was 97 and 18 mmHg respectively. At the high oxygen tensions prevailing in the postbranchial blood the respiratory pigment is fully saturated. Under conditions of declining oxygen tension the heart rate remains more or less constant until the Po2 reaches 60-80 mmHg, the onset of bradycardia coinciding with the loss of saturation of the haemocyanin. Although cardiac output falls during hypoxia, the capacity rate ratio remains approximately constant, which enables the effectiveness of oxygen uptake by the blood to remain at a high level.  (+info)

We thank Dr Poullis for his interest and are glad that our articles are stimulating new ideas.R1 R2 In our initial mathematical analysis, we developed an equation (Equation 1 in Dr Poullis letter) that related systemic oxygen delivery to cardiac output, the ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (QP/QS), the oxygen content in pulmonary venous blood, and whole body oxygen consumption. Each of these variables can be independently changed. For example, cardiac output can be changed without the necessity of altering QP/QS.. By making a substitution of variables, Dr Poullis develops another equation (Equation 3 in his letter). This equation presents systemic oxygen delivery as a function of systemic blood flow (QS), QS/QP, the oxygen content in pulmonary venous blood, and whole body oxygen consumption. Although the equation is mathematically valid, the conclusion that systemic oxygen delivery is not a function of cardiac output is invalid. Dr Poullis includes QS/QP ratio and Qs as 2 independent ...
1. Arginine vasopressin reduces whole-body oxygen consumption in conscious dogs. To determine whether this decrease could result from limited oxygen delivery, studies were performed in two groups of chronically instrumented dogs.. 2. In the first group (n = 7), vasopressin was infused at a rate of 18.5 pmol min−1 kg−1 while the animals were breathing 10% oxygen. Hypoxaemia alone (arterial partial pressure of oxygen 4.67 kPa) decreased whole-body oxygen delivery by 30%. The fall in whole-body oxygen consumption induced by vasopressin during hypoxaemia was not different from that measured under normoxic conditions, even though whole-body oxygen delivery was more reduced.. 3. In a second group of seven dogs, hindquarter blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter on lower abdominal aorta) and oxygen consumption (blood flow multiplied by arteriovenous oxygen difference) were measured as infusions of vasopressin were given either systemically or into the lower abdominal aorta. Systemic vasopressin ...
If you are anything like me, when I first was learning about nutrition and our bodys metabolism I was trying to take in information from everywhere. It wasnt just good enough to know that eating green leafy veggies was healthy, I wanted to know why? I didnt want to just accept that High Intensity Interval Training was a better way to burn fat, I wanted to know why? I think the knowledge of knowing why is so important in making lasting changes to your lifestyle. You dont just have to take someone elses word for it, you understand the science behind it. If you guys are ok with it I would love to share some science with you from time to time, those of you that are like me trying to find your way with your fitness and health and want to go deeper you have us as a resource. So today wanted to share with you the concept of EPOC or Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption ...
The portion of oxygen consumed after exercise that removes excess lactic acid from the blood. A small amount of the excess lactic acid is excreted in urine and sweat; a little contributes to the manufacture of protein; some is converted to glucose or glycogen in the liver and muscle, but most of the lactic acid produced during exercise is reconverted into pyruvic acid and used in aerobic metabolism to form carbon dioxide and water. Approximately 5-10 L of oxygen forms the lactacid post-exercise oxygen consumption; it is usually higher in highly trained athletes, especially sprinters. ...
Purpose: Allometric is a method for the expression of relationship between the physiological variables, anatomical with unit of the body size that through mathematical methods can calculate vital capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluation of pulmonary function for estimation of peak oxygen consumption through the respiratory gas analysis and allometric equation in boy student. Methods: In this causal after the occurrence study, 80 subjects were selected by convenience sampling. Characteristics of anthropometric, chest circumference (diameter and depth of the chest), and for estimation of peak oxygen consumption, Bruce test, where was measured using the validated methods. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regressions in SPSS version 16. Result: There were not significant correlations between TV, IRV, ERV, and FVC with peak oxygen consumption. While, There was significant positive correlation between FVC and peak oxygen consumption (p=0.041 & r=0.229) and between ...
The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body. The a-vO2 diff and cardiac output are the main factors that allow variation in the bodys total oxygen consumption, and are important in measuring VO2. The a-vO2 diff is usually measured in millilitres of oxygen per 100 millilitres of blood (mL/100 mL). The arteriovenous oxygen difference is usually taken by comparing the difference in the oxygen concentration of oxygenated blood in the femoral, brachial, or radial artery and the oxygen concentration in the deoxygenated blood from the mixed supply found in the pulmonary artery (as an indicator of the typical mixed venous supply). Put in simple terms: a-vO2 diff = Ca - Cv where: Ca = the oxygen concentration of arterial blood (oxygenated blood) Cv = the oxygen concentration of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute volume expansion with colloid increases oxygen delivery and consumption but does not improve the oxygen extraction in severe preeclampsia. AU - Belfort, Michael A.. AU - Saade, George R.. AU - Wasserstrum, Nathan. AU - Johansen, Richard. AU - Anthony, John. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The objective of this study was to determine the effect of volume expansion with colloid on oxygen consumption (VO2), oxygen delivery (DO2) and the oxygen extraction ratio in patients with severe preeclampsia. The study was prospective and descriptive and took place in the tertiary care labor and delivery unit in a university hospital. Fourteen women with severe preeclampsia who received a pulmonary artery catheter and radial arterial line to monitor their hemodynamic and respiratory status took part in the study. Patients who had received prior medication or volume expansion were excluded. The intervention employed was acute volume expansion, using colloidal solutions (Dextran 70 or ...
Devices and methods for improving cardiac efficiency involve measuring, patient-internally, an oxygen saturation parameter indicative of oxygen usage of myocardial tissue of the heart. A cardiac electrical therapy is adjusted to cause a change of the measured oxygen saturation parameter, and the adjusted cardiac electrical therapy is selected for delivery based on a changed oxygen saturation parameter indicative of an increase in cardiac efficiency.
The temperature dependence of aerobic scope has been suggested to be a major determinant of how marine animals will cope with future rises in environmental temperature. Here, we present data suggesting that in some animals, the temperature dependence of anaerobic scope (i.e., the capacity for surviving severe hypoxia) may determine present-day latitudinal distributions and potential for persistence in a warmer future. As a model for investigating the role of anaerobic scope, we studied two sibling species of coral-dwelling gobies, Gobiodon histrio, and G. erythrospilus, with different latitudinal distributions, but which overlap in equal abundance at Lizard Island (14°40′S) on the Great Barrier Reef. These species did not differ in the temperature dependence of resting oxygen consumption or critical oxygen concentration (the lowest oxygen level where resting oxygen consumption can be maintained). In contrast, the more equatorial species (G. histrio) had a better capacity to endure anaerobic ...
The effect of work rate on oxygen uptake kinetics during exhaustive severe intensity cycling exercise Jennifer L. Sylvester, Samantha D. Burdette, Steven W. Cross, Nosa O. Idemudia, John, H. Curtis, Jakob L. Vingren, David W. Hill. Applied Physiology Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX During exhaustive severe intensity exercise, the oxygen uptake (VO2) increases exponentially, with a time constant of ~30 s. After ~1 to 2 min, a slow component emerges and drives the VO2 to its maximum. There are clear differences in the VO2 response profile across exercise intensity domains. These disparities might not be attributable to metabolic demand but, rather, to characteristics of the various intensity domains, such as the consequences of lactic acid production. PURPOSE: To investigate the role of exercise intensity on the VO2 response profile at intensities wholly within the severe domain. METHODS: Four women (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 years, height 167 ± 7 cm, mass 66 ± 5 kg) and eight men
Using the C2C12 mouse muscle myoblast cell line, I sought to investigate the hypothesis that differentiation under hypoxia impairs muscle mitochondrial respiratory function irreversibly. Resveratrol (RSV) will increase expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and reverse the hypoxia-induced depression of O2 consumption rates. Hypoxia decreased oxygen consumption rates after five days of differentiation and after two days of normoxic recovery. This coincided with a hypoxia-induced decrease in protein levels of the NDUFB8 subunit of complex I of the electron transport chain and decreases in mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors, both of which could contribute to the alterations observed in oxygen consumption rates. Normoxic recovery supplemented with RSV did increase oxygen consumption rates, however this increase was not observed across all oxygen concentrations that were measured which may have be associated with the decreases in cell viability observed with RSV
Despite the use of water treadmills (WT) in conditioning horses, the intensity of WT exercise has not been well documented. The workload on a WT is a function of water height and treadmill speed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these factors on workload during WT exercise. Fifteen client-owned Quarter Horses were used in a randomized, controlled study. Three belt speeds and three water heights (mid cannon, carpus and stifle), along with the control condition (dry treadmill, all three speeds), were tested. Measured outcomes were oxygen consumption (V̇O2), ventilation (respiratory frequency, tidal volume (VT)), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate. An ergospirometry system was used to measure V̇O2 and ventilation. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the effects of presence or absence of water, water height and speed (as fixed effects) on measured outcomes. Water height and its interaction with speed had a significant effect on V̇O2, VT and HR, all peaking
Supervised exercise (SE) in patients with type 2 diabetes improves oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Maintenance of these improvements, however, has not been examined when supervision is removed. We explored if potential improvements in oxygen uptake kinetics following a 12-week SE that combined aerobic and resistance training were maintained after a subsequent 12-week unsupervised exercise (UE). The involvement of cardiac output (CO) in these improvements was also tested. Nineteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Oxygen uptake kinetics and CO (inert gas rebreathing) responses to constant-load cycling at 50% ventilatory threshold (VT), 80% VT, and mid-point between VT and peak workload (50% Δ) were examined at baseline (on 2 occasions) and following each 12-week training period. Participants decided to exercise at a local gymnasium during the UE. Thirteen subjects completed all the interventions. The time constant of phase 2 of oxygen uptake was significantly ...
We first examined effects of 200 nM TAT (Trans-Activator of Transcription)-HKII peptide treatment, which was previously shown to acutely decrease mtHKII by ~ 30%. In Langendorff-perfused hearts TAT-HKII resulted in a modest, but significant, increased oxygen consumption, while cardiac performance was unchanged. At the metabolic level, there was a nonsignificant (p = 0.076) ~ 40% decrease in glucose contribution to pyruvate and lactate formation through glycolysis and to mitochondrial citrate synthase flux (6.6 ± 1.1 vs. 11.2 ± 2.2%), and an 35% increase in tissue pyruvate (27 ± 2 vs. 20 ± 2 pmol/mg; p = 0.033). Secondly, we compared WT and HKII+/− hearts (50% chronic decrease in total HKII). RNA sequencing revealed no differential gene expression between WT and HKII+/− hearts indicating an absence of metabolic reprogramming at the transcriptional level. Langendorff-perfused hearts showed no significant differences in glycolysis (0.34 ± 0.03 μmol/min), glucose contribution to citrate ...
en] To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells ...
Neuronal injury due to seizures may result from a mismatch of energy demand and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, ATP demand and oxygen consumption rates have not been accurately determined, yet, for different patterns of epileptic activity, such as interictal and ictal events. We studied interictal-like and seizure-like epileptiform activity induced by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline alone, and with co-application of the M-current blocker XE-991, in rat hippocampal slices. Metabolic changes were investigated based on recording partial oxygen pressure, extracellular potassium concentration, and intracellular flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) redox potential. Recorded data were used to calculate oxygen consumption and relative ATP consumption rates, cellular ATP depletion, and changes in FAD/FADH2 ratio by applying a reactive-diffusion and a two compartment metabolic model. Oxygen-consumption rates were ca. five times higher during seizure activity than interictal activity. Additionally,
Figure CMB1: Components of the Mitochondrial electron transport chain with electron donors rate of oxygen consumption, increases when uncouplers are present and is affected only.. In the equation, α is the absorption coefficient of O. Oxygen consumption, proton motive force (PMF) and proton leak are that allows dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by uncoupling oxidative The overall goal of measuring mitochondrial oxygen consumption and proton. Example calculation based on concentrations in protocol.. respirometry, mitochondrial oxygen affinities (1/P50) are reviewed with particular emphasis on the turnover effect the uncoupled respiration observed under control by ADP, as shown by relationships derived oxygen consumed, i.e. a diminished ADP/O2 flux . (B) Transition periods of ADP-injection and calculation of ...
Students nowadays face tremendous pressure in school: Longer hours of studies, increasing homework, additional projects and Co-Curricular Activities (CCAs). To cope with all these, students need the fuel for their brains to stay focused and absorb what is being taught during classes. During revision for examinations, the need for the right fuel is even more important to ensure the brain can carry out its functions well in order for students to achieve their goals for their revision and ultimately, perform better during examinations.. In order to ensure these functions can be carried out smoothly, the brain must have a constant supply of nutrients and oxygen to it. The oxygen intake for brain is actually TWENTY PERCENT of the whole bodys oxygen consumption. So it is important to keep the brain supplied with enough oxygen and along with it, the necessary nutrients for the brain to function well. Here we recommend three types of super brain food:. ...
The original method described by Fick in 1870 is difficult to carry out. Oxygen consumption is derived by measuring the expired gas volume over a known time and the difference in oxygen concentration between this expired gas and inspired gas. Accurate collection of the gas is difficult unless the patient has an endotracheal tube, because of leaks around a facemask or mouthpiece. Analysis of the gas is straightforward if the inspired gas is air, but if it is oxygen-enriched air there are two problems, (a) the addition of oxygen may fluctuate and produce an error due to the non-constancy of the inspired oxygen concentration, and (b) it is difficult to measure small changes in oxygen concentration at the top end of the scale. The denominator of the equation, the arteriovenous oxygen content difference, presents a further problem, in that the mixed venous (i.e. pulmonary arterial) oxygen content has to be measured and therefore a pulmonary artery catheter is needed to obtain the sample. ...
The oxygen consumption of cerebral arterioles from anesthetized cats was measured using the Cartesian diver microrespirometer following in vitro incubation with 200 micrograms/ml of arachidonate or 50 micrograms/ml of 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE). Both agents depressed oxygen consumption severely. This effect was inhibited completely by a combination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, indicating that it is mediated by oxygen radicals. Similar depression of oxygen consumption was observed during incubation of the vessels with xanthine oxidase and acetaldehyde as substrate. This enzymic system is known to generate superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. The effect of xanthine oxidase was also partially inhibited by SOD and catalase. The effect of arachidonate was partially inhibited by cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The effect of lipoxygenase inhibitors could not be adequately tested because they depressed oxygen consumption by themselves. Prostaglandins H2 and E2 had no effect on
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1. Intrarenal oxygen availability is the balance between supply, mainly dependent on renal blood flow, and demand, determined by the basal metabolic demand and the energy-requiring tubular electrolyte transport. Renal blood flow is maintained within close limits in order to sustain stable glomerular filtration, so increased intrarenal oxygen consumption is likely to cause tissue hypoxia.. 2. The increased oxygen consumption is closely linked to increased oxidative stress, which increases mitochondrial oxygen usage and reduces tubular electrolyte transport efficiency, with both contributing to increased total oxygen consumption.. 3. Tubulointerstitial hypoxia stimulates the production of collagen I and alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicators of increased fibrogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment induces epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation and aggravates fibrosis, which results in reduced peritubular blood perfusion and oxygen delivery due to capillary rarefaction.. 4. Increased ...
Data & statistics on Relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption: Relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption, Cardioplegia volume ( A ) , total heart oxygen consumption (LV MVO,, in milliliters of oxygen; B), and arterial-venous oxygen content diferences (C) during each delivey interval. Duration of induction was 5 minutes at 4
Abstract Delivery of live crustaceans to markets has the potential to increase profits for Alaskan fishermen, but the practice has been limited in part by mortality occurring during shipment to distant markets. Protocols that select crabs more likely to survive shipment would likely further develop this niche market and evaluating the physiological stress response in crustaceans provides a logical entry point to explore this area. This study measures oxygen consumption rates (MO2; mgO2 g−1 hr−1) of male Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi, following 15, 30 or 45 min of emersion at 8°C or −15°C followed 12 h later by a uniform handling stressor (emersion at −15°C for 10 min). MO2 increased immediately following 15, 30 and 45 min emersion at 8°C (on average 1.5 times pre-treatment levels). All crabs survived emersion at 8°C and MO2 returned to pre-treatment levels within 12 hours. These animals also responded similarly to a uniform second stress test by increasing MO2. Crabs previously exposed
We examined a possible mechanism of action of an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener, YM934, for the improvement of energy metabolism in hearts subjected to 35-min ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. The treatment with 30 nM YM934 for the final 15 min of preischemia enhanced postischemic recovery of left ventricular developed pressure, attenuated the postischemic rise in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and suppressed the release of creatine kinase and ATP metabolites during reperfusion. The treatment also restored myocardial ATP and creatine phosphate contents and attenuated the decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate during reperfusion. The higher mitochondrial function was also seen in YM934-treated hearts at the end of ischemia. In another set of experiments, myocardial skinned bundles were incubated for 30 min under hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of YM934, and then mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was determined. Hypoxia decreased the ...
ad_1]. aerobic training exercise that involves or improves oxygen consumption by the body. The word means Aerobics oxygen. Along with using and improving the bodys oxygen consumption and aerobic exercise increases the bodys ability to burn fat during a workout acids. An example is the aerobic workout that includes a warm-up, followed by moderate exercise for a long time that exercise large muscle groups, and then a cool down. No matter what type of exercise, it is important to know that aerobic exercise is very beneficial fat-burning cardiovascular health and wellness. during anaerobic training exercise intense enough to anaerobic metabolism. This greatly increases the bodys functional capacity and maximize explosive power, short-term energy systems. An example would be, not endurance sports such as bodybuilders to promote anaerobic training speed, strength, power and muscle mass. This leads to higher performance of the high-intensity, short-lasting activities. several physiological reactions ...
Performance improves through the maximum amount of oxygen that the body can use during an intense workout, which is known as VO2 max levels. When VO2 max increases the body is able to handle more stress and train harder because it is able to transport and use oxygen more efficiently (Sperlich et al., 2018). An advantage of performing compound strength exercises in HICT, is a process known as EPOC. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC, is the amount of calories that is burned after a workout, which will help burn fat and boost metabolism. EPOC occurs at a maximal level when the compound strength movements are combined with very little rest between sets. An increase in EPOC allows the body to elicits metabolic and aerobic benefits during HICT. There are many reasons to do high intensity circuit training whether you want to build lean muscle, reduce body fat, improve performance, or increase endurance. It is practical, efficient, and an accessible way to train. Try the workout below to ...
Milani, R. V., Davis, C. T., Lavie, C. J. and Mehra, M. R. (2005). Importance of left atrial volume in predicting reduced peak aerobic capacity in advanced systolic dysfunction. In: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. , , (S129-S130). . doi:10.1016/j.healun.2004.11.292 ...
From Ergo-Log. After an intensive workout the body expends extra energy. Researchers suspect that because of this, strength training can help in maintaining a healthy weight, and they are studying ways of increasing the after burn. One such method is to consume caffeine before pumping iron, as sports scientists at California State University discovered.. After a demanding workout muscle cells need to recover. They need to replenish their creatine phosphate and glycogen reserves and restore their buffers. Were not even talking about the recovery of damaged muscle proteins, but this process costs energy too. Researchers measure this increased energy expenditure by measuring oxygen consumption; when the latter is higher, it is called elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC for short.. As far back as 1989 researchers showed that caffeine [structural formula shown below] raised the EPOC of untrained women after a cardio training session. [Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1989; 59(1-2): ...
Triplet imaging is a novel optical technique that allows investigating oxy- gen metabolism at the single cell and the sub-cellular level. The method combines high temporal and spatial resolution, which are required for the monitoring of fast kinetics of oxygen concentration in living cells. Calibration and validation is demon- strated with a titration experiment using L-Ascorbic Acid with the enzyme Ascor- base oxidase. The method was applied to a biological cell system, employing as reporter a cytosolic fusion protein of β-galactosidase with SNAP-tag labeled with tetramethylrhodamine. Oxygen consumption in single smooth muscle cells A7r5 during an [Arg8]-vasopressin-induced contraction is measured. The results indicate a consumption leading to an intracellular oxygen concentration that decays mono- exponentially with time. This is in good agreement with previously reported mea- surements of oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle fibers.. ...
Conditions: Diabetic Kidney Disease; Type 1 Diabetes; Diabetes; Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetes Complications; Diabetic Nephropathies; Type1diabetes; Diabetes, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Diabetes; Juvenile Diabetes; Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Interventions: Dru...
There are a few areas where I think our attention will be brought to going forward regarding the optimal development of aerobic capabilities of the organism, and one of those things is myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2).
Also known as exercise after burn, Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) relates to the amount of oxygen required and therefore the amount of
We tested the hypothesis that prior heavy-intensity exercise reduces the difference between asymptotic oxygen uptake (VO2) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) during exhaustive severe-intensity running lasting ≍2 minutes. Ten trained runners each performed 2 ramp tests to determine peak VO2 (VO2peak) and speed at venti-latory threshold. They performed exhaustive square-wave runs lasting ≍2 minutes, preceded by either 6 minutes of moderate-intensity running and 6 minutes rest (SEVMOD) or 6 minutes of heavy-intensity running and 6 minutes rest (SEVHEAVY). Two transitions were completed in each condition. VO2 was determined breath by breath and averaged across the 2 repeats of each test; for the square-wave test, the averaged VO2 response was then modeled using a monoexponential function. The amplitude of the VO2 response to severe-intensity running was not different in the 2 conditions (SEVMOD vs SEVHEAVY; 3925 ± 442 vs 3997 ± 430 mL/min, P = .237), nor was the speed of the response (τ; 9.2 ...
Kinetic testwork in the form of column leach and humidity cell testwork is widely used for mining approvals to assess the indicative chemistry of leachate from sulfidic mine wastes. Advanced kinetic testwork methods based on oxygen consumption measurements can also reveal, a) the likely duration of sulfide oxidation processes, b) an accurate assessment of lag times (time before the onset of acid conditions), and c) the likely pollution loads over time. Oxygen consumption measurement techniques permit the quantitative assessment of sulfide oxidation rates (i.e. pollution generation rates) as a function of key waste storage facility variables such as temperature, moisture content, particle size distribution, oxygen concentration, pore water pH, and bacterial activity. Covers for sulfide wastes, capping zones, thin-lift and compacted oxygen control (encapsulation) bands and oxygen consuming layers can be accurately tested in the laboratory and field to optimise installation configurations (e.g. ...
High intensity training or HIT, often referred to as HIIT which actually stands for High Intensity Interval Training has been presented as some kind of magic bullet for fat loss in recent years - technically any form of exercise that involve high intensity efforts if HIT. This includes resistance training. Whilst HIIT (true HIIT) is very short bursts of very high intensity efforts with a short rest interval - but do they burn more fat? I mean, I was even taught this when I first did my level 3 personal trainer diploma. The main reason we are told that HIIT burns more fat than other forms of exercise is because of something called Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption or EPOC for short. This is often referred to in more simple terms as the afterburn effect. The theory being that after a bout of very high intensity exercise you burn more Calories while you recover. Some sources have claimed that you could burn an extra 1,000kcals over 24-hours. This is completely false. Let me explain ...
Toadal Results! In the Zone is a heart rate based training program for ALL fitness levels. You will get personal training quality attention with the motivation and energy of a small group. The training sessions were designed to provide a full body workout in 45 minutes at a maximum intensity level. The coaches will push you to reach and maintain an optimal heart rate zone to maximize your excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). EPOC is the scientific term for the after burn effect, which helps you continue to burn calories 16-24 hours after the workout is over. Your body will take 24-48 hours to fully recover from this high intensity workout; therefore it is not recommended that you do this type of workout every day. Aiming for a heart rate of 70-80% maximum for up to 30 minutes will offer the greatest results. Great news for those time crunched executives, busy moms & dads and those who would rather not spend their whole day exercising! Minimum Time, Maximum Results!. ...
Toadal Results! In the Zone is a heart rate based training program for ALL fitness levels. You will get personal training quality attention with the motivation and energy of a small group. The training sessions were designed to provide a full body workout in 45 minutes at a maximum intensity level. The coaches will push you to reach and maintain an optimal heart rate zone to maximize your excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). EPOC is the scientific term for the after burn effect, which helps you continue to burn calories 16-24 hours after the workout is over. Your body will take 24-48 hours to fully recover from this high intensity workout; therefore it is not recommended that you do this type of workout every day. Aiming for a heart rate of 70-80% maximum for up to 30 minutes will offer the greatest results. Great news for those time crunched executives, busy moms & dads and those who would rather not spend their whole day exercising! Minimum Time, Maximum Results!. ...
Glucagon and ethanol have both been shown to decrease glycolysis, thereby increasing hepatic oxygen consumption (Cherrington and Exton, 1976; Thurman and Scholz, 1977). Inhibition of glycolysis slows an ATP-generating process resulting in an increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption due to higher rates of ATP generation. When nicotine was infused into perfused livers from fed rats, glycolysis significantly decreased while oxygen uptake increased (Table1). When the increase in oxygen uptake is plotted against the decrease in lactate + pyruvate production, a positive relationship is observed (Fig. 2). The association between the increase in oxygen uptake and the decrease in lactate and pyruvate production suggests that a possible mechanism by which nicotine stimulates respiration is through an inhibition of glycolysis. Additionally, nicotine failed to stimulate oxygen uptake in perfused livers from 24-h fasted rats, where there is a shift from carbohydrate metabolism to fatty acid oxidation due ...
Principal Investigator:TAKISHIMA Tamotsu, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Developmental Scientific Research (B)., Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
EPOC. EPOC stands for Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption. This basically means that depending on the intensity of your morning exercise, your body will continue burning calories for several hours afterward. Because your metabolism is revved up (just like those pistons firing in your car engine), food consumption is not needed. Therefore, cravings that may arise after a well-balanced breakfast are easier to stave off, enabling you to get through the morning and engage in a healthy, uncompromising afternoon lunch.. Reducing Cravings with Morning Exercise. It may be difficult to squeeze in a morning exercise routine, but take into account some of the advantages compared to an after work or evening workout.. ...
Orangetheory fitness uses heart-rate monitoring and high-intensity interval training (HIIT), but the science around its afterburn promise from excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has been reevaluated.
O presente estudo revisa os resultados encontrados, até então, na literatura, relativos ao dispêndio energético (DE) no treino de força (TF). Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico nas bases de dados Medline e Sport Discus, utilizando as palavras-chave: strength training, energy expenditure e excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Os estudos analisados referem que protocolos de TF que envolvam exercícios para grandes grupos musculares, com grandes intensidades e volumes de treinamento, e menores intervalos de recuperação entre séries e exercícios são os que apresentam maior impacto metabólico na sessão de treino. Essas mesmas variáveis também demonstram interferir na magnitude e na duração do EPOC ...
Everyone can use the rowing machine, at any age: There are no age limits to become an indoor rower. I know people in the 80s and even in their 90s who are still rowing regularly. Since indoor rowing is a low impact exercise and easy on the joints, bad knees or bad hips are not a problem anymore. And actually, since its easy on the body but yet provides a great workout, many people, recovering from an injury, are prescribed the use of the rowing machine!. Indoor Rowing definitely burns calories. Since rowing is both strength and cardio vascular intensive at the same time, your muscle mass and lungs/heart system are constantly challenged during your rowing workout. Depending on effort level, a 160lbs male will burn between 200 and 300 calories in 30 minutes of rowing. And doing some High Intensity Intervals ( example: 30 secs rowing/30 secs off…) will greatly increase the amount of calories burned during and after the workout, due to EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption). You can ...
Measurements were made of the stoicheiometry of respiration-driven proton translocation coupled to the oxidation of NAD(P)-linked or flavin-linked substrates in intact cells of Escherichia coli. Observed stoicheiometries (→H+/O quotient; Mitchell, 1966) were approx. 4 with l-malate as substrate and approx. 2 for succinate, d-lactate and glycerol oxidation. It is concluded that the potential number of equivalent energy-conservation sites associated with the respiratory chain is 2 in aerobically grown cells of E. coli harvested during the exponential phase of growth. ...
Tsuchiya, T and Okamoto, K, The relationship between the oxygen consumption of various tissues and the radiosensitivity in mice. I. Oxygen consumption of various tissues in the normal physiological state of mice. (jap.) (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 974 ...
Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes. To test this, we developed a new procedure to transfer tunable polydimethylsiloxane disks microcontact-printed with fibronectin into cell culture microplates. We cultured Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat ventricular myocytes within the wells, which consistently formed tissues following the printed fibronectin, and measured oxygen consumption rate using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our data indicate that ...
Neither of the catecholamines affected blood flow distribution unfavorably. Although both catecholamines increased coronary blood flow, this increase can never account for the increase in systemic blood flow, because coronary blood flow expressed as a percentage of systemic blood flow (about 8% in the lambs with shunt) did not change. Because isoproterenol did not change cerebral, renal or splanchnic blood flow, blood flow to the carcass will have been increased. In the lambs with shunt there was no need for an increase in blood flow, because blood flow to the vital organs at rest (except for the heart) was the same in the lambs with shunt and in the control lambs. It remains unclear how isoproterenol affects blood flow distribution when blood flow to the vital organs is jeopardized. Unfortunately, the lambs with shunt in whom that happened died before a proper study could be done. Despite the fact that systemic blood flow was the same in the lambs with shunt and the control lambs, we think our ...
Energy metabolism was measured in isolated honeybee foragers (Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann 1879) and compared with their level of activity at two ambient temperatures. Artificially immobilised bees consumed more oxygen (averages: 7.4 and 6.9 μl O2min-1 at 25° and 35°C, respectively) than spontaneously motionless bees but less than active, freely moving individuals. Oxygen measurements in immobilised honeybees, therefore, are neither suited to determine the basal rate of oxygen metabolism nor to estimate the energy turnover of highly active, freely moving individuals. As was expected from thermographical temperature measurements, oxygen consumption by bees which were free to move within 95 ml Warburg vessels varied in a wide range. At an ambient temperature of 25°C it followed a bimodal distribution, with one peak below 20 and a second peak between 70-130 μl O2min-1. At 35°C oxygen consumption was always below 75 μl O2min-1. However, considering the bees level of activity led to a ...
We examine herein the contribution of V-ATPase activity to the energy budget of aerobically developing embryos of Artemia franciscana and discuss the results in the context of quiescence under anoxia. 31P-NMR analysis indicates that intracellular pH and NTP levels are unaffected by acute incubation of dechorionated embryos with the V-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin A1. Bafilomycin A1 also has no significant effect on oxygen consumption by isolated mitochondria. Taken together, these data indicate that bafilomycin does not affect energy-producing pathways in the developing embryo. However, the V-ATPase inhibitor exhibits a concentration-dependent inhibition of oxygen consumption in aerobic embryos. A conservative analysis of respirometric data indicates that proton pumping by the V-ATPase, and processes immediately dependent on this activity, constitutes approximately 31% of the aerobic energy budget of the preemergent embryo. Given the complete absence of detectable Na+K+-ATPase activity during the first
To establish whether pressure-volume areas (PVAs) calculated using the maximum time-varying elastance (Emax) have a relation with myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) that improves on other indexes of myocardial oxygen demand, we studied nine dogs of either sex weighing 19-39 kg, which were instrumented with a micromanometer left ventricular (LV) catheter and a Wilton-Webster coronary sinus flow catheter and had red blood cells tagged with technetium-99m for radionuclide angiography. Hemodynamics, coronary sinus flow determinations, and radionuclide angiograms were obtained under control conditions and during three to five steady-state loading conditions (mean +/- SD, 5.6 +/- 0.7). Isochronal pressure-volume data points from each pressure-volume loop were subjected to linear regression analysis to calculate Emax. The Emax relations, diastolic curves, and systolic portions of each pressure-volume loop were used to obtain calibrated PVAs. The Emax PVA (mm g-1) and MVO2 (ml ...
5 No-Equipment Upper Body Exercises , So they improve cardiovascular health and increase muscular endurance. Burpees Upper Body Exercises Do all these exercises slowly. Squats. Try these ten bodyweight upper body exercises to sculpt your arms, shoulders, and coreâ mostly those guns, though. This upper-body routine requires zero equipment and little space. In fact, your own body is one of the most effective arm-strengthening tools at your disposal. If you feel any unusual pain in your joints or muscles while you exercise, do not continue the exercise. Full Body Exercises That Donâ t Require Weights 1. And as much as I love weights, you donâ t even need weights to build killer functional upper body strength. Do these exercises 2-3 times a week. While these can be very effective at training your back, I deliberately left them out from this list. Now that you know the importance of doing full body exercises â letâ s look into the 9 full body exercises you can do without weights. ...
A laboratory experiment was undertaken to analyze the effects of salinity on growth, body composition, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion of anadromous American shad (Alosa sapidissima) juveniles. Results showed the best survival rate occurred at 5‰ and 15‰. The relative weight gain and the specific growth rate declined as salinity increased. However, feed conversion rate increased with increasing salinity. Oxygen consumption rates showed a parabolic relationship in relation to salinity. From the quadratic relationship (y= -0.0004x2+0.0166x+0.319; R2=0.801; ...
Several different genomic and non-genomic mechanisms mediate the important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids (GCs). The genomic effects are the most important while the clinical relevance of non-genomic actions is still a matter of debate. We therefore investigated whether beclomethasone and clobetasol are particularly suitable for topical application because they differ in their spectrum of activity from systemically administered GCs such as dexamethasone. We compared effects on oxygen consumption as measured with a Clark electrode (nonspecific non-genomic glucocorticoid effects), on interleukin-6 synthesis by means of ELISA (genomic effects) and on apoptosis using flow cytometry (non-genomic and genomic effects) in quiescent and mitogen-stimulated PBMCs. Beclomethasone and clobetasol had stronger effects on the oxygen consumption of quiescent and stimulated cells at lower concentrations (10-10, 10-8 M) but were less potent at higher concentrations (10-5, 10-4 M) ...
|p|The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of static and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretches on maximal oxygen consumption (VO|sub|2|/sub| max). Ten physically active men (mean ± SD, 23.80 ± 1.54 years, 70.60 ± 9.70 kg, 1.74.60 ± 5.23 m), who were healthy students volunteered to take part in the study. The participants were subjected to Static and PNF stretching exercises. After the interventions, the Bruce treadmill protocol was applied to measure VO|sub|2|/sub| max values. The expired gases were collected and analyzed continuously using the Cortex Metalyzer II. Analysis of variance showed significant main effects for interventions (F|sub|(2,18)|/sub|=10.74, p<.05) on VO|sub|2|/sub| max. The main result of this study showed that both static and PNF stretching exercises improved VO|sub|2|/sub| max values.|/p|
STUDY. What determines if a cell will use aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration? Missed a question here and there? In this way, carbon molecules (as glucose and carbon dioxide) are being recycled. Disadvantages of cellular respiration: Definition. Cell respiration releases the energy stored in glucose (food) to make ATP which cells need for cellular work. As the organism inside the respirometer consumes oxygen, what happens to the water? Flashcards. Which best describes cellular respiration? produced in your muscles when there is not enough oxygen present: Term. What are the drawbacks of anaerobic respiration? Explain how photosynthesis and cellular respiration function in the cycling of chemical nutrients. Learn term:oxygen respiration = cellular respiration with free interactive flashcards. Cellular respiration is a cells way of obtaining energy, so its a process you depend on in order to live. Write. cytoplasm. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water are absorbed by plant cells to
Purpose: To investigate the influence of prior heavy- and severe-intensity exercise on the oxygen uptake (V·O2) kinetics and the power-duration relationship. Methods: Ten cyclists performed 13 exercise tests over a 4 week period, consisting of a ramp test to determine the gas exchange threshold (GET) and the peak V·O2, followed by a series of square-wave tests to exhaustion under three conditions: no prior exercise (control), prior heavy exercise (6 min at a work rate above GET but below critical power (CP)) and prior severe exercise (6 min at a work rate above the CP). Pulmonary gas exchange was measured throughout the exhaustive exercise bouts and the parameters of the power duration relationship (CP and the curvature constant, W) were determined from the linear work-time model. Results: Prior heavy exercise increased the amplitude of the primary V·O2 response (by ~0.19 ± 0.28 L·min-1, P = 0.001), reduced the slow component trajectory (by 0.04 ± 0.09 L·min-2; P = 0.002) and increased ...
Tight coupling between cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolism is key for GSIS (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion). In the present study we examined the regulatory contribution of PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) kinase 1, a negative regulator of PDH, to metabolic coupling in 832/13 clonal beta-cells. Knockdown of PDH kinase 1 with siRNA (small interfering RNA) reduced its mRNA (,80 %) and protein level (,40 %) after 72 h. PDH activity, glucose-stimulated cellular oxygen consumption and pyruvate-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption increased 1.7- (P , 0.05), 1.6- (P , 0.05) and 1.6-fold (P , 0.05) respectively. Gas chromatography/MS revealed an altered metabolite profile upon silencing of PDH kinase 1, determined by increased levels of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates malate, fumarate and alpha-ketoglutarate. These metabolic alterations were associated with exaggerated GSIS (5-fold compared with 3.1-fold in control cells; P , 0.01). Insulin secretion, provoked by leucine and ...
Past simulations of oxidative ATP metabolism in skeletal muscle have predicted that elimination of the creatine kinase (CK) reaction should result in dramatically faster oxygen consumption dynamics during transitions in ATP turnover rate. This hypothesis was investigated. Oxygen consumption of fast-twitch (FT) muscle isolated from wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice deficient in the myoplasmic (M) and mitochondrial (Mi) CK isoforms (MiM CK−/−) were measured at 20°C at rest and during electrical stimulation. MiM CK−/− muscle oxygen consumption activation kinetics during a step change in contraction rate were 30% faster than WT (time constant 53 ± 3 vs. 69 ± 4 s, respectively; mean ± SE, n = 8 and 6, respectively). MiM CK−/− muscle oxygen consumption deactivation kinetics were 380% faster than WT (time constant 74 ± 4 s vs. 264 ± 4 s, respectively). Next, the experiments were simulated using a computational model of the oxidative ATP metabolic network in FT muscle featuring ADP ...
A single work rate paced step test is described. It was designed to allow the measurement of minute ventilation (VI) and oxygen consumption (VO2), under standardised conditions, during exercise in the clinic and lung function laboratory and in field work. The subjects and the operator found the test simple to perform. The values for ventilation at a given oxygen consumption were similar to those from more complex and stressful tests and had a high degree of reproducibility. The ergometer was a 12 inch (30 cm) step with hand rails. The subjects stepped down, once every four seconds in response to a buzzer for 10 minutes. VI and VO2 were measured with a small portable device. In 53 normal subjects of mean weight 69 (range 49-107) kg, mean VO2 measured during the last 5 minutes of the test was 0.89 (range 0.53-1.52) 1/min. Weight and height were independent contributors to the oxygen cost of stepping. The ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VIO2, which equals VI divided by VO2) increased with age, ...
Men generally gain weight with increasing age, and the maximum oxygen intake decreases; no figures are, however, available on the changes in maximum oxygen intake with increase in age.
1. Maximal exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis is influenced by both pulmonary and nutritional factors: lung disease by limiting maximal achievable ventilation, and malnutrition through a loss of muscle mass. The associated reduction in everyday activities may result in peripheral muscle deconditioning.. 2. We studied 14 stable patients with cystic fibrosis (six males, eight females) and 14 healthy control subjects (seven males, seven females) in order to assess the influence of these factors on exercise performance. Subjects underwent anthropometry to estimate muscle mass, spirometry to assess ventilatory capacity, a 30 s sprint on an isokinetic cycle ergometer to assess maximal leg muscle performance, and progressive cycle ergometry to assess overall exercise capacity.. 3. Compared with control subjects, the patients with cystic fibrosis were of similar age and height but weighed proportionately less [% ideal weight (mean ± sd): 94.3 ± 9.64 versus 109.5 ± 11.82] and showed evidence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in running economy at different intensities following downhill running. AU - Chen, Trevor C.. AU - Nosaka, Kazunori. AU - Lin, Ming Ju. AU - Chen, Hsin Lian. AU - Wu, Chang Jun. PY - 2009/9/1. Y1 - 2009/9/1. N2 - In this study, we tested the hypothesis that running economy assessed at a high intensity [e.g. 90% maximal oxygen capacity (VO2max)] would be affected more than at a lower intensity (e.g. 70% VO2max) after downhill running. Fifteen untrained young men performed level running at 70, 80, and 90% VO2max (5 min for each intensity) before and 2 and 5 days after a 30-min downhill run (gradient of 716%) at the intensity of their pre-determined 70% VO2max. Oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were measured during the level runs together with kinematic measures (e.g. stride length and frequency) using high-speed video analysis. Downhill running resulted in significant ...
Oxygen Uptake (VO2 ) - is the amount of oxygen being consumed by the muscles of the body.. Maximal Oxygen Uptake (V• O2Max ) - is the greatest amount of oxygen that can be used by the body at the cellular level. People do not train at their V • O2Max .. Resting Heart Rate (RHR) - the times per minute that your heart beats while at rest. Best to take this after youve been sitting quietly for a few minutes - without caffeine!. Maximal Heart Rate or (HR Max) - is an estimation obtained by subtracting ones age from the number 220. It is most often used to calculate Target Heart Rate (THR).. Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) - is the difference between the resting heart rate (RHR) and the maximal heart rate (HR Max). Also used for calculating the Target Heart Rate.. Target Heart Rate (THR) - or training heart rate - used to gauge the intensity of aerobic training.. EPOC or Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Demand - refers to the bodys continued demand for oxygen after the exercise session is through. The ...
Piracetam, which typically comes in the form of piracetam powder is a widely-utilized and highly-recognized nootropic in the racetam family. This popular nootropic works by improving the function of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine through ACh receptors which are used in the memory process.. It has also been found to increase oxygen consumption to the brain which translates to a higher level of brain functioning. Think of it this way: consider the way our bodies function when we are stressed out. We take short, bated breaths from our chest and before we know it, were exhausted, we cant concentrate, and our heads are pounding.. The brain functions in much the same way. Without its proper intake of oxygen, it doesnt receive or produce commands correctly and it certainly isnt doing anything at the speed we need it to.. Piracetam increases oxygen levels in the brain, allowing it to function at an accelerated level without the jitters or excitability of other stimulants. It continues to be one ...
We have shown that constant-load treadmill exercise in mice produces an abrupt ventilatory increase to a maximal level at exercise onset. We examined what caused this abrupt response. We measured ventilation during 30-min constant-load exercise on a
Little is known about the mechanistic basis for the exercise intolerance characteristic of patients with respiratory disease; a lack of clearly defined, distinct patient groups limits interpretation of many studies. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the pulmonary oxygen uptake ( $$ \overset{.}{V} $$ O2) response, and its potential determinants, in patients with emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Following a ramp incremental test for the determination of peak $$ \overset{.}{V} $$ O2 and the gas exchange threshold, six emphysema (66 ± 7 years; FEV1, 36 ± 16%), five IPF (65 ± 12 years; FEV1, 82 ± 11%) and ten healthy control participants
The data collected (as seen in Figure 10) shows an average of 0 carbon dioxide bubbles per minute at 0 degrees Celsius, an average of 11.5 bubbles per minute at 19 degrees Celsius, and an average of 76.8 bubbles per minute at 83 degrees Celsius.. The test at 83 deg. C showed a near-constant decline in the amount of bubbles as time passed. This mostly occurred because enzymes denatured and could no longer catalyse the reaction. The high number of bubbles at the beginning is probably due to the rapid expansion of gas at high temperatures and does not actually represent carbon dioxide (See Fig. 6). The test at 0 degrees Celsius showed no production of carbon dioxide, presumably because the low temperatures froze the yeast. (See Fig. 7). The room temperature test (19 deg. C) showed a fairly even level of carbon dioxide production, but not enough to be useful in the making of leavened bread. (See Fig. 8). We incurred two experimental errors in the first testing at 0 degrees Celsius. By beginning the ...
Background: Submaximal exercise tests use heart rate responses to low-to-moderate intensity activity in order to predict cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max). Currently used tests may be inappropriate for obese populations as obese women have altered heart rate responses to exercise. The purpose of this study is to test the validity of the Modified Bruce Protocol submaximal treadmill test in obese women. Methods: Normal-weight (NW) women and obese (OB) women completed the Modified Bruce submaximal treadmill test (to predict VO2max using previously validated equations) and a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill using the Standard Bruce Protocol (to obtain an actual VO2max) on two separate occasions. The relationships between actual and predicted VO2max values were analyzed using correlation coefficients. Results: 9 NW (age: 23.1 ± 8.0 y, body fat: 23.5 ± 4.9%) and 9 OB (age: 22.0 ± 4.8 y, body fat: 36.9 ± 4.4%) women participated. Actual and predicted VO2max values were not correlated ...
Several lines of evidence suggest that hypoxia decreases mitochondrial respiration rates, but some results show an opposite effect in rodents adapted to life at high altitude. In the present study we used FVB mice and SD rats, as two models showing divergent responses at high altitude or during short-term exposure to hypoxia at sea level. We assessed mitochondrial respiration rates in permeabilized brain cortex samples by high resolution respirometry (Oroboros-2k) during acclimatization to hypoxia. Rats and mice were exposed to room air (controls), short-term (6 and 24 hours), or long-term (7 and 21 days) hypoxia (12% O,sub>2,/sub>). Brain samples were rapidly dissected and permeabilized in saponin before measurements of O,sub>2,/sub> consumption rates with a standard protocol to assess NADH-, FADH,sub>2,/sub>-, or NADH+FADH,sub>2,/sub>-linked respiration. During short-term hypoxic exposure, NADH and FADH,sub>2,/sub>-linked respiration increased in mice, but remained stable in rats. During ...
Do more HIIT: High intensity interval training (HIIT) is as close to a magic pill as we have (except it involves a whole lot more work than just swallowing a capsule-sorry). Not only does it surge your body to max intensity during the workout, but because youre working so hard, your body cant deliver enough oxygen in the moment, explains personal trainer Jeremey DuVall. Your muscles accumulate a debt of oxygen that then has to be repaid post-workout. This throws your body into a phase of fat burning for hours after youre done sweating, known as post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC. Plus, super intense circuits like this activate muscle-building hormones like growth hormone and IGF-1, he adds ...
An online degree programs - Marine Biology, Marine Biology is about observing and analyzing life processes. The biological treatment is the ap biology cell respiration lab of mathematical/physical modeling to understanding the ap biology cell respiration lab. The laboratory I participated in was extremely spacious. My classmates and I performed experiments on tall work stations that had a better chance to enter the ap biology cell respiration lab and begin climbing the ap biology cell respiration lab a love of the ap biology cell respiration lab at least student-grade biological microscopes. To spice lessons up, try getting the ap biology cell respiration lab of the various organisms.. Biological microscopes also come in forms that differ in terms of the ap biology cell respiration lab from which to earn an average of $44,000, with some earning almost double that amount. Not only are these jobs in demand right now, but they have to do so. It wont only give you the ap biology cell respiration ...
We propose a new imaging approach which interleaves complex-difference and susceptometry MRI acquisitions for real-time imaging of skeletal muscle blood flow (SMBF) and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) for the calculation of skeletal muscle oxygen consumption (VO2). The goal of this study was to determine the reproducibility of this approach during sub-maximal knee-extensor exercise. The coefficient of variation from test/retest trials was 7.6%, 15.6% and 12.3% for SMBF, SvO2 and VO2, with mean values of 0.9 0.1L/min/kg, 43.2 13.5% and 95.7 18.0mL/min/kg respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of non-invasive skeletal muscle VO2 and its determinants (SMFB,SvO2) during dynamic exercise ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with continuous moderate-intensity (CMI) exercise on postprandial hyperglycemia in overweight or obese adults. Ten inactive, overweight or obese adults (41 ± 11 yrs, BMI = 36 ± 7 kg/m2) performed an acute bout of HIIT (10 × 1 min at approximately 90% peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 1-min recovery periods) or matched work CMI (30 min at approximately 65% HRpeak) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Exercise was performed 2 h after breakfast, and glucose control was assessed by continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions over 24 h. Postprandial glucose (PPG) responses to lunch, dinner, and the following days breakfast were analyzed and compared with a no-exercise control day. Exercise did not affect the PPG responses to lunch, but performing both HIIT and CMI in the morning significantly reduced the PPG incremental area under the curve (AUC) following dinner ...
We contend that the lack of appreciation for the variability in mitochondrial efficiency could lead to misleading interpretations of the relationships between oxygen consumption and animal performance, since the amount of ATP generated per molecule of oxygen consumed can vary significantly both among and within individuals. Combining sub-cellular and whole-organism measurements of metabolism will provide a more robust framework for understanding organismal energy metabolism. For example, a high P/O ratio does not necessarily result in high ATP production since this ratio can also be offset by a decrease in oxygen consumption rate (e.g. [36]); nor is it the case that individuals with a relatively low P/O ratio are necessarily producing less ATP than those with a higher P/O ratio, since this will depend on the rate of work of their mitochondria. Therefore, measuring both levels of energetic processes may give a better insight into the energy metabolism, since the rate of ATP generation is ...
In many multicellular eukaryotes--including mammals--reduced caloric intake is associated with increased life span. It has been postulated that this might result from a decrease in the metabolically dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether reduced ROS production translates into increased life span has been a subject of debate. Schulz et al. exposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DOG)--which isnt metabolized beyond the initial phosphorylation by hexokinase--to create a metabolic state similar to that elicited by glucose deprivation. Although glucose metabolism was decreased, mitochondrial respiration was increased, as was life span. Knockdown of a glycolytic enzyme also increased respiration and extended life span, whereas increased glucose availability led to a decrease in both parameters. DOG failed to increase oxygen consumption or life span in worms lacking AAK-2 (the C. elegans homolog of AMP-dependent kinase). DOG elicited an ...
AIM: We hypothesized that an extremely high pedal rate would induce much more type II muscle fibers recruitment even at an early phase of the same absolute work rate compared with normal pedal rates, and would result in changed amplitude of the pulmo
INTRODUCTION: A treadmill exercise test requiring a low initial metabolic rate that then increments the work rate linearly to reach the subjects limit of tolerance in approximately 10 min would have significant advantages for exercise testing and rehabilitation of subjects with impaired exercise tolerance. METHODS: We developed such a treadmill protocol that uses a linear increase in walking speed coupled with a curvilinear increase in treadmill grade to yield a linear increase in work rate. RESULTS: Twenty-two healthy, sedentary subjects performed both this new treadmill protocol and a standard cycle ergometry ramp protocol eliciting similar work rate profiles. The low initial treadmill speed and grade resulted in a low initial metabolic rate, commensurate with unloaded pedaling on a cycle ergometer (average [OV0312]O2 = 0.54 +/- 0.16 vs 46 +/- 0.12 l x min(-1)). This combination of simultaneous increase in speed and grade yielded a linear work rate and its oxygen uptake response (R2 = 0.96 ...
BUSTAMANTE, L et al. Discrimination of exercise limitation in submaximal and maximal exercise tests in severe COPD patients. Rev. amer. med. respiratoria [online]. 2011, vol.11, n.1, pp.18-23. ISSN 1852-236X.. There are no data about symptoms of activity limitation in COPD patients when maximal and submaximal exercise tests are compared. Objective: To compare the activity limitation by dyspnea or fatigue between maximal and submaximal exercise tests. Methods: Moderate and severe COPD patients were included (GOLD definition). They were classified as fatigue limited (FL) if Borg scale of fatigue at maximal exercise was ≥ 2 points vs. dyspnea; and dyspnea limited (DL) if it was the reverse. Each patient was evaluated in the same way with submaximal cycloergometry. Results: 15 patients in the LD group and 18 patients in the LF group were evaluated. The LF patients were mainly women (FL 55.5 vs. DL 26.6% p: 0.034), had a low body-mass index (FL 24.1 ± 3.2 vs. DL 26.8 ± 2.1; p,0.04) and less ...
A lower support frame (A) mounts a lower body support structure (B) and an upper body exercise structure (C) thereon. The upper body exercise structure includes an upper frame (30) which is selectively and adjustably mounted on the lower support frame. A flywheel (40) is rotatably mounted in the upper frame. A belt (52) and selectable number of weights (62) drag along the flywheel for selectively adjusting the effort required to maintain rotation of the flywheel. Flexible cables (70, 72) are each wrapped around a pulley (84). A one-way clutch (86) selectively connects the pulley with the flywheel for providing rotational driving force thereto as the cable is pulled. A rewind spring (92) rewinds the cable back onto the pulley. The relative positions of the lower body support structure (B) and the upper body exercise structure (C) are selectively adjustable such that the exercise apparatus is usable in training for walking or running (FIG. 1), ski poleing (FIG. 4), canoeing or kayaking (FIG. 5), rowing
article{a59a3775-0cdf-4ebf-abd7-9978bbcf91d6, abstract = {Previous studies of gender differences in maximum oxygen uptake have come to different conclusions. Limited data exists where the determinants of maximum oxygen uptake have been evaluated in a comprehensive manner. Thus, we examined 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9-11.1 years. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured variables were total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers and duration of vigorous activity per day (VPA) was calculated. Left ventricular inner diastolic diameter (LVDD) was measured by echocardiography. Lung function was evaluated with spirometric testing and whole body plethysmography. Boys had between 8 and 18% higher values than girls for VO2peak, dependent upon whether VO2peak was expressed in absolute ...
The time it takes for oxygen delivery to respond to the demands of exercise is called V02 kinetics. The diagram below shows what happens when we start running from an initial standstill without any Warmup. The red line represents our exercise level as oxygen consumption, and it rises rapidly to a steady-state that represents the demands of the running pace. The blue line on the other hand represents the rate of oxygen delivery which is mostly controlled by breathing and heart rate. As you can see the oxygen delivery lags behind the oxygen consumption and this creates an oxygen debt represented by the yellow area. This oxygen debt does not cause a drop in the oxygen saturation of our blood (hypoxia), but rather forces our body to produce energy anaerobically (literally without oxygen). Our body will attempt to repay this oxygen debt by providing more oxygen as shown in the green area. The imbalance caused by the oxygen debt and the anaerobic energy production can actually last for protracted ...
Purpose This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Measures of ventilation, oxygen consumption, heart rate, perceived dyspnea, syllables per phrase, articulation rate, and inappropriate linguistic pause placements were obtained at baseline and throughout the experimental tasks. Results Ventilation was significantly lower during the speaking tasks compared with the nonspeaking tasks. Oxygen consumption, however, did not significantly differ between speaking and nonspeaking tasks. The perception of dyspnea was significantly higher during the speaking tasks compared with the nonspeaking tasks. All speech parameters were significantly altered over time at both task intensities. Conclusions It is speculated that decreased ...
Middle-aged trained male runners (N = 7; 51+6 yr) performed three different short-interval training protocols: a) alternating 15-s runs at 90% VO2max with 15-s runs at 80% VO2max; b) alternating 15-s runs at 100% VO2max with 15-s runs at 70% VO2max; and c) alternating 15-s runs at 110% VO2max with 15-s runs at 60% VO2max. The average intensity in the intervals was 85% VO2max.. Protocols A and B allowed the athletes to spend twice as long (14-min) at VO2max than did protocol C (7-min). Protocols A and B, also had lower final lactate levels (9 mmol) than C (11 mmol).. Implication. Alternating ultra-short interval training intensities of 90-80% VO2max or 100-70% VO2max provided greater volumes of training at the highest level of oxygen consumption than did a 110-60% protocol. Thus, for the greatest maximal aerobic training stimulation, work intensity should not exceed 100% VO2max when ultra-short interval training is employed.. Return to Table of Contents for this issue.. ...
Lactate Threshold Implications for Training The model in the preceding posts indicates that there are two aspects of your basic energy metabolism that affect the lactate threshold, namely aerobic capacity & anaerobic capacity Thus, changes in either will affect the lactate threshold. Importance of aerobic capacity - We make the comment at various places on this course that there is never enough aerobic capacity or VO2 max. We have not found any athletic situation where a lower VO2 max is an adv
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of duration of training on VO2(max) and citrate synthase activity in muscle during detraining. AU - Azevedo, J. L.. AU - Auleb, H. L.. AU - Evans, S. J.. AU - Willis, W. T.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Two groups of rats were endurance trained by treadmill running for an hour a day five days a week for either 5 (n=12) or 11 (n=14) weeks. Maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) was determined at 1, 9, and 19 days, and muscle samples were taken at 3, 11, and 21 days after cessation of training. There were no differences in V̇O2max between groups nor were there any changes in V̇O2max within any of the groups during detraining. Citrate synthase (CS) activity in deep vastus lateralis muscle was increased 30% (P,0.01) to 39.9 and 40.9 micromol/min gram wet muscle in the 5 and 11 week trained animals, respectively, compared to the control group (29.8 micromol/min gram wet muscle) 3 days post-training. Eleven days after the cessation of training CS activity in both groups ...
The main finding of this study was that prolonged endotoxemia impaired the efficiency of hepatic mitochondrial complex I and complex II respiration, whereas mitochondrial respiration in the skeletal muscle remained unchanged. The altered mitochondrial function occurred despite well-maintained total and microcirculatory hepatic blood flow. In spite of the reduced hepatic mitochondrial RCR, the hepatic oxygen consumption and extraction remained unchanged. The reduced glutamate-dependent RCR in the liver mitochondria was mainly due to an increase in the mitochondrial resting respiration rate, suggesting partial uncoupling of oxygen consumption from ATP production. These results are supported by the well-maintained hepatic oxygen consumption and by the reduction in the ADP:O ratios. The alterations in the succinate-dependent respiration were due to reduced function of the complex II, as suggested by reduced state 3 respiration. The partial uncoupling in the glutamate-dependent and ...
Health,The influence of heart rate on cardiac output oxygen consumption and...In a recent study researchers from Germany examined the effect of a...The researchers found that within 2 min the myocardial pO2 adjusted...Left ventricular ischemia with subsequent necrosis of myocardium is ...,Influence,Of,Heart,Rate,On,Myocardial,Oxygen,Tension,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Therapies that aim to modify cardiac substrate utilisation are designed to increase metabolic efficiency. Although the main energy supply for the heart is generally provided by the oxidation of fatty acids, the heart is a metabolic omnivore and able to consume glucose as well as lactate and amino acids in varying proportions. A shift from fatty acid oxidation to glucose oxidation leads to lower oxygen consumption per unit of ATP produced. This concept of reduced oxygen utilisation underlies the use of metabolic modulating agents to treat chronic stable angina. Furthermore, the model of an energy-starved heart now forms the basis for our understanding of both ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure. Potential alterations in substrate utilisation and thus myocardial efficiency underlie the use of metabolic agents in heart failure. This is achieved by either promoting glucose or reducing the utilisation of fatty acids. Such a shift results in a relatively greater production of ATP per unit of ...
In this issue of the Journal, Cramer et al. (4) evaluate the level of exercise intolerance and factors associated with the magnitude of intolerance in a cross-sectional cohort of 50 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), 51 patients with heart failure, and 51 healthy control subjects. Exercise tolerance was assessed using a treadmill protocol to symptom limitation with metabolic gas exchange measurement to assess VO2peak. Intriguingly, the investigators found that, on average, CRC patients had a mean VO2peak of 21.8 ml/kg/min, equivalent to 23% below that of the age-matched control subjects (mean 28.0 ml/kg/min), and that VO2peak was only approximately 17% higher than that of the heart failure patients in the study. The marked impairment in VO2peak corroborates work by other investigators who showed that patients with various solid or hematological malignancies have marked reductions in VO2peak (5,6). This is an intriguing finding, because it can be anticipated that exercise tolerance is ...
alpha-Pinene is an organic substance. It is very slightly soluble in water (2.75 mg/L according to the slow-stirring method). The short-term toxicity of (-)-alpha-pinene to aquatic organisms was investigated according to OECD guidelines and GLP. The toxicity values below are available for the substance. Fish Acute: LC50(96h) = 0.303 mg/L (measured concentration) Aquatic invertebrates: EC50(48 h)= 0.475 mg/L (measured concentrations) Algae: ErC50(72 h) = 0.31 mg/L (predicted by QSAR) The lowest acute aquatic toxicity values based on available data ranges between 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There are no adequate chronic toxicity data available. The degradation of alpha-pinene multiconstituent was investigated. A reliable study was carried out according to Guideline OECD 301D and GLP. Under the conditions of this study, alpha-pinene multiconstituent was found readily biodegradable (68% of biodegradation on Day 28 based on oxygen consumption). CLP Classification (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008) Acute aquatic ...
Under normal conditions of oxygen intake, in severe exercise lasting one minute, the oxygen debt is repaid after slightly more than seven minutes. In mild exercise lasting one minute, the oxygen debt is repaid after approximately 30 seconds. In mild exercise the anaerobic mechanism may be called on only at the beginning because as exercise proceeds, the circulatory and respiratory adjustments allow as much oxygen to be taken in as required, and a steady state is therefore reached altho the oxygen debt is still unpaid until the end of the exercise. In more vigorous exercise, however, lactic acid is formed so rapidly that the mechanisms for oxidizing it or reconverting it to glycogen are overloaded. The appearance of lactic acid in the blood varies according to the training of the subject. The accumulation of this fatigue acid after an honest workout would be common experience ...
Determination of preoperative pulmonary function is crucial in avoiding complications from pulmonary resection. Many have employed static pulmonary function testing in an attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality from lung resections. The purpose of the present study was to correlate preoperative …
... oxygen consumption and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult transgenic and ocean-ranched coho salmon". Journal of ... Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC, informally called afterburn) is a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake ... "The effect of exercise intensity and duration on the oxygen deficit and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption". European ... Post-exercise oxygen consumption replenishes the phosphagen system. New ATP is synthesized and some of this ATP donates ...
High power consumption. "Membrane oxygen plants - Technical Characteristics". Retrieved 2013-09-18. 2 oxygen plant (Articles ... based oxygen plants is the low cost of oxygen produced in the cases where there are no rigid requirements to the product oxygen ... Where gaseous oxygen purity is required at the level of 90-95% with the capacity of up to 5,000 Nm3 per hour, adsorption oxygen ... The adsorption oxygen plants produce 5 to 5,000 normal cubic meters per hour of oxygen with a purity of 93-95%. These systems, ...
Oxygen Consumption of whole organisms." Biological Bulletin 1959 Michael Castagna 1977-1979 "Culture of bay scallop, Argopecten ... "Comparison of continuous records of near-bottom dissolved oxygen from the hypoxia zone along the Louisiana Coast." Estuaries ...
Thereby reducing myocardial oxygen consumption. Preventive therapy with verapamil is believed to work because it has an effect ... The pain of angina is caused by a deficit in oxygen supply to the heart. Calcium channel blockers like verapamil dilate the ... coronary blood vessels, which increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. They also cause dilatation of systemic ...
Another factor is oxygen consumption. Ambient oxygen was relatively low in the early Devonian, possibly about half of modern ... Per unit volume, there is much more oxygen in air than in water, and vertebrates are active animals with a high energy ... The Devonian saw increasing oxygen levels which opened up new ecological niches by allowing groups able to exploit the ... Particularly in tropical swampland habitats, atmospheric oxygen is much more stable, and may have prompted a reliance of lungs ...
"Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption". CNS Clinic. Retrieved 25 January 2017. Brubakk, A. O.; ... Translated by: Hitchcock, Mary Alice; Hitchcock, Fred A. Acott, Chris (1999). "Oxygen toxicity: A brief history of oxygen in ... Lower carbon dioxide levels increase the oxygen-haemoglobin affinity, reducing availability of oxygen to brain tissue towards ... Central nervous system oxygen toxicity was also first described in this publication and is sometimes referred to as the "Paul ...
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption is a physiological concept that occurs after an elevation in oxygen consumption as the ... EPOC) Exploring Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption". Retrieved 2021-09-03. "How Do I Book A Class". ... These hour-long sessions are designed to generate excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). ...
Julian, D., Crampton, W.G.R., Wohlgemuth, S.E. and Albert, J.S. (Dec 2003). "Oxygen consumption in weakly electric Neotropical ...
Studies on oxygen consumption in digenetic trematodes. V. The influence of temperature on three species of adult trematodes ( ...
Verberg, Winona B.; Hunter, Wanda Sanborn (1961). "Studies on oxygen consumption in digenetic trematodes. V. The influence of ...
Morrison, Peter R. (1948). "Oxygen consumption in several small wild mammals". Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology. ...
"Oxygen Consumption Rate of Operational Underwater Swimmers". United States Navy Experimental Diving Unit Technical Report. NEDU ... As a practical matter, it is unclear that a usable artificial gill could be created because of the large amount of oxygen a ... An average diver with a fully closed-circuit rebreather needs 1.5 liters of oxygen per minute while swimming or 0.64 liter per ... Seawater in tropical regions with abundant plant life contains 5-8 mg (0.077-0.123 gr) of oxygen per liter of water. These ...
It is caused by metabolic consumption of oxygen. The term "oxygen window" was first used by Albert R. Behnke in 1967. Behnke ... Use of 100% oxygen is limited by oxygen toxicity at deeper depths. Convulsions are more likely when the PO2 exceeds 1.6 bar ( ... In other words, the larger oxygen window due to a higher oxygen partial pressure can allow the diver to decompress faster at a ... In diving and decompression, the oxygen window is the difference between the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in arterial blood ...
... involved oxygen consumption; oxygen consumption was linked to organic compound phosphorylation. His key experiment demonstrated ...
Snyder, Gregory K. (1979-01-01). "Water loss and oxygen consumption in tropical Sphaerodactylus". Oecologia. 38 (1): 107-110. ...
Oxygen consumption calorimetry has made the measurement of heat release rate of a fire a routine part of fire testing for both ... Hugget, C (1980). "Estimation of rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption measurements". Fire and Materials. 4 (2): ... This was substantiated in 2016 by the $50,000 DiNenno Prize, which recognized oxygen consumption calorimetry as a significant ... Others who made contributions to the early development and application of oxygen consumption calorimetry include Peter Hinkley ...
Grimes, David Robert; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Partridge, Mike (2014). "Oxygen consumption dynamics in steady-state tumour ... including a 2015 research work on oxygen-radiation interactions (the "oxygen fixation hypothesis and oxygen enhancement ratio ... "A mechanistic investigation of the oxygen fixation hypothesis and oxygen enhancement ratio". Biomedical Physics & Engineering ... Grimes, D.R. "A Breath of Fresh Air-Shedding Light on Oxygen, Radiation and Cancer Treatment". Oxford, UK: self, University of ...
ISBN 0-292-70673-1. Bucher, Theresa L.; Worthington, Andrea (May-June 1982). "Nocturnal Hypothermia and Oxygen Consumption in ...
Oxygen consumption VO2 and maximum oxygen consumption VO2 max. Oxygen consumption in species that differ in body size and organ ... The rate of oxygen consumption per gram body size decreases consistently with increasing body size. (Knut Schmidt-Nielson 2004 ... In addition, respiration costs with respect to oxygen consumption is scaled in the order of M 0.75 {\displaystyle M^{0.75}} . ... That the heart rate is lower means that larger animals can carry more blood, which carries more oxygen. In conjuncture with the ...
This improves efficiency and helps to minimize oxygen consumption. Short, stiff-bladed fins are effective for short bursts of ... and designed to work with slow stiff-legged kicks that are claimed to conserve oxygen and energy. The vast majority are made in ...
Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank (September 2013). "Seafloor oxygen consumption fuelled by methane from cold seeps". Nature ... Furthermore, in these soft reduced sediments below the oxygen minimum zone off the Chilean margin, a diverse microbial ... "Large multicellular filamentous bacteria under the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern South Pacific: a forgotten biosphere". ... a continental slope encompassing oxygen gradients and methane seep benthic habitats". Marine Ecology. 31 (1): 111-124. Bibcode: ...
Oxygen is detected in the Martian atmosphere for the first time in 40 years. 10 May NASA's Kepler mission verifies 1,284 new ... "Coffee consumption linked to decreased risk of colorectal cancer". Science Daily. 1 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016. Martin ... "NASA just detected oxygen in the Martian atmosphere". Science Alert. 9 May 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016. "NASA's Kepler Mission ... 3 October A study published by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee shows that caffeine consumption may reduce the risk of ...
"Simplified Versions of the Shunt and Oxygen Consumption Equations". Anesthesiology. 30 (4): 468-470. doi:10.1097/00000542- ... Arterial oxygen content CVO2 = Mixed Venous Oxygen Content The blood entering the pulmonary system will have oxygen flux Q t ⋅ ... If we add the oxygen content of Qs to Qc we get the oxygen content of Qt: Q t ⋅ C a O 2 = Q s ⋅ C v O 2 + ( Q t − Q s ) ⋅ C c O ... Similarly, the blood emerging from the pulmonary system will have oxygen flux Q t ⋅ C a O 2 {\displaystyle Q_{t}\cdot Ca_{O_{2 ...
Oxygen consumption is high for a developing gentoo embryo. As the embryo grows and requires more oxygen, consumption increases ...
Bishop, C.; Butler, P. (1995). "Physiological modelling of oxygen consumption in birds during flight". Journal of Experimental ... Convection of oxygen to lungs via ventilation 2. The diffusion of oxygen from the lungs into the blood stream 3. Oxygen-rich ... To compensate for less ambient oxygen, common ravens undergo increased respiratory rates, enhanced oxygen loading of hemoglobin ... At higher altitudes and in warmer climates the oxygen concentration in the air is lower compared to low altitude or colder ...
This improves efficiency and helps to minimize oxygen consumption. Short, stiff-bladed fins are effective for short bursts of ... During the current 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic related shortages, full-face snorkel masks have been adapted to create oxygen ...
The respiration activity is determined by measuring oxygen consumption. There is linear relationship between the current ...
The pulmonary physician in critical care 2: oxygen delivery and consumption in the critically ill. Thorax 2002;57:170-7. RM ... Leach, R. M.; Treacher, D. F. (1 February 2002). "The pulmonary physician in critical care • 2: Oxygen delivery and consumption ... Acute Oxygen Therapy. ABC of Oxygen. BMJ 1998;317:798-801. "Professor Richard Leach". King Edward VII's Hospital. Retrieved 12 ... doi:10.1152/ajplung.2000.278.2.L294 - via (Crossref). Bateman, N. T.; Leach, R. M. (19 September 1998). "Acute oxygen ...
Gelfan, Samuel (1935). "The Effect of Viosterol Upon Oxygen Consumption of Frog's Muscle". American Journal of Physiology. ... Gelfan, Samuel (1935). "The Effect of Viosterol Upon Oxygen Consumption of Frog's Muscle". American Journal of Physiology. ...
Crawford, E. C., and Lasiewski, R. C. (1968). "Oxygen consumption and respiratory evaporation of the emu and rhea." Condor 333- ...
The exposure of the tea leaves to humidity and oxygen during the process also causes endo-oxidation (derived from the tea-leaf ... Many fermented teas do not arrive on the market ready for consumption. Instead, they may start as green teas or partially ...
In addition to basic digital navigation skills and critical consumption of information, definitions of digital literacy have ... "Internet is the oxygen for start-ups. The Centre pulled that plug on August 5. The virtual world was our space for growth. Now ...
Watts PD, Oritsland NA, Jonkel C, Ronald K (1981). "Mammalian hibernation and the oxygen consumption of a denning black bear ( ... where water and oxygen levels vary with the tide. Other animals able to survive long periods with very little or no oxygen ... Epaulette sharks have been documented to be able to survive for three hours without oxygen and at temperatures of up to 26 °C ( ... They can experience decreased metabolic rates associated with colder environments or low oxygen availability (hypoxia) and ...
What is not sold for human consumption is used as bait for rock lobster (Palinuridae) traps and other commercial and ... Upon dissection, the extremely large, dense gills (for maximum oxygen extraction) and large proportion of red aerobic muscle in ... fish catch in Western Australia and Australia in general is beyond the scope necessary for human and animal consumption, and ...
Oxygen rebreathers are severely depth limited due to oxygen toxicity risk, which increases with depth, and the available ... This reduces the stress on divers who are already in a stressful situation, and this in turn reduces air consumption during the ... These gas mixes allow longer dives, better management of the risks of decompression sickness, oxygen toxicity or lack of oxygen ... An oxygen rebreather diver or a fully closed circuit rebreather diver consumes about 1 litre of oxygen corrected to atmospheric ...
The turbofan Spey also had significantly lower fuel consumption than the pure-jet Gyron, which provided improved range. The ... and the crew's liquid oxygen life support system; the whole compartment was actively cooled by ram air drawn from the tailfin. ... Its operational profile included cruising at altitude (for reduced fuel consumption) before descending, just outside the ...
Low-flow water fixtures in the building will reduce water consumption by 20%. In early 2015 Republic Services invested $19 ... Environmental Protection Agency Region 7 Administrator Mark Hague said this should help control the reaction by blocking oxygen ...
Methanogens do not use oxygen to respire; in fact, oxygen inhibits the growth of methanogens. The terminal electron acceptor in ... Le Mer, J.; Roger, P. (2001). "Production, oxidation, Emission and Consumption of Methane by Soils: A Review". European Journal ... During the decay process, electron acceptors (such as oxygen, ferric iron, sulfate, and nitrate) become depleted, while ... methanogenesis is not oxygen, but carbon. The two best described pathways involve the use of acetic acid or inorganic carbon ...
Increasing the substrate concentration may increase the viscosity of the media, lowers the rate of oxygen diffusivity, and ... the specific rate of substrate consumption, and specific growth rate. The following equations demonstrate the relationship ... Higher substrate concentrations are usually caused by osmotic issues, viscosity, or inefficient oxygen transport. By slowly ... Reasons for substrate inhibition in bioreactor cell growth includes osmotic issues, viscosity, or inefficient oxygen transport ...
It is well known that hypoxia and blackout due to lack of oxygen is common during this test. The first 16 hours are completed ... they have to minimize water consumption up to 1 litre water for 3 days and be able to go without sleep for 7 days. A 10 kg ... During the 11th hour, trial by water is conducted - simulated drowning, allowing only the bare minimum oxygen over a long ...
Hydrometallurgy entails the consumption of large volumes of lixiviants such as H2SO4, HCl, KCN, NaCN which have poor ... capability of the protons to act as oxygen acceptors, and on the temperature. It has been reported that eutectic ionic fluids ...
... to allow extended diving times and cope with oxygen deprivation. If oxygen is depleted (hypoxia), marine mammals can access ... There have been human health concerns associated with the consumption of dolphin meat in Japan after tests showed that dolphin ... Other important reservoirs include muscles and the spleen which all have the capacity to hold a high concentration of oxygen. ... They are also capable of bradycardia (reduced heart rate), and vasoconstriction (shunting most of the oxygen to vital organs ...
In many types of tissue, ATP consumption by the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPases have been related to glycolysis. This was first discovered in ... It also functions as a signal transducer/integrator to regulate the MAPK pathway, reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as ... mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol ...
Anaerobic processes occur in the absence of oxygen and produce less cell mass than aerobic processes. An additional benefit of ... a bacterium that kills strain-specific varieties of insect upon consumption. However, insects are able to adapt to Bacillus ... Aerobic processes occur in the presence of oxygen, take organic matter as input, and produce water, carbon dioxide, nitrate, ... oxygen concentration, and the waste products involved. Understanding of all aspects of the system and how they interact with ...
As air contains over 70% nitrogen by volume, some of it will react with oxygen during combustion. Given that those reactions ... engine power and fuel consumption. Higher rated ships can deliver significantly lower CO2 emissions across the voyage length, ... Other than replacing ambient air with pure oxygen or some other oxidizing agent, the only ways to significantly reduce the ... Nutrients in sewage, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, promote excessive algal blooms, which consumes oxygen in the water and ...
While hemlock toxicity primarily results from consumption, poisoning can also result from inhalation, and from skin contact.[ ... causing death from oxygen deprivation. It has been observed that poisoned animals return to feed on the plant after initial ...
The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by an abrupt shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice- ... A modern-day diet known as the Paleolithic diet exists, based on restricting consumption to the foods presumed to be available ... and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals (such as ...
These enzymes use both molecular oxygen and two NADPH's to dehydrate one of the hydroxyl groups on the anthraquinone and open ... reduction in feed consumption and decreased weight gain. Subchronic toxicity Subchronic toxicity studies of aflatoxin B1 in ... the quinine with the molecular oxygen. Upon forming the aldehyde in the ring opening step, it is oxidized to form the ... died of acute aflatoxin poisoning in several hospitals in the Machakos district of Kenya in 1981 following the consumption of ...
Oxygen rebreathers are severely depth limited due to oxygen toxicity risk, which increases with depth, and the available ... Hollows, Joanne; Bell, David (2012-12-28). Historicizing Lifestyle: Mediating Taste, Consumption and Identity from the 1900s to ... This early rebreather design worked with an oxygen reservoir, the oxygen being delivered progressively by the diver himself and ... while constantly replenishing it from an oxygen-rich supply so that the oxygen level is not depleted. The apparatus also has to ...
Additionally, if grown in liquid, cultures of this fungus can be externally stimulated to increase oxygen consumption by adding ...
Since thyroid hormone increases the heart's oxygen demand by increasing heart rate and contractility, starting at higher doses ... Biscaldi, Lauren (2 April 2017). "Oral Levothyroxine Absorption Reduced By Cow's Milk Consumption". endocrinologyadvisor. ...
The average oxygen concentration was found to be about 1.59 mL/L at the depths they were found and the average temperature was ... and confers advantages in avoidance of predators and consumption of prey. A species from Chaunacidae, Chaunacops melanostomus, ...
... consumption continued to decrease while the quality of sake steadily improved. Today, sake has become a world beverage ... Maturation is caused by physical and chemical factors such as oxygen supply, the broad application of external heat, nitrogen ... New players on the scene-beer, wine, and spirits-became popular in Japan, and in the 1960s beer consumption surpassed sake for ... ISBN 0-19-860236-7. "alcohol consumption". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved March 9, 2017. Robinson, Jancis (2006). The ...
... typically between 60 and 80 percent oxygen to retain its appetizing color, with red meat such as beef needing a higher oxygen ... Beef aging (American English) or ageing is a process of preparing beef for consumption by aging it, in order to break down the ...
1.Table 1 The oxygen for this in low oxygen conditions comes from gulping air at the water surface. Unlike mammals, the part of ... The actual energy consumption per unit mass of its brain is not in fact particularly high and indeed lower (2.02 mg g1 h1) than ... The unusual high brain energy consumption percentage of mormyrinae fish is thus due to them having the unusual combination of a ... of their body O2 consumption. This is due to the combination of large brain size (3.1% of body mass compared to 2% in humans) ...
The annual industry consumption is very low, around 300 pounds, whereas vanillin is over 2.6 million pounds annually. Castoreum ... There are also oxygen-containing monoterpenes such as 6-methyl-l-heptanol, 4,6-dimethyl-l-heptanol, isopinocamphone, ...
Consumption of herbs may cause adverse effects. Furthermore, "adulteration, inappropriate formulation, or lack of understanding ... reactive oxygen species and microbial attack to survive, providing defensive phytochemicals of use in herbalism. Indigenous ... On occasion serious untoward outcomes have been linked to herb consumption. A case of major potassium depletion has been ... just as a customer should inform a herbalist of their consumption of actual prescription and other medication. For example, ...
Production had outpaced consumption leading to substantial inventory in freezers or as concentrate.[citation needed] Cranberry ... Zheng W, Wang SY (January 2003). "Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and ... Kessler T, Jansen B, Hesse A (October 2002). "Effect of blackcurrant-, cranberry- and plum juice consumption on risk factors ... March 2006). "The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and ...
"The Man Who Discovered Oxygen and Gave the World Soda Water". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2015 "The Great Soda-Water ... A 2017 study by the American Dental Association showed that it would take over 100 years of daily sparkling water consumption ... In the 1970s marketing-driven terms such as sparkling water gained favor, with an explosion of consumption of the naturally ... "Joseph Priestley - Discovery of Oxygen - Invention of Soda Water by Joseph Priestley". 2009-09-16. ...
The atomic weights of carbon and oxygen are similar, while hydrogen is much lighter. Figures are presented in this way for ... will generate less kinetic energy due to inefficiencies and thermodynamic considerations-hence the specific fuel consumption of ... Generally the density values for chemical fuels do not include the weight of the oxygen required for combustion. ... 1 kg of diesel fuel burns with the oxygen contained in ≈15 kg of air). Electrochemical reactions are used by most mobile ...
... regression models were developed to determine peak and average oxygen consumption rates as well as total oxygen consumption. ... However, no contemporary oxygen consumption data is available for the purposes of designing breathing air supply equipment ... Mining Publication: Development of a Model to Determine Oxygen Consumption When Crawling. Keywords: Closed circuit breathing ... To address this need, 14 participants crawled a distance of 305 m each while their breath-by-breath oxygen consumption ...
In this study the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), and related metabolic measures, following a 50 minute run ... Effect of split exercise sessions on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption Br J Sports Med. 1990 Jun;24(2):95-8. doi: 10.1136 ... In this study the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), and related metabolic measures, following a 50 minute run ...
... the CLARIOstar with Atmospheric Control Unit assesses mitochondrial function via extracellular acidification and rate of oxygen ... 305_Measuring changes in cellular metabolism by monitoring extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption in real-time. ... The current technologies used to assess mitochondrial function via extracellular acidification (ECA) and oxygen consumption rate ... Hoffman, D.L. et al (2007) Respsonse of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation to steady-state oxygen tension: ...
Determination of local oxygen consumption rates in tumors. ... is influenced by the local oxygen consumption rate. Consumption ... Determination of local oxygen consumption rates in tumors. Journal Article (Journal Article) ... Using oxygen electrodes, we measured PO2 profiles across microregions (87 microns to 286 microns wide) of tumors (R3230AC ... By comparing measured PO2 values with theoretical simulations, we deduced local consumption rates. Results for six profiles ...
Incremental exercise test for the evaluation of peak oxygen consumption in paralympic swimmers - The Journal of Sports Medicine ... BACKGROUND: Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is a fundamental parameter used to evaluate physical capacity. The objective of ... Incremental exercise test for the evaluation of peak oxygen consumption in paralympic swimmers. Helton de SÁ SOUZA 1, 2, ... Incremental exercise test for the evaluation of peak oxygen consumption in paralympic swimmers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2016 ...
After a slow rise in oxygen consumption during the initial stages of metamorphosis, the rates reached 50.5 and 60.4 μl g−1 h−1 ... Standard oxygen consumption and ventilatory frequency were influenced greatly by temperature, e.g. values for stage 6 of L. ... Standard oxygen consumption has been measured during the six stages of metamorphosis in both the anadromous parasitic lamprey, ... Standard oxygen consumption has been measured during the six stages of metamorphosis in both the anadromous parasitic lamprey, ...
Renal oxygen consumption (V̇O2,ren) is an important parameter that has been shown to be influenced by various ... Mik, E.G, Johannes, T, & Ince, C. (2008). Monitoring of renal venous PO2 and kidney oxygen consumption in rats by a near- ... Monitoring of renal venous PO2 and kidney oxygen consumption in rats by a near-infrared phosphorescence lifetime technique. ... Oxygen-dependent quenching, Oxyphor G2, Pd-porphyrin, Time-resolved spectroscopy Persistent URL ...
Oxygen delivery but not consumption was increased in all GIK groups (p less than or equal to 0.005). ... improve cardiovascular performance post coronary artery bypass graft surgery without increasing systemic oxygen consumption. AM ... improve cardiovascular performance post coronary artery bypass graft surgery without increasing systemic oxygen consumption (. ...
... oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen consumption in neonates",. abstract = "Background and purpose: Brain oxygen consumption ... Non-invasive MRI measurements of venous oxygenation, oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen consumption in neonates. / De Vis, J ... Non-invasive MRI measurements of venous oxygenation, oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen consumption in neonates. NeuroImage ... Non-invasive MRI measurements of venous oxygenation, oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen consumption in neonates. In: ...
The oxygen consumption of the whole blastoderm remained constant (6 nmol O2 X hr-1) throughout the period studied, although the ... The regional oxygen fluxes varied from 0.41 to 1.13 nmol O2 X hr-1 X mm-2 at stage VI and from 0.42 to 0.70 nmol O2 X hr-1 X mm ... At stage X, there was a tendency for the oxygen fluxes to decrease from the posterior to the anterior regions of the area ... Oxygen fluxes in minute regions of the intact blastoderms were measured in vitro by scanning microspectrophotometry in the ...
... ... Title : Estimated versus achieved maximal oxygen consumption in severely burned children Maximal oxygen consumption in burned ... In burned children, exercise training increases maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and can be combined with the nonspecific ...
A cell-free system capable of using oxygen with oxalacetate as substrate has been prepared from both unfertilized and ... 2. The oxygen consumption of this cell-free oxidative system can be stimulated by addition of suitable concentrations of 4,6- ... Robert K. Crane, Anna K. Keltch; DINITROCRESOL AND PHOSPHATE STIMULATION OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF A CELL-FREE OXIDATIVE ... DINITROCRESOL AND PHOSPHATE STIMULATION OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF A CELL-FREE OXIDATIVE SYSTEM OBTAINED FROM SEA URCHIN EGGS ...
SOUZA, Bárbara Capitanio de. Influence of the use of mouth guards on oxygen consumption: review article. Rev. Bras. Odontol. [ ... "maximum volume of oxygen," "aerobic performance capacity," and "oxygen consumption." The articles found were presented in a ... Palavras-chave : Mouth protectors; Athletic performance; Oxygen consumption.. · resumo em Português · texto em Português · pdf ...
Oxygen consumption and ventilation were related to body weight and the maximum figures for ventilation and oxygen consumption ... Oxygen consumption and ventilation were related to body weight and the maximum figures for ventilation and oxygen consumption ... Oxygen consumption and ventilation were related to body weight and the maximum figures for ventilation and oxygen consumption ... Oxygen consumption and ventilation were related to body weight and the maximum figures for ventilation and oxygen consumption ...
The Relation Between the Dosage of Desiccated Thyroid and its Effect on the Oxygen Consumption in Healthy Individuals. - ... The Relation Between the Dosage of Desiccated Thyroid and its Effect on the Oxygen Consumption in Healthy Individuals.. ...
Net photosynthetic production; Net bacterial production/consumption; Oxygen; Estuarine waters. Subjects:. Aquaculture. ... An approach to differentiate net photosynthetic and other biochemical production and consumption of oxygen in estuarine water ... An approach to differentiate net photosynthetic and other biochemical production and consumption of oxygen in estuarine water ... This paper proposes an Improvement in the formula to assessment of oxygen which has been tested using a series of data ...
Stress has resulted in fall in rectal temperature and increase or decrease in oxygen consumption even when one animal of the ... In this work, influence of stress on oxygen consumption and rectal temperature was studied in parabiotic albino rats, to show ... Influence of stress on oxygen consumption and rectal temperature in parabiotic albino rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and ... Influence of stress on oxygen consumption and rectal temperature in parabiotic albino rats. ...
Increased oxygen consumption * Increased carbon dioxide production * Accelerated activity of the glycolytic and lipolytic ... necessitating treatment with high concentrations of oxygen. It also makes adequate hydration and sufficient administration of ...
The average oxygen consumption rate was 13.8 ± 2.5 picomoles per minute per worm. The average across 57 wells (on 6 Seahorse ... This is a protocol for the determination of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in living C. elegans using the Seahorse apparatus ...
The effect of high-intensity interval training on post-exercise oxygen consumption: a meta-analysis / Efecto del entrenamiento ... The effect of high-intensity interval training on post-exercise oxygen consumption: a meta ... exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) for two training intervention models in healthy individuals, and the secondary objective was ... to understand whether oxygen consumption after exercise could really promote a meaningful help. Design:. To design a meta- ...
7 Things to Know About Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC). Exercises for Obese Clients: Training Progressions to ...
What is Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)?. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is the measure of ... "Metabolic Bases of Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption: A Review." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 16, no ... "Effect of Exercise Intensity, Duration and Mode on Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption." Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), vol. 33 ... "The Effect of Exercise Duration on the Exercise and Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption." Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences = ...
The history of measuring oxygen consumption dates back to the 1920s with the pioneered work of A.V. Hill, Hartley Lupton and ... Leading to the speculation that specific value for maximal oxygen consumption may not exist. Indeed, maximal oxygen consumption ... Astrand and Saltin later confirmed that rises in oxygen consumption were a function of work rate and would not increase after ... There is an existence of a finite rate of oxygen consumption that exists during intense exercise, of which no further effort ...
... regression models that can be used to determine peak and average oxygen consumption rates as well as total oxygen consumption. ... An interagency agreement to investigate efficiency improvements for pure oxygen breathing apparatuses used by miners in ...
Rishikesh Patel and others published The Effects of Dark Chocolate Consumption on Exercise Tolerance and Performance in Cycling ... Patel, R, Brouner, J.B & Spendiff, O. (2017). Dark Chocolate Supplementation Reduces the Oxygen Cost.... March 2017 ... Oil consumption, lubrication oil ash content and injector timing were found to be the major contributors to ... [Show full ... To minimise the water consumption in arid areas the re-use of water has been common practice for many years. The Zero Liquid ...
Extremely high metabolism also increases oxygen and energy consumption. Cardiac findings of mild-to-moderate sinus tachycardia ...
Spurr GB, Barac-Nieto M, Maksud MG (1977). Productivity and maximal oxygen consumption in sugar cane cutters. American Journal ... intake and/or the consumption of non-nutritious food, and thus to malnutrition. On the other hand, malnutrition itself can have ...
In vitro Determination of Oxygen Consumption Rates. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) ... Neonatal rat cardiomyoctyes (NRCMs) challenged with RELMα exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR). (A) Schematic ... Keywords: fatty acid oxidation, mitochondria, RELMα, heart failiure, oxygen consumption rate ... Metabolic profile of the stimulatory effect of RELMα on oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and glycolysis in primary cultured ...
  • In this study the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), and related metabolic measures, following a 50 minute run compared to two 25 minute runs all at 70 per cent of peak VO2 in six women were investigated. (
  • The objective of this study was to present a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare total excess post- exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) for two training intervention models in healthy individuals, and the secondary objective was to understand whether oxygen consumption after exercise could really promote a meaningful help. (
  • What is Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)? (
  • Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is the measure of calories you burn above your resting metabolic rate following exercise. (
  • Our findings suggest that dynamic exertion is not required to augment post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), and that the amount of exercising skeletal mass is an additional variable to consider when relating exercise to EPOC. (
  • The number one benefit of metabolic circuit training is that it raises your Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) which means that you will continue to burn more calories after the workout is over. (
  • Leading to the speculation that specific value for maximal oxygen consumption may not exist. (
  • Indeed, maximal oxygen consumption values vary depending on how quickly a protocol is completed as well as the modality of exercise. (
  • And while a true maximal oxygen consumption value may be hard to measure, the utility of this measurement cannot be ignored. (
  • Identified almost 100 years ago, maximal oxygen consumption is currently thought to be a great predictor of endurance performance when examining a wide variety of participants (untrained to highly trained individuals). (
  • But as endurance events are not completed at maximal intensity, it is thought that endurance performance is augmented by the ability to maintain adequate oxygen delivery to maintain cellular energy homeostasis at high intensities of exercise coupled to an economical transfer of chemical energy to mechanical energy. (
  • For example, a deconditioned individual might have a maximal oxygen consumption of 35 milliliters (ml) of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute (ml/kg/min), whereas an elite athlete may have a maximal oxygen consumption up to 92 ml/kg/min! (
  • Research shows that strength training helps weight loss by increasing the resting metabolic rate, total energy expenditure, and maximal oxygen consumption. (
  • VV̇O2,renhas to be repeatedly measured during an experiment to gain insight in the dynamics of (dys)regulation of oxygen metabolism. (
  • Extremely high metabolism also increases oxygen and energy consumption. (
  • Effect of Cd, Zn on Oxygen and Phosphate metabolism of blue gill live mitochondria. (
  • That involves photographing the eggs through a microscope to track development, taking underwater videos of how the mothers care for the babies, monitoring their oxygen consumption to track their metabolism and freezing some eggs to later investigate chemical aspects and changes in enzyme activity, said Abbey Sisti, a doctoral student looking at lobster behavior. (
  • the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (
  • The oxygen uptake by this system is about twice that of an equivalent quantity of intact unfertilized eggs and half that of an equivalent quantity of intact fertilized eggs. (
  • Our study focused on the analysis of high- and moderate-intensity oxygen uptake results following exercise . (
  • The pioneering work of A.V. Hill, Hartley Lupton, and Colleagues in the early 1920s was the first to identify this concept, that there was a limited amount of oxygen that the body could uptake and consume. (
  • For climbing a ladder at inclination of 30 degrees from vertical the whole body oxygen uptake was linearly related to both work rate in kilogram-meters and body weight in kilograms with the regression coefficients for work rate higher and for body weight lower for males than for females. (
  • The linearity of ventilation and heart rates on work rate were also applied to oxygen uptake and revealed somewhat steeper regression for females than for males. (
  • Scan-based delay testing increases power consumption, particularly peak power, due to excessive simultaneous signal switching. (
  • Breathing increases during aerobic exercise to bring oxygen into your body. (
  • Given the body would consume more oxygen as intensity increases, that'd also meant that, in general, the higher your client's heart rate, the more they're challenging themselves. (
  • Even more, the breathing rate also increases and oxygen level in your blood, therefore. (
  • It also increases optimum oxygen consumption and as a result, it effectively reduces body fat leading to weight loss. (
  • It enhances excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and increases lipoprotein lipase activity as well. (
  • The hemoglobin saturation curve and its pH dependency were determined for calculation of renal venous oxygen content. (
  • Peripheral Venous Dynamics, Venous Oxygen Saturation and Local Oxygen Consumption Measured with. (
  • In exercise physiology, oxygen consumption is the golden standard for measuring exercise intensity during aerobic (i.e., "needs oxygen") exercise. (
  • Nitric oxide regulation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption I: cellular physiology. (
  • Background and purpose: Brain oxygen consumption reflects neuronal activity and can therefore be used to investigate brain development or neuronal injury in neonates. (
  • Measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo2) in response to increased neuronal activity is critical to our understanding of energetics associated with brain function. (
  • At the heart of this controversy is the effect of elevated neuronal activity on regional cerebral oxygen consumption rate. (
  • The search strategy employed the term "mouth guard" with the following words and possible combinations: "ventilatory thresholds," "athletic performance," "maximum volume of oxygen," "aerobic performance capacity," and "oxygen consumption. (
  • Aerobic' means 'in the presence of, or with, oxygen. (
  • During aerobic exercise, more oxygen is delivered to the muscles than during anaerobic exercise, and so it follows that a higher percentage of fat is burned during aerobic exercise when more oxygen is available. (
  • In aerobic respiration, does inhale molecular oxygen (O2) combine chemically with carbon to produce CO2? (
  • Known as excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, this reaction raises a lot of questions: Does it help you lose weight? (
  • Effect of Resistance Training on Excess Post-exercise Oxygen. (
  • Then potassium iodide is added in excess which in the dark immediately reacts with the active oxygen (peroxide) to iodine. (
  • These prevention strategies reduce excess calorie consumption by curbing food cravings leading to weight loss. (
  • Dissolved oxygen is a term describing the amount of oxygen molecules (O 2 ) which are dissolved in a liquid phase under certain conditions. (
  • TPO 5000 selectively measures the total amount of oxygen in beverages, made up of headspace oxygen and dissolved oxygen, directly out of cans, glass bottles, and PET bottles. (
  • Smoking decreases the amount of oxygen delivered to tissues. (
  • SVRI was estimated at rest and at anaerobic threshold (AT) by VO 2 (oxygen consumption)/pulse and previously validated estimates of C[a-v]O 2 (arteriovenous difference in oxygen content). (
  • Oxygen consumption and respiration following two yoga relaxation techniques. (
  • The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) was the resultant of the venous oxygenation and arterial spin labeling whole brain cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. (
  • The current technologies used to assess mitochondrial function via extracellular acidification (ECA) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) are often designed in such a way that they ignore the impact of O 2 concentration on cellular bioenergetics. (
  • At any location in a respiring tissue, partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is influenced by the local oxygen consumption rate. (
  • Although no circadian rhythm was detectable in the oxygen consumption of larvae, an elevation in the metabolic rate was present during darkness in L. fluviatilis at the end of metamorphosis. (
  • This is a protocol for the determination of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in living C. elegans using the Seahorse apparatus with 24-well plates. (
  • The average oxygen consumption rate was 13.8 ± 2.5 picomoles per minute per worm. (
  • There is an existence of a finite rate of oxygen consumption that exists during intense exercise, of which no further effort will increase. (
  • Astrand and Saltin later confirmed that rises in oxygen consumption were a function of work rate and would not increase after certain outputs were reached. (
  • The relaxation rate constants of the 19F nuclides on the perfluorocarbon are linearly dependent on the dissolved paramagnetic oxygen concentration and, thus, allow a straightforward measurement of oxygen tension. (
  • SUMMARY ANSWER The system enabled the oxygen consumption rate of spheroids, bovine embryos and frozen-thawed human embryos to be measured, and this rate corresponded to the developmental potential of embryos. (
  • Existing systems such as the scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) technique, which enables the measurement of oxygen consumption rate in embryos, need improvement in usability before they can be applied to a clinical setting. (
  • The feasibility of measuring the oxygen consumption rate was assessed using CERMs for 9 spheroids, 9 bovine embryos and 30 redundant frozen-thawed human embryos. (
  • The endpoints for the study were whether CERMs could detect a dissolved oxygen gradient with high sensitivity, had comparable accuracy to the SECM measuring system with improved usability, and could predict the development of an embryo to a blastocyst by measuring the oxygen consumption rate. (
  • The relationship between the oxygen consumption rate and standard morphological evaluation was also examined. (
  • PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS We developed a new CERMs, which enables the oxygen consumption rate to be measured automatically using an electrochemical method. (
  • The device was initially used for measuring a dissolved oxygen concentration gradient in order to calculate oxygen consumption rate using nine spheroids. (
  • Furthermore, the developed blastocysts were scored using the blastocyst quality score (BQS), and the correlation with oxygen consumption rate was also assessed. (
  • MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The device enabled the oxygen consumption rate of an embryo to be measured automatically within a minute. (
  • Although a positive linear relationship between BQS and the oxygen consumption rate was observed [the determination coefficient was R 2 = 0.6537 (P = 0.008)], two blastocysts exhibited low oxygen consumption rates considering their relatively high BQS. (
  • Metabolic, heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2 ) responses were recorded during both trials. (
  • Fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium lamarrei were subjected to acute concentration, 0.304 mg/l (96h LC50) of Copper sulphate to evaluate its effects on scaphognathite oscillations and oxygen consumption rate. (
  • Changes in oxygen consumption and heart rate of the blue swimming crab, Protunus pelagicus ( Linnaeus 1766) following sublethal concentration of copper. (
  • Effect of cadmium on oxygen consumption and filteration rate at different salinities in an estuarine clam Meretrix costa (Chemnitz). (
  • This is because of the physiologic changes that take place during pregnancy, including increased heart rate and oxygen consumption, decreased lung capacity, and a shift away from cell-mediated immunity. (
  • begin with a known or a realistic guess for an oxygen metabolic rate for the diver. (
  • At a consumption rate of two litres per minute, that means we have enough oxygen for a maximum of 300 minutes! (
  • Respiratory gas analysis was performed to check oxygen consumption rate. (
  • The hip flexor volume to hip extensor volume ratio in the involved limb and oxygen consumption rate during comfortable gait were negatively correlated (r=-0.96, p=0.04). (
  • In individuals who underwent unilateral TFA, hip girdle muscle imbalance in the involved limbs may be associated with oxygen consumption rate while using a prosthesis. (
  • Also, laughing can boost your heart rate and oxygen consumption immediately and effortlessly. (
  • Recent clinical and animal studies have suggested that ventricular- vascular coupling normally operates at either optimal ventricular efficiency (EFF = stroke work/myocardial oxygen consumption) or stroke work (SW) and that efficiency in particular is compromised by cardiac dysfunction. (
  • For a given inotropic state [indexed by the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (E(es))], myocardial oxygen consumption and SW were measured over a broad range of afterload resistances. (
  • Effect of free fatty acids on myocardial function and oxygen consumption in intact dogs. (
  • To minimise the water consumption in arid areas the re-use of water has been common practice for many years. (
  • Non-invoiced water includes losses of water in the pipe network, own water consumption or possible free water supplies, e. g. for fire protection purposes. (
  • Studies have shown that individuals who undergo TFA have increased energy consumption during walking compared with those who undergo trans-tibial amputation [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • Determination of local oxygen consumption rates in tumors. (
  • A close correlation in the oxygen consumption rates of bovine embryos was observed between the SECM measuring system and CERMs, with a determination coefficient of 0.8203 (P = 0.0008). (
  • In the determination, the peroxide-bound active oxygen atoms, which can react with potassium iodide, are measured per kilogram of fat. (
  • Using these data, linear regression models were developed to determine peak and average oxygen consumption rates as well as total oxygen consumption. (
  • A report on the development of linear regression models that can be used to determine peak and average oxygen consumption rates as well as total oxygen consumption. (
  • The Effects of Dark Chocolate Consumption on Exercise Tolerance and Performance in Cycling. (
  • 5 Exercise tolerance, typically represented as oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) less than 12-14 ml/kg/min, is a commonly recommended indicator for advanced therapies. (
  • Consumption rates in vascular tumor tissues have previously been estimated for macroscopic regions. (
  • It arises in tissues when oxygen consumption by the cells outpaces supply, due to elevated oxygen demand in metabolically active cells and decreased oxygen transport to the center of the tumor because of inefficient vascularization. (
  • Trees help reduce carbon dioxide and increase oxygen, which we breathe in. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, and oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production (measured by indirect calorimetry) differ between critically ill patients with vs without sepsis. (
  • Demographic and clinical data were collected, including age, body mass index, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory quotient, and resting energy expenditure, with the clinical data measured or estimated via indirect calorimetry. (
  • In conjunction with perfusion measurement using arterial 1H spin-labeling technique, regional cerebral oxygen consumption can be derived. (
  • It will likely use a curved organic light-emitting diode (OLED) touchscreen and collect health-related data, such as calorie consumption, sleep activity, blood glucose and blood oxygen levels. (
  • Because oxygen use efficacy is already proven in the treatment of patients with respiratory conditions caused by COVID-19, there is a great opportunity to improve its effectiveness if its use is promoted in a rational, sustainable and safe way. (
  • patients that have brachycephalic syndrome or any other disease process that inhibits proper function of the upper part of the respiratory system should be considered an increased risk and delivery of oxygen via face mask should take place in recovery. (
  • He soon discovered that one of the ingredients in Preparation H™ was called skin respiratory factor (SRF), which was used to increase oxygen intake and soothe inflamed tissue (Subramanyam 1984). (
  • BACKGROUND: Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is a fundamental parameter used to evaluate physical capacity. (
  • Research shows that SRF influences oxygen consumption on the part of fibroblasts, the connective tissue cells that manufacture collagen (Goodson 1976). (
  • This paper proposes an Improvement in the formula to assessment of oxygen which has been tested using a series of data collected from the shallow estuarine waters of the 'Mangalvanam' (mangrove biotope) at Cochin. (
  • Between 80% and 60% saturation the desaturation curves were linear in all groups and the oxygen consumption was calculated from this part of the curves. (
  • Standard oxygen consumption and ventilatory frequency were influenced greatly by temperature, e.g. values for stage 6 of L. fluviatilis rose from 24.3 μl g −1 h −1 and 33.0 beats min −1 at 5 °C to 103.8 μl g −1 h −1 and 98.2 beats min −1 at 15 °C. (
  • Renal oxygen consumption (V̇O2,ren) is an important parameter that has been shown to be influenced by various pathophysiological circumstances. (
  • In a free White Paper, Dr. Sabrina Gschwind, product manager sensors and electrodes at Metrohm AG takes a comprehensive look at dissolved oxygen and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the methods commonly used to determine this parameter. (
  • Minimise your consumption of added sugar and refined carbs. (
  • There were significant decreases in oxygen consumption for more flexible soles. (
  • We have 2 liter flow oxygen concentrators with the latest features and from brands like AirSep and Respironics. (
  • Shop the wide variety of 2 liter flow concentrators available to you at Oxygen Concentrator Store that will help you to take care of your oxygen therapy needs. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) inhibits oxygen consumption (Vo 2 ) in human intestine resected for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). (
  • Your VO2 max is the max volume of oxygen you can consume at your highest intensity of exercise. (
  • Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the volume of oxygen consumed in aerobe biochemical decomposition process of organic compounds present in the water for a period of 5 days at standard conditions. (
  • Stress has resulted in fall in rectal temperature and increase or decrease in oxygen consumption even when one animal of the pair was subjected to stress, suggesting involvement of humoral factor(s). (
  • He enumerated the various steps being taken to increase the supply of oxygen. (
  • Do the rates of oxygen consumption and ATP formation increase, decrease, or remain constant? (
  • In this paper we present the first results of a non-invasive MRI method to evaluate whole brain oxygen consumption in neonates. (
  • Conclusion: We presented an MRI technique to evaluate whole-brain oxygen consumption in neonates non-invasively. (
  • From the T 1 and the T 2 of blood, the venous oxygenation and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were calculated. (
  • Once inside your body the oxygen is (1) processed by the lungs , (2) transferred to the bloodstream where it is carried by red blood cells to the heart, and then (3) pumped by the heart to the exercising muscles via the circulatory system, where it is used by the muscle to produce energy. (
  • Oxygen consumption' describes the process of muscles extracting, or consuming, oxygen from the blood. (
  • Many aspects of the hemodynamic and metabolic responses underlying the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI contrast remain poorly understood and controversial. (
  • Working posture also affects blood supply and oxygen delivery to the brain, which influences cognitive skills. (
  • VO2max is identified as the plateau in oxygen consumption even though the intensity is still increasing. (
  • The higher the oxygen demand during a particular session, the higher the intensity. (
  • The phosphorescent oxygen and pH probe (Cayman Chemical) combined with the CLARIOstar and ACU provides a 'push button' multiplexed system with the potential for monitoring additional cell health outcomes. (
  • Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a consumption of oxygen (O2) by the dichromate method. (
  • Leachate from municipal waste due to high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dark color is a potential pollutant of the environment, which causes a lot of problems in the absence of treatment and direct discharge to the environment. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Influence of stress on oxygen consumption and rectal temperature in parabiotic albino rats. (
  • In this work, influence of stress on oxygen consumption and rectal temperature was studied in parabiotic albino rats, to show the possibility of involvement of humoral factors. (
  • An interagency agreement to investigate efficiency improvements for pure oxygen breathing apparatuses used by miners in emergencies, namely SCSRs, and to develop an improved ergonomically designed SCSR. (
  • In the Oxyfuel process, the combustion processes are carried out by means of an oxygen burner (Oxyfuel burner) which is operated with pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air as an oxidising agent. (
  • Oxygen consumption and ventilation were related to body weight and the maximum figures for ventilation and oxygen consumption were seen in individuals of over the 95th centile for weight who completed the exercise more quickly than other subjects. (
  • The Relation Between the Dosage of Desiccated Thyroid and its Effect on the Oxygen Consumption in Healthy Individuals. (
  • Conditioned individuals have higher levels of oxygen consumption than deconditioned individuals ('couch potatoes') due to biological changes in the muscles from chronic exercise training. (
  • In this reaction, a peroxide radical (a particle of two oxygen atoms) attacks the fat next to a double bond. (
  • Values like this are expressed as VO2 (volume of oxygen consumed) and can be measured with special equipment in a laboratory. (
  • calculate your starting volume of available oxygen. (
  • Ultimately, this cooling enables an optimised combustion process , because the cold air - assuming the same volume - contains significantly more oxygen than hot air. (
  • This course seeks to convey basic informative and educational content on medical oxygen. (
  • The content includes all the stages in oxygen management: from manufacturing, storage, distribution and controls to dispensing to patients. (
  • To address this need, 14 participants crawled a distance of 305 m each while their breath-by-breath oxygen consumption measurements were taken. (
  • The participants were instructed to run at increasing speeds around an 85m track and then oxygen consumption values were plotted. (
  • However, during intense exercise, not all participants reach a plateau in oxygen consumption. (
  • That participants acquire theoretical knowledge on how to plan and manage oxygen, promoting its use in a rational, sustainable and safe way in health care establishments (hospitals, clinics, home use, etc. (
  • The oxygen concentration gradient profile showed excellent linearity in a distance-dependent change. (
  • This will make it possible to rationalize its consumption and prevent the efficiency loss of this gas during its storage, distribution and administration. (