The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The consumption of edible substances.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Freedom from activity.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The selection of one food over another.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The consumption of liquids.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Glucose in blood.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Solutions which, upon administration, will temporarily arrest cardiac activity. They are used in the performance of heart surgery.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (1/14332)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

Sympathetic nerve alterations assessed with 123I-MIBG in the failing human heart. (2/14332)

Norepinephrine (NE) reuptake function is impaired in heart failure and this may participate in myocyte hyperstimulation by the neurotransmitter. This alteration can be assessed by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. METHODS: To determine whether the impairment of neuronal NE reuptake was reversible after metoprolol therapy, we studied 18 patients (43+/-7 y) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were stabilized at least for 3 mo with captopril and diuretics. Patients underwent, before and after 6 mo of therapy with metoprolol, measurements of radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), maximal oxygen consumption and plasma NE concentration. The cardiac adrenergic innervation function was scintigraphically assessed with MIBG uptake and release measurements on the planar images obtained 20 min and 4 h after tracer injection. To evaluate whether metoprolol had a direct interaction with cardiac MIBG uptake and release, six normal subjects were studied before and after a 1-mo metoprolol intake. RESULTS: In controls, neither cardiac MIBG uptake and release nor circulating NE concentration changed after the 1-mo metoprolol intake. Conversely, after a 6-mo therapy with metoprolol, patients showed increased cardiac MIBG uptake (129%+/-10% versus 138%+/-17%; P = 0.009), unchanged cardiac MIBG release and decreased plasma NE concentration (0.930+/-412 versus 0.721+/-0.370 ng/mL; P = 0.02). In parallel, patients showed improved New York Heart Association class (2.44+/-0.51 versus 2.05+/-0.23; P = 0.004) and increased LVEF (20%+/-8% versus 27%+/-8%; P = 0.0005), whereas maximal oxygen uptake remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Thus, a parallel improvement of myocardial NE reuptake and of hemodynamics was observed after a 6-mo metoprolol therapy, suggesting that such agents may be beneficial in heart failure by directly protecting the myocardium against excessive NE stimulation.  (+info)

Effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and glucose and oxygen consumption in perfused tissue-isolated human melanoma xenografts. (3/14332)

The effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and consumption of oxygen and glucose was examined in a perfused tissue-isolated tumor model in nude mice. One experimental group was perfused with heparinized Krebs-Henseleit buffer, a second one was perfused with TNF-alpha (500 microgram/kg) 5 h before perfusion. The vascular resistance increased significantly 5 h after TNF-alpha injection. The increase in vascular resistance did not seem to be mediated by a decrease in tumor nitric oxide production, as determined by perfusate nitrate/nitrite concentrations, but may be due to aggregation of leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes and/or endothelial consumption among the three experimental groups. The oxygen consumption was linearly dependent on the amount of available oxygen in the perfusate, whereas the glucose consumption was constant and independent of the glucose delivery rate. The present experiments provide new insights into physiological and metabolic mechanisms of action of TNF- alpha for optimization of future treatment schedules involving TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Endogenous plasma endothelin concentrations and coronary circulation in patients with mild dilated cardiomyopathy. (4/14332)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients (eight male/six female; mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with IDCM (ejection fraction 36 (9)%) and five normotensive subjects (two male/three female; age 52 (7) years) serving as controls were studied. METHODS: Functional status was classified according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Endogenous ET-1 and BET plasma concentrations from the aorta and the coronary sinus were determined by radioimmunoassay. Coronary blood flow, using the inert chromatographic argon method, myocardial oxygen consumption, and coronary sinus oxygen content under basal conditions were determined. RESULTS: In the aorta, mean (SD) concentrations of ET-1 (IDCM 0.76 (0.25) v controls 0.31 (0.06) fmol/ml; p = 0.002) and BET (IDCM 3.58 (1.06) v controls 2.11 (0.58) fmol/ml; p = 0.014) were increased in patients with IDCM. Aortic ET-1 concentrations correlated positively with NYHA class (r = 0. 731; p < 0.001), myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.749; p < 0. 001), and coronary blood flow (r = 0.645; p = 0.003), but inversely with coronary sinus oxygen content (r = -0.633; p = 0.004), which was significantly decreased in IDCM patients (IDCM 4.68 (1.05) v controls 6.70 (1.06) vol%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The coronary circulation in patients with IDCM is exposed to an increased endothelin load. ET-1 concentrations correlate with functional deterioration. A decrease of the coronary sinus content of oxygen suggests a mismatch between coronary blood flow and metabolic demand. Thus, ET-1 might be a marker of a disequilibrium between myocardial oxygen demand and coronary blood flow in IDCM.  (+info)

Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers. (5/14332)

OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate concentration ([La(b)]), and heart rate (HR) response during indoor and outdoor sport climbing. METHODS: Seven climbers aged 25 (SE 1) years, with a personal best ascent without preview or fall (on sight) ranging from 6b to 7a were assessed using an indoor vertical treadmill with artificial rock hand/foot holds and a discontinuous protocol with climbing velocity incremented until voluntary fatigue. On a separate occasion the subjects performed a 23.4 m outdoor rock climb graded 5c and taking 7 min 36 s (SE 33 s) to complete. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using a telemetry system and [La(b)] collected at rest and after climbing. RESULTS: Indoor climbing elicited a peak oxygen uptake (VO2climb-peak) and peak HR (HRpeak) of 43.8 (SE 2.2) ml/kg/min and 190 (SE 4) bpm, respectively and increased blood lactate concentration [La(b)] from 1.4 (0.1) to 10.2 (0.6) mmol/l (p < 0.05). During outdoor climbing VO2 and HR increased to about 75% and 83% of VO2climb-peak and HRpeak, respectively. [La(b)] increased from 1.3 (0.1) at rest to 4.5 mmol/l (p < 0.05) at 2 min 32 s (8 s) after completion of the climb. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that for elite climbers outdoor sport rock climbs of five to 10 minutes' duration and moderate difficulty require a significant portion of the VO2climb-peak. The higher HR and VO2 for outdoor climbing and the increased [La(b)] could be the result of repeated isometric contractions, particularly from the arm and forearm muscles.  (+info)

Myocardial oxygenation during high work states in hearts with postinfarction remodeling. (6/14332)

BACKGROUND: Postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is associated with reductions in myocardial high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels, which are more severe in animals that develop overt congestive heart failure (CHF). During high work states, further HEP loss occurs, which suggests demand-induced ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that inadequate myocyte oxygen availability is the basis for these HEP abnormalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial infarction was produced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation in swine. Studies were performed in 20 normal animals, 14 animals with compensated LVR, and 9 animals with CHF. Phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP was determined with 31P NMR and deoxymyoglobin (Mb-delta) with 1H NMR in myocardium remote from the infarct. Basal PCr/ATP tended to be decreased in postinfarct hearts, and this was significant in animals with CHF. Infusion of dobutamine (20 microg x kg-1 x min-1 IV) caused doubling of the rate-pressure product in both normal and LVR hearts and resulted in comparable significant decreases of PCr/ATP in both groups. This decrease in PCr/ATP was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. In CHF hearts, rate-pressure product increased only 40% in response to dobutamine; this attenuated response also was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the decrease of PCr/ATP during dobutamine infusion is not the result of insufficient myocardial oxygen availability. Furthermore, in CHF hearts, the low basal PCr/ATP and the attenuated response to dobutamine occurred in the absence of myocardial hypoxia, indicating that the HEP and contractile abnormalities were not the result of insufficient oxygen availability.  (+info)

Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries. (7/14332)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

The respiratory responses of Carcinus maenas to declining oxygen tension. (8/14332)

The degree of respiratory independence shown by Carcinus under conditions of declining oxygen tension is dependent on the animal's level of activity. Inactive Carcinus are capable of maintaining respiratory independence down to a Po2 of 60-80 mmHg. This is achieved primarily by an increase in ventilation volume such that the amount of oxygen made available at the respiratory surfaces remains constant over a wide range of oxygen tension. The Po2 at which this can no longer be maintained corresponds closely to the Po2 at which respiratory independence is lost. Under normoxic conditions the Po2 of the post- and prebranchial blood was 97 and 18 mmHg respectively. At the high oxygen tensions prevailing in the postbranchial blood the respiratory pigment is fully saturated. Under conditions of declining oxygen tension the heart rate remains more or less constant until the Po2 reaches 60-80 mmHg, the onset of bradycardia coinciding with the loss of saturation of the haemocyanin. Although cardiac output falls during hypoxia, the capacity rate ratio remains approximately constant, which enables the effectiveness of oxygen uptake by the blood to remain at a high level.  (+info)

We thank Dr Poullis for his interest and are glad that our articles are stimulating new ideas.R1 R2 In our initial mathematical analysis, we developed an equation (Equation 1 in Dr Poullis letter) that related systemic oxygen delivery to cardiac output, the ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (QP/QS), the oxygen content in pulmonary venous blood, and whole body oxygen consumption. Each of these variables can be independently changed. For example, cardiac output can be changed without the necessity of altering QP/QS.. By making a substitution of variables, Dr Poullis develops another equation (Equation 3 in his letter). This equation presents systemic oxygen delivery as a function of systemic blood flow (QS), QS/QP, the oxygen content in pulmonary venous blood, and whole body oxygen consumption. Although the equation is mathematically valid, the conclusion that systemic oxygen delivery is not a function of cardiac output is invalid. Dr Poullis includes QS/QP ratio and Qs as 2 independent ...
1. Arginine vasopressin reduces whole-body oxygen consumption in conscious dogs. To determine whether this decrease could result from limited oxygen delivery, studies were performed in two groups of chronically instrumented dogs.. 2. In the first group (n = 7), vasopressin was infused at a rate of 18.5 pmol min−1 kg−1 while the animals were breathing 10% oxygen. Hypoxaemia alone (arterial partial pressure of oxygen 4.67 kPa) decreased whole-body oxygen delivery by 30%. The fall in whole-body oxygen consumption induced by vasopressin during hypoxaemia was not different from that measured under normoxic conditions, even though whole-body oxygen delivery was more reduced.. 3. In a second group of seven dogs, hindquarter blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter on lower abdominal aorta) and oxygen consumption (blood flow multiplied by arteriovenous oxygen difference) were measured as infusions of vasopressin were given either systemically or into the lower abdominal aorta. Systemic vasopressin ...
If you are anything like me, when I first was learning about nutrition and our bodys metabolism I was trying to take in information from everywhere. It wasnt just good enough to know that eating green leafy veggies was healthy, I wanted to know why? I didnt want to just accept that High Intensity Interval Training was a better way to burn fat, I wanted to know why? I think the knowledge of knowing why is so important in making lasting changes to your lifestyle. You dont just have to take someone elses word for it, you understand the science behind it. If you guys are ok with it I would love to share some science with you from time to time, those of you that are like me trying to find your way with your fitness and health and want to go deeper you have us as a resource. So today wanted to share with you the concept of EPOC or Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption ...
The portion of oxygen consumed after exercise that removes excess lactic acid from the blood. A small amount of the excess lactic acid is excreted in urine and sweat; a little contributes to the manufacture of protein; some is converted to glucose or glycogen in the liver and muscle, but most of the lactic acid produced during exercise is reconverted into pyruvic acid and used in aerobic metabolism to form carbon dioxide and water. Approximately 5-10 L of oxygen forms the lactacid post-exercise oxygen consumption; it is usually higher in highly trained athletes, especially sprinters. ...
Purpose: Allometric is a method for the expression of relationship between the physiological variables, anatomical with unit of the body size that through mathematical methods can calculate vital capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluation of pulmonary function for estimation of peak oxygen consumption through the respiratory gas analysis and allometric equation in boy student. Methods: In this causal after the occurrence study, 80 subjects were selected by convenience sampling. Characteristics of anthropometric, chest circumference (diameter and depth of the chest), and for estimation of peak oxygen consumption, Bruce test, where was measured using the validated methods. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regressions in SPSS version 16. Result: There were not significant correlations between TV, IRV, ERV, and FVC with peak oxygen consumption. While, There was significant positive correlation between FVC and peak oxygen consumption (p=0.041 & r=0.229) and between ...
The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body. The a-vO2 diff and cardiac output are the main factors that allow variation in the bodys total oxygen consumption, and are important in measuring VO2. The a-vO2 diff is usually measured in millilitres of oxygen per 100 millilitres of blood (mL/100 mL). The arteriovenous oxygen difference is usually taken by comparing the difference in the oxygen concentration of oxygenated blood in the femoral, brachial, or radial artery and the oxygen concentration in the deoxygenated blood from the mixed supply found in the pulmonary artery (as an indicator of the typical mixed venous supply). Put in simple terms: a-vO2 diff = Ca - Cv where: Ca = the oxygen concentration of arterial blood (oxygenated blood) Cv = the oxygen concentration of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute volume expansion with colloid increases oxygen delivery and consumption but does not improve the oxygen extraction in severe preeclampsia. AU - Belfort, Michael A.. AU - Saade, George R.. AU - Wasserstrum, Nathan. AU - Johansen, Richard. AU - Anthony, John. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The objective of this study was to determine the effect of volume expansion with colloid on oxygen consumption (VO2), oxygen delivery (DO2) and the oxygen extraction ratio in patients with severe preeclampsia. The study was prospective and descriptive and took place in the tertiary care labor and delivery unit in a university hospital. Fourteen women with severe preeclampsia who received a pulmonary artery catheter and radial arterial line to monitor their hemodynamic and respiratory status took part in the study. Patients who had received prior medication or volume expansion were excluded. The intervention employed was acute volume expansion, using colloidal solutions (Dextran 70 or ...
Devices and methods for improving cardiac efficiency involve measuring, patient-internally, an oxygen saturation parameter indicative of oxygen usage of myocardial tissue of the heart. A cardiac electrical therapy is adjusted to cause a change of the measured oxygen saturation parameter, and the adjusted cardiac electrical therapy is selected for delivery based on a changed oxygen saturation parameter indicative of an increase in cardiac efficiency.
The temperature dependence of aerobic scope has been suggested to be a major determinant of how marine animals will cope with future rises in environmental temperature. Here, we present data suggesting that in some animals, the temperature dependence of anaerobic scope (i.e., the capacity for surviving severe hypoxia) may determine present-day latitudinal distributions and potential for persistence in a warmer future. As a model for investigating the role of anaerobic scope, we studied two sibling species of coral-dwelling gobies, Gobiodon histrio, and G. erythrospilus, with different latitudinal distributions, but which overlap in equal abundance at Lizard Island (14°40′S) on the Great Barrier Reef. These species did not differ in the temperature dependence of resting oxygen consumption or critical oxygen concentration (the lowest oxygen level where resting oxygen consumption can be maintained). In contrast, the more equatorial species (G. histrio) had a better capacity to endure anaerobic ...
The effect of work rate on oxygen uptake kinetics during exhaustive severe intensity cycling exercise Jennifer L. Sylvester, Samantha D. Burdette, Steven W. Cross, Nosa O. Idemudia, John, H. Curtis, Jakob L. Vingren, David W. Hill. Applied Physiology Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX During exhaustive severe intensity exercise, the oxygen uptake (VO2) increases exponentially, with a time constant of ~30 s. After ~1 to 2 min, a slow component emerges and drives the VO2 to its maximum. There are clear differences in the VO2 response profile across exercise intensity domains. These disparities might not be attributable to metabolic demand but, rather, to characteristics of the various intensity domains, such as the consequences of lactic acid production. PURPOSE: To investigate the role of exercise intensity on the VO2 response profile at intensities wholly within the severe domain. METHODS: Four women (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 years, height 167 ± 7 cm, mass 66 ± 5 kg) and eight men
Using the C2C12 mouse muscle myoblast cell line, I sought to investigate the hypothesis that differentiation under hypoxia impairs muscle mitochondrial respiratory function irreversibly. Resveratrol (RSV) will increase expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and reverse the hypoxia-induced depression of O2 consumption rates. Hypoxia decreased oxygen consumption rates after five days of differentiation and after two days of normoxic recovery. This coincided with a hypoxia-induced decrease in protein levels of the NDUFB8 subunit of complex I of the electron transport chain and decreases in mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors, both of which could contribute to the alterations observed in oxygen consumption rates. Normoxic recovery supplemented with RSV did increase oxygen consumption rates, however this increase was not observed across all oxygen concentrations that were measured which may have be associated with the decreases in cell viability observed with RSV
Despite the use of water treadmills (WT) in conditioning horses, the intensity of WT exercise has not been well documented. The workload on a WT is a function of water height and treadmill speed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these factors on workload during WT exercise. Fifteen client-owned Quarter Horses were used in a randomized, controlled study. Three belt speeds and three water heights (mid cannon, carpus and stifle), along with the control condition (dry treadmill, all three speeds), were tested. Measured outcomes were oxygen consumption (V̇O2), ventilation (respiratory frequency, tidal volume (VT)), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate. An ergospirometry system was used to measure V̇O2 and ventilation. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the effects of presence or absence of water, water height and speed (as fixed effects) on measured outcomes. Water height and its interaction with speed had a significant effect on V̇O2, VT and HR, all peaking
Supervised exercise (SE) in patients with type 2 diabetes improves oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Maintenance of these improvements, however, has not been examined when supervision is removed. We explored if potential improvements in oxygen uptake kinetics following a 12-week SE that combined aerobic and resistance training were maintained after a subsequent 12-week unsupervised exercise (UE). The involvement of cardiac output (CO) in these improvements was also tested. Nineteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Oxygen uptake kinetics and CO (inert gas rebreathing) responses to constant-load cycling at 50% ventilatory threshold (VT), 80% VT, and mid-point between VT and peak workload (50% Δ) were examined at baseline (on 2 occasions) and following each 12-week training period. Participants decided to exercise at a local gymnasium during the UE. Thirteen subjects completed all the interventions. The time constant of phase 2 of oxygen uptake was significantly ...
We first examined effects of 200 nM TAT (Trans-Activator of Transcription)-HKII peptide treatment, which was previously shown to acutely decrease mtHKII by ~ 30%. In Langendorff-perfused hearts TAT-HKII resulted in a modest, but significant, increased oxygen consumption, while cardiac performance was unchanged. At the metabolic level, there was a nonsignificant (p = 0.076) ~ 40% decrease in glucose contribution to pyruvate and lactate formation through glycolysis and to mitochondrial citrate synthase flux (6.6 ± 1.1 vs. 11.2 ± 2.2%), and an 35% increase in tissue pyruvate (27 ± 2 vs. 20 ± 2 pmol/mg; p = 0.033). Secondly, we compared WT and HKII+/− hearts (50% chronic decrease in total HKII). RNA sequencing revealed no differential gene expression between WT and HKII+/− hearts indicating an absence of metabolic reprogramming at the transcriptional level. Langendorff-perfused hearts showed no significant differences in glycolysis (0.34 ± 0.03 μmol/min), glucose contribution to citrate ...
en] To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells ...
Neuronal injury due to seizures may result from a mismatch of energy demand and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, ATP demand and oxygen consumption rates have not been accurately determined, yet, for different patterns of epileptic activity, such as interictal and ictal events. We studied interictal-like and seizure-like epileptiform activity induced by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline alone, and with co-application of the M-current blocker XE-991, in rat hippocampal slices. Metabolic changes were investigated based on recording partial oxygen pressure, extracellular potassium concentration, and intracellular flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) redox potential. Recorded data were used to calculate oxygen consumption and relative ATP consumption rates, cellular ATP depletion, and changes in FAD/FADH2 ratio by applying a reactive-diffusion and a two compartment metabolic model. Oxygen-consumption rates were ca. five times higher during seizure activity than interictal activity. Additionally,
Figure CMB1: Components of the Mitochondrial electron transport chain with electron donors rate of oxygen consumption, increases when uncouplers are present and is affected only.. In the equation, α is the absorption coefficient of O. Oxygen consumption, proton motive force (PMF) and proton leak are that allows dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by uncoupling oxidative The overall goal of measuring mitochondrial oxygen consumption and proton. Example calculation based on concentrations in protocol.. respirometry, mitochondrial oxygen affinities (1/P50) are reviewed with particular emphasis on the turnover effect the uncoupled respiration observed under control by ADP, as shown by relationships derived oxygen consumed, i.e. a diminished ADP/O2 flux . (B) Transition periods of ADP-injection and calculation of ...
Students nowadays face tremendous pressure in school: Longer hours of studies, increasing homework, additional projects and Co-Curricular Activities (CCAs). To cope with all these, students need the fuel for their brains to stay focused and absorb what is being taught during classes. During revision for examinations, the need for the right fuel is even more important to ensure the brain can carry out its functions well in order for students to achieve their goals for their revision and ultimately, perform better during examinations.. In order to ensure these functions can be carried out smoothly, the brain must have a constant supply of nutrients and oxygen to it. The oxygen intake for brain is actually TWENTY PERCENT of the whole bodys oxygen consumption. So it is important to keep the brain supplied with enough oxygen and along with it, the necessary nutrients for the brain to function well. Here we recommend three types of super brain food:. ...
The original method described by Fick in 1870 is difficult to carry out. Oxygen consumption is derived by measuring the expired gas volume over a known time and the difference in oxygen concentration between this expired gas and inspired gas. Accurate collection of the gas is difficult unless the patient has an endotracheal tube, because of leaks around a facemask or mouthpiece. Analysis of the gas is straightforward if the inspired gas is air, but if it is oxygen-enriched air there are two problems, (a) the addition of oxygen may fluctuate and produce an error due to the non-constancy of the inspired oxygen concentration, and (b) it is difficult to measure small changes in oxygen concentration at the top end of the scale. The denominator of the equation, the arteriovenous oxygen content difference, presents a further problem, in that the mixed venous (i.e. pulmonary arterial) oxygen content has to be measured and therefore a pulmonary artery catheter is needed to obtain the sample. ...
The oxygen consumption of cerebral arterioles from anesthetized cats was measured using the Cartesian diver microrespirometer following in vitro incubation with 200 micrograms/ml of arachidonate or 50 micrograms/ml of 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE). Both agents depressed oxygen consumption severely. This effect was inhibited completely by a combination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, indicating that it is mediated by oxygen radicals. Similar depression of oxygen consumption was observed during incubation of the vessels with xanthine oxidase and acetaldehyde as substrate. This enzymic system is known to generate superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. The effect of xanthine oxidase was also partially inhibited by SOD and catalase. The effect of arachidonate was partially inhibited by cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The effect of lipoxygenase inhibitors could not be adequately tested because they depressed oxygen consumption by themselves. Prostaglandins H2 and E2 had no effect on
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1. Intrarenal oxygen availability is the balance between supply, mainly dependent on renal blood flow, and demand, determined by the basal metabolic demand and the energy-requiring tubular electrolyte transport. Renal blood flow is maintained within close limits in order to sustain stable glomerular filtration, so increased intrarenal oxygen consumption is likely to cause tissue hypoxia.. 2. The increased oxygen consumption is closely linked to increased oxidative stress, which increases mitochondrial oxygen usage and reduces tubular electrolyte transport efficiency, with both contributing to increased total oxygen consumption.. 3. Tubulointerstitial hypoxia stimulates the production of collagen I and alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicators of increased fibrogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment induces epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation and aggravates fibrosis, which results in reduced peritubular blood perfusion and oxygen delivery due to capillary rarefaction.. 4. Increased ...
Data & statistics on Relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption: Relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption, Cardioplegia volume ( A ) , total heart oxygen consumption (LV MVO,, in milliliters of oxygen; B), and arterial-venous oxygen content diferences (C) during each delivey interval. Duration of induction was 5 minutes at 4
Abstract Delivery of live crustaceans to markets has the potential to increase profits for Alaskan fishermen, but the practice has been limited in part by mortality occurring during shipment to distant markets. Protocols that select crabs more likely to survive shipment would likely further develop this niche market and evaluating the physiological stress response in crustaceans provides a logical entry point to explore this area. This study measures oxygen consumption rates (MO2; mgO2 g−1 hr−1) of male Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi, following 15, 30 or 45 min of emersion at 8°C or −15°C followed 12 h later by a uniform handling stressor (emersion at −15°C for 10 min). MO2 increased immediately following 15, 30 and 45 min emersion at 8°C (on average 1.5 times pre-treatment levels). All crabs survived emersion at 8°C and MO2 returned to pre-treatment levels within 12 hours. These animals also responded similarly to a uniform second stress test by increasing MO2. Crabs previously exposed
We examined a possible mechanism of action of an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener, YM934, for the improvement of energy metabolism in hearts subjected to 35-min ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. The treatment with 30 nM YM934 for the final 15 min of preischemia enhanced postischemic recovery of left ventricular developed pressure, attenuated the postischemic rise in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and suppressed the release of creatine kinase and ATP metabolites during reperfusion. The treatment also restored myocardial ATP and creatine phosphate contents and attenuated the decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate during reperfusion. The higher mitochondrial function was also seen in YM934-treated hearts at the end of ischemia. In another set of experiments, myocardial skinned bundles were incubated for 30 min under hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of YM934, and then mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was determined. Hypoxia decreased the ...
ad_1]. aerobic training exercise that involves or improves oxygen consumption by the body. The word means Aerobics oxygen. Along with using and improving the bodys oxygen consumption and aerobic exercise increases the bodys ability to burn fat during a workout acids. An example is the aerobic workout that includes a warm-up, followed by moderate exercise for a long time that exercise large muscle groups, and then a cool down. No matter what type of exercise, it is important to know that aerobic exercise is very beneficial fat-burning cardiovascular health and wellness. during anaerobic training exercise intense enough to anaerobic metabolism. This greatly increases the bodys functional capacity and maximize explosive power, short-term energy systems. An example would be, not endurance sports such as bodybuilders to promote anaerobic training speed, strength, power and muscle mass. This leads to higher performance of the high-intensity, short-lasting activities. several physiological reactions ...
Performance improves through the maximum amount of oxygen that the body can use during an intense workout, which is known as VO2 max levels. When VO2 max increases the body is able to handle more stress and train harder because it is able to transport and use oxygen more efficiently (Sperlich et al., 2018). An advantage of performing compound strength exercises in HICT, is a process known as EPOC. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC, is the amount of calories that is burned after a workout, which will help burn fat and boost metabolism. EPOC occurs at a maximal level when the compound strength movements are combined with very little rest between sets. An increase in EPOC allows the body to elicits metabolic and aerobic benefits during HICT. There are many reasons to do high intensity circuit training whether you want to build lean muscle, reduce body fat, improve performance, or increase endurance. It is practical, efficient, and an accessible way to train. Try the workout below to ...
Milani, R. V., Davis, C. T., Lavie, C. J. and Mehra, M. R. (2005). Importance of left atrial volume in predicting reduced peak aerobic capacity in advanced systolic dysfunction. In: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. , , (S129-S130). . doi:10.1016/j.healun.2004.11.292 ...
From Ergo-Log. After an intensive workout the body expends extra energy. Researchers suspect that because of this, strength training can help in maintaining a healthy weight, and they are studying ways of increasing the after burn. One such method is to consume caffeine before pumping iron, as sports scientists at California State University discovered.. After a demanding workout muscle cells need to recover. They need to replenish their creatine phosphate and glycogen reserves and restore their buffers. Were not even talking about the recovery of damaged muscle proteins, but this process costs energy too. Researchers measure this increased energy expenditure by measuring oxygen consumption; when the latter is higher, it is called elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC for short.. As far back as 1989 researchers showed that caffeine [structural formula shown below] raised the EPOC of untrained women after a cardio training session. [Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1989; 59(1-2): ...
Triplet imaging is a novel optical technique that allows investigating oxy- gen metabolism at the single cell and the sub-cellular level. The method combines high temporal and spatial resolution, which are required for the monitoring of fast kinetics of oxygen concentration in living cells. Calibration and validation is demon- strated with a titration experiment using L-Ascorbic Acid with the enzyme Ascor- base oxidase. The method was applied to a biological cell system, employing as reporter a cytosolic fusion protein of β-galactosidase with SNAP-tag labeled with tetramethylrhodamine. Oxygen consumption in single smooth muscle cells A7r5 during an [Arg8]-vasopressin-induced contraction is measured. The results indicate a consumption leading to an intracellular oxygen concentration that decays mono- exponentially with time. This is in good agreement with previously reported mea- surements of oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle fibers.. ...
Conditions: Diabetic Kidney Disease; Type 1 Diabetes; Diabetes; Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetes Complications; Diabetic Nephropathies; Type1diabetes; Diabetes, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Diabetes; Juvenile Diabetes; Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Interventions: Dru...
There are a few areas where I think our attention will be brought to going forward regarding the optimal development of aerobic capabilities of the organism, and one of those things is myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2).
Also known as exercise after burn, Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) relates to the amount of oxygen required and therefore the amount of
We tested the hypothesis that prior heavy-intensity exercise reduces the difference between asymptotic oxygen uptake (VO2) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) during exhaustive severe-intensity running lasting ≍2 minutes. Ten trained runners each performed 2 ramp tests to determine peak VO2 (VO2peak) and speed at venti-latory threshold. They performed exhaustive square-wave runs lasting ≍2 minutes, preceded by either 6 minutes of moderate-intensity running and 6 minutes rest (SEVMOD) or 6 minutes of heavy-intensity running and 6 minutes rest (SEVHEAVY). Two transitions were completed in each condition. VO2 was determined breath by breath and averaged across the 2 repeats of each test; for the square-wave test, the averaged VO2 response was then modeled using a monoexponential function. The amplitude of the VO2 response to severe-intensity running was not different in the 2 conditions (SEVMOD vs SEVHEAVY; 3925 ± 442 vs 3997 ± 430 mL/min, P = .237), nor was the speed of the response (τ; 9.2 ...
Kinetic testwork in the form of column leach and humidity cell testwork is widely used for mining approvals to assess the indicative chemistry of leachate from sulfidic mine wastes. Advanced kinetic testwork methods based on oxygen consumption measurements can also reveal, a) the likely duration of sulfide oxidation processes, b) an accurate assessment of lag times (time before the onset of acid conditions), and c) the likely pollution loads over time. Oxygen consumption measurement techniques permit the quantitative assessment of sulfide oxidation rates (i.e. pollution generation rates) as a function of key waste storage facility variables such as temperature, moisture content, particle size distribution, oxygen concentration, pore water pH, and bacterial activity. Covers for sulfide wastes, capping zones, thin-lift and compacted oxygen control (encapsulation) bands and oxygen consuming layers can be accurately tested in the laboratory and field to optimise installation configurations (e.g. ...
High intensity training or HIT, often referred to as HIIT which actually stands for High Intensity Interval Training has been presented as some kind of magic bullet for fat loss in recent years - technically any form of exercise that involve high intensity efforts if HIT. This includes resistance training. Whilst HIIT (true HIIT) is very short bursts of very high intensity efforts with a short rest interval - but do they burn more fat? I mean, I was even taught this when I first did my level 3 personal trainer diploma. The main reason we are told that HIIT burns more fat than other forms of exercise is because of something called Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption or EPOC for short. This is often referred to in more simple terms as the afterburn effect. The theory being that after a bout of very high intensity exercise you burn more Calories while you recover. Some sources have claimed that you could burn an extra 1,000kcals over 24-hours. This is completely false. Let me explain ...
Toadal Results! In the Zone is a heart rate based training program for ALL fitness levels. You will get personal training quality attention with the motivation and energy of a small group. The training sessions were designed to provide a full body workout in 45 minutes at a maximum intensity level. The coaches will push you to reach and maintain an optimal heart rate zone to maximize your excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). EPOC is the scientific term for the after burn effect, which helps you continue to burn calories 16-24 hours after the workout is over. Your body will take 24-48 hours to fully recover from this high intensity workout; therefore it is not recommended that you do this type of workout every day. Aiming for a heart rate of 70-80% maximum for up to 30 minutes will offer the greatest results. Great news for those time crunched executives, busy moms & dads and those who would rather not spend their whole day exercising! Minimum Time, Maximum Results!. ...
Toadal Results! In the Zone is a heart rate based training program for ALL fitness levels. You will get personal training quality attention with the motivation and energy of a small group. The training sessions were designed to provide a full body workout in 45 minutes at a maximum intensity level. The coaches will push you to reach and maintain an optimal heart rate zone to maximize your excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). EPOC is the scientific term for the after burn effect, which helps you continue to burn calories 16-24 hours after the workout is over. Your body will take 24-48 hours to fully recover from this high intensity workout; therefore it is not recommended that you do this type of workout every day. Aiming for a heart rate of 70-80% maximum for up to 30 minutes will offer the greatest results. Great news for those time crunched executives, busy moms & dads and those who would rather not spend their whole day exercising! Minimum Time, Maximum Results!. ...
Glucagon and ethanol have both been shown to decrease glycolysis, thereby increasing hepatic oxygen consumption (Cherrington and Exton, 1976; Thurman and Scholz, 1977). Inhibition of glycolysis slows an ATP-generating process resulting in an increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption due to higher rates of ATP generation. When nicotine was infused into perfused livers from fed rats, glycolysis significantly decreased while oxygen uptake increased (Table1). When the increase in oxygen uptake is plotted against the decrease in lactate + pyruvate production, a positive relationship is observed (Fig. 2). The association between the increase in oxygen uptake and the decrease in lactate and pyruvate production suggests that a possible mechanism by which nicotine stimulates respiration is through an inhibition of glycolysis. Additionally, nicotine failed to stimulate oxygen uptake in perfused livers from 24-h fasted rats, where there is a shift from carbohydrate metabolism to fatty acid oxidation due ...
Principal Investigator:TAKISHIMA Tamotsu, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Developmental Scientific Research (B)., Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
EPOC. EPOC stands for Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption. This basically means that depending on the intensity of your morning exercise, your body will continue burning calories for several hours afterward. Because your metabolism is revved up (just like those pistons firing in your car engine), food consumption is not needed. Therefore, cravings that may arise after a well-balanced breakfast are easier to stave off, enabling you to get through the morning and engage in a healthy, uncompromising afternoon lunch.. Reducing Cravings with Morning Exercise. It may be difficult to squeeze in a morning exercise routine, but take into account some of the advantages compared to an after work or evening workout.. ...
Orangetheory fitness uses heart-rate monitoring and high-intensity interval training (HIIT), but the science around its afterburn promise from excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has been reevaluated.
O presente estudo revisa os resultados encontrados, até então, na literatura, relativos ao dispêndio energético (DE) no treino de força (TF). Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico nas bases de dados Medline e Sport Discus, utilizando as palavras-chave: strength training, energy expenditure e excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Os estudos analisados referem que protocolos de TF que envolvam exercícios para grandes grupos musculares, com grandes intensidades e volumes de treinamento, e menores intervalos de recuperação entre séries e exercícios são os que apresentam maior impacto metabólico na sessão de treino. Essas mesmas variáveis também demonstram interferir na magnitude e na duração do EPOC ...
Everyone can use the rowing machine, at any age: There are no age limits to become an indoor rower. I know people in the 80s and even in their 90s who are still rowing regularly. Since indoor rowing is a low impact exercise and easy on the joints, bad knees or bad hips are not a problem anymore. And actually, since its easy on the body but yet provides a great workout, many people, recovering from an injury, are prescribed the use of the rowing machine!. Indoor Rowing definitely burns calories. Since rowing is both strength and cardio vascular intensive at the same time, your muscle mass and lungs/heart system are constantly challenged during your rowing workout. Depending on effort level, a 160lbs male will burn between 200 and 300 calories in 30 minutes of rowing. And doing some High Intensity Intervals ( example: 30 secs rowing/30 secs off…) will greatly increase the amount of calories burned during and after the workout, due to EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption). You can ...
Measurements were made of the stoicheiometry of respiration-driven proton translocation coupled to the oxidation of NAD(P)-linked or flavin-linked substrates in intact cells of Escherichia coli. Observed stoicheiometries (→H+/O quotient; Mitchell, 1966) were approx. 4 with l-malate as substrate and approx. 2 for succinate, d-lactate and glycerol oxidation. It is concluded that the potential number of equivalent energy-conservation sites associated with the respiratory chain is 2 in aerobically grown cells of E. coli harvested during the exponential phase of growth. ...
Tsuchiya, T and Okamoto, K, The relationship between the oxygen consumption of various tissues and the radiosensitivity in mice. I. Oxygen consumption of various tissues in the normal physiological state of mice. (jap.) (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 974 ...
Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes. To test this, we developed a new procedure to transfer tunable polydimethylsiloxane disks microcontact-printed with fibronectin into cell culture microplates. We cultured Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat ventricular myocytes within the wells, which consistently formed tissues following the printed fibronectin, and measured oxygen consumption rate using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our data indicate that ...
Neither of the catecholamines affected blood flow distribution unfavorably. Although both catecholamines increased coronary blood flow, this increase can never account for the increase in systemic blood flow, because coronary blood flow expressed as a percentage of systemic blood flow (about 8% in the lambs with shunt) did not change. Because isoproterenol did not change cerebral, renal or splanchnic blood flow, blood flow to the carcass will have been increased. In the lambs with shunt there was no need for an increase in blood flow, because blood flow to the vital organs at rest (except for the heart) was the same in the lambs with shunt and in the control lambs. It remains unclear how isoproterenol affects blood flow distribution when blood flow to the vital organs is jeopardized. Unfortunately, the lambs with shunt in whom that happened died before a proper study could be done. Despite the fact that systemic blood flow was the same in the lambs with shunt and the control lambs, we think our ...
Energy metabolism was measured in isolated honeybee foragers (Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann 1879) and compared with their level of activity at two ambient temperatures. Artificially immobilised bees consumed more oxygen (averages: 7.4 and 6.9 μl O2min-1 at 25° and 35°C, respectively) than spontaneously motionless bees but less than active, freely moving individuals. Oxygen measurements in immobilised honeybees, therefore, are neither suited to determine the basal rate of oxygen metabolism nor to estimate the energy turnover of highly active, freely moving individuals. As was expected from thermographical temperature measurements, oxygen consumption by bees which were free to move within 95 ml Warburg vessels varied in a wide range. At an ambient temperature of 25°C it followed a bimodal distribution, with one peak below 20 and a second peak between 70-130 μl O2min-1. At 35°C oxygen consumption was always below 75 μl O2min-1. However, considering the bees level of activity led to a ...
We examine herein the contribution of V-ATPase activity to the energy budget of aerobically developing embryos of Artemia franciscana and discuss the results in the context of quiescence under anoxia. 31P-NMR analysis indicates that intracellular pH and NTP levels are unaffected by acute incubation of dechorionated embryos with the V-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin A1. Bafilomycin A1 also has no significant effect on oxygen consumption by isolated mitochondria. Taken together, these data indicate that bafilomycin does not affect energy-producing pathways in the developing embryo. However, the V-ATPase inhibitor exhibits a concentration-dependent inhibition of oxygen consumption in aerobic embryos. A conservative analysis of respirometric data indicates that proton pumping by the V-ATPase, and processes immediately dependent on this activity, constitutes approximately 31% of the aerobic energy budget of the preemergent embryo. Given the complete absence of detectable Na+K+-ATPase activity during the first
To establish whether pressure-volume areas (PVAs) calculated using the maximum time-varying elastance (Emax) have a relation with myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) that improves on other indexes of myocardial oxygen demand, we studied nine dogs of either sex weighing 19-39 kg, which were instrumented with a micromanometer left ventricular (LV) catheter and a Wilton-Webster coronary sinus flow catheter and had red blood cells tagged with technetium-99m for radionuclide angiography. Hemodynamics, coronary sinus flow determinations, and radionuclide angiograms were obtained under control conditions and during three to five steady-state loading conditions (mean +/- SD, 5.6 +/- 0.7). Isochronal pressure-volume data points from each pressure-volume loop were subjected to linear regression analysis to calculate Emax. The Emax relations, diastolic curves, and systolic portions of each pressure-volume loop were used to obtain calibrated PVAs. The Emax PVA (mm g-1) and MVO2 (ml ...
5 No-Equipment Upper Body Exercises , So they improve cardiovascular health and increase muscular endurance. Burpees Upper Body Exercises Do all these exercises slowly. Squats. Try these ten bodyweight upper body exercises to sculpt your arms, shoulders, and coreâ mostly those guns, though. This upper-body routine requires zero equipment and little space. In fact, your own body is one of the most effective arm-strengthening tools at your disposal. If you feel any unusual pain in your joints or muscles while you exercise, do not continue the exercise. Full Body Exercises That Donâ t Require Weights 1. And as much as I love weights, you donâ t even need weights to build killer functional upper body strength. Do these exercises 2-3 times a week. While these can be very effective at training your back, I deliberately left them out from this list. Now that you know the importance of doing full body exercises â letâ s look into the 9 full body exercises you can do without weights. ...
A laboratory experiment was undertaken to analyze the effects of salinity on growth, body composition, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion of anadromous American shad (Alosa sapidissima) juveniles. Results showed the best survival rate occurred at 5‰ and 15‰. The relative weight gain and the specific growth rate declined as salinity increased. However, feed conversion rate increased with increasing salinity. Oxygen consumption rates showed a parabolic relationship in relation to salinity. From the quadratic relationship (y= -0.0004x2+0.0166x+0.319; R2=0.801; ...
Several different genomic and non-genomic mechanisms mediate the important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids (GCs). The genomic effects are the most important while the clinical relevance of non-genomic actions is still a matter of debate. We therefore investigated whether beclomethasone and clobetasol are particularly suitable for topical application because they differ in their spectrum of activity from systemically administered GCs such as dexamethasone. We compared effects on oxygen consumption as measured with a Clark electrode (nonspecific non-genomic glucocorticoid effects), on interleukin-6 synthesis by means of ELISA (genomic effects) and on apoptosis using flow cytometry (non-genomic and genomic effects) in quiescent and mitogen-stimulated PBMCs. Beclomethasone and clobetasol had stronger effects on the oxygen consumption of quiescent and stimulated cells at lower concentrations (10-10, 10-8 M) but were less potent at higher concentrations (10-5, 10-4 M) ...
|p|The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of static and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretches on maximal oxygen consumption (VO|sub|2|/sub| max). Ten physically active men (mean ± SD, 23.80 ± 1.54 years, 70.60 ± 9.70 kg, 1.74.60 ± 5.23 m), who were healthy students volunteered to take part in the study. The participants were subjected to Static and PNF stretching exercises. After the interventions, the Bruce treadmill protocol was applied to measure VO|sub|2|/sub| max values. The expired gases were collected and analyzed continuously using the Cortex Metalyzer II. Analysis of variance showed significant main effects for interventions (F|sub|(2,18)|/sub|=10.74, p<.05) on VO|sub|2|/sub| max. The main result of this study showed that both static and PNF stretching exercises improved VO|sub|2|/sub| max values.|/p|
STUDY. What determines if a cell will use aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration? Missed a question here and there? In this way, carbon molecules (as glucose and carbon dioxide) are being recycled. Disadvantages of cellular respiration: Definition. Cell respiration releases the energy stored in glucose (food) to make ATP which cells need for cellular work. As the organism inside the respirometer consumes oxygen, what happens to the water? Flashcards. Which best describes cellular respiration? produced in your muscles when there is not enough oxygen present: Term. What are the drawbacks of anaerobic respiration? Explain how photosynthesis and cellular respiration function in the cycling of chemical nutrients. Learn term:oxygen respiration = cellular respiration with free interactive flashcards. Cellular respiration is a cells way of obtaining energy, so its a process you depend on in order to live. Write. cytoplasm. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water are absorbed by plant cells to
Purpose: To investigate the influence of prior heavy- and severe-intensity exercise on the oxygen uptake (V·O2) kinetics and the power-duration relationship. Methods: Ten cyclists performed 13 exercise tests over a 4 week period, consisting of a ramp test to determine the gas exchange threshold (GET) and the peak V·O2, followed by a series of square-wave tests to exhaustion under three conditions: no prior exercise (control), prior heavy exercise (6 min at a work rate above GET but below critical power (CP)) and prior severe exercise (6 min at a work rate above the CP). Pulmonary gas exchange was measured throughout the exhaustive exercise bouts and the parameters of the power duration relationship (CP and the curvature constant, W) were determined from the linear work-time model. Results: Prior heavy exercise increased the amplitude of the primary V·O2 response (by ~0.19 ± 0.28 L·min-1, P = 0.001), reduced the slow component trajectory (by 0.04 ± 0.09 L·min-2; P = 0.002) and increased ...
Tight coupling between cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolism is key for GSIS (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion). In the present study we examined the regulatory contribution of PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) kinase 1, a negative regulator of PDH, to metabolic coupling in 832/13 clonal beta-cells. Knockdown of PDH kinase 1 with siRNA (small interfering RNA) reduced its mRNA (,80 %) and protein level (,40 %) after 72 h. PDH activity, glucose-stimulated cellular oxygen consumption and pyruvate-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption increased 1.7- (P , 0.05), 1.6- (P , 0.05) and 1.6-fold (P , 0.05) respectively. Gas chromatography/MS revealed an altered metabolite profile upon silencing of PDH kinase 1, determined by increased levels of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates malate, fumarate and alpha-ketoglutarate. These metabolic alterations were associated with exaggerated GSIS (5-fold compared with 3.1-fold in control cells; P , 0.01). Insulin secretion, provoked by leucine and ...
Past simulations of oxidative ATP metabolism in skeletal muscle have predicted that elimination of the creatine kinase (CK) reaction should result in dramatically faster oxygen consumption dynamics during transitions in ATP turnover rate. This hypothesis was investigated. Oxygen consumption of fast-twitch (FT) muscle isolated from wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice deficient in the myoplasmic (M) and mitochondrial (Mi) CK isoforms (MiM CK−/−) were measured at 20°C at rest and during electrical stimulation. MiM CK−/− muscle oxygen consumption activation kinetics during a step change in contraction rate were 30% faster than WT (time constant 53 ± 3 vs. 69 ± 4 s, respectively; mean ± SE, n = 8 and 6, respectively). MiM CK−/− muscle oxygen consumption deactivation kinetics were 380% faster than WT (time constant 74 ± 4 s vs. 264 ± 4 s, respectively). Next, the experiments were simulated using a computational model of the oxidative ATP metabolic network in FT muscle featuring ADP ...
A single work rate paced step test is described. It was designed to allow the measurement of minute ventilation (VI) and oxygen consumption (VO2), under standardised conditions, during exercise in the clinic and lung function laboratory and in field work. The subjects and the operator found the test simple to perform. The values for ventilation at a given oxygen consumption were similar to those from more complex and stressful tests and had a high degree of reproducibility. The ergometer was a 12 inch (30 cm) step with hand rails. The subjects stepped down, once every four seconds in response to a buzzer for 10 minutes. VI and VO2 were measured with a small portable device. In 53 normal subjects of mean weight 69 (range 49-107) kg, mean VO2 measured during the last 5 minutes of the test was 0.89 (range 0.53-1.52) 1/min. Weight and height were independent contributors to the oxygen cost of stepping. The ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VIO2, which equals VI divided by VO2) increased with age, ...
Men generally gain weight with increasing age, and the maximum oxygen intake decreases; no figures are, however, available on the changes in maximum oxygen intake with increase in age.
1. Maximal exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis is influenced by both pulmonary and nutritional factors: lung disease by limiting maximal achievable ventilation, and malnutrition through a loss of muscle mass. The associated reduction in everyday activities may result in peripheral muscle deconditioning.. 2. We studied 14 stable patients with cystic fibrosis (six males, eight females) and 14 healthy control subjects (seven males, seven females) in order to assess the influence of these factors on exercise performance. Subjects underwent anthropometry to estimate muscle mass, spirometry to assess ventilatory capacity, a 30 s sprint on an isokinetic cycle ergometer to assess maximal leg muscle performance, and progressive cycle ergometry to assess overall exercise capacity.. 3. Compared with control subjects, the patients with cystic fibrosis were of similar age and height but weighed proportionately less [% ideal weight (mean ± sd): 94.3 ± 9.64 versus 109.5 ± 11.82] and showed evidence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in running economy at different intensities following downhill running. AU - Chen, Trevor C.. AU - Nosaka, Kazunori. AU - Lin, Ming Ju. AU - Chen, Hsin Lian. AU - Wu, Chang Jun. PY - 2009/9/1. Y1 - 2009/9/1. N2 - In this study, we tested the hypothesis that running economy assessed at a high intensity [e.g. 90% maximal oxygen capacity (VO2max)] would be affected more than at a lower intensity (e.g. 70% VO2max) after downhill running. Fifteen untrained young men performed level running at 70, 80, and 90% VO2max (5 min for each intensity) before and 2 and 5 days after a 30-min downhill run (gradient of 716%) at the intensity of their pre-determined 70% VO2max. Oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were measured during the level runs together with kinematic measures (e.g. stride length and frequency) using high-speed video analysis. Downhill running resulted in significant ...
Oxygen Uptake (VO2 ) - is the amount of oxygen being consumed by the muscles of the body.. Maximal Oxygen Uptake (V• O2Max ) - is the greatest amount of oxygen that can be used by the body at the cellular level. People do not train at their V • O2Max .. Resting Heart Rate (RHR) - the times per minute that your heart beats while at rest. Best to take this after youve been sitting quietly for a few minutes - without caffeine!. Maximal Heart Rate or (HR Max) - is an estimation obtained by subtracting ones age from the number 220. It is most often used to calculate Target Heart Rate (THR).. Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) - is the difference between the resting heart rate (RHR) and the maximal heart rate (HR Max). Also used for calculating the Target Heart Rate.. Target Heart Rate (THR) - or training heart rate - used to gauge the intensity of aerobic training.. EPOC or Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Demand - refers to the bodys continued demand for oxygen after the exercise session is through. The ...
Piracetam, which typically comes in the form of piracetam powder is a widely-utilized and highly-recognized nootropic in the racetam family. This popular nootropic works by improving the function of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine through ACh receptors which are used in the memory process.. It has also been found to increase oxygen consumption to the brain which translates to a higher level of brain functioning. Think of it this way: consider the way our bodies function when we are stressed out. We take short, bated breaths from our chest and before we know it, were exhausted, we cant concentrate, and our heads are pounding.. The brain functions in much the same way. Without its proper intake of oxygen, it doesnt receive or produce commands correctly and it certainly isnt doing anything at the speed we need it to.. Piracetam increases oxygen levels in the brain, allowing it to function at an accelerated level without the jitters or excitability of other stimulants. It continues to be one ...
We have shown that constant-load treadmill exercise in mice produces an abrupt ventilatory increase to a maximal level at exercise onset. We examined what caused this abrupt response. We measured ventilation during 30-min constant-load exercise on a
Little is known about the mechanistic basis for the exercise intolerance characteristic of patients with respiratory disease; a lack of clearly defined, distinct patient groups limits interpretation of many studies. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the pulmonary oxygen uptake ( $$ \overset{.}{V} $$ O2) response, and its potential determinants, in patients with emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Following a ramp incremental test for the determination of peak $$ \overset{.}{V} $$ O2 and the gas exchange threshold, six emphysema (66 ± 7 years; FEV1, 36 ± 16%), five IPF (65 ± 12 years; FEV1, 82 ± 11%) and ten healthy control participants
The data collected (as seen in Figure 10) shows an average of 0 carbon dioxide bubbles per minute at 0 degrees Celsius, an average of 11.5 bubbles per minute at 19 degrees Celsius, and an average of 76.8 bubbles per minute at 83 degrees Celsius.. The test at 83 deg. C showed a near-constant decline in the amount of bubbles as time passed. This mostly occurred because enzymes denatured and could no longer catalyse the reaction. The high number of bubbles at the beginning is probably due to the rapid expansion of gas at high temperatures and does not actually represent carbon dioxide (See Fig. 6). The test at 0 degrees Celsius showed no production of carbon dioxide, presumably because the low temperatures froze the yeast. (See Fig. 7). The room temperature test (19 deg. C) showed a fairly even level of carbon dioxide production, but not enough to be useful in the making of leavened bread. (See Fig. 8). We incurred two experimental errors in the first testing at 0 degrees Celsius. By beginning the ...
Background: Submaximal exercise tests use heart rate responses to low-to-moderate intensity activity in order to predict cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max). Currently used tests may be inappropriate for obese populations as obese women have altered heart rate responses to exercise. The purpose of this study is to test the validity of the Modified Bruce Protocol submaximal treadmill test in obese women. Methods: Normal-weight (NW) women and obese (OB) women completed the Modified Bruce submaximal treadmill test (to predict VO2max using previously validated equations) and a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill using the Standard Bruce Protocol (to obtain an actual VO2max) on two separate occasions. The relationships between actual and predicted VO2max values were analyzed using correlation coefficients. Results: 9 NW (age: 23.1 ± 8.0 y, body fat: 23.5 ± 4.9%) and 9 OB (age: 22.0 ± 4.8 y, body fat: 36.9 ± 4.4%) women participated. Actual and predicted VO2max values were not correlated ...
Several lines of evidence suggest that hypoxia decreases mitochondrial respiration rates, but some results show an opposite effect in rodents adapted to life at high altitude. In the present study we used FVB mice and SD rats, as two models showing divergent responses at high altitude or during short-term exposure to hypoxia at sea level. We assessed mitochondrial respiration rates in permeabilized brain cortex samples by high resolution respirometry (Oroboros-2k) during acclimatization to hypoxia. Rats and mice were exposed to room air (controls), short-term (6 and 24 hours), or long-term (7 and 21 days) hypoxia (12% O,sub>2,/sub>). Brain samples were rapidly dissected and permeabilized in saponin before measurements of O,sub>2,/sub> consumption rates with a standard protocol to assess NADH-, FADH,sub>2,/sub>-, or NADH+FADH,sub>2,/sub>-linked respiration. During short-term hypoxic exposure, NADH and FADH,sub>2,/sub>-linked respiration increased in mice, but remained stable in rats. During ...
Do more HIIT: High intensity interval training (HIIT) is as close to a magic pill as we have (except it involves a whole lot more work than just swallowing a capsule-sorry). Not only does it surge your body to max intensity during the workout, but because youre working so hard, your body cant deliver enough oxygen in the moment, explains personal trainer Jeremey DuVall. Your muscles accumulate a debt of oxygen that then has to be repaid post-workout. This throws your body into a phase of fat burning for hours after youre done sweating, known as post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC. Plus, super intense circuits like this activate muscle-building hormones like growth hormone and IGF-1, he adds ...
An online degree programs - Marine Biology, Marine Biology is about observing and analyzing life processes. The biological treatment is the ap biology cell respiration lab of mathematical/physical modeling to understanding the ap biology cell respiration lab. The laboratory I participated in was extremely spacious. My classmates and I performed experiments on tall work stations that had a better chance to enter the ap biology cell respiration lab and begin climbing the ap biology cell respiration lab a love of the ap biology cell respiration lab at least student-grade biological microscopes. To spice lessons up, try getting the ap biology cell respiration lab of the various organisms.. Biological microscopes also come in forms that differ in terms of the ap biology cell respiration lab from which to earn an average of $44,000, with some earning almost double that amount. Not only are these jobs in demand right now, but they have to do so. It wont only give you the ap biology cell respiration ...
We propose a new imaging approach which interleaves complex-difference and susceptometry MRI acquisitions for real-time imaging of skeletal muscle blood flow (SMBF) and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) for the calculation of skeletal muscle oxygen consumption (VO2). The goal of this study was to determine the reproducibility of this approach during sub-maximal knee-extensor exercise. The coefficient of variation from test/retest trials was 7.6%, 15.6% and 12.3% for SMBF, SvO2 and VO2, with mean values of 0.9 0.1L/min/kg, 43.2 13.5% and 95.7 18.0mL/min/kg respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of non-invasive skeletal muscle VO2 and its determinants (SMFB,SvO2) during dynamic exercise ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with continuous moderate-intensity (CMI) exercise on postprandial hyperglycemia in overweight or obese adults. Ten inactive, overweight or obese adults (41 ± 11 yrs, BMI = 36 ± 7 kg/m2) performed an acute bout of HIIT (10 × 1 min at approximately 90% peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 1-min recovery periods) or matched work CMI (30 min at approximately 65% HRpeak) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Exercise was performed 2 h after breakfast, and glucose control was assessed by continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions over 24 h. Postprandial glucose (PPG) responses to lunch, dinner, and the following days breakfast were analyzed and compared with a no-exercise control day. Exercise did not affect the PPG responses to lunch, but performing both HIIT and CMI in the morning significantly reduced the PPG incremental area under the curve (AUC) following dinner ...
We contend that the lack of appreciation for the variability in mitochondrial efficiency could lead to misleading interpretations of the relationships between oxygen consumption and animal performance, since the amount of ATP generated per molecule of oxygen consumed can vary significantly both among and within individuals. Combining sub-cellular and whole-organism measurements of metabolism will provide a more robust framework for understanding organismal energy metabolism. For example, a high P/O ratio does not necessarily result in high ATP production since this ratio can also be offset by a decrease in oxygen consumption rate (e.g. [36]); nor is it the case that individuals with a relatively low P/O ratio are necessarily producing less ATP than those with a higher P/O ratio, since this will depend on the rate of work of their mitochondria. Therefore, measuring both levels of energetic processes may give a better insight into the energy metabolism, since the rate of ATP generation is ...
In many multicellular eukaryotes--including mammals--reduced caloric intake is associated with increased life span. It has been postulated that this might result from a decrease in the metabolically dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether reduced ROS production translates into increased life span has been a subject of debate. Schulz et al. exposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DOG)--which isnt metabolized beyond the initial phosphorylation by hexokinase--to create a metabolic state similar to that elicited by glucose deprivation. Although glucose metabolism was decreased, mitochondrial respiration was increased, as was life span. Knockdown of a glycolytic enzyme also increased respiration and extended life span, whereas increased glucose availability led to a decrease in both parameters. DOG failed to increase oxygen consumption or life span in worms lacking AAK-2 (the C. elegans homolog of AMP-dependent kinase). DOG elicited an ...
AIM: We hypothesized that an extremely high pedal rate would induce much more type II muscle fibers recruitment even at an early phase of the same absolute work rate compared with normal pedal rates, and would result in changed amplitude of the pulmo
INTRODUCTION: A treadmill exercise test requiring a low initial metabolic rate that then increments the work rate linearly to reach the subjects limit of tolerance in approximately 10 min would have significant advantages for exercise testing and rehabilitation of subjects with impaired exercise tolerance. METHODS: We developed such a treadmill protocol that uses a linear increase in walking speed coupled with a curvilinear increase in treadmill grade to yield a linear increase in work rate. RESULTS: Twenty-two healthy, sedentary subjects performed both this new treadmill protocol and a standard cycle ergometry ramp protocol eliciting similar work rate profiles. The low initial treadmill speed and grade resulted in a low initial metabolic rate, commensurate with unloaded pedaling on a cycle ergometer (average [OV0312]O2 = 0.54 +/- 0.16 vs 46 +/- 0.12 l x min(-1)). This combination of simultaneous increase in speed and grade yielded a linear work rate and its oxygen uptake response (R2 = 0.96 ...
BUSTAMANTE, L et al. Discrimination of exercise limitation in submaximal and maximal exercise tests in severe COPD patients. Rev. amer. med. respiratoria [online]. 2011, vol.11, n.1, pp.18-23. ISSN 1852-236X.. There are no data about symptoms of activity limitation in COPD patients when maximal and submaximal exercise tests are compared. Objective: To compare the activity limitation by dyspnea or fatigue between maximal and submaximal exercise tests. Methods: Moderate and severe COPD patients were included (GOLD definition). They were classified as fatigue limited (FL) if Borg scale of fatigue at maximal exercise was ≥ 2 points vs. dyspnea; and dyspnea limited (DL) if it was the reverse. Each patient was evaluated in the same way with submaximal cycloergometry. Results: 15 patients in the LD group and 18 patients in the LF group were evaluated. The LF patients were mainly women (FL 55.5 vs. DL 26.6% p: 0.034), had a low body-mass index (FL 24.1 ± 3.2 vs. DL 26.8 ± 2.1; p,0.04) and less ...
A lower support frame (A) mounts a lower body support structure (B) and an upper body exercise structure (C) thereon. The upper body exercise structure includes an upper frame (30) which is selectively and adjustably mounted on the lower support frame. A flywheel (40) is rotatably mounted in the upper frame. A belt (52) and selectable number of weights (62) drag along the flywheel for selectively adjusting the effort required to maintain rotation of the flywheel. Flexible cables (70, 72) are each wrapped around a pulley (84). A one-way clutch (86) selectively connects the pulley with the flywheel for providing rotational driving force thereto as the cable is pulled. A rewind spring (92) rewinds the cable back onto the pulley. The relative positions of the lower body support structure (B) and the upper body exercise structure (C) are selectively adjustable such that the exercise apparatus is usable in training for walking or running (FIG. 1), ski poleing (FIG. 4), canoeing or kayaking (FIG. 5), rowing
article{a59a3775-0cdf-4ebf-abd7-9978bbcf91d6, abstract = {Previous studies of gender differences in maximum oxygen uptake have come to different conclusions. Limited data exists where the determinants of maximum oxygen uptake have been evaluated in a comprehensive manner. Thus, we examined 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9-11.1 years. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured variables were total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers and duration of vigorous activity per day (VPA) was calculated. Left ventricular inner diastolic diameter (LVDD) was measured by echocardiography. Lung function was evaluated with spirometric testing and whole body plethysmography. Boys had between 8 and 18% higher values than girls for VO2peak, dependent upon whether VO2peak was expressed in absolute ...
The time it takes for oxygen delivery to respond to the demands of exercise is called V02 kinetics. The diagram below shows what happens when we start running from an initial standstill without any Warmup. The red line represents our exercise level as oxygen consumption, and it rises rapidly to a steady-state that represents the demands of the running pace. The blue line on the other hand represents the rate of oxygen delivery which is mostly controlled by breathing and heart rate. As you can see the oxygen delivery lags behind the oxygen consumption and this creates an oxygen debt represented by the yellow area. This oxygen debt does not cause a drop in the oxygen saturation of our blood (hypoxia), but rather forces our body to produce energy anaerobically (literally without oxygen). Our body will attempt to repay this oxygen debt by providing more oxygen as shown in the green area. The imbalance caused by the oxygen debt and the anaerobic energy production can actually last for protracted ...
Purpose This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Measures of ventilation, oxygen consumption, heart rate, perceived dyspnea, syllables per phrase, articulation rate, and inappropriate linguistic pause placements were obtained at baseline and throughout the experimental tasks. Results Ventilation was significantly lower during the speaking tasks compared with the nonspeaking tasks. Oxygen consumption, however, did not significantly differ between speaking and nonspeaking tasks. The perception of dyspnea was significantly higher during the speaking tasks compared with the nonspeaking tasks. All speech parameters were significantly altered over time at both task intensities. Conclusions It is speculated that decreased ...
Middle-aged trained male runners (N = 7; 51+6 yr) performed three different short-interval training protocols: a) alternating 15-s runs at 90% VO2max with 15-s runs at 80% VO2max; b) alternating 15-s runs at 100% VO2max with 15-s runs at 70% VO2max; and c) alternating 15-s runs at 110% VO2max with 15-s runs at 60% VO2max. The average intensity in the intervals was 85% VO2max.. Protocols A and B allowed the athletes to spend twice as long (14-min) at VO2max than did protocol C (7-min). Protocols A and B, also had lower final lactate levels (9 mmol) than C (11 mmol).. Implication. Alternating ultra-short interval training intensities of 90-80% VO2max or 100-70% VO2max provided greater volumes of training at the highest level of oxygen consumption than did a 110-60% protocol. Thus, for the greatest maximal aerobic training stimulation, work intensity should not exceed 100% VO2max when ultra-short interval training is employed.. Return to Table of Contents for this issue.. ...
Lactate Threshold Implications for Training The model in the preceding posts indicates that there are two aspects of your basic energy metabolism that affect the lactate threshold, namely aerobic capacity & anaerobic capacity Thus, changes in either will affect the lactate threshold. Importance of aerobic capacity - We make the comment at various places on this course that there is never enough aerobic capacity or VO2 max. We have not found any athletic situation where a lower VO2 max is an adv
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of duration of training on VO2(max) and citrate synthase activity in muscle during detraining. AU - Azevedo, J. L.. AU - Auleb, H. L.. AU - Evans, S. J.. AU - Willis, W. T.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Two groups of rats were endurance trained by treadmill running for an hour a day five days a week for either 5 (n=12) or 11 (n=14) weeks. Maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) was determined at 1, 9, and 19 days, and muscle samples were taken at 3, 11, and 21 days after cessation of training. There were no differences in V̇O2max between groups nor were there any changes in V̇O2max within any of the groups during detraining. Citrate synthase (CS) activity in deep vastus lateralis muscle was increased 30% (P,0.01) to 39.9 and 40.9 micromol/min gram wet muscle in the 5 and 11 week trained animals, respectively, compared to the control group (29.8 micromol/min gram wet muscle) 3 days post-training. Eleven days after the cessation of training CS activity in both groups ...
The main finding of this study was that prolonged endotoxemia impaired the efficiency of hepatic mitochondrial complex I and complex II respiration, whereas mitochondrial respiration in the skeletal muscle remained unchanged. The altered mitochondrial function occurred despite well-maintained total and microcirculatory hepatic blood flow. In spite of the reduced hepatic mitochondrial RCR, the hepatic oxygen consumption and extraction remained unchanged. The reduced glutamate-dependent RCR in the liver mitochondria was mainly due to an increase in the mitochondrial resting respiration rate, suggesting partial uncoupling of oxygen consumption from ATP production. These results are supported by the well-maintained hepatic oxygen consumption and by the reduction in the ADP:O ratios. The alterations in the succinate-dependent respiration were due to reduced function of the complex II, as suggested by reduced state 3 respiration. The partial uncoupling in the glutamate-dependent and ...
Health,The influence of heart rate on cardiac output oxygen consumption and...In a recent study researchers from Germany examined the effect of a...The researchers found that within 2 min the myocardial pO2 adjusted...Left ventricular ischemia with subsequent necrosis of myocardium is ...,Influence,Of,Heart,Rate,On,Myocardial,Oxygen,Tension,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Therapies that aim to modify cardiac substrate utilisation are designed to increase metabolic efficiency. Although the main energy supply for the heart is generally provided by the oxidation of fatty acids, the heart is a metabolic omnivore and able to consume glucose as well as lactate and amino acids in varying proportions. A shift from fatty acid oxidation to glucose oxidation leads to lower oxygen consumption per unit of ATP produced. This concept of reduced oxygen utilisation underlies the use of metabolic modulating agents to treat chronic stable angina. Furthermore, the model of an energy-starved heart now forms the basis for our understanding of both ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure. Potential alterations in substrate utilisation and thus myocardial efficiency underlie the use of metabolic agents in heart failure. This is achieved by either promoting glucose or reducing the utilisation of fatty acids. Such a shift results in a relatively greater production of ATP per unit of ...
In this issue of the Journal, Cramer et al. (4) evaluate the level of exercise intolerance and factors associated with the magnitude of intolerance in a cross-sectional cohort of 50 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), 51 patients with heart failure, and 51 healthy control subjects. Exercise tolerance was assessed using a treadmill protocol to symptom limitation with metabolic gas exchange measurement to assess VO2peak. Intriguingly, the investigators found that, on average, CRC patients had a mean VO2peak of 21.8 ml/kg/min, equivalent to 23% below that of the age-matched control subjects (mean 28.0 ml/kg/min), and that VO2peak was only approximately 17% higher than that of the heart failure patients in the study. The marked impairment in VO2peak corroborates work by other investigators who showed that patients with various solid or hematological malignancies have marked reductions in VO2peak (5,6). This is an intriguing finding, because it can be anticipated that exercise tolerance is ...
alpha-Pinene is an organic substance. It is very slightly soluble in water (2.75 mg/L according to the slow-stirring method). The short-term toxicity of (-)-alpha-pinene to aquatic organisms was investigated according to OECD guidelines and GLP. The toxicity values below are available for the substance. Fish Acute: LC50(96h) = 0.303 mg/L (measured concentration) Aquatic invertebrates: EC50(48 h)= 0.475 mg/L (measured concentrations) Algae: ErC50(72 h) = 0.31 mg/L (predicted by QSAR) The lowest acute aquatic toxicity values based on available data ranges between 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There are no adequate chronic toxicity data available. The degradation of alpha-pinene multiconstituent was investigated. A reliable study was carried out according to Guideline OECD 301D and GLP. Under the conditions of this study, alpha-pinene multiconstituent was found readily biodegradable (68% of biodegradation on Day 28 based on oxygen consumption). CLP Classification (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008) Acute aquatic ...
Under normal conditions of oxygen intake, in severe exercise lasting one minute, the oxygen debt is repaid after slightly more than seven minutes. In mild exercise lasting one minute, the oxygen debt is repaid after approximately 30 seconds. In mild exercise the anaerobic mechanism may be called on only at the beginning because as exercise proceeds, the circulatory and respiratory adjustments allow as much oxygen to be taken in as required, and a steady state is therefore reached altho the oxygen debt is still unpaid until the end of the exercise. In more vigorous exercise, however, lactic acid is formed so rapidly that the mechanisms for oxidizing it or reconverting it to glycogen are overloaded. The appearance of lactic acid in the blood varies according to the training of the subject. The accumulation of this fatigue acid after an honest workout would be common experience ...
Determination of preoperative pulmonary function is crucial in avoiding complications from pulmonary resection. Many have employed static pulmonary function testing in an attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality from lung resections. The purpose of the present study was to correlate preoperative …
Eccentric contraction and oxygen consumption: Oxygen consumption is needed for muscles to work properly. Eccentric muscle ... Less oxygen was consumed during negative work then that of positive work with the oxygen consumption ratio being 3:7.[14] Due ... The amount of oxygen consumption was measured during the motion of pedaling forward as positive work and pedaling with ... Eccentric contractions and cardiac output: With lower cost of oxygen how would eccentric exercise affect the heart? A study was ...
This will stop your oxygen consumption. It's very unimportant , so that shouldn't be a big deal. O:-) Kim Bruning 20:31, 30 Sep ... Eukaryota: the more complex form of life, has (at least) a mitochondrion symbiont (per cell). Needs oxygen and uses it ... No matter what ones spiritual beliefs are, "no oxygen = physical death". While "not being right with God" might mean spiritual ... Summarising some of the key points: Humans walk upright, have bones, breath oxygen, are warmblooded, nurse their young, have 2 ...
The oxygen consumption and respiratory surface area of the gills of Coregonus lavaretus and of Coregonus peled. Zoologicke ... Oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion. Aquaculture 41:333-344.. *Dabrowski, K.R. i S.J. Kaushik, 1985. Rearing of coregonid ... Food consumption of vendace Coregonus albula larvae in Lake Lentua, Finland. J. Fish Biol. 51:939-951.(anglès) ...
Oxygen Consumption of whole organisms." Biological Bulletin 1959 Michael Castagna 1977-1979 "Culture of bay scallop, Argopecten ... "Comparison of continuous records of near-bottom dissolved oxygen from the hypoxia zone along the Louisiana Coast." Estuaries ...
Another factor is oxygen consumption. Ambient oxygen was relatively low in the early Devonian, possibly about half of modern ... Per unit volume, there is much more oxygen in air than in water, and vertebrates are active animals with a high energy ... The Devonian saw increasing oxygen levels which opened up new ecological niches by allowing groups able to exploit the ... Particularly in tropical swampland habitats, atmospheric oxygen is much more stable, and may have prompted a reliance of lungs ...
... oxygen consumption was used. By the end of incubation, the male consumed almost 33% more oxygen than before mating. The study ... The pouch provides oxygen, as well as a controlled environment incubator. Though the egg yolk contribute nourishment to the ... Despite a lack of scientific studies or clinical trials,[42][43] the consumption of seahorses is widespread in traditional ...
Changes in metabolic state and body temperature also affect oxygen consumption.[4][6] Oxygen consumption was found to be much ... Low oxygen consumption was also observed in inactive larvae. In contrast, it was found to be higher for caterpillars that were ... which aids in temperature regulation and digestion and affects both metabolism and oxygen consumption.[4][6] Females generally ... and energy obtained via food consumption is conserved.[25] ... may account for this decline in consumption.[19] It appears to ...
The rate of oxygen consumption in some animals and in insects is proportionate to body weight. Oxygen consumption increases ... Differences in oxygen consumption occur between sexes of the same organism. Oxygen consumption in the mixed red and white ... Rates of oxygen consumption are significantly higher in P. americana when compared to B. giganteus, likely due to higher daily ... Oxygen diffuses across the thin cuticle and carbon dioxide diffuses out, which allows cockroaches to deliver oxygen to cells ...
"Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption". CNS Clinic. Retrieved 25 January 2017. Brubakk, A. O.; ... Translated by: Hitchcock, Mary Alice; Hitchcock, Fred A. Acott, Chris (1999). "Oxygen toxicity: A brief history of oxygen in ... Lower carbon dioxide levels increase the oxygen-haemoglobin affinity, reducing availability of oxygen to brain tissue towards ... Central nervous system oxygen toxicity was also first described in this publication and is sometimes referred to as the "Paul ...
Julian, D., Crampton, W.G.R., Wohlgemuth, S.E. and Albert, J.S. (Dec 2003). "Oxygen consumption in weakly electric Neotropical ...
Studies on oxygen consumption in digenetic trematodes. V. The influence of temperature on three species of adult trematodes ( ...
Verberg, Winona B.; Hunter, Wanda Sanborn (1961). "Studies on oxygen consumption in digenetic trematodes. V. The influence of ...
Morrison, Peter R. (1948). "Oxygen consumption in several small wild mammals". Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology. ...
"Oxygen Consumption Rate of Operational Underwater Swimmers". United States Navy Experimental Diving Unit Technical Report. NEDU ... An average diver with a fully closed-circuit rebreather needs 1.5 liters of oxygen per minute while swimming or 0.64 liter per ... Artificial gills are unproven conceptualised devices to allow a human to be able to take in oxygen from surrounding water. This ... Seawater in tropical regions with abundant plant life contains 5-8 mg of oxygen per liter of water. These calculations are ...
... oxygen consumption and nectar load". Functional Ecology. 3 (4): 417-424. doi:10.2307/2389615. JSTOR 2389615.. ...
The peak oxygen consumption (VO2 max) is used as an indicator of prognosis. As a general rule, a VO2 max less than 12-14 cc/kg/ ... The left side of the heart is responsible for receiving oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumping it forward to the systemic ... In acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), the immediate goal is to re-establish adequate perfusion and oxygen delivery to ... The resultant low blood oxygen caused by pulmonary edema causes vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation, which results in ...
... involved oxygen consumption; oxygen consumption was linked to organic compound phosphorylation. His key experiment demonstrated ...
Oxygen consumption calorimetry has made the measurement of heat release rate of a fire a routine part of fire testing for both ... Hugget, C (1980). "Estimation of rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption measurements". Fire and Materials. 4 (2): ... This was substantiated in 2016 by the $50,000 DiNenno Prize, which recognized oxygen consumption calorimetry as a significant ... Others who made contributions to the early development and application of oxygen consumption calorimetry include Peter Hinkley ...
Grimes, David Robert; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Partridge, Mike (2014). "Oxygen consumption dynamics in steady-state tumour ... including a 2015 research work on oxygen-radiation interactions (the "oxygen fixation hypothesis and oxygen enhancement ratio ... "A mechanistic investigation of the oxygen fixation hypothesis and oxygen enhancement ratio". Biomedical Physics & Engineering ... Grimes, D.R. "A Breath of Fresh Air-Shedding Light on Oxygen, Radiation and Cancer Treatment". Oxford, UK: self, University of ...
ISBN 0-292-70673-1. Bucher, Theresa L.; Worthington, Andrea (May-June 1982). "Nocturnal Hypothermia and Oxygen Consumption in ...
"Role of Diaphragmatic Breathing and Aerobic Exercise in Improving Maximal Oxygen Consumption in Asthmatics". Science & Sports. ... "Diaphragmatic breathing allows one to take normal breaths while maximizing the amount of oxygen that goes into the bloodstream ...
For later stage larvae, oxygen consumption rate decreases with high level of microplastic fibers.[51] ...
Hainsworth, F.R.; Wolf, L.L. (1970). "Regulation of oxygen consumption and body temperature during torpor in a hummingbird, ...
Oxygen consumption (VO2) during exercise is best described by the Fick Equation: VO2=Q x (a-vO2diff), which states that the ... multiplied by the difference between arterial and venous oxygen concentrations. More simply put, oxygen consumption is dictated ... Lassen, NA (1959). "Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in man". Physiological Reviews. 39 (2): 183-238. doi:10.1152/ ... OxygenEdit. Vigorous physical activity (such as exercise or hard labor) increases the body's demand for oxygen. The first-line ...
Oxygen consumption VO2 and maximum oxygen consumption VO2 max. Oxygen consumption in species that differ in body size and organ ... The rate of oxygen consumption per gram body size decreases consistently with increasing body size. (Knut Schmidt-Nielson 2004 ... Also respiration costs with respect to oxygen consumption is scaled in the order of Mb.75. This shows that mammals, regardless ... More simply, a larger whale can hold more oxygen and at the same time demand less metabolically than a smaller whale. Traveling ...
This improves efficiency and helps to minimize oxygen consumption. Short, stiff-bladed fins are effective for short bursts of ... and designed to work with slow stiff-legged kicks that are claimed to conserve oxygen and energy. The vast majority are made in ...
Oxygen is detected in the Martian atmosphere for the first time in 40 years. 10 May NASA's Kepler mission verifies 1,284 new ... "Coffee consumption linked to decreased risk of colorectal cancer". Science Daily. 1 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016. Martin ... "NASA just detected oxygen in the Martian atmosphere". Science Alert. 9 May 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016. "NASA's Kepler Mission ... 3 October A study published by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee shows that caffeine consumption may reduce the risk of ...
"Simplified Versions of the Shunt and Oxygen Consumption Equations". Anesthesiology. 30 (4): 468-470. doi:10.1097/00000542- ... Arterial oxygen content CVO2 = Mixed Venous Oxygen Content The blood entering the pulmonary system will have oxygen flux Q t ⋅ ... If we add the oxygen content of Qs to Qc we get the oxygen content of Qt: Q t ⋅ C a O 2 = Q s ⋅ C v O 2 + ( Q t − Q s ) ⋅ C c O ... Similarly, the blood emerging from the pulmonary system will have oxygen flux Q t ⋅ C a O 2 {\displaystyle Q_{t}\cdot Ca_{O_{2 ...
This improves efficiency and helps to minimize oxygen consumption. Short, stiff-bladed fins are effective for short bursts of ... During the current 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic related shortages, full-face snorkel masks have been adapted to create oxygen ...
The respiration activity is determined by measuring oxygen consumption. There is linear relationship between the current ...
Exposure of colonic cells to high DCA concentrations increase formation of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress, ... "Rarity of colon cancer in Africans is associated with low animal product consumption, not fiber". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 94 (5 ...
The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by an abrupt shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice- ... A modern-day diet known as the Paleolithic diet exists, based on restricting consumption to the foods presumed to be available ... and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals (such as ...
Rosacea tends to occur more frequently in older adults.[20] Facial redness triggered by heat or the consumption of alcohol or ... this generates free radicals and reactive oxygen species in the skin, which purposefully damage the sebaceous glands and kill C ... acnes by oxidizing its proteins through the formation of oxygen free radicals and benzoic acid. These free radicals likely ... There is weak observational evidence suggesting that dairy milk consumption is positively associated with a higher frequency ...
Similarly, they have no gills, absorbing oxygen from the water through their limbs and the inner membrane of their carapaces. ... These feathery appendages beat rhythmically to draw plankton and detritus into the shell for consumption.[16] ...
"alcohol consumption". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved March 9, 2017.. *^ Robinson, Jancis (2006). The Oxford Companion to ... Maturation is caused by physical and chemical factors such as oxygen supply, the broad application of external heat, nitrogen ... However, new players on the scene-beer, wine, and spirits-became very popular in Japan, and in the 1960s beer consumption ... Sake consumption continued to go down while, in contrast, the quality of sake steadily improved. ...
... capable of oxidation by atmospheric oxygen and oxygen plasma[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33] steam,[34][35][36] and also carbon ... He uses oxygen as an example, wherein the activated carbon would typically adsorb the atmospheric concentration (21%) under ... Gómez-Serrano, V.; Piriz-Almeida, F. N.; Durán-Valle, C. J.; Pastor-Villegas, J. (1999). "Formation of oxygen structures by air ... Activation/Oxidation: Raw material or carbonized material is exposed to oxidizing atmospheres (oxygen or steam) at temperatures ...
In addition to their streamlined bodies, they can slow their heart rate to conserve oxygen; blood is rerouted from tissue ... should also apply to these cash-based exchanges as long as they take place within local production and consumption.[98][99][100 ... shallow dives while building their oxygen reserves, and then make a sounding dive.[11][45] ... tolerant of water pressure to the heart and brain among other organs; haemoglobin and myoglobin store oxygen in body tissue; ...
This gene seems to pleiotropically lead to other abnormalities like increased metabolism, higher food consumption, accelerated ... which is the protein red blood cells use to carry oxygen throughout the body. Sickle cell anemia occurs when the HBB gene ... increasing the risk of blood clots and possibly depriving vital organs of oxygen.[33] Some complications associated with sickle ...
... ang mga mayroong ang baga ay hindi makakuha ng sapat na oxygen o ang dami ng oxygen ay mas mababa sa 90% ay dapat masopital.[59 ... to use the phrase applied by John Bunyan to consumption.. ... dami ng oxygen).[11] Ang bilis ng paghinga ay maaaring mas ... Zhang, Y; Fang, C; Dong, BR; Wu, T; Deng, JL (14 March 2012). Dong, Bi Rong (pat.). "Oxygen therapy for pneumonia in adults". ... Pinupuno ng pulmonya ang alveoli ng baga ng likido, na humahadlang sa paglalagay ng oxygen sa katawan (oxygenation). Ang ...
While most herbal teas are safe for regular consumption, some herbs have toxic or allergenic effects. Among the greatest causes ... Oxygen mask and Nasal cannula. *Oxygen concentrator. *Anaesthetic machine. *Relative analgesia machine ... but does treat them technically as food products and require that they be safe for consumption. ...
However, its low energy content of 19.7 MJ/kg and stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio of 6.42:1 mean that fuel consumption (on ... The extra water produced also makes the charge rather wet (similar to hydrogen/oxygen combustion engines) and with the ... which is readily oxidized by dissolved oxygen. Also, the methanol can act as an oxidizer: 6 CH3OH + 2 Al → 2 Al(OCH3)3 + 3 H2. ...
Critics argue that encouraging consumption might have the unintended effect of spreading harmful species even more widely.[88] ... Zebra mussels outcompete other native organisms for oxygen and food, such as algae. Although the zebra mussel invasion was ... point to the success that Jamaica has had in significantly decreasing the population of lionfish by encouraging the consumption ...
15N values increase with meat consumption, and decrease with legume consumption. The 14N/15N ratio could be used to gauge the ... Stable isotope analysis of strontium and oxygen can also be carried out. The amounts of these isotopes vary in different ... The increased consumption of legumes, or animals that eat them, causes 15N in the body to decrease. Nitrogen isotopes in bone ...
In 2010 Turkey had the highest per capita consumption in the world at 2.7 kg.[95] As of 2013, the per-capita consumption of ... Storage life for all teas can be extended by using desiccant or oxygen-absorbing packets, vacuum sealing, or refrigeration in ... See also: List of countries by tea consumption per capita. Tea is the most popular manufactured drink consumed in the world, ... India is the world's largest tea-drinking nation,[104] although the per capita consumption of tea remains a modest 750 grams ...
In the United States, Europe, and Japan, consumption of calcium carbide is generally declining.[15] Production levels in the US ... "Abscission: The Role of Ethylene, Ethylene Analogues, Carbon Dioxide, and Oxygen". Plant Physiol. 43 (8): 1255-1258. doi ...
... combustion with an amount of oxygen that is not sufficient to convert the biomass completely to carbon dioxide and water.[26] ... if it is extracted in such a way that the meat and milk can still be used for human and/or animal consumption. ... low in aromatics and sulfur and does not contain oxygen. Hydrogenated oils can be blended with diesel in all proportions. They ... meaning it contains a reduced amount of carbon and higher hydrogen and oxygen content than fossil diesel. This improves the ...
Oxygen catastrophe: banded iron formations forms. Sleaford Orogeny on Australian continent, Gawler Craton 2,440-2,420 Ma. 2500[ ... starting some time in the past and on the whole defined by anthropogenic carbon emissions and production and consumption of ... First known oxygen-producing bacteria. Oldest definitive microfossils. Oldest cratons on Earth (such as the Canadian Shield and ... Highest-ever atmospheric oxygen levels. Goniatites, brachiopods, bryozoa, bivalves, and corals plentiful in the seas and oceans ...
Data also proposed a decrease in weight gain as a result of increased consumption lessens the risk of developing diabetes type ... Work cooperatively with each other to form haemoglobin for the transport of oxygen on red blood cells (Deen & Hark, 2007) ... and Gorely, T. (2009). Family correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption in children and adolescents: a systematic review. ... Development of chronic disease has become closely related to the consumption of fruits and vegetables throughout childhood ( ...
... can serve as the oxygen source, but some research has found that with the same flue gas, oxygen gasification is only slightly ... According to the fact sheets U.S. CONSUMPTION OF BIO-ENERGY WITH CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE released in March 2018, the ... The fuel first goes through a gasification process by reacting with oxygen to form a stream of CO and H2, which is syngas. The ... One of the major concerns using this technology to capture carbon dioxide is the parasitic energy consumption.[24] If the ...
"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the دگرگشت of اسید لاکتیک in the muscle"[۴۱] ... "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the ...
40] Its consumption has led to fluorosis (a form of fluoride poisoning that affects the bones and teeth) in areas of high brick ... Air flow: Regulates the oxygen content surrounding the tea and removes odors from the aging tea. Dank, stagnant air will lead ... All types of pu'er can be stored to mature before consumption, which is why it is commonly labeled with the year and region of ... Cao, J; Zhao, Y; Liu, J (September 1997). "Brick tea consumption as the cause of dental fluorosis among children from Mongol, ...
For lean mixtures a two-stage reaction process has been proposed, which consists of a silane consumption process and a hydrogen ... Low-cost solar photovoltaic module manufacturing has led to substantial consumption of silane for depositing (PECVD) ... Oxygen (molecular). *Phosphorus monoxide. *Phosphorus mononitride. *Potassium chloride. *Silicon carbide. *Silicon mononitride ...
Ozone generators are optimised to attract an extra oxygen ion to an O2 molecule, using either a corona discharge tube or UV ... Even the best ionisers will also produce a small amount of ozone-triatomic oxygen, O3-which is unwanted. ... Domestic energy consumption. *Enthalpy. *Fluid dynamics. *Gas compressor. *Heat pump and refrigeration cycle ...
The hypoxia (absence of oxygen supply) related to OSA may cause changes in the neurons of the hippocampus and the right frontal ... An individual may also experience or exacerbate OSA with the consumption of alcohol, sedatives, or any other medication that ... In the cases where airflow is reduced to a degree where blood oxygen levels fall, or the physical exertion to breathe is too ... As in central apnea, pauses are followed by a relative decrease in blood oxygen and an increase in the blood carbon dioxide. ...
The increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after the consumption of polyphenol-rich (ORAC-rich) foods is not caused ... Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples in vitro. A ... Kohri S, Fujii H, Oowada S, Endoh N, Sueishi Y, Kusakabe M, Shimmei M, Kotake Y (2009). "An oxygen radical absorbance capacity- ... "Withdrawn: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2 (2010)". United States Department of ...
The high temperatures inside the cylinder cause the diesel fuel to react with the oxygen in the mix (burn or oxidize), heating ... The U.S. annual consumption of diesel fuel in 2006 was about 190 billion litres (42 billion imperial gallons or 50 billion US ... Unsaturated fatty acids are the source for the lower oxidation stability; they react with oxygen and form peroxides and result ... Modern diesel engines (Euro 6 & US EPA standards) use exhaust gas recirculation into the intakes to reduce excess oxygen ...
... oxygen, but at 100% relative humidity the air is 20.4% oxygen), flue gas fans must intake air at a higher rate than would ... or a molecule of oxygen (M ≈ 32). About 78% of the molecules in dry air are nitrogen (N2). Another 21% of the molecules in dry ... because humidity reduces ambient oxygen concentrations (dry air is typically 20.9% ... Domestic energy consumption. *Enthalpy. *Fluid dynamics. *Gas compressor. *Heat pump and refrigeration cycle ...
The simplest version of a carbohydrate is a monosaccharide which contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio under a ... Comprising 75% of the biological world and 80% of all food intake for human consumption, the most common known human ... oxygen, and some sulfur, they also may contain iron, copper, phosphorus, or zinc. ...
... low fluid consumption;[19] and, at least for men, a high intake of carbohydrate, a high glycemic load, and high glycemic index ... "Reactive Oxygen Species and the Hypomotility of the Gall Bladder as Targets for the Treatment of Gallstones with Melatonin: A ...
Mitochondria OXPHOS Oxygen consumption Toxicity Respiration Polarimetry Oxygen-sensitive probes Toxicity Drug safety testing ... Hynes J., Swiss R.L., Will Y. (2018) High-Throughput Analysis of Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption. In: Palmeira C., Moreno A. ( ... Here we describe a methodology to assist in such investigations whereby the oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria is ... Hynes J, Hill R, Papkovsky DB (2006) The use of a fluorescence-based oxygen uptake assay in the analysis of cytotoxicity. ...
This physiological effect is called excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC. ACE Certified pro Pete McCall explains ... This physiological effect is called excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC. Also known as oxygen debt, EPOC is the ... Once a steady-state of oxygen consumption is achieved, the aerobic energy pathways are able to provide most of the ATP needed ... Bersheim, E. and Bahr, R. (2003). Effect of exercise intensity, duration and mode on post-exercise oxygen consumption. Sports ...
... M. V. Miniaev, M. B. Belyakova, N. V. Kostiuk, and D. V. Leshchenko ... A. A. Shpakov and L. F. Panchenko, "Nature of the effect "rapid oxygen consumption" during the introduction of tissue ... E. N. Kotova and I. S. Rotenberg, "Nature of rapid oxygen consumption by mitochondria following their placement in a ... E. Gnaiger, "Bioenergetics at low oxygen: dependence of respiration and phosphorylation on oxygen and adenosine diphosphate ...
These two systems work together to allow metabolism to occur in all systems throughout the body by delivering oxygen and ... Oxygen Consumption Oxygen consumption, abbreviated VO2, is a measure of the volume of oxygen used by the body. VO2, as ... Decreasing Oxygen Consumption Diseases of the cardiovascular system tend to cause a decrease in oxygen consumption that limits ... According to Levine, oxygen consumption is limited to a greater extent by oxygen delivery rather than oxygen extraction. This ...
Zarir Udwadia discusses the struggle to provide enough oxygen to residents in rural India during the second, deadlier wave of ... Oxygen Consumption in Rural Areas June 21, 2021 - Dr. Zarir Udwadia discusses the struggle to provide enough oxygen to ...
2003) The Effects of Food Intake on Muscle Oxygen Consumption. In: Thorniley M., Harrison D.K., James P.E. (eds) Oxygen ... Bahr, R., and Sejersted, O. M., 1991, Effect of feeding and fasting on excess postexercise oxygen consumption, J App/ Physiol ... The Effects of Food Intake on Muscle Oxygen Consumption. Noninvasive Measurement Using NIRS ... Effects of epinephrine and lactate on the increase in oxygen consumption of nonexercising skeletal muscle after aerobic ...
Patients with septic shock require higher levels of oxygen deli ... attention to the concept of supply-dependent consumption and ... Oxygen Consumption*. Shock, Septic / metabolism*, physiopathology, therapy. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. ... Previous Document: Oxygen transport in cardiogenic and septic shock.. Next Document: Oxygen transport measurements to evaluate ... When DO2 is inadequate, peripheral tissues switch to anaerobic metabolism and oxygen consumption decreases. The lactic acidosis ...
Vo2, oxygen consumption, Vco2, carbon dioxide production, EE, energy expenditure, SNAP, score for neonatal acute physiology, IL ... Oxygen consumption and resting metabolic rate in sepsis, sepsis syndrome, and septic shock. Crit Care Med.1993;21 :1012- 1019. ... Effect of Sepsis Syndrome on Neonatal Oxygen Consumption and Energy Expenditure. Jacqueline Bauer, Roland Hentschel, Otwin ... Effect of Sepsis Syndrome on Neonatal Oxygen Consumption and Energy Expenditure Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
By utilizing a novel technique to measure oxygen consumption rate from whole living tissue, we demonstrate that treatment of ... induces a rapid and transient increase of oxygen consumption rate. In addition, our study indicates that the rate increase is ... Oxygen consumption assay in whole tissue. Oxygen consumption rate from whole tissue was measured as previously described28. In ... A) Representative oxygen level changes showing decreased oxygen levels due to oxygen head consumption in control and SB treated ...
A research review on the monster Laforgia paper on Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption in response to different types of ... Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption and Exercise. April 11, 2008. August 16, 2015. by lylemcd ... Effects of exercise intensity and duration on the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. J Sports Sci. 2006 Dec;24(12):1247- ... a bout of exercise is associated with an elevation in metabolism referred to as the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption ( ...
Left anterior descending coronary artery blood flow and oxygen extraction ... 1929625 - Inotropic stimulation and oxygen consumption in a canine model of dilated cardiomyopathy.. 7453225 - Extending the ... Coronary reactive hyperemia and vasodilator reserve, and regional myocardial oxygen consumption were determined. Three ... myocardial oxygen consumption and did not impair the normal relation between coronary blood flow and myocardial oxygen ...
The following keywords were used, resistance exercise and postexercise oxygen consumption or postexercise energy expenditure or ... G. A. Gaesser and G. A. Brooks, "Metabolic bases of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption: a review," Medicine and Science in ... D. L. Elliot, L. Goldberg, and K. S. Kuehl, "Effect of resistance training on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption," The ... T. S. Olds and P. J. Abernethy, "Postexercise oxygen consumption following heavy and light resistance exercise," The Journal of ...
The effects of altered arterial tensions of carbon dioxide and oxygen on cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption of ... 1999) Linear coupling between cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in activated human cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: ... Nonlinear coupling between cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption, and ATP production in human visual cortex. Ai-Ling Lin, ... This agrees with the observation that oxygen consumption remains elevated during the postactivation period after CBF and CBV ...
... is associated with the consumption of 260kg of molecular oxygen (O2) per year, which is equal to 29.659gr of oxygen per hour. ... If we multiply this figure by 750, we arrive at an oxygen consumption equal to that of 337,500,000,000 people, about 67.5 x the ... Energy, Oxygen Consumption and Production. From "Coats & Schauberger - Living Energies - Viktor Schaubergers Brilliant Work ... Extrapolated world-wide in relation to total world consumption of oxygen and the rapid eradication of the worlds forests, the ...
This persistent increase in metabolism is where excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) comes into play. ... Stage 3: Longer term energy needs oxygen. A small drop in blood oxygen levels triggers a complex set of responses that has you ... "excess post-exercise oxygen consumption" (EPOC) for boosting your metabolic rate and burning more calories for hours afterwards ... The new oxygen in your blood passes into the muscles within the first few minutes of exercise and allows you to start ...
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption boosts your metabolic rate, helping burn more calories for hours after your workout. ... This persistent increase in metabolism is where excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) comes into play. ... Stage 3: Longer term energy needs oxygen. A small drop in blood oxygen levels triggers a complex set of responses that has you ... "excess post-exercise oxygen consumption" (EPOC) for boosting your metabolic rate and burning more calories for hours afterwards ...
Mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species production are independently modulated: implications for aging ... But this is based on the erroneous assumption that increasing O2 consumption must increase the rate of mitochondrial oxygen ... reactive oxygen species generation can also vary between tissues in a way not linked to their differences in oxygen consumption ... Mitochondrial oxygen radical generation is also lower in long-lived birds than in short-lived mammals of similar body size and ...
This calculator calculates oxygen consumption when C.O is given. ... Oxygen Consumption(VO2 Max) is the maximum capacity of an ... individuals body to transport and utilize oxygen during incremental exercise, which reflects the physical fitness of the ... Maximum oxygen consumption C.O = Cardiac Output HGB = Hemoglobin SaO2 = Oxygen saturation(arterial blood) SvO2 = Oxygen ... Oxygen Consumption(VO2 Max) is the maximum capacity of an individuals body to transport and utilize oxygen during incremental ...
Excessive post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) 1. Oxygen reserves of myoglobin (oxygen storage molecule in muscle) 2. Lactic ... a) Excessive post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). 1. Oxygen reserves of myoglobin (oxygen storage molecule in muscle). 2. ...
The purpose of the study was to test the assumption that oxygen consumption stimulated by exposing alveolar macrophages to ... Cytochrome-c inhibited zymosan induced oxygen consumption by 40 percent. Cytochalasin-B stimulated zymosan induced oxygen ... The effects on oxygen consumption were monitored. Rat alveolar macrophages were treated with 0 or 0.1mg/ml zymosan and 0 or ... Oxygen consumption and release of hydrogen-peroxide and O2- by the suspensions was monitored. The time course and dose response ...
Abstract 10900: Persistent Alterations in Energy Metabolism and Oxygen Consumption Following Cardiac Arrest. Koichiro Shinozaki ... Abstract 10900: Persistent Alterations in Energy Metabolism and Oxygen Consumption Following Cardiac Arrest ... Abstract 10900: Persistent Alterations in Energy Metabolism and Oxygen Consumption Following Cardiac Arrest ... Abstract 10900: Persistent Alterations in Energy Metabolism and Oxygen Consumption Following Cardiac Arrest ...
Expanded studies looking into the mechanism of how heat tolerance and postmortem mitochondrial oxygen consumption may impact ... Interpretive Summary: Mitochondrial oxygen consumption in early postmortem permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers is influenced ... and the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of the Longissimus lumborum muscle. Results found no differences based on temperature, ...
... oxygen consumption and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult transgenic and ocean-ranched coho salmon". Journal of ... Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC, informally called afterburn) is a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake ... "The effect of exercise intensity and duration on the oxygen deficit and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption". European ... Post-exercise oxygen consumption replenishes the phosphagen system. New ATP is synthesized and some of this ATP donates ...
blood flow (BF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and oxygen consumption (. tMRO. 2. )33 (1). tMRO. 2. =. (. OEF. ). (. BF. ) ... Previous measurements of skin oxygen consumption using oxygen electrodes recorded an average dermal respiration rate of 1470. ... Tissue metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (. tMRO. 2. ) property maps. The images along the top are maps of tMRO. 2. in mM/s ... 48 In comparison cSFDI yields average baseline skin oxygen consumption rates of 3.0. ×. 10. −. 4. mM. /. s. (Table 1), which ...
OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IS A GOOD GUIDE TO YOUR PHYSICAL FITNESS. MEASURING OXYGEN CONSUMPTION. By Matt Brzycki,. Assistant Director ... Oxygen consumption: Relative. Oxygen consumption can also be expressed in relative terms of liters per minute (L/min). ... oxygen consumption of 28.06 ml/kg/min minus the actual oxygen consumption of 22.45 ml/kg/min divided by the expected oxygen ... Comparing the expected oxygen consumption to the actual oxygen consumption is helpful in determining whether a person has any ...
Effects of sevoflurane, propofol, and adjunct nitrous oxide on regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption, and blood ... awake) in the oxygen extraction fraction was seen. Adding of N2O did not alter the rCBV effects of sevoflurane and propofol ... 15O-labeled water, oxygen, and carbon monoxide were used as positron emission tomography tracers to determine rCBF, rCMRO2 and ... S+N especially reduced the oxygen extraction fraction, suggesting disturbed flow-activity coupling in humans at a moderate ...
Find Complete Details about Low Power Consumption Medical Oxygen Generator PSA Automated Operation,Medical Grade Oxygen ... Generator,Medical Oxygen Generating Systems & Accessories Supplier or Factory - Suzhou since gas system co.,ltd in China. ... Discover the best Low Power Consumption Medical Oxygen Generator PSA Automated Operation factory in China, ... Low Power Consumption Medical Oxygen Generator PSA Automated Operation Low Power Consumption Medical Oxygen Generator PSA ...
  • Hynes J, Hill R, Papkovsky DB (2006) The use of a fluorescence-based oxygen uptake assay in the analysis of cytotoxicity. (
  • Main Outcome Measures: Ventilatory oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate were measured by computerized breath-by-breath analysis and electrocardiography. (
  • Although some studies have suggested that the contribution of RT to increase EE would be due to the exercise session alone [ 8 , 9 ], others indicated that a higher oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) after the end of exercise would also play an important role [ 5 , 10 ]. (
  • citation needed] However, direct and indirect calorimeter experiments have definitively disproven any association of lactate metabolism as causal to an elevated oxygen uptake. (
  • When these larvae have access to air, aerial oxygen uptake averages 16.6% of total oxygen consumption in normoxic water, and increases to 100% of net oxygen consumption in hypoxic water. (
  • A plateau in oxygen consumption ( o 2 ) is the primary means of confirming that maximal oxygen uptake ( o 2 max ) is attained during incremental exercise to fatigue. (
  • The larval and pupal Douglas-fir beetles, collected in February 1970, had lower oxygen uptake levels at 10°, 20° and 30°C than did the adults, but the proportional changes in these uptake levels were not significantly different. (
  • Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, D. ponderosae and D. valens, collected in November 1969, had different levels of oxygen uptake at the three experimental temperatures, but the proportional changes in the log oxygen uptakes with changing temperature were not significantly different. (
  • The oxygen uptake levels of the larval D. ponderosae were not significantly different than those of the adults. (
  • O 2 , as measured by analysis of expired gases, is usually limited by the rate of oxygen delivery, and not by the rate of uptake/utilization in the muscle ( Bassett and Howley, 2000 ). (
  • 92 , 17-34], we analyse the effect of several factors on the oxygen-uptake kinetics, especially on the oxygen consumption rate ( V o 2 ) and half-transition time t 1/2 , at the onset of exercise in skeletal muscles. (
  • This model allowed for the further investigation of oxygen transport in the cornea, including a better mathematical description and a determination of the transport properties of the cornea and the specific oxygen uptake rate of the tissue. (
  • The combination of this model and tear oxygen tension measurements can be useful in determining the individual oxygen uptake rate and exploring the relationship between oxygen transport and corneal abnormalities. (
  • Hydrogen while remaining essentially ineffective insofar as oxygen uptake was concerned, depressed glycolysis in both liver and brain slices but did not significantly affect sarcoma slices. (
  • Peak oxygen uptake (PkVO 2 ) measured during exercise not only allows accurate evaluation of exercise capacity, but also has been shown to be a strong independent predictor of survival in chronic heart failure (1,2) . (
  • Peak oxygen uptake is traditionally corrected for total body weight and is reported in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per minute (ml/kg/min). (
  • For the fist time the mitochondrial process of oxidative phosphorylation has been studied by determining the extent and initial rates of electron flow, H + translocation, O 2 uptake and ATP synthesis under close to in vivo concentrations of oxygen. (
  • 6 Oxygen carrying capacity is reduced by anemia, which in turn, limits an individual's peak oxygen uptake, ability to perform exercise, and time to exhaustion, especially in ESRD. (
  • Oxygen uptake can be thought of as a cascade of oxygen from the lung to the blood pumped by the heart to the working tissues, where it is used to perform physical work. (
  • Anemia is typically treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), which partially normalize renal anemia, improve quality of life and cognitive function, 11 , 12 reduce left ventricular hypertrophy, 13 and modestly increase peak oxygen uptake relative to the increase in hematocrit. (
  • 14 Likewise, intradialytic exercise training also increases peak oxygen uptake 15 , 16 and has additional cardioprotective benefits. (
  • Initial observations of the effects of gamma radiation on oxygen consumption, 32P uptake and phycobiont of Cladonia sylvatica (L.) Hoffm. (
  • Measurement of oxygen uptake by thoracic and abdominal segments of rat aorta showed significantly lower rates in the abdominal than in the thoracic aorta of adult animals. (
  • However, its impact on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is yet to be defined. (
  • In the recovery period after exercise there is an increase in VO 2 termed the "excess postexercise oxygen consumption" (EPOC). (
  • J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3090-3097, 2016-Higher excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after high-intensity interval exercise (HIE) and sprint interval exercise (SIE) may contribute to greater fat loss sometimes reported after interval training compared with continuous steady-state exercise (SSE) training. (
  • Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after SIE and HIE is unlikely to account for the greater fat loss per unit EE associated with SIE and HIE training reported in the literature. (
  • These two systems work together to allow metabolism to occur in all systems throughout the body by delivering oxygen and removing wastes. (
  • Patients with septic shock require higher levels of oxygen delivery (DO2) to maintain aerobic metabolism. (
  • When DO2 is inadequate, peripheral tissues switch to anaerobic metabolism and oxygen consumption decreases. (
  • Recovery from a bout of exercise is associated with an elevation in metabolism referred to as the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). (
  • These results indicate that ( i ) the energy demand of task-induced brain activation is small (approximately 15%) relative to the hyperemic response (approximately 60%), ( ii ) this energy demand is met through oxidative metabolism, and ( iii ) the CBF response is mediated by factors other than oxygen demand. (
  • Fox and colleagues suggested that ( i ) the energy demand associated with neuronal activation (as opposed to resting-state demand) is small (approximately 8% maximum possible increase in ATP consumption), ( ii ) the activation-induced increases in ATP consumption are from both oxidative and nonoxidative glycolysis, and ( iii ) CBF response must be regulated by factors other than oxidative metabolism and total energy demand. (
  • The new oxygen in your blood passes into the muscles within the first few minutes of exercise and allows you to start generating energy by a process known as aerobic metabolism. (
  • The classical "oxygen debt" hypothesis formulated by Hill and associates in the 1920s was an attempt to link the metabolism of lactic acid with the O2 consumption in excess of resting that occurs after exercise. (
  • The measurement of oxygen extraction (VCO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), and respiratory quotient (RQ), reflect the energy metabolism and may provide insight into the post-arrest metabolism. (
  • 5. - 6 In cancer, for example, abnormal metabolism fuels rapid cellular growth while maintaining relative insensitivity to oxygen supply. (
  • Consequently, elevated kidney metabolism results in decreased tissue oxygen tension. (
  • O 2 including: pulmonary diffusion, cardiovascular function (predominantly capacity to increase cardiac output, but also capacity for transport and exchange via the peripheral macro- and micro-circulation), the capacity for oxygen carrying in the blood, and cellular energy metabolism and mitochondrial function ( Bassett and Howley, 2000 ). (
  • Altered cellular metabolism plays an important role in many diseases, not least in many forms of cancer, where cellular metabolic pathways requiring lower oxygen consumption are often favored (the so-called Warburg effect). (
  • Taken together, our imaging approach is widely applicable and capable of detecting subtle changes in oxygen consumption in live cells, stemming from the Warburg effect or reflecting other differences in the cellular metabolism. (
  • Oxygen consumption was tightly correlated to swimming effort during the first 12 h of swimming indicating that swimming is powered predominantly by aerobic metabolism. (
  • Oxygen measurements in immobilised honeybees, therefore, are neither suited to determine the basal rate of oxygen metabolism nor to estimate the energy turnover of highly active, freely moving individuals. (
  • Consequently, it is not sufficient to evaluate the energy metabolism of the cell by only determining the H + /O ratio in oxygen-pulse experiments [ 2 ] or the amount of O 2 consumed under state-3 metabolic conditions [ 3 ]. (
  • This strategy of combining hypofractionated radiotherapy with metabolic reprogramming to inhibit anaerobic metabolism may increase the efficacy of HD-SFRT through increased oxygen consumption and complementary killing of radiosensitive and hypoxic, radioresistant cells. (
  • Background & Aims: It is unclear whether patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have disturbed brain oxygen metabolism and blood flow. (
  • Conclusions: The observations imply that reduced cerebral oxygen consumption and blood flow in cirrhotic patients with an acute episode of overt HE are associated with HE and not cirrhosis as such, and that the primary event in the pathogenesis of HE could be inhibition of cerebral energy metabolism by increased blood ammonia. (
  • This physiological effect is called excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC. (
  • Also known as oxygen debt, EPOC is the amount of oxygen required to restore your body to its normal, resting level of metabolic function (called homeostasis). (
  • Exercise that places a greater demand on the anaerobic energy pathways during the workout can increase the need for oxygen after the workout, thereby enhancing the EPOC effect. (
  • However, even those studies incorporating exercise stimuli resulting in prolonged EPOC durations have identified that the EPOC comprises only 6-15% of the net total oxygen cost of the exercise. (
  • You can thank "excess post-exercise oxygen consumption" (EPOC) for boosting your metabolic rate and burning more calories for hours afterwards. (
  • Use of alternative terms, e.g., "excess post-exercise oxygen consumption" (EPOC) and "recovery O2," will avoid implication of causality in describing the elevation in metabolic rate above resting levels after exercise. (
  • Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC, informally called afterburn) is a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity. (
  • In recovery, oxygen (EPOC) is used in the processes that restore the body to a resting state and adapt it to the exercise just performed. (
  • EPOC is accompanied by an elevated consumption of fuel. (
  • This is referred to as excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC . (
  • Thus, in the intact awake animal postischemic myocardial contractile dysfunction was not associated with decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and did not impair the normal relation between coronary blood flow and myocardial oxygen utilization. (
  • The finding of a lowered RQ has not be described previously, appears to be driven by increased VO2, and may be due to non-CO2 generating oxygen utilization. (
  • 8 In this situation, tissue is known to downregulate oxygen utilization in response to chronically low oxygen tension. (
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that brain oxygen utilization may be adversely affected by hypoperfusion resulting from the use of vasopressor therapy to restore blood pressure after hemorrhage. (
  • The novelty of this new approach is best illustrated by a case-comparison between two subjects, who performed nearly equivalent absolute (11 vs 10 kg) and relative work (20%), and yet achieved strikingly different levels of oxygen utilization during exercise (ΔrmO 2 = 307% vs. 214%, Case A vs. Case B respectively). (
  • Left anterior descending coronary artery blood flow and oxygen extraction, aortic and left ventricular pressures, and regional myocardial segment shortening were determined. (
  • Coronary reactive hyperemia and vasodilator reserve, and regional myocardial oxygen consumption were determined. (
  • Despite this decrease in contractile function, left anterior descending artery flow (19.6 +/- 2.6 vs. 18.4 +/- 3.0 ml/min), myocardial blood flow and the transmural distribution of flow measured with microspheres, and regional myocardial oxygen consumption were unchanged. (
  • Relation between maximum time-varying elastance pressure-volume areas and myocardial oxygen consumption in dogs. (
  • We conclude that the Emax PVAs calculated using data acquisition techniques that are clinically applicable have relations with MVO2 that in general do not improve on other indexes of myocardial oxygen demand in this animal preparation. (
  • Myocardial oxygen consumption in aortic valve disease with and without left ventricular dysfunction. (
  • Whole-body O2 consumption and indirect measurements of myocardial O2 consumption [heart rate and rate pressure product (RPP)] were assessed. (
  • Devices and methods for improving cardiac efficiency involve measuring, patient-internally, an oxygen saturation parameter indicative of oxygen usage of myocardial tissue of the heart. (
  • The relationship between myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) and the total pressure-volume area (PVA), which represents the total mechanical work performed during a cardiac cycle, has been shown to be linear and independent of loading conditions: MVO2=aPVA+b. (
  • Dynamic changes of myocardial oxygen consumption at pacing increased heart rate - the first observation by the continuous measurement of systemic oxygen consumption. (
  • Myocardial contractile efficiency and oxygen cost of contractility are preserved during transition from compensated hypertrophy to failure in rats with salt-sensitive hypertension. (
  • Comparison between the effects of 2-3 butanedione monoxime (BDM) and calcium chloride on myocardial oxygen consumption. (
  • All this indicates that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is not a simple byproduct of mitochondrial respiration. (
  • If tadpoles are prevented from surfacing to breathe air, they can maintain normal oxygen consumption through aquatic respiration alone in normoxic water, but not in hypoxic water. (
  • The Rate of Oxygen Consumption of Germinating and Non-Germinating Seeds 2009-03-06 Oxygen consumption in Germinating and Non-germinating Pea Seeds Purpose: To find out and compare the cellular respiration rate at different temperature by using germinating and non-germinating pea seeds. (
  • Open-flow respirometry is a useful, physiologically relevant approach that allows for the measurement of mitochondrial respiration rates at dynamic steady-state oxygen concentrations 1,2 . (
  • Jinapang, 2010) The oxygen produced during respiration is used to convert stored nutrients in the seed into energy that the seed uses to sprout. (
  • The observation that the stimulus-evoked increase in glucose consumption observed with PET is at least partially nonoxidative (i.e., lactate-producing) has been confirmed with 1 H NMR spectroscopic (MRS) measurements of tissue lactate concentration ([Lac]) ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • In rho zero cells, where the ETC is deleted (and there is no glycerophosphate shuttle) and glycolysis is the sole source of ATP production, cell surface oxygen consumption has to supply NAD+ in direct proportion to how much pyruvate is lost to anabolism rather than being used to supply NAD+ via lactate generation. (
  • Energy turnover in the isolated rat portal vein was investigated by measurement of oxygen consumption (JO2) and lactate production (JLA) under simultaneous recording of mechanical activity. (
  • Bioenergetic models are used in cycling to estimate the acute physiological response in terms of oxygen consumption ( \({\dot{\text{V}}}\) O 2 ) and lactate concentration ([La]). First, our aim is to review the bioenergetic modelling literature, presenting historical evolution of concepts, techniques and related limitations. (
  • Recovery duration had no effect on mean work interval power output, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion. (
  • Targeting HIF-1α reduced lactate content, and increased both oxygen consumption and hypoxic fraction in these tumors after exposure to short-term continuous hypoxia. (
  • Here we describe a methodology to assist in such investigations whereby the oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria is assessed in a high-throughput fashion using a phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive probe, standard microtiter plates, and plate reader detection. (
  • The nature of these differences suggests that these concentrations of GTN do not release free NO but probably a different species that, although it interacts with soluble guanylyl cyclase in vascular smooth muscle, does not inhibit O 2 consumption by vascular mitochondria. (
  • The gold standard assessment of the maximal efficiency of these systems to integratively transport oxygen (O 2 ) from the atmosphere into metabolically active mitochondria (termed the O 2 cascade) is maximal (VO 2max ) or peak (VO 2peak ) oxygen consumption. (
  • The tissue metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (tMRO2) is a clinically relevant marker for a number of pathologies including cancer and arterial occlusive disease. (
  • The authors quantified the effects of sevoflurane and propofol as sole anesthetics and in combination with N2O on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO2), and blood volume (rCBV) in the living human brain using positron emission tomography. (
  • Tissue-level metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO 2 ) in BAT was determined and used to calculate the contribution of activated BAT to DEE. (
  • Effects of exercise intensity and duration on the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. (
  • Heart rate is a determining factor of oxygen consumption. (
  • Without the increase in heart rate, oxygen delivery, and therefore oxygen consumption, is limited. (
  • While heart rate plays an integral role in oxygen consumption, stroke volume, the second factor of oxygen delivery, has been shown to have a much greater effect on VO2. (
  • By utilizing a novel technique to measure oxygen consumption rate from whole living tissue, we demonstrate that treatment of whole living fly heads by the HDAC/KDAC inhibitors sodium butyrate and Trichostatin A, induces a rapid and transient increase of oxygen consumption rate. (
  • At a consumption rate of 0.26 tonnes O2 per annum per person, this is sufficient to keep 824,868,073 people alive for 1 year. (
  • Based on Canadian figures for conifer forests, the number of hectares required to produce sufficient oxygen to satisfy the above combined demand at a production rate of 10.0619 tonnes of O2 per hectare = 21,740,990ha or 217,410km2. (
  • But this is based on the erroneous assumption that increasing O2 consumption must increase the rate of mitochondrial oxygen radical generation. (
  • Mitochondrial oxygen radical generation is also lower in long-lived birds than in short-lived mammals of similar body size and metabolic rate. (
  • The parameters evaluated included expression of various mitochondrial proteins, citrate synthase (CS) activity, and the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of the Longissimus lumborum muscle. (
  • This allows for measurement of various physiological responses, including the amount of expired air, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature - all of which can help determine the amount of oxygen being consumed. (
  • In healthy people, maximal oxygen consumption ( o 2 max ), the maximal rate of oxygen consumption by active muscle during exercise to fatigue, is an index of endurance performance as well as a measure of maximal cardiopulmonary function. (
  • This report provides a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation rate directly from their oxygen consumption rate. (
  • This report, Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates Report presents a revised approach which calculates ventilation rates directly from an individual's oxygen consumption rate, and applies this method to data provided from more recent sources including the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and EPA's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD). (
  • This results in decreased oxygen consumption and heart rate of a user wearing the exoskeleton. (
  • Event-Associated Oxygen Consumption Rate Increases ca. (
  • 2. In the first group ( n = 7), vasopressin was infused at a rate of 18.5 pmol min −1 kg −1 while the animals were breathing 10% oxygen. (
  • Intra-arterial infusions of vasopressin that increased venous concentrations as much as or more than systemic infusion of 0.92 pmol of vasopressin min −1 kg −1 had no effect on oxygen consumption, even though the higher intra-arterial rate reduced blood flow and oxygen delivery as much as the systemic infusion. (
  • Streeter I, Cheema U. Oxygen consumption rate of cells in 3D culture: the use of experiment and simulation to measure kinetic parameters and optimise culture conditions. (
  • P.4016 right column 2nd paragraph: 'For HDFs [Human dermal fibroblasts], the average value of Vm [oxygen consumption rate constant] over the time period shown in Fig. 2b is 1.19×10^−17 mol/cell/sec. (
  • List 5 factors that might influence the rate of oxygen or carbon dioxide production or consumption in leaves. (
  • List five factors that might influence the rate of oxygen (or carbon dioxide) production or consumption in leaves. (
  • The ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VIO2, which equals VI divided by VO2) increased with age, and was similar to normal values for ventilation at 1.01/min VO2 obtained by workers who used multiple work rate tests on more complex equipment. (
  • In addition, the fish oil supplementation lowered steady-state submaximal exercise heart rate, whole-body O2 consumption, and RPP (P (
  • Heart rate and oxygen consumption during one training session for one subject. (
  • Below outlines general heart rate-oxygen consumption-energy expenditure values for a typical adult male. (
  • The heart rate/oxygen consumption relationship during cold exposure of the king penguin: a comparison with that during exercise -- Froget et al. (
  • Effects of reduced salinity on the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and the ammonia-N excretion rate (AER) of scallop Chlamys farreri (3.2-5.9 cm in shell height, 0.147-1.635 g in soft tissue dry weight) were studied in laboratory from March 21, 1997 to April 16, 1997. (
  • The gas increased the rate of oxygen consumption in all three tissues and significantly depressed that of anaerobic glycolysis in brain and liver. (
  • The current technologies used to assess mitochondrial function via extracellular acidification (ECA) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) are often designed in such a way that they ignore the impact of O 2 concentration on cellular bioenergetics. (
  • In active bees the oxygen consumption rate was higher and related to the degree of activity and ambient temperature. (
  • Fish oil reduces heart rate and oxygen consumption during exercise" by Gregory E. Peoples, Peter L. McLennan et al. (
  • In addition, the FO supplementation lowered steady-state submaximal exercise heart rate, whole-body O2 consumption, and RPP (P (
  • Maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) represents the highest rate at which oxygen can be consumed and utilized to produce energy sustaining aerobic activity. (
  • The rate of oxygen consumption was calculated using the unit mL of oxygen consumed per hour, divided by the weight of the organism. (
  • 95% of maximal oxygen consumption, maximal minute power output, and maximal heart rate, during the 6 × 4- and 3 × 8-minute HIIT sessions. (
  • A metric that is commonly used to determine the hypoxia tolerance of fishes is the determination of animal oxygen consumption rate (MO2), which is thought to reflect the ability of an organism to extract oxygen from the environment to maintain routine metabolic rate as dissolved oxygen (DO) decreases. (
  • The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in each cell line in response to in vitro hypoxia was measured using an extracellular flux analyzer. (
  • Maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max in nmol mm−3 s−1) of muscle preparations at physiological temperature from various species plotted against the cross-sectional area (in μm2) of the muscle cells in the preparation. (
  • Since your oxygen is being used up at a higher rate, it also means you're still burning a higher amount of energy. (
  • Your heart rate and breath rate are quickly returning to normal, and it needs energy to do this, as well, and more energy means more oxygen. (
  • The rate of oxygen consumption is a vital marker indicating cellular function during lifetime under normal or metabolically challenged conditions. (
  • Various recent investigations relevant to the study of aging mechanisms have recently found that increases in longevity during dietary restriction can occur together with lack of decreases or even increases in O2 consumption. (
  • Strong decreases in absolute and relative (per unit of O2 consumed) mitochondrial oxygen radical production occur during aerobic exercise bouts, chronic exercise training, and hyperthyroidism, and notably, during dietary restriction. (
  • Systemic vasopressin infusions at 0.92, 4.6 and 18.5 pmol min −1 kg −1 reduced hindquarter blood flow, oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption, but the decreases in blood flow and oxygen delivery were dose-related whereas that in oxygen consumption was not. (
  • Instead, DO decreases, when oxygen is consumed by bacterioplankton in the water through organic matter mineralization and by diffusion of dissolved oxygen. (
  • For example, notice that raising the aortic pressure with no change in venous pressure decreases stroke volume and may even decrease external work but always increases oxygen demand. (
  • Mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species production are independently modulated: implications for aging studies. (
  • Total rates of reactive oxygen species generation can also vary between tissues in a way not linked to their differences in oxygen consumption. (
  • Cellular oxygen consumption is highly recognized as a fundamental indicator of mitochondrial function, reflecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and metabolic activity of the cell. (
  • To address this need, 14 participants crawled a distance of 305 m each while their breath-by-breath oxygen consumption measurements were taken. (
  • Oxygen transport measurements to evaluate tissue perfusion and titrate therapy: dobutamine and dopam. (
  • A PreSens OXY-4 SMA 4-channel optode was used for oxygen concentration measurements. (
  • Our measurements can resolve differences in oxygen concentrations between different regions of individual cells, between different cell types, and also based on what metabolic pathways the cells use. (
  • A simple and portable paced step test for reproducible measurements of ventilation and oxygen consumption during exercise. (
  • The current oxygen diffusion model was extended to include the temporal domain and was used to simulate in vivo noninvasive measurements of tear oxygen tension in human corneas. (
  • 3 published some novel measurements of tear film oxygen tension during contact lens wear on human eyes in vivo. (
  • Their measurements at the cornea-contact lens interface provide abundant and useful data to characterize oxygen diffusion in the cornea. (
  • As was expected from thermographical temperature measurements, oxygen consumption by bees which were free to move within 95 ml Warburg vessels varied in a wide range. (
  • Physiology of Sport and Exercise' says everyone has the same oxygen consumption at rest per given body weight. (
  • A. A. Shpakov and L. F. Panchenko, "Nature of the effect "rapid oxygen consumption" during the introduction of tissue homogenate or a mitochondrial suspension into the polarographic cell," Biofizika , vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 467-472, 1975. (
  • Oxygen extraction considers the amount of oxygen in arterial blood that is sent to metabolically active tissue, and the amount of oxygen in venous blood being returned to the heart. (
  • The difference in arterial oxygen content and venous oxygen content determines the amount of oxygen that was used by the tissue. (
  • This cardiovascular response allows for faster oxygen delivery to the working tissue, such as skeletal muscle, which allows for an increase in oxygen consumption. (
  • We validate the system using a series of yeast-hemoglobin tissue-simulating phantoms and conduct in vivo tests in humans using arterial occlusions that demonstrate sensitivity to tissue metabolic oxygen debt and its repayment. (
  • Blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were calculated from dynamic PET scans at the location of BAT, muscle, and white adipose tissue. (
  • 1 2 The cornea is an avascular tissue whose health depends on oxygen transport through its atmospheric boundary, but contact lenses provide additional resistance to this process. (
  • Hct normalization increased peak arterial oxygen and arteriovenous oxygen difference, whereas exercise training improved cardiac output, citrate synthase activity, and peak tissue diffusing capacity. (
  • B), and arterial-venous oxygen content diferences (C) during each delivey interval. (
  • The present invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for cardiac pacing and, more particularly, to devices and methods for improving cardiac efficiency based on coronary venous oxygen saturation. (
  • Hemorrhagic shock was induced in fifteen Yorkshire pigs to achieve a shed blood loss of 30 ml/kg, a 50% decrease in mean arterial pressure, and an oxygen debt over 60 ml/kg. (
  • Brain oxygen delivery (DO2), oxygen consumption (VO2), and oxygen extraction in relation to systemic oxygen debt, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) were assessed. (
  • However, although the increase in arterial oxygen observed in the combination phase reached a value similar to that in healthy sedentary controls, the increase in peak arteriovenous oxygen difference did not. (
  • While exercise generally increases oxygen delivery, it is possible for the cardiovascular system to out-perform the respiratory system. (
  • Thus, the apparently paradoxical increases in O2 consumption observed in some models of dietary restriction do not discredit the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging, and they can further strengthen it. (
  • VO2, as described by Dr. Benjamin Levine, is based on the Fick equation, which says oxygen consumption is dependent on the product of oxygen delivery and extraction. (
  • According to Levine, oxygen consumption is limited to a greater extent by oxygen delivery rather than oxygen extraction. (
  • The originator of the Weber Heart Failure Classification system, Dr. Karl Weber, has demonstrated that in severe heart failure, oxygen extraction is enhanced to compensate for the decrease in oxygen delivery. (
  • These results suggest that profound alterations in oxygen extraction occur after CA and may be measured non-invasively in patients. (
  • 0.05 for all cortex and cerebellum vs. awake) in the oxygen extraction fraction was seen. (
  • S+N especially reduced the oxygen extraction fraction, suggesting disturbed flow-activity coupling in humans at a moderate depth of anesthesia. (
  • Brain DO2 decreased with hemorrhage but brain VO2 was maintained with improved oxygen extraction. (
  • This disparity appears to be attributable to muscle oxygen extraction as both brachial artery blood flow and microvascular perfusion (by DCS) were similar in both subjects. (
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system tend to cause a decrease in oxygen consumption that limits an individual's ability to engage in physical activity. (
  • Oxygen Consumption(VO2 Max) is the maximum capacity of an individual's body to transport and utilize oxygen during incremental exercise, which reflects the physical fitness of the individual. (
  • Using these data, linear regression models were developed to determine peak and average oxygen consumption rates as well as total oxygen consumption. (
  • Subjects used an electronically braked cycle ergometer to complete peak O2 consumption tests (VO2peak) and sustained submaximal exercise tests at 55% of peak workload (from the VO2peak test) before and after supplementation. (
  • We sought to assess whether the adjustment of peak oxygen consumption (PkVO 2 ) to lean body mass would yield a more accurate discriminator of outcomes in the chronic heart failure population. (
  • Peak oxygen consumption is traditionally used to risk stratify patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and to time cardiac transplantation. (
  • Peak oxygen consumption lean, both as a continuous variable and using a cutoff of ≤19 ml/kg/min, was a better predictor of outcome than unadjusted PkVO 2 (p = 0.003 vs. 0.027 for the continuous variables and p = 0.0006 vs. 0.055 for ≤19 ml/kg/min and ≤14 ml/kg/min unadjusted body weight, respectively). (
  • As a test we measured the muscle oxygen consumption in the human vastus lateralis during exercise on a cycle ergometer by 11 trained male athletes (32 +/- 11 years old) at 40% and 110% peak aerobic power. (
  • It was designed to allow the measurement of minute ventilation (VI) and oxygen consumption (VO2), under standardised conditions, during exercise in the clinic and lung function laboratory and in field work. (
  • Therefore, increasing the amount of oxygen consumed both during and after a workout, can increase the amount of net calories burned. (
  • Once again, the amount of oxygen used per human being per year is 260kg. (
  • In Australia, for example, the amount of oxygen consumed annually through fossil fuel combustion for the purposes of industry and power generation equals 214,465,670 tonnes of molecular oxygen (O2) [1977 figures]. (
  • In contrast, the amount of oxygen consumed by the Australian population over the same period amounts to 4,290,000 tonnes O2, which is 1/50th of the first figure above. (
  • A person that is more fit will be able to consume the same amount of oxygen with fewer heartbeats than a less fit person. (
  • You're still requiring the same amount of oxygen that you did while you were exercising! (
  • They hypothesized that the body can't bounce right back to just needing the same amount of oxygen as before, and that it takes a while for it to go back to its resting state. (
  • 3. In a second group of seven dogs, hindquarter blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter on lower abdominal aorta) and oxygen consumption (blood flow multiplied by arteriovenous oxygen difference) were measured as infusions of vasopressin were given either systemically or into the lower abdominal aorta. (
  • The method combines high temporal and spatial resolution, which are required for the monitoring of fast kinetics of oxygen concentration in living cells. (
  • This research underlines the important relationship between oxygen consumption and the factors of oxygen delivery. (
  • 1. Dobutamine has been used to study the relationship between oxygen consumption ( V O 2 ) and oxygen delivery ( D O 2 ) in critically ill patients, but this has led to concerns that it could consistently increase V O 2 in all patients. (
  • The new model reproduced experimental data successfully, provided values for corneal diffusivity and consumption, and described the relationship between oxygen consumption and oxygen tension in the cornea. (
  • ATP is produced either with oxygen using the aerobic pathways or without oxygen relying on the anaerobic pathways. (
  • Once a steady-state of oxygen consumption is achieved, the aerobic energy pathways are able to provide most of the ATP needed for the workout. (
  • Oxygen consumption is considered the best indicator of a person's level of aerobic fitness. (
  • In this study I measured both the swimming effort and the V̇ O 2 of newly emerged green turtle hatchlings simultaneously and continuously during their first 18 h of swimming in order to test the hypothesis that rates of oxygen consumption should correlate with swimming effort during this vital period. (
  • To test the hypothesis that omega-3 PUFAs alter O2 efficiency in humans, the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on O2 consumption during exercise were evaluated. (
  • The Roy-Sherrington principle has been interpreted to mean that blood flow changes must be a function of a tight coupling between cellular energy requirements and the supplies of glucose and oxygen. (
  • Although I doubt that there is very much NADH or NAD+ in normal extra cellular fluid there has to be an NADH docking site on the outer redox enzyme as one of the hallmarks of cell surface oxygen consumption is that it can be halted completely by flooding the cell culture medium with NADH. (
  • However, it remains challenging to understand the mechanisms by which contractile activity, mechanical loading, cellular energy status and cellular oxygen tension affect regulation of fiber size. (
  • HIF-1α wild-type and HIF-1α knockdown FaDu and ME180 xenograft tumors were grown in the hind leg of mice that were placed in an environmental chamber and exposed to different oxygen conditions (air-breathing and hypoxia). (
  • Marine Ecology Progress Series 1986 Nancy N. Rabalais, 1997-1999 "Comparison of continuous records of near-bottom dissolved oxygen from the hypoxia zone along the Louisiana Coast. (
  • Effects of sevoflurane, propofol, and adjunct nitrous oxide on regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption, and blood volume in humans. (
  • 4. Small to moderate mechanically induced reductions in hindquarter blood flow resulted in a smaller decrease in oxygen consumption than equivalent blood flow reductions induced by vasopressin. (
  • The physiological compensatory response to hemorrhage of maintaining intracranial blood flow and oxygen consumption was unaffected by the short term use of vasopressors during resuscitation. (
  • Although a direct thermogenic effect of the catecholamine has been primarily implicated in this increase in V O 2 , an increase in blood flow may contribute significantly by increasing the oxygen requirements of the heart and other organs such as the kidney and the liver. (
  • However, it has proved more problematic to measure real-time changes in blood flow and oxygen consumption. (
  • Hypocapnia does not alter hepatic blood flow or oxygen consumption in patients with head injury. (
  • In rho zero anabolic cancer cells cell surface oxygen consumption can be as much as 90% of the total oxygen consumption of the parent cell line. (
  • Case A exhibited a much faster muscle oxygen consumption recovery time (34 seconds) whereas Case B's recovery time was 93 seconds. (
  • Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to reduce skeletal muscle oxygen consumption cY 02) during resting conditions in a variety of animal models. (
  • The main aim of the study was to investigate whether individualizing the duration of the recovery interval based upon the resolution of muscle oxygen consumption would improve the performance during work intervals and the acute physiological response of the HIIT session, when compared with a standardized (2:1 work recovery ratio) approach. (
  • Individualizing HIIT recovery duration based upon the resolution of muscle oxygen consumption to baseline levels does not improve the performance of the work intervals or the acute physiological response of the HIIT session, when compared with standardized recovery duration. (
  • The calculated oxygen drop was then divided by the contraction time to generate a value for the muscle oxygen consumption in the optical region of interest. (
  • Glycogen starts by liberating some energy without oxygen, producing lactic acid. (
  • Lactic acid is produced from glycogen (and glucose) when there is not enough oxygen available. (
  • To determine whether this decrease could result from limited oxygen delivery, studies were performed in two groups of chronically instrumented dogs. (
  • On the contrary, large mechanically induced flow reductions resulted in a larger decrease in oxygen consumption than those induced by vasopressin. (
  • 5. These results suggest that the decrease in hindquarter oxygen consumption induced by systemic vasopressin administration cannot be primarily a consequence of oxygen delivery limitation. (
  • Computer simulations demonstrate that an increase in the total creatine pool [PCr±Cr] (where Cr stands for creatine and PCr for phosphocreatine) and in glycolytic ATP supply lengthen the half-transition time, whereas increase in mitochondrial content, in parallel activation of ATP supply and ATP usage, in oxygen concentration, in proton leak, in resting energy demand, in resting cytosolic pH and in initial alkalization decrease this parameter. (
  • and after the age of 50 the decrease in oxygen consumption occurs rapidly. (
  • In lakes, which are ice covered during long winters, the dissolved oxygen concentration may decrease to very low values. (
  • Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy: Determinants of Oxygen Consumption" by Ryan Rosenberry, Chandan-Ganesh Bangalore-Yogananda et al. (
  • Taken together, these data establish strong proof-of-concept that dual wavelength DCS can provide valuable mechanistic insight into the determinants of oxygen consumption. (
  • Oxygen consumption, abbreviated VO2, is a measure of the volume of oxygen used by the body. (
  • Oxygen delivery, on the other hand, is a measure of cardiac function, specifically of cardiac output. (
  • How To Measure Your Oxygen Consumption. (
  • There are a number of ways to accurately measure oxygen consumption in a laboratory. (
  • These values are an absolute measure of how much oxygen is consumed in milliliters per kilogram of bodyweight per minute (or ml/kg/min). (
  • A Presens four channel system was used to measure changes in oxygen concentration in real-time in each bottle. (
  • Measure oxygen with fingeroximeter. (
  • So you can measure cell surface oxygen usage by the fall in consumption which occurs when you add exogenous NADH just as you can measure mitochondrial oxygen usage by the fall in consumption which occurs when you add myxothiazol. (
  • Here we describe the implementation of the CLARIOstar with ACU in conjunction with advanced phosphorescent dyes to measure O 2 consumption and glycolytic flux in an open-flow respirometry system. (
  • AquaResp® is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. (
  • Here we report the development of a novel method using NIRS to measure local oxygen consumption in human muscle. (
  • Therefore, several methods have been developed to measure oxygen consumption rates in cells or entire organisms (Dranka et al . (
  • One approach to providing atomic oxygen for the purpose of promoting more rapid and compact combustion is to disperse a low concentration of an atomic oxygen precursor, such as nitrous oxide (N2O), into the compressed air in the cylinder before or close to the time of ignition. (
  • The results indicate a consumption leading to an intracellular oxygen concentration that decays mono- exponentially with time. (
  • An approach for computing dissolved oxygen concentration is suggested assuming horizontally mixed waters and negligable vertical dispersion. (
  • The morphology of a lake is very important for how fast the dissolved oxygen concentration is reduced during winter. (
  • The oxygen concentration is reduced faster in the deep parts of a lake than near the ice. (
  • the shallower lake, the more oxygen consumption and the lower DO concentration. (
  • This is in good agreement with previously reported mea- surements of oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle fibers. (
  • To evaluate oxygen consumption (V o 2 ), carbon dioxide production, and energy expenditure (EE) in full-term neonates with early-onset neonatal septicemia daily for 7 days beginning at the day of clinical diagnosis of sepsis. (
  • The sepsis syndrome in adults is associated with hypermetabolism characterized by increased oxygen consumption (V o 2 ), increased carbon dioxide production (V co 2 ), and increased resting energy expenditure (EE). (
  • The adaptability of stroke volume makes it a more prominent variable in the determination of maximal oxygen consumption. (
  • A recent study investigated Nordic skiers' anaerobic capacities by calculating the accumulated oxygen (VO 2 ) deficit from a maximal roller ski test. (
  • There were no differences in rectal temperature (37.3 ± 0.4 °C vs 37.4 ± 0.2 °C), skin temperature (36.5 ± 0.4 °C vs 36.6 ± 0.3 °C), and oxygen saturation (96 ± 3% vs 96 ± 3%) between the 2 groups. (
  • A cardiac electrical therapy is adjusted to cause a change of the measured oxygen saturation parameter, and the adjusted cardiac electrical therapy is selected for delivery based on a changed oxygen saturation parameter indicative of an increase in cardiac efficiency. (
  • The oxygen uptakes of adult beetles increased at each experimental temperature as the seasons progressed from winter to spring. (
  • Under the controlled conditions of reduced salinity from 31.5 to 15.0 and ambient temperature 17°C and 23°C, the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and ammonia-N were determined by the Winkle method and the hypobromite method, respectively. (
  • Effects of temperature on oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion of Chlamys farreri . (
  • We used respirometry to quantify the influence of two abiotic factors as potential stressors on stream fishes: temperature and dissolved oxygen. (
  • The newly released, Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates Report is a companion book to the EPA Exposure Factors Handbook. (
  • Example exposure factors include: age specific rates for drinking water consumption, food consumption, soil and dust ingestion, body weight, activity patterns, and information to estimate dermal absorption. (
  • Here, rates of benthic oxygen consumption and nutrient exchange across the water-sludge interface were measured in situ using a benthic chamber. (
  • In this work, we have applied fluorescence-based transient state imaging and have exploited the environment sensitivity of long-lived dark states of fluorophores, in particular triplet state decay rates, to image the oxygen consumption of living cells. (
  • Sediment microcosms were established from three sites within oligotrophic Lake angstrom nnsjon, Sweden, to use microsensors for measuring oxygen profiles and estimate spatially resolved oxygen consumption rates at the water-sediment interfaces. (
  • There was no linear correlation between oxygen consumption rates and microbial cell abundances. (
  • Illumina sequencing of spatially resolved 16SrRNA genes was used to test for possible influence of bacterial diversity on spatially resolved oxygen consumption rates. (
  • In situ swimming behaviors and oxygen consumption rates of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris). (
  • Moderately active individuals consumed 48.4 μl O2min-1 at 25°C and 18.3 μl O2min-1 35°C. By contrast, fast walking bees had significantly higher oxygen consumption rates: 91.4 and 30.5 μl O2min-1 at 25° and 35°C, respectively. (
  • We determined standard oxygen consumption rates and the critical oxygen level (DOcrit) of 5 fish species, one from the Tennessee River Basin (Cottus carolinae) and 4 from the Mobile River Basin (Percina nigrofasciata, P. palmaris, Etheostoma jordani, and Cyprinella venusta). (
  • The maximum rates of oxygen consumption (VO2max) per volume unit and the cross-sectional areas of striated myocytes from different vertebrates vary over a 100-fold range. (
  • 2009). In this protocol, we describe a method for the determination of oxygen consumption rates in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . (
  • 2015). In this protocol, we describe a method for the determination of oxygen consumption rates in the nematode C. elegans by using a Clark-type polarographic oxygen sensor electrode (Hansatech, King's Lynn, England). (
  • The high renal oxygen (O(2) ) demand is associated primarily with tubular O(2) consumption (Qo(2) ) necessary for solute reabsorption. (
  • 4 Other terms derived from mathematical models, such as the equivalent oxygen pressure (EOP) and biological apparent oxygen transmissibility (BOAT), have been introduced to better assess the performance of contact lenses with regard to the physiological changes in oxygen supply they induce. (
  • This illustrates the delicate balance that must be kept between the cardiovascular and respiratory systems for oxygen consumption to be maximized. (
  • The majority of patients on hemodialysis develop a progressive anemia, because their kidneys become unable to produce sufficient erythropoietin to maintain normal hemoglobin mass. 9 This anemia combined with impaired cardiovascular function limit the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. (
  • Direct and indirect treatment effects can lead to significant reductions in VO 2peak via impairments in 1 or more of the steps within the oxygen cascade (i.e., the pulmonary, cardiovascular, hematologic, and musculoskeletal systems). (
  • Will Y, Hynes J, Ogurtsov VI, Papkovsky DB (2007) Analysis of mitochondrial function using phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive probes. (
  • P.4014 right column 4th paragraph: 'Fibre-optic oxygen probes (Oxford Optronix, UK) were inserted into the centre of the 3D constructs to place the measuring tip halfway along their long axis (Fig. 1). (
  • When the phosphorescent oxygen and pH probes are used with the CLARIOstar with ACU, real-time changes in ECA and OCR can be observed (Figure 2). (
  • 3 Further, the oxygen transmissibility ( Dk/t ) of the lens is insufficient to evaluate the changes in oxygen supply to the cornea under contact lens wear because the relationship between these two variables is not linear. (