Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Zinc Isotopes: Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Strontium Isotopes: Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Mammoths: An extinct genus of large mammals in the family Elephantidae that fed by grazing on low vegetation. Most died out at the end of the last ice age.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Male Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE).Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Lead Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sperm Whale: The species Physeter catodon (also called Physeter macrocephalus), in the family Physeteridae. The common name is derived from the milky wax substance in its head (spermaceti). The species also produces an intestinal secretion AMBERGRIS, which was previously used in perfumes. The sperm whale is the largest toothed MAMMAL in the world.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Tillandsia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.AlaskaCastor Bean: Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.HydrocarbonsWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Etiocholanolone: The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Curculigo: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains curculin and cycloartane saponins.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Radioactive Tracers: Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)TritiumSeawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
Hornberger, George M. (1995). "New manuscript guidelines for the reporting of stable hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotope ratio ... tend to be enriched in the lighter isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, causing water to evaporate more quickly. Temperature ... The isotopic composition of VSMOW water is specified as ratios of the molar abundance of the rare isotope in question divided ... If you were to mix equal quantities of H2O and D2O the ratio of H to D would remain as 1:1, but the ratio of D2O to H2O would ...
Isoprime produces isotope ratio mass spectrometers used for stable isotope ratio measurement of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, ... hydrogen and oxygen for product quality and purity control of food, fuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. The production ... and set the basis for entry into the market of stable isotope ratio analysis. Elementar is specialized in the development and ... Elemental analyzers and isotope ratio mass spectrometers are used in the fields of analytical and environmental chemistry to ...
His contributions include laser analyses of meteorites, paleoclimate reconstruction by oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios, and ... Stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis of fossil tooth enamel using laser ablation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, ... A laser-based microanalytical method for the in situ determination of oxygen isotope ratios of silicates and oxides. Geochimica ... Zachary D. Sharp is an American stable isotope geochemist. He is credited with the development of laser-based technology for ...
... reconstruction is the analysis of isotope-ratio mass spectrometry data on stable isotopes like those of hydrogen and oxygen. ... Studies on marine (planktonic/benthic) foraminifera and bulk carbonate isotope ratios during the mid-Cretaceous suggest a ... Jing Zhou (2012). The mid-Cretaceous greenhouse climate and marine stable isotope: insights from general circulation model ... Paleotemperatures of Cretaceous northern high latitudes were deduced from oxygen isotope analysis of well-preserved brachiopod ...
The variations in oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios have applications in hydrology since most samples will lie between two ... This field is termed stable isotope geochemistry. Measurement of the ratios of naturally occurring stable isotopes (isotope ... The ratio of the oxygen isotopes oxygen-16 and oxygen-18 incorporated into the calcium carbonate varies with temperature and ... The relative abundance of such stable isotopes can be measured experimentally (isotope analysis), yielding an isotope ratio ...
Water molecules containing the common hydrogen isotope (and the common oxygen isotope, mass 16) have a mass of 18. Water ... Stellaard F, Elzinga H (2005). "Analytical techniques in biomedical stable isotope applications: (isotope ratio) mass ... As a specific example, the hydrogen isotope deuterium (heavy hydrogen) is almost double the mass of the common hydrogen isotope ... 12C ratio of 0.0112372. Oxygen isotope ratios are measured relative the standard, V-SMOW (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). It ...
This maps show how ratios of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in scalp hair vary in different areas of the United States. It was so ... "Stable isotopes in elephant hair document migration patterns and diet changes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... When clouds move off the ocean towards inland the ratios of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 and hydrogen-2 to hydrogen-1 tend to ... "Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in human hair are related to geography". To know where people have been and where they lived ...
The main elements used in isotope ecology are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and sulfur. Analysis of the ratio of 18O to ... Stable isotope ratios as tracers in marine food webs: and update. Pages 238-282 Stable Isotopes and Ecology in Environmental ... Parnell, A., Inger, R., Bearhop, S., Jackson, A. SISUS: Stable Isotope Sourcing using Sampling. Stable Isotope Sourcing using ... which separates the different isotopes of an element on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio. The ratios of isotopic oxygen ...
... (18 O) is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. 18 O is an important precursor ... The ratio O-18/O-16 (δ18 O) can also be used to determine paleothermometry in certain types of fossils. The fossils in question ... It can also be used to make an extremely heavy version of water when combined with tritium (hydrogen-3): 3 H 218 O or T 218 O. ... The fossil material used is generally calcite or aragonite, however oxygen isotope paleothermometry has also been done of ...
This variation in the relative abundance of stable isotopes results from tiny mass differences that cause the isotopes to act ... The elements that are primarily analyzed for SIA are: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulphur. Isotopic variation among ... The fundamental design of isotope ratio mass spectrometers, a tool used for analyzing isotopes, has not changed since the 1940s ... Isotope analysis is based on the principle that most elements exist in two or more forms, known as isotopes. Isotopes have the ...
Oxygen has three stable isotopes, 16O, 17O, and 18O. Oxygen ratios are measured relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water ( ... Hydrogen isotope biogeochemistry Carbon has two stable isotopes, 12C and 13C, and one radioactive isotope, 14C. The stable ... Oxygen isotopes appear in anomalous ratios in atmospheric ozone, resulting from mass-independent fractionation. Isotope ratios ... Stable Isotope Geochemistry (Springer Verlag). Sharp Z., 2006. Principles of Stable Isotope Geochemistry (Prentice Hall). ...
IsotopesEdit. Main article: Isotopes of chromium. Naturally occurring chromium is composed of three stable isotopes; 52Cr, 53Cr ... Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus ... with manganese isotopes. This circumstance is useful in isotope geology. Manganese-chromium isotope ratios reinforce the ... Variations in 53Cr/52Cr and Mn/Cr ratios from several meteorites indicate an initial 53Mn/55Mn ratio that suggests Mn-Cr ...
Bold for stable isotopes The ratio between 16O and 18O is used to deduce ancient temperatures Can be used in NMR studies of ... 17O is primarily made by the burning of hydrogen into helium during the CNO cycle, making it a common isotope in the hydrogen ... There are three known stable isotopes of oxygen (8O): 16O, 17O, and 18O. Radioactive isotopes with mass numbers from 12O to 24O ... Naturally occurring oxygen is composed of three stable isotopes, 16O, 17O, and 18O, with 16O being the most abundant (99.762% ...
Longstaffe, F.J. (2000) Chapter 6. An introduction to stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes and their use as fluid tracers in ... Hornibrook, E.R.C., Longstaffe, F.J. and Fyfe, W.S. (2000) Factors influencing stable-isotope ratios in CH4 and CO2 within ... His current focus is on applying knowledge of stable isotopes to various fields of study. Longstaffe earned a BSc (Hons) from ... In 1987, Longstaffe moved to the Western as a full professor in Geology and opened the Laboratory for Stable Isotope Science. ...
... preferentially bind the lighter carbon stable isotope carbon-12 over the heavier carbon-13. This is known as carbon isotope ... hydrogen gas or hydrogen sulfide). Sulfur- and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria often use the Calvin cycle or the reductive citric ... Measurement of this ratio is important in the evaluation of water use efficiency in plants, and also in assessing the possible ... The release of free oxygen is a side-effect of enormous consequence. The first step uses the energy of sunlight to oxidize ...
The atoms hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon co-exist naturally in specific proportions with their stable isotopes, 2H (or D), 18O ... The isotopic ratios of a molecule can also be determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), sample quantity for IRMS is ... The Hydrogen nuclei: 2H-SNIF-NMR method was the initial application of SNIF-NMR, it measures the ratio of deuterium/hydrogen on ... 2 N° 2, 1988 AOAC Official Method 2006.05, Site-Specific Deuterium/Hydrogen (D/H) Ratios in Vanillin, AOAC International 2007 ...
The δ34S (pronounced delta 34 S) value is a standardized method for reporting measurements of the ratio of two stable isotopes ... as increased atmospheric oxygen permitted an increase in the mechanisms that could fractionate sulfur isotopes, leading to an ... to hydrogen sulfide (H2S), has played a significant role in the oceanic δ34S value throughout the earth's history. Sulfate- ... Two mechanisms of fractionation occur that alter sulfur stable isotope ratios: kinetic effects, especially due to the ...
Bold for stable isotopes *^ a b The ratio between 16O and 18O is used to deduce ancient temperatures ... 17O is primarily made by the burning of hydrogen into helium during the CNO cycle, making it a common isotope in the hydrogen ... Oxygen-13Edit. Oxygen-13 is an unstable isotope of oxygen. It consists of 8 protons and electrons, and 5 neutrons. It has a ... Oxygen-15Edit. Oxygen-15 is an isotope of oxygen, frequently used in positron emission tomography, or PET imaging. It can be ...
... and oxygen isotopes that must be kept away from the atmosphere.[19] The 15N:14N ratio is commonly used in stable isotope ... It resembles oxygen with its high electronegativity and concomitant capability for hydrogen bonding and the ability to form ... Nitrogen has two stable isotopes: 14N and 15N. The first is much more common, making up 99.634% of natural nitrogen, and the ... Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Ehleringer, James R.; Pataki, Diane E. (15 December 2004). Stable Isotopes and Biosphere - Atmosphere ...
An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, ... oxygen, and hydrogen isotopic signature of the backing polymer, additives, and adhesive. Measurement of carbon isotopic ratios ... The ratios of isotopes in a sample material are measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. This process is called isotope ... For example, the Moon's oxygen isotopic ratios seem to be essentially identical to Earth's. Oxygen isotopic ratios, which may ...
Determine the ratios of stable isotopes in the Martian atmosphere. MAVEN reached Mars and successfully maneuvered into orbit ... There, solar radiation can split the water molecules into their components, hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen, as the lightest ... This loss was thought to proceed at a fairly constant rate, but MAVEN's observations of Mars's atmospheric hydrogen through a ... Built by Goddard Space Flight Center Measures the composition and isotopes of neutral gases and ions The orbiter is in Mars ...
Stable isotopes of neon are produced in stars. 20Ne is created in fusing helium and oxygen in the alpha process. This requires ... after hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and carbon (see chemical element). Its relative rarity on Earth, like that of helium, is due to ... Expansion ratio Neon sign Neon lamp Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". ... Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are partly primordial and partly ...
The isotope of hydrogen in water, deuterium, is much less sensitive to kinetic fractionation than oxygen isotopes, relative to ... Kinetic fractionation is an isotopic fractionation process that separates stable isotopes from each other by their mass during ... Mass-independent fractionation Transient kinetic isotope fractionation Isotopic enrichment Isotopic ratio Kinetic isotope ... "Fundamentals of Stable Isotope Geochemistry". USGS. Retrieved April 10, 2014. Maggi F. and W. J. Riley, (2010), Mathematical ...
H-2 (deuterium), the stable isotope of hydrogen, is a stable tracer, the concentration of which can be measured by mass ... In addition, by careful measurement of some ratios of stable isotopes it is possible to obtain new insights into the origin of ... If the oxygen in the water is labeled, then the label appears in the oxygen gas formed by the plant and not in the glucose ... N-15, the stable isotope of nitrogen, has also been used. It is incorporated mainly into proteins. Radioactive isotopes have ...
... also differentially alter the ratios of heavy hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in fresh and salt waters, in characteristic and ... Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol D or 2 H , also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other ... versus light hydrogen. The two stable isotopes of hydrogen can also be distinguished by using mass spectrometry. The triplet ... Stable isotope are incorporated into plants and animals and an analysis of the ratios in a migrant bird or insect can help ...
Primordial isotopes of the alkali metals Z. Alkali metal. Stable. Decays. unstable: italics. odd-odd isotopes coloured pink ... Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus ... the ratios between the densities of the alkali metals can then be calculated. The resultant trend is that the densities of the ... tend to have fewer stable isotopes than even-numbered elements. Of the 26 monoisotopic elements that have only a single stable ...
... and oxygen provide insights into a heterotrophic organisms diet and geographic origin. Although the contribution of food delta ... The stable isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen provide insights into a heterotrophic organisms diet and ... Nitrogen Isotopes / analysis*. Oxygen Isotopes / analysis*. Restaurants. Solanum tuberosum / chemistry. United States. ... 0/Carbon Isotopes; 0/Nitrogen Isotopes; 0/Oxygen Isotopes; 7782-39-0/Deuterium ...
In contrast, stable hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope measurements have typically been reserved for studies of migratory ... In some organisms, the isotopic ratios of these two elements are tightly coupled, whereas the isotopic disequilibrium in other ... isotopes in tissues of organisms has formed the foundation of isotopic food web reconstructions, as these values directly ... The measurement of stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ... Applications of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios to ...
Oxygen--Isotopes--Oklahoma--Norman. Purpose Stable-isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation were measured at the ... δ2H ‰, ratio of hydrogen isotopes, in per mil; δ18O ‰, ratio of oxygen isotopes, in per mil] Collection year(s) δ2H (o/oo) δ18O ... δ2H ‰, ratio of hydrogen isotopes, in per mil; δ18O ‰, ratio of oxygen isotopes, in per mil] Collection year(s) δ2H (o/oo) δ18O ... mL, milliliters; δ2H ‰, ratio of hydrogen isotopes, in per mil; δ18O ‰, ratio of oxygen isotopes, in per mil; ND, no data; mm, ...
Stable-isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation at Norman, Oklahoma, 1996-2008. Precipitation samples for ... Stable-isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation at Norman, Oklahoma, 1996-2008; 2011; SIR; 2011-5262; Jaeschke, ... measurement of stable-isotope ratios of hydrogen (delta2H) and oxygen (delta18O) were collected at the Norman Landfill Research ... including depleted dissolved oxygen and elevated organic... ...
Gat, J. R.: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hydrologic cycle, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 24, 225-262, https://doi.org/ ... Continuous vapour-derived stable isotope measurements, isotope ratios of discrete liquid samples, and liquid bulk samples are ... Continuous, near-real-time observations of water stable isotope ratios during rainfall and throughfall events Continuous, near- ... Herbstritt, B., Gralher, B., and Weiler, M.: Continuous, near-real-time observations of water stable isotope ratios during ...
Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) in water may... ... Stable isotope ratios and reforestation potential in Acacia koa populations on Hawaii. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes can ... Stable water isotopes suggest sub-canopy water recycling in a northern forested catchment. Stable water isotopes provide a ... Stable isotopes of S are used in conjunction with dissolved SO2-,4 concentrations to evaluate the utility of ä34S ratios in ...
8.5 Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in the Hydrologic System 262. 8.6 Isotope Fractionation in the Biosphere 265 ... Chapter 10: Stable isotope geochemistry III: Low temperature applications 316. 10.1 Stable Isotopes in Paleontology, Archeology ... Attention then turns to stable isotopes and after reviewing the basic principles involved, the book explores their use in ... This book provides a comprehensive introduction to radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry. Beginning with a brief overview ...
Variation of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen stable isotope ratios in an ... ... The stable isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen provide insights into a heterotrophic organisms diet and ... Stable sulfur (S) isotope ratios can be used to identify the sources of sulfate contributing to streamwater. We collected ... Food web studies based on stable C and N isotope ratios usually assume isotopic equilibrium between a consumer and its diet. In ...
The variations in oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios have applications in hydrology since most samples will lie between two ... This field is termed stable isotope geochemistry. Measurement of the ratios of naturally occurring stable isotopes (isotope ... The ratio of the oxygen isotopes oxygen-16 and oxygen-18 incorporated into the calcium carbonate varies with temperature and ... The relative abundance of such stable isotopes can be measured experimentally (isotope analysis), yielding an isotope ratio ...
Hornberger, George M. (1995). "New manuscript guidelines for the reporting of stable hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotope ratio ... tend to be enriched in the lighter isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, causing water to evaporate more quickly. Temperature ... The isotopic composition of VSMOW water is specified as ratios of the molar abundance of the rare isotope in question divided ... If you were to mix equal quantities of H2O and D2O the ratio of H to D would remain as 1:1, but the ratio of D2O to H2O would ...
Over this time, SIL has become a world leader in measurement of both deuterium/hydrogen and oxygen-18/16 ratios of ice. In ... We measure the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water from Ice cores. On Earths great ice sheets, Greenland and ... Stable Isotopes in the Biosphere. Carbon isotope ratios of organic material are useful tools in ecology and ecosystem science. ... Stable Isotope Laboratory. Research. The INSTAAR Stable Isotope Lab is a focal point of interdisciplinary research programs: we ...
CRDS has also been used successfully to analyze hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in water samples, introduced under either a liquid ... 2002) Stable Isotope Ratios Using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Determination of 13C/12C for Carbon Dioxide in Human Breath. ... If the bulk isotope ratio rather than the compound-specific isotope ratio is desired, the separation procedure can be omitted. ... the most commonly used instruments for determining high-precision isotope ratios are special-purpose isotope-ratio mass ...
It turns out that stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in water vary with geography on a continental scale, and so ... Research on stable isotope ratios has already seen a number of interesting results. In one case, understanding the stable ... have very different carbon isotope ratios. We have used stable isotopes to quantify African elephant diet over time as it ... Another example of the usefulness of stable isotope ratios can be found in the tropics where woody plants and grasses, which ...
I operate and maintain a laboratory for the analysis of stable isotope ratios of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur ... My research interests are broad, but all revolve around the use of environmental stable isotope ratios. ... Global scale climate and environmental dynamics; carbon dioxide concentrations and climate from stable hydrogen isotopes, peats ... climate from deuterium excess and hydrogen isotopes in ice cores; isotopes in general circulation models; modern carbon cycle ...
We have already discussed the importance of isotopes for rock dating. The ratio of these two oxygen isotopes has changed over ... What is the stable isotope standard for Hydrogen and Oxygen? What climate factors influence the ratio of oxygen isotopes in ... Oxygen isotope ratio cycles are cyclical variations in the ratio of the abundance of oxygen with. Additional factors can affect ... We have already discussed the importance of isotopes for rock dating. The ratio of these two oxygen isotopes has changed over ...
Broad, systematic, geospatial variation in stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of environmental water and the capacity for ... Treatment methods for the determination of delta2H and delta18O of hair keratin by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass ... the contribution of non-biologic hydrogen and oxygen to samples in the form of sorbed molecular water, and the exchange of ... precise measurement via methods such as high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TC/EA- ...
Analysis of the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of beverage waters without prior water extraction using isotope ratio ... A versatile glass tube cracker for transfer of gases from sealed glass tubes for stable isotope ratio and chemical analyses ( ... Stable isotope (13C/12C and 15N/14N) composition of the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis horn suggests seasonal ... Offline oxygen isotope analysis of organic compounds with high N:O (pages 3182-3186). Glendon B. Hunsinger, William M. Hagopian ...
Microbe forensics: oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in Bacillus subtilis cells and spores. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... Stable isotope ratio analyses were performed at the Stable Isotope Ratio Facility for Environmental Research at the University ... New guidelines for reporting stable hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotope-ratio data. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta60:3359-3360. ... Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios.Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured using IRMS (Finnigan-MAT Delta S isotope ...
Applications of Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotope Ratios to Food Web Studies. Frontiers Media SA. Vol. 4. Published, 01/01/ ... Influence of diet and ambient water on hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios in fish tissue: Patterns within and among ... Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of tap water reveal structure of the San Francisco Bay Areas water system and adjustments ... VanDeVelde J. H., Bowen G. J., Passey B. H. and Bowen B. B. (2013) Climatic and diagenetic signals in the stable isotope ...
Reduced climate sensitivity of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring cellulose of silver fir (Abies ... Characterisation of the aquifer system along the NW Dead Sea using stable isotope signatures and strontium isotope ratios. ... based on carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring latewood cellulose of oaks ( Matt. Liebl.). Clim. Change 105 (1-2 ... Stable sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation of anoxic sulfide oxidation by two different enzymatic pathways. Environ. Sci. ...
... recurring circa-annual periods of slow and fast rhythms in hydrogen isotope ratios in hair and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios ... Stable Isotope Ratios in Hair and Teeth Reflect Biologic Rhythms by Otto Appenzeller, Clifford Qualls, Franca Barbic, Raffaello ... The samples were examined to determine variations in stable isotope ratios along the length of the hair and across growth-lines ... Our study shows that spectral analysis of stable isotope ratios in readily available tissues such as hair could become a ...
2013) used stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios from 73 large lakes to investigate the relative roles of evaporation (E) ... The effect of these very small trees on means, variances, and variance ratios was evaluated for height and diameter in a 16- ...
Isotopic dendroclimatology concerns the measurement of the ratios of the stable isotopes of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in the ... 2014) Reduced climate sensitivity of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring cellulose of silver fir ( ... 400-year May-August Precipitation Reconstruction for Southern England Using Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratios (δ18O) of Tree Rings. ... on the stable isotope ratios (d13C and d18O) of tree rings, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 2327-2339 ...
BASIC ANALYSES OF DOME FUJI DEEP ICE CORE PART 1 : STABLE OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN ISOTOPE RATIOS, MAJOR CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS AND ...
... of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. ... OASIC currently has two isotope ratio mass spectrometers ( ... This system can be used to extract oxygen from almost all non-carbonate oxygen bearing solids (e.g., silicates, oxides, ... phosphates, sulfates, etc.) for triple oxygen isotopic analysis.. *Dionex ICS 3000 for anion and cation concentration analysis. ...
  • When water vapor travels over the land surface, forms clouds, and precipitates as snow onto an ice sheet, the lighter oxygen isotopes are moved from the ocean into the ice sheet, leaving the ocean relatively enriched in the heavier isotopes. (waterencyclopedia.com)
  • Advances in the application of stable isotopes have allowed the quantitative evaluation of previously cryptic ecological processes. (usda.gov)
  • The very first archaeological application of stable isotope research was in the 1970s, by South African archaeologist Nikolaas van der Merwe , who was excavating at the African Iron Age site of Kgopolwe 3, one of several sites in the Transvaal Lowveld of South Africa, called Phalaborwa. (thoughtco.com)
  • Encourage cross-disciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques at UNM and beyond regarding the application of stable isotopes in the planetary, life and medical sciences. (unm.edu)
  • Picarro can measure and quantify stable isotope ratios with high precision to unravel the biochemical processes encoded in a sample. (picarro.com)
  • An innovative tool for generating high precision on-line isotope ratio determination of gas species, waters and carbonates. (queensu.ca)
  • Isotopes are any of two or more forms of a chemical element that have the same number of protons in the nucleus (i.e. the same atomic number), but have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus (different atomic weights. (picarro.com)