Reactive Oxygen Species
Oxygen Inhalation Therapy
Free Radical Scavengers
Pulmonary Gas Exchange
Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous
Reactive Nitrogen Species
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
Electron Transport Complex IV
Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
Lung Diseases, Obstructive
NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases
Disease Models, Animal
Molecular Sequence Data
Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Retinopathy of Prematurity
Arterial blood gas tensions during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. (1/22785)Arterial blood gas tensions were measured before and during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with (group I) and without (group 2) sedation with intravenous diazepam. There was a highly significant fall in the PaO2, which occurred in both groups and was therefore not attributable to diazepam. Measurement of FEV, and FVC before endoscopy had no predictive value for those patients whose PaO2 fell the most. (+info)
In vitro development of sheep preantral follicles. (2/22785)Preantral ovarian follicles isolated from prepubertal sheep ovaries were individually cultured for 6 days in the presence of increasing doses of FSH (ranging from 0.01 to 1 microg/ml) and under two different oxygen concentrations, 20% and 5% O2. Follicle development was evaluated on the basis of antral cavity formation as well as the presence of healthy cumulus oocyte complexes. Follicle growth was enhanced by FSH addition to culture medium, while the use of a low oxygen concentration slightly stimulated this process. However, when follicles were cultured in the presence of high doses of FSH (1 microgram/ml) and under low oxygen concentration, a high proportion of them showed the presence of an antral cavity and of a healthy cumulus-oocyte complex. In addition, under this specific culture condition sheep preantral follicles released higher levels of estradiol as compared to those secreted at lower FSH concentrations or under 20% O2. When the meiotic competence of oocytes derived from follicles cultured at 1 microgram/ml FSH was assessed, no significant difference was recorded between the two oxygen groups. These results show that the culture conditions here identified are beneficial to in vitro growth and differentiation of sheep preantral follicles. (+info)
Endogenous plasma endothelin concentrations and coronary circulation in patients with mild dilated cardiomyopathy. (3/22785)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients (eight male/six female; mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with IDCM (ejection fraction 36 (9)%) and five normotensive subjects (two male/three female; age 52 (7) years) serving as controls were studied. METHODS: Functional status was classified according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Endogenous ET-1 and BET plasma concentrations from the aorta and the coronary sinus were determined by radioimmunoassay. Coronary blood flow, using the inert chromatographic argon method, myocardial oxygen consumption, and coronary sinus oxygen content under basal conditions were determined. RESULTS: In the aorta, mean (SD) concentrations of ET-1 (IDCM 0.76 (0.25) v controls 0.31 (0.06) fmol/ml; p = 0.002) and BET (IDCM 3.58 (1.06) v controls 2.11 (0.58) fmol/ml; p = 0.014) were increased in patients with IDCM. Aortic ET-1 concentrations correlated positively with NYHA class (r = 0. 731; p < 0.001), myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.749; p < 0. 001), and coronary blood flow (r = 0.645; p = 0.003), but inversely with coronary sinus oxygen content (r = -0.633; p = 0.004), which was significantly decreased in IDCM patients (IDCM 4.68 (1.05) v controls 6.70 (1.06) vol%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The coronary circulation in patients with IDCM is exposed to an increased endothelin load. ET-1 concentrations correlate with functional deterioration. A decrease of the coronary sinus content of oxygen suggests a mismatch between coronary blood flow and metabolic demand. Thus, ET-1 might be a marker of a disequilibrium between myocardial oxygen demand and coronary blood flow in IDCM. (+info)
Quantification of tumour vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements. (4/22785)Despite the possibility that tumour hypoxia may limit radiotherapeutic response, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A new methodology has been developed in which information from several sophisticated techniques is combined and analysed at a microregional level. First, tumour oxygen availability is spatially defined by measuring intravascular blood oxygen saturations (HbO2) cryospectrophotometrically in frozen tumour blocks. Second, hypoxic development is quantified in adjacent sections using immunohistochemical detection of a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) to a nitroheterocyclic hypoxia marker (EF5), thereby providing information relating to both the oxygen consumption rates and the effective oxygen diffusion distances. Third, a combination of fluorescent (Hoechst 33342 or DiOC7(3)) and immunohistological (PECAM-1/CD31) stains is used to define the anatomical vascular densities and the fraction of blood vessels containing flow. Using a computer-interfaced microscope stage, image analysis software and a 3-CCD colour video camera, multiple images are digitized, combined to form a photo-montage and revisited after each of the three staining protocols. By applying image registration techniques, the spatial distribution of HbO2 saturations is matched to corresponding hypoxic marker intensities in adjacent sections. This permits vascular configuration to be related to oxygen availability and allows the hypoxic marker intensities to be quantitated in situ. (+info)
The respiratory responses of Carcinus maenas to declining oxygen tension. (5/22785)The degree of respiratory independence shown by Carcinus under conditions of declining oxygen tension is dependent on the animal's level of activity. Inactive Carcinus are capable of maintaining respiratory independence down to a Po2 of 60-80 mmHg. This is achieved primarily by an increase in ventilation volume such that the amount of oxygen made available at the respiratory surfaces remains constant over a wide range of oxygen tension. The Po2 at which this can no longer be maintained corresponds closely to the Po2 at which respiratory independence is lost. Under normoxic conditions the Po2 of the post- and prebranchial blood was 97 and 18 mmHg respectively. At the high oxygen tensions prevailing in the postbranchial blood the respiratory pigment is fully saturated. Under conditions of declining oxygen tension the heart rate remains more or less constant until the Po2 reaches 60-80 mmHg, the onset of bradycardia coinciding with the loss of saturation of the haemocyanin. Although cardiac output falls during hypoxia, the capacity rate ratio remains approximately constant, which enables the effectiveness of oxygen uptake by the blood to remain at a high level. (+info)
Active transport of calcium across the isolated midgut of Hyalophora cecropia. (6/22785)1. The net flux of 45Ca from lumen to blood side across the isolated and short-circuited Cecropia midgut was 1-9 +/- 0-2 muequiv. cm-2h-1 in 8 mM Ca and the flux ratio was as high as 56 to 1. 2. The calcium influx was depressed by anoxia; 73% after 30 min. 3. The kinetics of Ca transport were anomalous; the apparent Km varied with Ca concentration from less than 0-2 to greater than 5-6 mM Ca and the apparent Vmax varied from less than 1-3 to greater than 3-3 muequiv. cm-2h-1. 4. The calcium influx showed a delay before the tracer steady state was attained, indicating the existence in the transport route of a calcium pool equivalent to 5-7 muequiv/g. wet weight of midgut tissue. 5 High calcium (16 mM) depressed the short-circuit current and potassium transport from blood to lumen side across the midgut. 6. Calcium depressed magnesium transport, from lumen to blood side across the midgut, and magnesium depressed the calcium transport. 7. Ca transport by the midgut does not regulate the Ca level in the haemolymph in vivo; it merely aids the diffusion of calcium down its electrochemical gradient. However, Ca transport may assist the uptake of the nutrients from the midgut contents. (+info)
2,3 diphosphoglycerate in Parkinson's disease. (7/22785)The red cell 2,3 DPG, the most important factor for oxygen delivery in the tissues, was found to be increased in Parkinsonism patients compared with controls. The aging process seems not to be a factor in the increased 2,3 DPG concentration. Other factors relevant to raised 2,3 DPG level such as physical activity, increased oxygen requirements, and metabolic changes are discussed. (+info)
Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (8/22785)Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations. (+info)
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules that are produced as a byproduct of normal cellular metabolism. They include oxygen radicals such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals, as well as non-radical species such as singlet oxygen and peroxynitrite. In small amounts, ROS play important roles in various physiological processes, such as immune responses, cell signaling, and the regulation of gene expression. However, when produced in excess, ROS can cause oxidative stress, which can damage cellular components such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. This damage can lead to various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, ROS are often studied in the medical field as potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress.
Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen (O2) that has two unpaired electrons in its ground state. It is produced when oxygen molecules absorb energy, such as ultraviolet light, and undergo a process called intersystem crossing, which changes the electronic configuration of the molecule. In the medical field, singlet oxygen is used as a therapeutic agent in photodynamic therapy (PDT), a treatment for various types of cancer, including skin, lung, and head and neck cancer. PDT involves the administration of a photosensitizer, a compound that absorbs light and becomes excited, and then releases energy in the form of singlet oxygen. The singlet oxygen damages the cancer cells, leading to their destruction. Singlet oxygen is also used in other medical applications, such as wound healing and the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in older adults. However, the use of singlet oxygen in medicine is still in the experimental stage, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks.
In the medical field, oxygen isotopes refer to the different forms of the element oxygen that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most common oxygen isotopes are oxygen-16, oxygen-17, and oxygen-18. Oxygen-16 is the most abundant and is the form of oxygen that is found in the air we breathe. Oxygen-17 and oxygen-18 are less abundant and are often used in medical research and diagnostic imaging. Oxygen isotopes can be used to study the metabolism and function of various organs and tissues in the body, and can also be used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions.
Anoxia is a medical condition characterized by a lack of oxygen in the body's tissues. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including low oxygen levels in the air, reduced blood flow to the tissues, or a lack of oxygen-carrying red blood cells. Anoxia can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, dizziness, shortness of breath, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, anoxia can be life-threatening and may require immediate medical attention.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a colorless, odorless liquid that is commonly used in the medical field as a disinfectant, antiseptic, and oxidizing agent. It is a strong oxidizing agent that can break down organic matter, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for disinfecting wounds, surfaces, and medical equipment. In addition to its disinfectant properties, hydrogen peroxide is also used in wound care to remove dead tissue and promote healing. It is often used in combination with other wound care products, such as saline solution or antibiotic ointment, to help prevent infection and promote healing. Hydrogen peroxide is also used in some medical procedures, such as endoscopy and bronchoscopy, to help clean and disinfect the equipment before use. It is also used in some dental procedures to help remove stains and whiten teeth. However, it is important to note that hydrogen peroxide can be harmful if not used properly. It should not be ingested or applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes without first diluting it with water. It should also be stored in a cool, dry place away from children and pets.
Antioxidants are molecules that can neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of various diseases. In the medical field, antioxidants are often used to prevent or treat conditions related to oxidative stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants can be found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, or they can be taken as supplements. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.
Oxyhemoglobins are a type of hemoglobin molecule that is carrying oxygen. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that is responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. When hemoglobin binds to oxygen, it forms oxyhemoglobin. This process is known as oxygenation. Oxyhemoglobin is the form of hemoglobin that is most commonly found in the blood and is essential for the proper functioning of the body's cells.
In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.
Aerobiosis is a type of respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen. In the medical field, aerobiosis is the process by which cells in the body use oxygen to produce energy through a series of chemical reactions called cellular respiration. This process is essential for the survival of most living organisms, as it provides the energy needed for growth, repair, and other vital functions. During aerobiosis, glucose (a type of sugar) is broken down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary energy currency of the cell. Oxygen is required for this process to occur, as it acts as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, which is the final step in cellular respiration. Aerobic exercise, such as running or cycling, is a type of physical activity that relies on aerobiosis to produce energy. During aerobic exercise, the body uses oxygen to break down glucose and other nutrients, producing energy that can be used to power the muscles and other organs. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including improved cardiovascular health, increased endurance, and weight loss.
Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in protecting cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radicals. ROS are naturally produced by cells as a byproduct of metabolism, but in excess, they can cause oxidative stress and damage to cellular components, including DNA, proteins, and lipids. SOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide radicals into molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, which are less reactive and less harmful to cells. There are several different forms of SOD, including copper-zinc SOD (CuZnSOD), manganese SOD (MnSOD), and iron SOD (FeSOD), which are found in different cellular compartments and have different substrate specificities. In the medical field, SOD is of interest because of its potential therapeutic applications in treating a variety of diseases and conditions that are associated with oxidative stress, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, and aging. SOD supplements are also sometimes used as dietary supplements to enhance the body's natural antioxidant defenses. However, the efficacy and safety of SOD supplements have not been well-established, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential benefits and risks.
Hemoglobins are a group of proteins found in red blood cells (erythrocytes) that are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Hemoglobin is composed of four subunits, each of which contains a heme group that binds to oxygen. The oxygen binds to the iron atom in the heme group, allowing the hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin also plays a role in regulating the pH of the blood and in the immune response. Abnormalities in hemoglobin can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia.
Free radicals are highly reactive molecules that contain an unpaired electron in their outermost shell. In the medical field, free radicals are often associated with oxidative stress, which occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of free radicals and the body's ability to neutralize them. Free radicals can be produced naturally by the body as a result of normal metabolic processes, or they can be generated by external factors such as exposure to environmental pollutants, radiation, or certain medications. When free radicals react with healthy cells, they can damage cellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, leading to a variety of health problems, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. To counteract the harmful effects of free radicals, the body has developed a number of antioxidant defenses, including enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamins C and E. However, when the production of free radicals exceeds the body's ability to neutralize them, antioxidants may not be sufficient to prevent oxidative damage, and additional measures may be necessary to reduce the risk of disease.
Catalase is an enzyme that is found in almost all living organisms, including humans. It is primarily responsible for breaking down hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a toxic byproduct of cellular metabolism, into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). In the medical field, catalase is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the activity of this enzyme in various tissues and fluids, such as blood, urine, and liver tissue. Abnormal levels of catalase activity can be indicative of certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, and certain types of cancer. Catalase is also used in various medical treatments, such as in the treatment of certain types of cancer, where it is used to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill cancer cells. Additionally, catalase is used in some wound healing products to help break down hydrogen peroxide and reduce inflammation.
Hyperoxia is a medical condition characterized by an excessive amount of oxygen in the body. It occurs when the body is exposed to higher levels of oxygen than it can handle or when the body is not able to effectively remove excess oxygen from the bloodstream. In the medical field, hyperoxia can be caused by a variety of factors, including breathing pure oxygen at high concentrations, exposure to high altitude, or certain medical treatments such as oxygen therapy. Symptoms of hyperoxia can include headache, confusion, dizziness, seizures, and in severe cases, respiratory distress or failure. Treatment for hyperoxia typically involves reducing the amount of oxygen being administered or providing supportive care to manage symptoms.
NADPH oxidase is a membrane-bound enzyme complex that is responsible for generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide anions, in various cells and tissues. It plays a crucial role in the immune response, where it is involved in the killing of pathogens by phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. NADPH oxidase is also involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the medical field, NADPH oxidase is of interest because its dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders.
Cell hypoxia refers to a condition in which cells do not receive enough oxygen to function properly. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including reduced blood flow to the affected area, decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, or damage to the tissues that transport oxygen. Cell hypoxia can have a range of effects on the body, depending on the severity and duration of the oxygen deprivation. In the short term, it can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and shortness of breath. In the long term, it can lead to tissue damage, organ dysfunction, and even organ failure. Cell hypoxia is a common problem in a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and anemia. It is also a concern in certain surgical procedures and during exercise, as the body's demand for oxygen increases. Treatment for cell hypoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause and providing supplemental oxygen to the affected cells.
Anaerobiosis is a condition in which an organism cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. In the medical field, anaerobiosis is often associated with infections caused by anaerobic bacteria, which are bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. These bacteria are commonly found in the human body, particularly in areas such as the mouth, gut, and female reproductive tract, where oxygen levels are low. Anaerobic bacteria can cause a range of infections, including dental caries, periodontitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Treatment for anaerobic infections typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against anaerobic bacteria.
In the medical field, superoxides are highly reactive oxygen species that contain one unpaired electron in their outermost shell. They are formed when oxygen molecules (O2) gain an electron and become excited, resulting in the formation of a superoxide radical (O2•-). Superoxides are produced naturally by cells as a byproduct of cellular respiration and are involved in various physiological processes, including the immune response, detoxification, and the regulation of gene expression. However, excessive production of superoxides can also lead to oxidative stress and damage to cellular components, including DNA, proteins, and lipids. In medicine, superoxides are often studied in the context of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. They are also used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of certain conditions, such as infections and inflammation.
Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, in the blood. It is typically performed by drawing a small sample of blood from a vein in the arm and analyzing it using a machine called a blood gas analyzer. The results of a blood gas analysis can provide important information about a person's respiratory and circulatory function, as well as their acid-base balance. This information can be useful in diagnosing and treating a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart problems, and metabolic imbalances. Blood gas analysis is often used to monitor patients who are critically ill or who are undergoing certain medical procedures, such as surgery or mechanical ventilation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions in conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia.
Blood substitutes are substances that are designed to replace or supplement the function of blood in the human body. They are typically used in situations where there is a shortage of blood, such as during surgery or in cases of trauma, or when a patient's blood is not compatible with donated blood. Blood substitutes can be classified into two main categories: liquid and solid. Liquid blood substitutes are typically composed of artificial blood cells suspended in a solution, while solid blood substitutes are made up of artificial blood cells that have been encapsulated in a polymer matrix. There are several different types of blood substitutes that have been developed, including hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFCEs), and synthetic red blood cells (sRBCs). Each type of blood substitute has its own advantages and disadvantages, and their effectiveness and safety have been the subject of extensive research and clinical trials. Despite the development of various blood substitutes, there are still many challenges to overcome before they can be widely used in clinical practice. These include issues related to safety, efficacy, and cost, as well as regulatory hurdles and public acceptance.
Blood gas monitoring, transcutaneous (TCOG) is a non-invasive method of measuring the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a person's blood. It involves the use of a small device that is placed on the skin of the patient's finger or earlobe to measure the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in the blood. This information can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, as well as to guide treatment decisions. TCOG is a quick and painless procedure that does not require the use of needles or other invasive instruments.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
In the medical field, oxygen radioisotopes are isotopes of the element oxygen that have an unstable nucleus and emit radiation. These isotopes are used in various medical applications, such as: 1. Oxygen-15 (15O): This isotope is used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans to study blood flow and metabolism in the brain and other organs. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with neutrons in a cyclotron. 2. Oxygen-18 (18O): This isotope is used in stable isotope labeling techniques to study metabolic pathways and the fate of molecules in the body. It is also used in breath tests to diagnose certain medical conditions, such as lactose intolerance and celiac disease. 3. Oxygen-13 (13O): This isotope is used in PET scans to study the function of the heart and lungs. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with protons in a cyclotron. Oxygen radioisotopes are typically administered to patients intravenously or inhaled as a gas, and their radioactivity is monitored using specialized equipment. They are used in a variety of medical applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of purines, which are nitrogen-containing compounds found in all living cells. XO is primarily located in the liver, kidneys, and white blood cells, and it catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. In the medical field, XO is of particular interest because it is involved in the production of uric acid, which can accumulate in the blood and form crystals that can cause gout, a painful joint condition. High levels of uric acid in the blood are also associated with an increased risk of kidney stones, cardiovascular disease, and other health problems. XO inhibitors are drugs that are used to lower uric acid levels in the blood and reduce the risk of gout and other complications associated with high uric acid levels. These drugs work by inhibiting the activity of XO, which reduces the production of uric acid. Examples of XO inhibitors include allopurinol and febuxostat.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is produced naturally in the body by various cells, including endothelial cells in the lining of blood vessels. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure, as well as in the immune response and neurotransmission. In the medical field, NO is often studied in relation to cardiovascular disease, as it is involved in the regulation of blood vessel dilation and constriction. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of various conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. NO is also used in medical treatments, such as in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, where it is used to enhance blood flow to the penis. It is also used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, where it helps to relax blood vessels in the lungs and improve blood flow. Overall, NO is a critical molecule in the body that plays a vital role in many physiological processes, and its study and manipulation have important implications for the treatment of various medical conditions.
Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are a group of highly reactive molecules that are formed as a byproduct of the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in the body. These molecules include nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and other nitrogen-containing radicals. In the medical field, RNS play important roles in various physiological processes, including vasodilation, neurotransmission, and immune function. However, excessive production of RNS can also lead to cellular damage and contribute to the development of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. RNS are produced by a variety of cells in the body, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. They are also generated by the interaction of oxygen and nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrite and nitrate, which are found in the diet and are converted to NO by enzymes in the body. Overall, RNS are a complex and dynamic group of molecules that play important roles in both health and disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which RNS are produced and regulated is an active area of research in the medical field.
Acetylcysteine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including: 1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Acetylcysteine is used to help break up mucus in the lungs, making it easier to cough up and breathe. 2. Bronchitis: Acetylcysteine can help to thin and loosen mucus in the bronchial tubes, making it easier to cough up and breathe. 3. Pneumonia: Acetylcysteine can help to thin and loosen mucus in the lungs, making it easier to cough up and breathe. 4. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose: Acetylcysteine is used to prevent liver damage in people who have taken a large amount of paracetamol. 5. Cystic fibrosis: Acetylcysteine is used to help break up mucus in the lungs, making it easier to cough up and breathe. Acetylcysteine is usually taken by mouth as a liquid or tablet. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking acetylcysteine.
Glutathione is a naturally occurring antioxidant that is produced by the body. It is a tripeptide composed of three amino acids: cysteine, glycine, and glutamic acid. Glutathione plays a crucial role in protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. In the medical field, glutathione is often used as a supplement to support the immune system and protect against oxidative stress. It is also used in the treatment of certain conditions, such as liver disease, HIV/AIDS, and cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of glutathione supplementation.
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death process that occurs naturally in the body. It is a vital mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and eliminating damaged or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, cells undergo a series of changes that ultimately lead to their death and removal from the body. These changes include chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and the formation of apoptotic bodies, which are engulfed by neighboring cells or removed by immune cells. Apoptosis plays a critical role in many physiological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and immune function. However, when apoptosis is disrupted or dysregulated, it can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (HIF-1α) is a protein that plays a critical role in the body's response to low oxygen levels (hypoxia). It is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in oxygen transport, metabolism, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). Under normal oxygen conditions, HIF-1α is rapidly degraded by the proteasome, a protein complex that breaks down unnecessary or damaged proteins. However, when oxygen levels drop, HIF-1α is stabilized and accumulates in the cell. This allows it to bind to specific DNA sequences and activate the transcription of genes involved in the body's response to hypoxia. HIF-1α is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including erythropoiesis (the production of red blood cells), angiogenesis, and glucose metabolism. It is also implicated in the development of several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. In the medical field, HIF-1α is a target for drug development, as modulating its activity has the potential to treat a variety of conditions. For example, drugs that inhibit HIF-1α activity may be useful in treating cancer, as many tumors rely on HIF-1α to survive in low-oxygen environments. On the other hand, drugs that activate HIF-1α may be useful in treating conditions such as anemia or heart failure, where increased oxygen delivery is needed.
Diphosphoglyceric acids, also known as 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), are organic compounds that play a crucial role in the oxygen transport and delivery process in the human body. They are produced by the enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase during the glycolytic pathway, which is the process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy. In red blood cells, 2,3-BPG binds to hemoglobin, the protein responsible for carrying oxygen in the blood. This binding reduces the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, allowing it to release oxygen more easily to the body's tissues. This process is known as the Bohr effect, named after the Danish physiologist Christian Bohr. Diphosphoglyceric acids are also involved in the regulation of carbon dioxide transport in the blood. When carbon dioxide levels in the blood increase, the enzyme carbonic anhydrase converts it to bicarbonate ions, which in turn bind to 2,3-BPG. This binding reduces the affinity of hemoglobin for carbon dioxide, allowing it to be transported more efficiently to the lungs for elimination. Overall, diphosphoglyceric acids play a critical role in maintaining the proper balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body's tissues, and their levels can be affected by a variety of medical conditions, including anemia, respiratory disorders, and certain types of cancer.
In the medical field, the hydroxyl radical is a highly reactive molecule that is formed when water molecules are broken down by ionizing radiation or by the presence of certain chemicals. It is also known as the hydroxyl radical or the hydroxyl radical. The hydroxyl radical is a highly reactive molecule that can damage cells and DNA, leading to a variety of health problems. It is also a powerful oxidizing agent that can cause oxidative stress, which is thought to play a role in the development of many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the medical field, the hydroxyl radical is often studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. For example, researchers are exploring the use of antioxidants to neutralize the effects of the hydroxyl radical and prevent oxidative stress.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.
Lactic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is produced by the metabolism of glucose in the body. It is a byproduct of the process of glycolysis, which occurs in the cytoplasm of cells when there is not enough oxygen available for complete oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water. In the medical field, lactic acid is often measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism. High levels of lactic acid in the blood can be a sign of tissue hypoxia, which is a lack of oxygen supply to the body's tissues. This can occur in a variety of medical conditions, including sepsis, shock, and certain types of cancer. Lactic acidosis is a condition characterized by high levels of lactic acid in the blood and can be caused by a variety of factors, including liver disease, kidney failure, and certain medications. It can be a serious medical condition and requires prompt treatment. In addition to its role in metabolism and energy production, lactic acid has also been used in various medical treatments, including as a topical antiseptic and as a component of certain medications.
Electron Transport Complex IV, also known as cytochrome c oxidase, is a protein complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that plays a crucial role in cellular respiration. It is the final enzyme in the electron transport chain, which is responsible for generating ATP, the energy currency of the cell. During cellular respiration, electrons are passed through a series of protein complexes in the electron transport chain, releasing energy that is used to pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This creates a proton gradient that is used to drive the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase. Electron Transport Complex IV is unique among the other electron transport chain complexes in that it not only pumps protons but also accepts electrons from cytochrome c and transfers them to molecular oxygen, which is reduced to water. This process is the final step in the electron transport chain and is essential for the production of ATP. Disruptions in the function of Electron Transport Complex IV can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including mitochondrial disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and certain types of cancer.
Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the blood flow to and from the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the brain and removing waste products. The brain is a highly metabolically active organ, and it requires a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function properly. The cerebrovascular system is made up of the arteries, veins, and capillaries that supply blood to the brain. Any disruption in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to serious health problems, including stroke and brain injury.
Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze redox reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, energy production, and detoxification. In the medical field, oxidoreductases are often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions. For example, some oxidoreductases are involved in the metabolism of drugs and toxins, and changes in their activity can affect the efficacy and toxicity of these substances. Other oxidoreductases are involved in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause cellular damage and contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer and aging. Oxidoreductases are also important in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. For example, some oxidoreductases are used as markers of liver disease, and changes in their activity can indicate the severity of the disease. In addition, some oxidoreductases are targets for drugs used to treat diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Overall, oxidoreductases are a diverse and important class of enzymes that play a central role in many biological processes and are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is produced when fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas are burned incompletely. In the medical field, carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious condition that occurs when a person inhales high levels of the gas, which can interfere with the body's ability to transport oxygen to the tissues. Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, forming carboxyhemoglobin, which reduces the amount of oxygen that can be carried by the blood. This can lead to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, confusion, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, carbon monoxide poisoning can cause unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. The medical treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning involves removing the person from the source of the gas and providing oxygen therapy to help restore normal oxygen levels in the blood. In some cases, additional medical treatment may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
In the medical field, "cell survival" refers to the ability of cells to survive and continue to function despite exposure to harmful stimuli or conditions. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, or other forms of stress that can damage or kill cells. Cell survival is an important concept in many areas of medicine, including cancer research, where understanding how cells survive and resist treatment is crucial for developing effective therapies. In addition, understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell survival can also have implications for other areas of medicine, such as tissue repair and regeneration.
Cyclic N-oxides are a class of organic compounds that contain a ring of atoms with an oxygen atom bonded to a nitrogen atom. They are also known as oxazoles, isoxazoles, and thiazoles. In the medical field, cyclic N-oxides have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, including as anti-inflammatory agents, antiviral agents, and anticancer agents. Some cyclic N-oxides have also been used as diagnostic tools in medical imaging.
In the medical field, "air" typically refers to the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere, which is composed primarily of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%), with trace amounts of other gases such as carbon dioxide, argon, and neon. In medical contexts, air can refer to the inhalation of air into the lungs, which is necessary for respiration and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Air can also refer to the presence of air in the body, such as in the case of pneumothorax, where air leaks into the space between the lung and the chest wall, causing the lung to collapse. In some medical procedures, such as bronchoscopy or endoscopy, air is used to inflate the airways and create a clear view of the inside of the body. In other cases, air may be used as a contrast medium to help visualize certain structures on medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or CT scans.
Myoglobin is a protein found in muscle tissue that plays a crucial role in oxygen storage and delivery. It is responsible for storing oxygen in muscle cells and releasing it when needed during periods of high physical activity. Myoglobin is also involved in the regulation of muscle metabolism and the removal of waste products from muscle cells. In the medical field, myoglobin levels are often measured in blood tests to diagnose and monitor various conditions, including muscle injuries, heart attacks, and kidney disease. High levels of myoglobin in the blood can indicate muscle damage or injury, while low levels may suggest a problem with muscle metabolism or oxygen delivery. Myoglobinuria, a condition characterized by the presence of myoglobin in the urine, can also be a sign of muscle injury or disease.
Cardiac output (CO) is a measure of the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart per minute. It is calculated by multiplying the heart rate (the number of times the heart beats per minute) by the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by each beat of the heart). Cardiac output is an important indicator of the body's ability to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and remove waste products. It is influenced by a number of factors, including the strength of the heart's contractions, the resistance of the blood vessels, and the volume of blood in the circulation. In the medical field, cardiac output is often measured using techniques such as echocardiography, thermodilution, or dye dilution. Abnormalities in cardiac output can be associated with a variety of medical conditions, including heart failure, anemia, and shock.
Helium is a noble gas that is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes. Here are some of the ways helium is used in medicine: 1. Inhalation therapy: Helium is used as a carrier gas for oxygen in inhalation therapy to treat respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis. Helium-oxygen mixtures are less dense than air, which makes it easier for patients to breathe and reduces the workload on their lungs. 2. Cryotherapy: Helium is used in cryotherapy to freeze and destroy abnormal cells or tissues in the body. This technique is used to treat various medical conditions such as skin cancer, warts, and keloids. 3. MRI imaging: Helium is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines to cool the superconducting magnets that generate the magnetic field used in the imaging process. This cooling process helps to maintain the stability of the magnetic field and improve the quality of the images. 4. Medical research: Helium is used in medical research to study the properties of gases and their interactions with living organisms. It is also used in the development of new medical technologies and treatments. Overall, helium is a versatile gas that has many applications in the medical field, from treating respiratory conditions to improving the quality of medical imaging.
In the medical field, altitude refers to the height above sea level at which a person or object is located. This can have significant effects on the body, particularly on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. At higher altitudes, the air pressure is lower, which means there is less oxygen available to breathe. This can lead to altitude sickness, a condition characterized by symptoms such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and shortness of breath. In addition, the lower air pressure at high altitudes can put increased strain on the heart and lungs, which can be particularly problematic for people with pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory conditions.
In the medical field, onium compounds refer to a class of organic compounds that contain a positively charged ion attached to a neutral molecule. These compounds are also known as quaternary ammonium compounds or quats. Onium compounds are commonly used in various medical applications, including as disinfectants, antiseptics, and topical anesthetics. They are also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as bacterial infections and skin disorders. One example of an onium compound used in medicine is benzalkonium chloride, which is a commonly used disinfectant and antiseptic. It is often found in products such as hand sanitizers, wound cleansers, and eye drops. Other examples of onium compounds used in medicine include chlorhexidine, which is used as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and throat lozenges, and cetrimide, which is used as a skin cleanser and antiseptic. Overall, onium compounds play an important role in the medical field due to their antimicrobial and antiseptic properties, and their ability to be used in a variety of medical applications.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the body's response to low oxygen levels (hypoxia). It is composed of two subunits, HIF-1α and HIF-1β, which are both encoded by different genes. Under normal oxygen conditions, HIF-1α is rapidly degraded by the proteasome, a protein complex that breaks down unnecessary or damaged proteins. However, when oxygen levels drop, HIF-1α is stabilized and accumulates in the cell. This leads to the formation of a functional HIF-1 complex, which then translocates to the nucleus and binds to specific DNA sequences called hypoxia response elements (HREs). Once bound to HREs, HIF-1 activates the transcription of a variety of genes involved in the adaptive response to hypoxia. These genes include those that promote angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), glucose metabolism, and erythropoiesis (the production of red blood cells). HIF-1 has been implicated in a number of medical conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. In cancer, HIF-1 is often upregulated and has been shown to promote tumor growth and metastasis. In cardiovascular disease, HIF-1 plays a role in the development of hypertension and heart failure. In neurodegenerative disorders, HIF-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
In the medical field, lactates refer to the byproducts of anaerobic metabolism in the body. Specifically, lactate is a type of organic acid that is produced when the body breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen. This process, known as anaerobic glycolysis, occurs in muscle cells and other tissues when oxygen levels are low. Lactate levels in the blood can be measured using a blood test, and elevated levels of lactate can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including hypoxia (low oxygen levels in the body), sepsis (infection), and certain types of cancer. In addition, lactate is often used as a marker of exercise intensity, as it increases during physical activity. Overall, lactates play an important role in the body's metabolism and can provide valuable information to healthcare providers in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions.
Heme is a complex organic molecule that contains iron and is a vital component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other proteins involved in oxygen transport and storage in living organisms. It is also a component of various enzymes involved in metabolism and detoxification processes. In the medical field, heme is often used as a diagnostic tool to detect and monitor certain medical conditions, such as anemia (a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin), liver disease (which can affect heme synthesis), and certain types of cancer (which can produce abnormal heme molecules). Heme is also used in the production of certain medications, such as heme-based oxygen carriers for use in patients with sickle cell disease or other conditions that affect oxygen transport. Additionally, heme is a component of some dietary supplements and is sometimes used to treat certain types of anemia.
Metalloporphyrins are a class of compounds that consist of a porphyrin ring with a metal ion (such as iron, cobalt, or manganese) at its center. They are often used in the medical field as a diagnostic tool for certain diseases, such as anemia, and as a treatment for others, such as certain types of cancer. Metalloporphyrins are also being studied for their potential use in the development of new drugs and therapies.
Nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, is a colorless, odorless gas that is commonly used in the medical field as an anesthetic and analgesic. It is a potent analgesic, meaning it can help to reduce pain and discomfort during medical procedures, and it is also a sedative, meaning it can help to calm and relax patients. In medical settings, nitrous oxide is typically administered through a mask that covers the patient's nose and mouth. The gas is mixed with oxygen and inhaled by the patient, which helps to produce a feeling of relaxation and euphoria. Nitrous oxide is often used in combination with other anesthetics, such as local anesthetics or general anesthesia, to provide a more complete and effective anesthetic. Nitrous oxide is considered to be a relatively safe anesthetic, with few side effects. However, it can cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and nausea in some patients, and it can also cause a temporary decrease in blood pressure. As with any anesthetic, it is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and to report any side effects or concerns to their healthcare provider.
In the medical field, "iron" refers to a mineral that is essential for the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. Iron is also important for the proper functioning of the immune system, metabolism, and energy production. Iron deficiency is a common condition that can lead to anemia, a condition in which the body does not have enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to the body's tissues. Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and pale skin. Iron supplements are often prescribed to treat iron deficiency anemia, and dietary changes may also be recommended to increase iron intake. However, it is important to note that excessive iron intake can also be harmful, so it is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any iron supplements.
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood through the body. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is typically expressed as two numbers: systolic pressure (the pressure when the heart beats) and diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats). Normal blood pressure is considered to be below 120/80 mmHg, while high blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as a systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or higher. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.
Ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. It is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. It is also used to treat certain types of anemia, as well as to boost the immune system and improve wound healing. Ascorbic acid is available over-the-counter as a dietary supplement and is also used in some prescription medications. However, it is important to note that high doses of ascorbic acid can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and stomach cramps, and may interact with certain medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking ascorbic acid supplements.
In the medical field, cell death refers to the process by which a cell ceases to function and eventually disintegrates. There are two main types of cell death: apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death that occurs naturally in the body as a way to eliminate damaged or unnecessary cells. It is a highly regulated process that involves the activation of specific genes and proteins within the cell. Apoptosis is often triggered by signals from the surrounding environment or by internal cellular stress. Necrosis, on the other hand, is an uncontrolled form of cell death that occurs when cells are damaged or stressed beyond repair. Unlike apoptosis, necrosis is not a programmed process and can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, toxins, and physical trauma. Both apoptosis and necrosis can have important implications for health and disease. For example, the loss of cells through apoptosis is a normal part of tissue turnover and development, while the uncontrolled death of cells through necrosis can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation in conditions such as infection, trauma, and cancer.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.
In the medical field, "Adaptation, Physiological" refers to the ability of an organism to adjust to changes in its environment or to changes in its internal state in order to maintain homeostasis. This can involve a wide range of physiological processes, such as changes in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and hormone levels. For example, when a person is exposed to high temperatures, their body may undergo physiological adaptations to help them stay cool. This might include sweating to release heat from the skin, or dilating blood vessels to increase blood flow to the skin and help dissipate heat. Physiological adaptations can also occur in response to changes in an individual's internal state, such as during exercise or when the body is under stress. For example, during exercise, the body may increase its production of oxygen and glucose to meet the increased energy demands of the muscles. Overall, physiological adaptations are a fundamental aspect of how organisms are able to survive and thrive in a changing environment.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary energy currency in living cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar and an adenine base. In the medical field, ATP is essential for many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which involves the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to release energy that is stored in the bonds of ATP. Disruptions in ATP production or utilization can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological disorders. In addition, ATP is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as levels of ATP can be measured in various bodily fluids and tissues to assess cellular health and function.
2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) is a small molecule that plays a crucial role in the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells. It is a byproduct of glycolysis, the metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to produce energy. In red blood cells, 2,3-DPG binds to hemoglobin, the protein responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues. When oxygen levels are high, such as in the lungs, 2,3-DPG binds to hemoglobin and reduces its affinity for oxygen, allowing it to release oxygen more easily to the tissues. When oxygen levels are low, such as in the tissues, 2,3-DPG is released from hemoglobin, increasing its affinity for oxygen and allowing it to pick up more oxygen from the lungs. This process helps to regulate the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells and ensure that oxygen is delivered efficiently to the body's tissues. Abnormal levels of 2,3-DPG can lead to various medical conditions, including anemia, polycythemia vera, and sickle cell disease.
Lung diseases, obstructive, refer to a group of conditions that obstruct the flow of air in and out of the lungs. These conditions are characterized by a blockage or narrowing of the airways, which can make it difficult to breathe. Some common examples of obstructive lung diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, air pollution, and genetics. Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves medications to open up the airways and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.
Hemoglobins are proteins found in red blood cells that are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Abnormal hemoglobins refer to variations in the structure of the hemoglobin molecule that can affect its ability to bind and release oxygen and carbon dioxide. These variations can be caused by genetic mutations and can lead to a variety of health problems, including anemia, jaundice, and heart disease. Some examples of abnormal hemoglobins include sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and hemoglobin C disease.
In the medical field, hydroxides are compounds that contain the hydroxide ion (OH-) as a part of their chemical structure. Hydroxides are commonly found in various minerals and salts, and they can also be produced in the body as a result of metabolic processes. One example of a hydroxide in the medical field is calcium hydroxide, which is commonly used as a dental cement to fill cavities and as a root canal treatment. Another example is magnesium hydroxide, which is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve heartburn and indigestion. Hydroxides can also be used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, sodium hydroxide is used in the treatment of acidosis, a condition in which the body's pH level becomes too acidic. Hydroxides can also be used in the production of certain medications, such as antibiotics and anticoagulants. Overall, hydroxides play an important role in the medical field, both as components of various compounds and as treatments for various medical conditions.
In the medical field, peroxides are chemical compounds that contain the oxygen-oxygen (O-O) bond. They are commonly used as disinfectants, bleaching agents, and oxidizing agents in various medical applications. One of the most well-known peroxides in medicine is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is used as a topical antiseptic to clean wounds and prevent infection. Hydrogen peroxide is also used as a mouthwash to treat gum disease and other oral infections. Other peroxides used in medicine include peroxyacetic acid (PAA), which is used as a disinfectant for medical equipment and surfaces, and peroxynitrite (ONOO-), which is a potent oxidizing agent that plays a role in the body's immune response. Peroxides can also be used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as the use of ozone therapy to treat chronic pain and other inflammatory conditions. However, the use of peroxides in medicine should be carefully monitored and controlled to avoid potential side effects and complications.
In the medical field, atmospheric pressure refers to the amount of force exerted by the weight of the Earth's atmosphere on the surface of the planet. This force is measured in units of pressure, such as millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or pounds per square inch (psi). Atmospheric pressure is an important factor in medical practice because it can affect the body's ability to function properly. For example, changes in atmospheric pressure can cause altitude sickness, which can lead to symptoms such as headache, nausea, and dizziness. In addition, changes in atmospheric pressure can affect the delivery of oxygen to the body's tissues, which can be particularly important for people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In some medical procedures, such as blood pressure monitoring, atmospheric pressure is taken into account to ensure accurate readings. For example, a sphygmomanometer, which is a device used to measure blood pressure, is calibrated to account for changes in atmospheric pressure. This helps to ensure that the readings obtained are accurate and reliable.
NADH and NADPH oxidoreductases are enzymes that play a crucial role in the electron transport chain, which is a series of chemical reactions that generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in cells. These enzymes are responsible for transferring electrons from NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) to oxygen, which is then reduced to water. This process is known as oxidative phosphorylation and is a key part of cellular respiration. NADH and NADPH oxidoreductases are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and are essential for the production of ATP in cells. Mutations in these enzymes can lead to a variety of diseases, including Leigh syndrome, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, and chronic granulomatous disease.
Peroxidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various substrates using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. In the medical field, peroxidases are commonly used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of specific substances in biological samples, such as blood, urine, or tissue. One of the most well-known peroxidases in medicine is the enzyme lactoperoxidase, which is found in high concentrations in human milk. Lactoperoxidase plays a crucial role in protecting the newborn from bacterial and viral infections by generating antimicrobial compounds. Another important peroxidase in medicine is the enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is produced by white blood cells (neutrophils) and is involved in the immune response against infections. Myeloperoxidase is often used as a marker of inflammation in various medical conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Peroxidases are also used in forensic science to analyze biological samples for evidence in criminal investigations. For example, the enzyme cytochrome c peroxidase can be used to detect the presence of blood at a crime scene, while the enzyme glucose oxidase is used to detect the presence of glucose in urine samples.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Nitrates are a group of compounds that contain the nitrate ion (NO3-). In the medical field, nitrates are commonly used to treat angina (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by relaxing the smooth muscles in blood vessels, which allows blood to flow more easily and reduces the workload on the heart. Nitrates are available in various forms, including tablets, ointments, and sprays. They are usually taken as needed to relieve symptoms, but may also be taken on a regular schedule to prevent angina attacks or lower blood pressure. It is important to note that nitrates can have side effects, such as headache, flushing, and low blood pressure, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.
Xanthine is a purine derivative that is naturally occurring in the body and is a precursor to uric acid. It is also found in some foods, such as coffee, tea, and chocolate. In the medical field, xanthine is used as a medication to treat gout, a type of arthritis caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints. It works by blocking the production of uric acid in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of uric acid in the blood and prevent the formation of uric acid crystals. Xanthine is also used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation, and to prevent the formation of blood clots.
In the medical field, spin labels are a type of molecular probe that are used to study the dynamics of molecules in living systems. Spin labels are small molecules that contain a nucleus with an odd number of protons, such as carbon-13 or nitrogen-15, which gives rise to a magnetic moment. When a spin label is introduced into a sample, it can be detected using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spin labels are often used to study the movement of molecules within cells or tissues, as well as the interactions between molecules. They can be attached to specific molecules of interest, such as proteins or lipids, and their motion can be tracked over time using NMR spectroscopy. This information can provide insights into the function and behavior of these molecules, as well as the underlying mechanisms of various diseases. Overall, spin labels are a valuable tool in the medical field for studying the dynamics of molecules in living systems, and they have a wide range of applications in areas such as drug discovery, cell biology, and neuroscience.
Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. It is a member of the family of antioxidant enzymes that help to neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, which can damage cellular components and contribute to the development of various diseases. GPx catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and other peroxides to water and alcohols, respectively. It uses glutathione (GSH) as a cofactor, which is a tripeptide composed of the amino acids cysteine, glycine, and glutamate. GPx is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, lungs, and kidneys, and is particularly abundant in cells that are exposed to high levels of oxidative stress, such as immune cells and neurons. In the medical field, GPx is often measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Abnormal levels of GPx have been associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally, GPx is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases, as increasing GPx activity may help to reduce oxidative stress and prevent or slow disease progression.
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) analysis is a laboratory test used to determine the amount of oxygen required by microorganisms to decompose organic matter in a sample of water. The test is commonly used in the medical field to assess the quality of water used for drinking, irrigation, and other purposes. In the medical field, BOD analysis is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of wastewater treatment systems, as well as to monitor the quality of hospital effluent and other medical waste streams. The test can also be used to assess the potential for waterborne diseases, as high levels of organic matter in water can provide a breeding ground for harmful bacteria and other microorganisms. To perform a BOD analysis, a sample of water is collected and incubated under controlled conditions to allow microorganisms to break down the organic matter in the sample. The amount of oxygen consumed during this process is then measured, and the BOD value is calculated as the amount of oxygen required to completely oxidize the organic matter in the sample. Overall, BOD analysis is an important tool for assessing the quality of water and ensuring that it is safe for human consumption and other uses.
NAD stands for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, DNA repair, and regulation of gene expression. In the medical field, NAD is often used as a supplement to support cellular health and improve overall well-being. It is also being studied for its potential therapeutic applications in treating conditions such as depression, anxiety, and chronic pain.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
In the medical field, nitrogen is a chemical element that is commonly used in various medical applications. Nitrogen is a non-metallic gas that is essential for life and is found in the air we breathe. It is also used in the production of various medical gases, such as nitrous oxide, which is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures. Nitrogen is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as nitrogen narcosis, which is a condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air that contains high levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen narcosis can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and disorientation, and it is typically treated by reducing the amount of nitrogen in the air that the person is breathing. In addition, nitrogen is used in the production of various medical devices and equipment, such as medical imaging equipment and surgical instruments. It is also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitroglycerin, which is used to treat heart conditions. Overall, nitrogen plays an important role in the medical field and is used in a variety of medical applications.
A cell line, tumor is a type of cell culture that is derived from a cancerous tumor. These cell lines are grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the biology of cancer and testing potential new treatments. They are typically immortalized, meaning that they can continue to divide and grow indefinitely, and they often exhibit the characteristics of the original tumor from which they were derived, such as specific genetic mutations or protein expression patterns. Cell lines, tumor are an important tool in cancer research and have been used to develop many of the treatments that are currently available for cancer patients.
Respiratory insufficiency is a medical condition in which the body is unable to take in enough oxygen or expel enough carbon dioxide. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including lung disease, heart disease, neurological disorders, or other medical conditions that affect the respiratory system. Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, confusion, dizziness, and bluish discoloration of the skin or nails. In severe cases, respiratory insufficiency can lead to respiratory failure, which is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Treatment for respiratory insufficiency depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, oxygen therapy may be used to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood. In other cases, medications or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying condition causing the respiratory insufficiency. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be required to help the patient breathe.
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a medical condition that affects premature babies. It is a disease of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, that can cause vision loss or blindness if left untreated. ROP occurs when the blood vessels in the retina grow abnormally, leading to bleeding, scarring, and detachment of the retina from the back of the eye. The condition is more common in premature babies, as their eyes are not fully developed and are more susceptible to damage. ROP is typically diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, and treatment may include medication, laser therapy, or surgery. Early detection and treatment are crucial for preventing vision loss or blindness in babies with ROP.
Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase (PPOD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the process of collagen synthesis. Collagen is a protein that is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, such as skin, bones, and tendons. PPOD is responsible for the conversion of proline, an amino acid found in collagen, to hydroxyproline, a modified form of proline that is essential for the stability and strength of collagen fibers. PPOD is a copper-containing enzyme that is found in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells. It catalyzes the oxidation of proline to hydroxyproline in the presence of molecular oxygen and a copper-containing cofactor. The hydroxylation of proline is a critical step in the formation of stable collagen fibers, as hydroxyproline is a key component of the triple helix structure of collagen. In the medical field, PPOD is of interest because it plays a role in the development of several diseases, including osteoporosis, fibrosis, and cancer. For example, mutations in the PPOD gene have been associated with a rare genetic disorder called prolyl 3-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by abnormal collagen synthesis and bone fragility. Additionally, PPOD has been shown to be upregulated in several types of cancer, and its inhibition has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating these diseases.
In the medical field, gases are substances that exist in a gaseous state at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature. Gases are typically composed of atoms or molecules that are highly energetic and move rapidly in all directions. Gases are important in medicine because they play a role in many physiological processes, such as respiration, circulation, and gas exchange. For example, oxygen is a gas that is essential for respiration, and carbon dioxide is a waste product that is exhaled from the body. In medical settings, gases can be used for a variety of purposes, such as anesthesia, oxygen therapy, and carbon dioxide removal. Gases can also be used in diagnostic tests, such as pulmonary function tests, which measure the amount of air that a person can inhale and exhale. It is important for healthcare professionals to be familiar with the properties and effects of different gases, as well as the proper handling and administration of gases in medical settings.
Glucose oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. It is commonly used in medical applications as a test for glucose in blood and urine, as well as in the production of hydrogen peroxide for wound care and other medical treatments. Glucose oxidase is also used in the production of certain types of bread and other baked goods, as well as in the food industry for the preservation of fruits and vegetables.
Hypoxia, brain refers to a condition in which the brain is not receiving enough oxygen. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including low oxygen levels in the blood, decreased blood flow to the brain, or damage to the blood vessels that supply oxygen to the brain. Hypoxia, brain can have serious consequences, as the brain is highly sensitive to oxygen deprivation. It can lead to a range of symptoms, including confusion, dizziness, headache, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can cause permanent brain damage or even death. Treatment for hypoxia, brain depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, it may involve increasing oxygen levels in the blood through oxygen therapy or administering medications to improve blood flow to the brain. In other cases, it may require more aggressive interventions, such as surgery or mechanical ventilation. Early recognition and treatment of hypoxia, brain are critical for preventing long-term complications and improving outcomes.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
Hemeproteins are a class of proteins that contain a heme group, which is a complex of iron and porphyrin. Hemeproteins are found in many organisms and play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including oxygen transport, energy metabolism, and detoxification. The most well-known hemeprotein is hemoglobin, which is found in red blood cells and is responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues. Hemoglobin is composed of four subunits, each of which contains a heme group. The iron atom in the heme group can bind to oxygen molecules, allowing hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body. Other examples of hemeproteins include myoglobin, which is found in muscle tissue and stores oxygen for use during periods of high physical activity, and cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. Hemeproteins are important for many biological processes and are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
Oxygen safety: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Prevention?
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Overview, Hyperbaric Physics and Physiology, Contraindications
Space Oxygen System | Science News
Article - Oxygen and Oxygen Equipment - Policy Article (A52514)
Oxygen System Planning Tool | UNICEF Office of Innovation
Oceans Without Oxygen| Countercurrents
Re: [cross-project-issues-dev] Oxygen.1 and JDK9
Researchers discover a new form of Oxygen - Durham University
Sitemap content | Oxygen Official Site
Gennet OxyGEN Passwords
Oxygen 'breaths" in Earth's subduction zones
Oxygen (TV channel) - AOL Search Results
Team Oxygen-Permeable Membranes
Astronomers detect large amounts of oxygen in ancient star's atmosphere | ScienceDaily
English rivers regularly pumped full of oxygen to prevent fish deaths | New Scientist
WHO EMRO | New oxygen production stations to be constructed in Yemen | News | Yemen site
Oxygen-sensitive sensor can challenge MAP - inventor
portable trace oxygen analyzer Companies and Suppliers | ...
Red Oxygen SMS for Gmail
How to use the Blood Oxygen app on Apple Watch - Apple Support
Indonesia in oxygen emergency as Delta variant wreaks global havoc
Signal transduction in light-oxygen-voltage receptors lacking the active-site glutamine | Nature Communications
Exact and fast residual oxygen measurement on site
Electrólise vs Oxygen - Digital Dreams - Free Music Archive
CMS Clarifies Oxygen Equipment Replacement - AAPC Knowledge Center
Oxygen Video Card for Game Usage | Overclockers Forums
Vamsi Mootha studies mitochondria and oxygen | Harvard Magazine
- The figures for this time period only include 13 out of the EA's 14 operating areas, and data isn't yet available for 2023, meaning that while there were at least 99 emergency oxygen deployments in the past five years, the true figure is likely to be higher. (newscientist.com)
- Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Prevention? (medscape.com)
- Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) increases cerebral blood flow and improves cognitive performance in older adults with memory problems, early research suggests. (medscape.com)
- Harch is the owner of Harch Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy, Inc. Edelmayer has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. (medscape.com)
- Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is breathing 100% oxygen while under increased atmospheric pressure. (medscape.com)
- The oxygen production stations, valued at over US$ 3.4 million, are being constructed in 11 southern governorates of Yemen and will be gradually put into operation between December 2021 and February 2022. (who.int)
- With the relevant data from users, the Oxygen System Planning Tool recommends an oxygen source to meet those needs (i.e. a new local oxygen plant, liquid oxygen, concentrators, cylinders from a distant plant, or a mix). (unicef.org)
- This often involves a combination of cylinders refilled from centralized plants, on-site PSA plants or oxygen concentrators. (unicef.org)
- We were supplied with devices like the pulse oximeters, oxygen concentrators. (unicef.org)
- On Tuesday, Jakarta said about 10,000 concentrators -- devices that generate oxygen -- were to be shipped from nearby Singapore with some arriving by a Hercules cargo plane earlier. (bangkokpost.com)
- Many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen atoms, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, teeth, and bone. (wikipedia.org)
- 22 November 2021, Aden, Yemen - The World Health Organization (WHO) has joined efforts with the Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) Group and the Ministry of Public Health and Population to construct 14 new oxygen production stations that will save lives from the COVID-19 pandemic in Yemen. (who.int)
- Oxygen is Earth's most abundant element, and after hydrogen and helium, it is the third-most abundant element in the universe. (wikipedia.org)
- Diatomic oxygen gas currently constitutes 20.95% of the Earth's atmosphere, though this has changed considerably over long periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
- Oxygen makes up almost half of the Earth's crust in the form of oxides. (wikipedia.org)
- Oxygen is continuously replenished in Earth's atmosphere by photosynthesis, which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
- The presence of arsenides demonstrates that the formation of serpentinite during the early stages of subduction, by the interaction of water with olivine (the major mineral in the Earth's mantle), massively consumes oxygen. (esrf.fr)
- In 2020-21, the Ghana Ministry of Health piloted the UNICEF Oxygen System Planning Tool to quantify oxygen need in the Eastern Region, across all levels of the health system. (unicef.org)
- These fascinating "redox factories" scavenge or release water, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur and carbon, depending on the element's oxidation state. (esrf.fr)
- Signaling without glutamine appears intrinsic to light-oxygen-voltage receptors, which pertains to biotechnological applications and suggests evolutionary descendance from redox-active flavoproteins. (nature.com)
- Also possible is the simultaneous measurement of pH and redox in addition to the oxygen value. (openpr.com)
- Bottom-water oxygen conditions determine redox regime and availability of redox-sensitive trace elements such as manganese, which in turn may be recorded by manganese-to-calcium ratios (Mn/Ca) in biogenic calcium carbonates (e.g., benthic foraminifera tests). (lu.se)
- B. marginata recorded contrasting Mn redox regimes sensitively and demonstrated potential as proxy for low-oxygen conditions. (lu.se)
- All plants, animals, and fungi need oxygen for cellular respiration, which extracts energy by the reaction of oxygen with molecules derived from food and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product. (wikipedia.org)
- In tetrapods breathing brings oxygen into the lungs where gas exchange takes place, carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood, and oxygen diffuses into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
- What happens to our carbon cycle as we get these large areas of the ocean that are oxygen-free? (countercurrents.org)
- In oxygen-rich oceans, carbon is moved around largely by food web processes that begin with carbon dioxide-fixing phytoplankton that photosynthesize at the water's surface. (countercurrents.org)
- In fact, sediments under these anoxic zones generally have more organic carbon deposits than their oxygen-rich counterparts. (countercurrents.org)
- While it has relatively large amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen -- approximately 10, 8, and 3 percent of the abundances measured in the Sun -- other elements like calcium and iron have abundances around one millionth that of the Sun. (sciencedaily.com)
- Only a few such stars are known in the halo of our galaxy, but none have such an enormous amount of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen compared to their iron content," said David Aguado, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Cambridge and co-author of the study. (sciencedaily.com)
- This technique, used commonly with products such as meat, uses inert gases such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which are flushed through the package to reduce the oxygen concentration. (foodnavigator.com)
- Therefore, the patient cannot benefit from most of the positive effects of HBOT, which are systemic or occur at a level deeper than topical oxygen can penetrate (see Hyperbaric Physics and Physiology section below). (medscape.com)
Presence of oxygen3
- Once activated for use using photobleaching with UVA radiation, the sensor will turn blue when in the presence of oxygen. (foodnavigator.com)
- The presence of oxygen in food packaging promotes microbial growth and protein decomposition - leading to food spoilage. (foodnavigator.com)
- Techniques for establishing the presence of oxygen in packaged foods are already commonplace, but many can be expensive and can require specialist equipment for analysis and trained operators. (foodnavigator.com)
- This device can deliver oxygen in a traditional, continuous manner, but it also contains a comfort mode in which a dose of oxygen is only administered upon inhalation. (who.int)
- This is the first time that such a high number of plants will produce oxygen of medical grade, to support COVID-19 case management in partnership with the WHO, the Ministry of Public Health and Population, and the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. (who.int)
- Oxygen transport membranes (OTM) provide an efficient way to separate oxygen from air at elevated temperatures, i.e. 500 - 900 °C. It is possible to either generate pure oxygen for any purpose, e.g. combustion processes, metallurgy, or medical applications, or to utilize the separated oxygen directly in chemical reactions such as partial oxidation of hydrocarbons to produce commodity chemicals. (fz-juelich.de)
- Used in isolation, mechanical aeration is slower to raise oxygen levels, but it is a great option for chronic issues such as regular algal blooms," says Storey. (newscientist.com)
- Keep liquids that may catch fire away from your oxygen. (medlineplus.gov)
- The excel-based tool can help users develop multiple scenarios of oxygen infrastructure to compare CAPEX/OPEX cost, demand, resource re-allocation, and other key outcomes noted below. (unicef.org)
- [ 11 ] However, it is difficult to measure Vȯ 2 and cardiac output, and they are rarely measured outside of research investigations, despite the suggestion that measurement of cardiac output and oxygen delivery would improve clinical outcomes of critically ill children. (medscape.com)
- You can take a blood oxygen measurement at any time with the Blood Oxygen app. (apple.com)
- Even under ideal conditions, your Apple Watch may not be able to get a reliable blood oxygen measurement every time. (apple.com)
- For a small percentage of users, various factors may make it impossible to get any blood oxygen measurement. (apple.com)
- If you are out in the cold, for example, the skin perfusion in your wrist might be too low for the sensor to work with the Blood Oxygen app to get a measurement. (apple.com)
- The ink, pattern, and saturation of some tattoos can block light from the sensor, making it difficult for the Blood Oxygen app to get a measurement. (apple.com)
- If your heart rate is too high (above 150 bpm) while at rest, you won't be able to get a successful blood oxygen measurement. (apple.com)
- Fast and reliable oxygen measurement in the μg range is particularly important for preventing corrosion in hot water and steam boiler systems as well as in fish farming, the food industry and in water body monitoring. (openpr.com)
- Users like AWV-Dr. Busse GmbH: "With the μdox measuring case, we found an analyzer that emits accurate and fast measured values even in the trace range, especially in the oxygen measurement. (openpr.com)
- Background Measurement of oxygen consumption (Vȯ 2 ) is difficult in children but is essential to calculate cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance. (medscape.com)
- Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen and helium, and is essential for all forms of life on Earth, as the chemical basis of respiration and a building block of carbohydrates. (sciencedaily.com)
- The EA pumps oxygen in several ways, such as using liquid hydrogen peroxide, which breaks down into water and oxygen, and mechanical aerators, which increase oxygen in the water body by disturbing its surface. (newscientist.com)
- Find content from Oxygen and the NBCUniversal family of networks on NBC.com ! (aol.com)
- An oxygen-sensitive colour change sensor used to determine the shelf-life of packaged food could challenge industry food quality and safety practices, says its UK-based inventor. (foodnavigator.com)
- The development, a sensor which turns blue where excess oxygen is present, indicates when food such as meat may have been compromised and made unsafe for consumption. (foodnavigator.com)
- Your blood oxygen level represents the percentage of oxygen your red blood cells carry from your lungs to the rest of your body. (apple.com)
- Exposure times to oxygen at different depths of water (and, hence, different levels of pressure) were quantified and tested based on time to convulsions. (medscape.com)
- Scientists using beamline BM30 have exploited arsenic as an oxygen probe in rocks of the former subduction zone of Himalaya, to reveal O2 release at depths of 100 km during subduction. (esrf.fr)
- Down in the depths, the dead seabeds are expanding and research reveals that we have never had such large areas of oxygen depletion in the world's oceans as now. (lu.se)
- These strange ecosystems are expanding, thanks to climate change - a development that is of concern for fisheries and anyone who relies on oxygen-rich oceans. (countercurrents.org)
- UNICEF regularly updates and improves the Oxygen System Planning Tool and also provides technical assistance and training resources. (unicef.org)
- When a patient is given 100% oxygen under pressure, hemoglobin is saturated, but the blood can be hyperoxygenated by dissolving oxygen within the plasma. (medscape.com)
- [ 5-10 ] Cardiac output may be calculated by using the Fick equation if Vȯ 2 , hemoglobin level, and the arterial-venous oxygen difference are known. (medscape.com)
- X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest that these so-called oxygen "breaths" may control the transfer of volatile elements from the deep Earth to the surface, shaping our planet's evolution. (esrf.fr)
- The effect of atomic oxygen adsorption on the structure and electronic properties of monolayer graphite (MG or graphene) grown on Pt(111) and Ir(111) has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. (lu.se)
- The tool can then create health facility archetypes to aggregate oxygen demand for a full geographical area or at various levels of the health system. (unicef.org)
- This resulted in a strengthened and sustainable oxygen system at all levels of health care and reduced patient referrals. (unicef.org)
- The MODEL 1000RS Portable Trace Oxygen Analyzer is the undisputed leader when measuring ppm levels of oxygen in the natural gas industry. (environmental-expert.com)
- After you complete setup, open the Blood Oxygen app on your Apple Watch to measure your blood oxygen levels. (apple.com)
- The Blood Oxygen app on your Apple Watch will occasionally measure your blood oxygen levels if background measurements are on. (apple.com)
- When researchers from the Department of Geology at Lund University started investigating whether there were other links that could explain variations in oxygen levels, almost ten years ago, they realised that they were facing a complex problem. (lu.se)
- Then we can use today's models to see whether this leaching could affect the oxygen levels on the bed of the Baltic Sea sufficiently to cause oxygen depletion. (lu.se)
- Patients in a multiplace chamber breathe 100% oxygen via a mask or close-fitting plastic hood. (medscape.com)
- The patient does not breathe the oxygen, nor is the remainder of the body pressurized. (medscape.com)
- But although anoxic oceans may seem alien to organisms like ourselves that breathe oxygen, they're full of life, she said. (countercurrents.org)
- Annealing of the samples after oxygen exposure only partially recovers the original graphene structure and results in the formation of a dense pattern of quasi-periodic, nanometer-sized holes. (lu.se)
- Rivers can become deoxygenated for a variety of reasons, including sewage dumping that encourages the growth of bacteria, plants and algae, which can result in the consumption of oxygen. (newscientist.com)
- The general consensus is that optimizing the balance between oxygen consumption (Vȯ 2 ) and delivery is important in managing critically ill patients. (medscape.com)
- Optimizing oxygen consumption and delivery is important in critically ill children. (medscape.com)
- Optimized membranes should be as thin as possible, requiring a mechanically stable support with sufficient porosity in order to enable oxygen feed to the thin membrane layer. (fz-juelich.de)
- This includes identifying and implementing holistic solutions to enable a resilient oxygen ecosystem. (who.int)
- If you still don't see the Blood Oxygen app on your Apple Watch, you can search the App Store on your Apple Watch for Blood Oxygen and download it. (apple.com)
- The work of Paul Bert, who demonstrated the toxic effects of oxygen (producing generalized seizures), as well as the work of J. Lorrain-Smith, who demonstrated pulmonary oxygen toxicity, were used with Navy divers. (medscape.com)
- Medical oxygen safety. (medlineplus.gov)
- By increasing local capacity to produce medical oxygen, we can help to minimize COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates in Yemen," said Dr. Kayhan. (who.int)
- The installation of 14 new oxygen production stations will strongly reinforce other efforts underway by WHO, the Ministry of Public Health and Population and IsDB to save lives and contain the spread of COVID-19 - including provision of essential medicines and supplies, personal protection equipment and other medical equipment and technologies that are critical to infection prevention and control and COVID-19 case management. (who.int)
- Measurements taken with the Blood Oxygen app are not intended for medical use and are only designed for general fitness and wellness purposes. (apple.com)
- 100-04, Medicare Claims Processing Manual , chapter 20, to clarify that when a durable medical equipment, prosthesis, orthotics and supplies (DMEPOS) supplier files for bankruptcy and cannot continue to furnish oxygen to its Medicare beneficiaries, the oxygen equipment is considered lost and payment may be made for replacement equipment as deemed necessary. (aapc.com)
- Fig. 1: Photochemistry of light-oxygen-voltage receptors and sequences of proteins under study. (nature.com)
- The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, who first recognized oxygen as a chemical element and correctly characterized the role it plays in combustion. (wikipedia.org)
- This tool can be used to support high-level healthcare budgeting and planning needs related to oxygen, including health and procurement specialists and oxygen technology stakeholders. (unicef.org)
- The OSPT provides procurement lists for each health facility, covering oxygen source equipment, consumables, and diagnostic devices. (unicef.org)
- The released fluid (undulating blue arrows) carries oxygen and its radicals and major chemical elements in their highest oxidation states. (esrf.fr)
- However, according to the study, "there is emerging molecular and geochemical evidence that suggests MSR may occur in (oxygen-deficient zones) despite plentiful dissolved nitrate. (countercurrents.org)
- Another form (allotrope) of oxygen, ozone (O 3), strongly absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation. (wikipedia.org)
- This can help governments, donors or oxygen suppliers understand the full and long-term costs of establishing and operating an oxygen system, enabling accurate budget planning and ensuring appropriate funding is secured. (unicef.org)
- Watch full episodes of Oxygen true crime shows including Snapped, Killer Couples, and Three Days to Live. (aol.com)
- Medicare already reimburses suppliers for the replacement of oxygen equipment if it has been in continuous use by the patient for the equipment's reasonable lifetime or has been lost, stolen, or irreparably damaged. (aapc.com)
- We analyzed Mn/Ca of living benthic foraminifera (Bulimina marginata, Nonionellina labradorica), sampled at low- to well-oxygenated conditions over a seasonal gradient in Gullmar Fjord, Swedish West coast (71-217 μmol/L oxygen (O 2 )), by laser-ablation ICP-MS. High pore-water Mn availability in the fjord supported Mn incorporation by foraminifera. (lu.se)
- The researchers speculate on whether this small increase in nutrient supply to the sea - in combination with a gradually warming climate - may even have triggered the oxygen depletion. (lu.se)
- Most researchers agree that the expansion of the oxygen-depleted seabeds has been accelerated by the eutrophication of the past century. (lu.se)
- Graeme Storey , fisheries manager at the EA, says the organisation hasn't officially analysed whether the use of emergency oxygen measures has increased in recent years, but says that anecdotally it seems like it has. (newscientist.com)
- The OSPT estimates oxygen demand at individual health facilities using data on facility type, number of patients and disease prevalence. (unicef.org)
- The availability of uninterrupted oxygen supply is key to the survival of patients with severe cases of COVID-19 who otherwise face lung failure," said Dr Adham Rashad Ismail Abdel Moneim, the WHO Representative in Yemen. (who.int)
- This is why the construction of these oxygen stations is one of the most important things we can do to save the lives of many more patients suffering from COVID-19. (who.int)
- The Blood Oxygen app can allow you to measure the oxygen level of your blood on-demand directly from your wrist, providing you with insights into your overall wellness. (apple.com)
- The Blood Oxygen app is only available in certain countries and regions. (apple.com)
- Make sure that you meet the below requirements and follow the steps to set up the Blood Oxygen app. (apple.com)
- Make sure that the Blood Oxygen app is available in your country or region. (apple.com)
- The Blood Oxygen app is not available for use by people under 18 years old. (apple.com)
- The Blood Oxygen app is installed during the setup in the Health app. (apple.com)
- If you deleted the Blood Oxygen app, you can install it again from the App Store on your Apple Watch if you've completed the Blood Oxygen app setup. (apple.com)
- Open the Blood Oxygen app on your Apple Watch. (apple.com)
- Blood oxygen measurements use a bright red light that shines against your wrist, so it may be more visible in dark environments. (apple.com)
- Oxygen Therapy. (medlineplus.gov)
- Common uses of oxygen include production of steel, plastics and textiles, brazing, welding and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, and life support systems in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving. (wikipedia.org)
- With the O2COMFORT flowmeter, Oxypoint offers an innovative answer to oxygen therapy in the hospital. (who.int)
- 1mm), fast-sinking organic particles by collecting particles from the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen-deficient zone, roughly located off the northwestern coast of Mexico. (countercurrents.org)
- The tool can also support users to plan the optimum placement of new PSA plants, based on oxygen needs and distance to other health facilities that could benefit from cylinder refilling. (unicef.org)
- The oxygen stations will be jointly managed and implemented by the Ministry of Public Health and Population and WHO, and are financed through a US$ 20 million loan from IsDB Group, as part of its Emergency Support for the COVID-19 Preparedness and Response Plan in Yemen. (who.int)
- The WHO Access to Oxygen Initiative provides technical and operational support to Member States. (who.int)
- The Oxygen System Planning Tool (OSPT) is an excel-based, customizable tool that can be used to plan oxygen delivery systems from source to patient. (unicef.org)
- Fjord systems are typically affected by low-oxygen conditions, which are increasing in extent and severity, forced by ongoing global changes. (lu.se)
- This new finding provides an important clue on how oxygen and other important elements were produced in the first generations of stars in the universe. (sciencedaily.com)
- This new finding, which was made using W. M. Keck Observatory on Maunakea in Hawaii to analyze the chemical makeup of the ancient star, provides an important clue on how oxygen and other important elements were produced in the first generations of stars in the universe. (sciencedaily.com)
- Oxygen pumping is an important emergency measure in fish rescue, but keeping rivers cool, protecting flows and reducing pollution are all important longer-term measures to protect rivers against the impacts of climate change," says Steve Ormerod at Cardiff University, UK. (newscientist.com)
- English rivers were pumped with emergency oxygen in a last-ditch effort to save fish from dying on almost 100 occasions in the past five years, New Scientist can reveal. (newscientist.com)
- To combat these effects, the Environment Agency (EA) in England has emergency measures in place to pump oxygen into rivers with the aim of preventing fish and plant deaths. (newscientist.com)
- Climate change is likely to increase the need for emergency oxygen in rivers in the future, says Storey. (newscientist.com)
- Workers unload oxygen tanks at an emergency oxygen station in Jakarta. (bangkokpost.com)
- JAKARTA: Indonesia said Tuesday it was importing emergency oxygen from neighbouring Singapore as hospitals crumbled under the weight of Covid-19, with the Delta variant continuing to wreak havoc around the globe. (bangkokpost.com)
- Preparing for a safe dive also includes having an up-to-date emergency action plan, on-hand first aid supplies (with ample oxygen), and reliable communication devices. (cdc.gov)
- With no dissolved oxygen to sustain animals or plants, ocean anoxic zones are areas where only microbes suited to the environment can live. (countercurrents.org)
- For comparison, the adsorption of atomic oxygen on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite has been studied under the same conditions. (lu.se)
- Two thousand years ago, the oxygen conditions on the bed of the Baltic Sea were good, but a few hundred years later, areas of oxygen depletion appeared, visible as black layers in the sediment samples. (lu.se)
- Yemen is facing urgent challenges in securing oxygen supplies that are critical to effective management of severe cases of COVID-19. (who.int)
- In the event a supplier files for Chapter 7 or 11 bankruptcy under Title 11 of the United States Code, Medicare will cover the cost of replacing the oxygen equipment and a new reasonable useful period and 36-month rental payment period will begin. (aapc.com)
- To receive payment for the replacement of oxygen equipment, supporting documentation is a must. (aapc.com)
- Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. (wikipedia.org)
- Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, and Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as a chemical element. (wikipedia.org)
- The data, which required more than five hours of staring at the star over a single night, were used to measure the abundances of 16 chemical species in the star's atmosphere, including oxygen. (sciencedaily.com)