An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Arterial blood gas tensions during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. (1/22785)

Arterial blood gas tensions were measured before and during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with (group I) and without (group 2) sedation with intravenous diazepam. There was a highly significant fall in the PaO2, which occurred in both groups and was therefore not attributable to diazepam. Measurement of FEV, and FVC before endoscopy had no predictive value for those patients whose PaO2 fell the most.  (+info)

In vitro development of sheep preantral follicles. (2/22785)

Preantral ovarian follicles isolated from prepubertal sheep ovaries were individually cultured for 6 days in the presence of increasing doses of FSH (ranging from 0.01 to 1 microg/ml) and under two different oxygen concentrations, 20% and 5% O2. Follicle development was evaluated on the basis of antral cavity formation as well as the presence of healthy cumulus oocyte complexes. Follicle growth was enhanced by FSH addition to culture medium, while the use of a low oxygen concentration slightly stimulated this process. However, when follicles were cultured in the presence of high doses of FSH (1 microgram/ml) and under low oxygen concentration, a high proportion of them showed the presence of an antral cavity and of a healthy cumulus-oocyte complex. In addition, under this specific culture condition sheep preantral follicles released higher levels of estradiol as compared to those secreted at lower FSH concentrations or under 20% O2. When the meiotic competence of oocytes derived from follicles cultured at 1 microgram/ml FSH was assessed, no significant difference was recorded between the two oxygen groups. These results show that the culture conditions here identified are beneficial to in vitro growth and differentiation of sheep preantral follicles.  (+info)

Endogenous plasma endothelin concentrations and coronary circulation in patients with mild dilated cardiomyopathy. (3/22785)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients (eight male/six female; mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with IDCM (ejection fraction 36 (9)%) and five normotensive subjects (two male/three female; age 52 (7) years) serving as controls were studied. METHODS: Functional status was classified according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Endogenous ET-1 and BET plasma concentrations from the aorta and the coronary sinus were determined by radioimmunoassay. Coronary blood flow, using the inert chromatographic argon method, myocardial oxygen consumption, and coronary sinus oxygen content under basal conditions were determined. RESULTS: In the aorta, mean (SD) concentrations of ET-1 (IDCM 0.76 (0.25) v controls 0.31 (0.06) fmol/ml; p = 0.002) and BET (IDCM 3.58 (1.06) v controls 2.11 (0.58) fmol/ml; p = 0.014) were increased in patients with IDCM. Aortic ET-1 concentrations correlated positively with NYHA class (r = 0. 731; p < 0.001), myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.749; p < 0. 001), and coronary blood flow (r = 0.645; p = 0.003), but inversely with coronary sinus oxygen content (r = -0.633; p = 0.004), which was significantly decreased in IDCM patients (IDCM 4.68 (1.05) v controls 6.70 (1.06) vol%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The coronary circulation in patients with IDCM is exposed to an increased endothelin load. ET-1 concentrations correlate with functional deterioration. A decrease of the coronary sinus content of oxygen suggests a mismatch between coronary blood flow and metabolic demand. Thus, ET-1 might be a marker of a disequilibrium between myocardial oxygen demand and coronary blood flow in IDCM.  (+info)

Quantification of tumour vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements. (4/22785)

Despite the possibility that tumour hypoxia may limit radiotherapeutic response, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A new methodology has been developed in which information from several sophisticated techniques is combined and analysed at a microregional level. First, tumour oxygen availability is spatially defined by measuring intravascular blood oxygen saturations (HbO2) cryospectrophotometrically in frozen tumour blocks. Second, hypoxic development is quantified in adjacent sections using immunohistochemical detection of a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) to a nitroheterocyclic hypoxia marker (EF5), thereby providing information relating to both the oxygen consumption rates and the effective oxygen diffusion distances. Third, a combination of fluorescent (Hoechst 33342 or DiOC7(3)) and immunohistological (PECAM-1/CD31) stains is used to define the anatomical vascular densities and the fraction of blood vessels containing flow. Using a computer-interfaced microscope stage, image analysis software and a 3-CCD colour video camera, multiple images are digitized, combined to form a photo-montage and revisited after each of the three staining protocols. By applying image registration techniques, the spatial distribution of HbO2 saturations is matched to corresponding hypoxic marker intensities in adjacent sections. This permits vascular configuration to be related to oxygen availability and allows the hypoxic marker intensities to be quantitated in situ.  (+info)

The respiratory responses of Carcinus maenas to declining oxygen tension. (5/22785)

The degree of respiratory independence shown by Carcinus under conditions of declining oxygen tension is dependent on the animal's level of activity. Inactive Carcinus are capable of maintaining respiratory independence down to a Po2 of 60-80 mmHg. This is achieved primarily by an increase in ventilation volume such that the amount of oxygen made available at the respiratory surfaces remains constant over a wide range of oxygen tension. The Po2 at which this can no longer be maintained corresponds closely to the Po2 at which respiratory independence is lost. Under normoxic conditions the Po2 of the post- and prebranchial blood was 97 and 18 mmHg respectively. At the high oxygen tensions prevailing in the postbranchial blood the respiratory pigment is fully saturated. Under conditions of declining oxygen tension the heart rate remains more or less constant until the Po2 reaches 60-80 mmHg, the onset of bradycardia coinciding with the loss of saturation of the haemocyanin. Although cardiac output falls during hypoxia, the capacity rate ratio remains approximately constant, which enables the effectiveness of oxygen uptake by the blood to remain at a high level.  (+info)

Active transport of calcium across the isolated midgut of Hyalophora cecropia. (6/22785)

1. The net flux of 45Ca from lumen to blood side across the isolated and short-circuited Cecropia midgut was 1-9 +/- 0-2 muequiv. cm-2h-1 in 8 mM Ca and the flux ratio was as high as 56 to 1. 2. The calcium influx was depressed by anoxia; 73% after 30 min. 3. The kinetics of Ca transport were anomalous; the apparent Km varied with Ca concentration from less than 0-2 to greater than 5-6 mM Ca and the apparent Vmax varied from less than 1-3 to greater than 3-3 muequiv. cm-2h-1. 4. The calcium influx showed a delay before the tracer steady state was attained, indicating the existence in the transport route of a calcium pool equivalent to 5-7 muequiv/g. wet weight of midgut tissue. 5 High calcium (16 mM) depressed the short-circuit current and potassium transport from blood to lumen side across the midgut. 6. Calcium depressed magnesium transport, from lumen to blood side across the midgut, and magnesium depressed the calcium transport. 7. Ca transport by the midgut does not regulate the Ca level in the haemolymph in vivo; it merely aids the diffusion of calcium down its electrochemical gradient. However, Ca transport may assist the uptake of the nutrients from the midgut contents.  (+info)

2,3 diphosphoglycerate in Parkinson's disease. (7/22785)

The red cell 2,3 DPG, the most important factor for oxygen delivery in the tissues, was found to be increased in Parkinsonism patients compared with controls. The aging process seems not to be a factor in the increased 2,3 DPG concentration. Other factors relevant to raised 2,3 DPG level such as physical activity, increased oxygen requirements, and metabolic changes are discussed.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (8/22785)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

What should my oxygen saturation level be?. A range of 94-99% is normal for healthy adults breathing room air which contains 21% oxygen. Anyone who is not achieving the critical blood oxygen saturation level of 90% (SpO2) or of 55-60mmHg (SaO2), may require additional oxygen. A qualified medical practitioner will assess your situation and prescribe the appropriate dose of supplemental oxygen.. Oxygen saturation levels - what do they mean?. Oxygen saturation levels measure the degree to which the haemoglobin contained in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) has bonded with oxygen molecules. Oxygen is taken in by the lungs when we breathe in.. The two most common ways of assessing the saturation of oxygen in the blood are arterial blood gases (ABG) and pulsatile oxygen.. What does an ABG measure?. An ABG test measures how efficiently your lungs are bringing oxygen into the blood stream and removing carbon dioxide. Arterial blood gases are taken from an artery usually on the wrist. This procedure can ...
Background: Lipid peroxidation induced by oxygen free radicals plays a prominent role in myocardial injury after global ischemia. The present study investigated whether ventilation with lower concentration of inspired oxygen would decrease the severity of myocardial lipid peroxidation and post resuscitation myocardial dysfunction.. Methods: Ventricular fibrillation was induced and untreated for 8 mins in 46 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Defibrillation was attempted after 8 mins of CPR. The animals were randomized into 3 groups: mechanical ventilation with 100% O2, 50% O2 or 21% O2 during CPR and one hr following return of spontaneous circulation. Normoxic ventilation was maintained thereafter. The level of 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) in myocardium was evaluated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood gases, post resuscitation myocardial function and the duration of survival were monitored in all animals.. Results: Compared with the 100% and 21% groups, the 50% group ...
Anesthesia-associated mortality in horses is high when compared with other species, and may be related to development of hypoxemia during recumbency. To overcome this, high fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ,95%) are used. However, this may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, free radical formation and tissue injury. Isoprostanes are a marker of oxidative stress and their quantification is a relatively new and reliable approach to evaluate oxidative stress status. The aims of this research were to evaluate changes in urine isoprostanes (IsoP), serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI), arterial blood parameters, and serum chemistry in horses anesthetized with FiO2 of 0.45, 0.75, or ,0.95, and also evaluate the quality of recover utilizing accelerometry. Twenty-four healthy adult horses were anesthetized with isoflurane for 120 minutes. Horses were randomly assigned to receive a FiO2 of 0.45 (n=8), or 0.75 (n=8), or ,0.95 (n=8) during anesthesia. Horses were anesthetized with a standard anesthesia ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Influence of oxygen tension on the rheological behavior of sickle cells in microcirculation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Effects of oxygen tension on vascular and other smooth muscle: 1. The resting tension of various isolated intestinal and vascular smooth muscle preparations var
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain tissue oxygen regulation in awake and anesthetized neonates. AU - Aksenov, Daniil P.. AU - Dmitriev, Andrey V.. AU - Miller, Michael J.. AU - Wyrwicz, Alice M.. AU - Linsenmeier, Robert A. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - Inhaled general anesthetics are used commonly in adults and children, and a growing body of literature from animals and humans suggests that exposure to anesthesia at an early age can impact brain development. While the origin of these effects is not well understood, it is known that anesthesia can disrupt oxygen regulation in the brain, which is critically important for maintaining healthy brain function. Here we investigated how anesthesia affected brain tissue oxygen regulation in neonatal rabbits by comparing brain tissue oxygen and single unit activity in the awake and anesthetized states. We tested two common general anesthetics, isoflurane and sevoflurane, delivered in both air and 80% oxygen. Our findings show that general anesthetics can greatly ...
High air tension due to neovascularization in the microenvironment of intervertebral discs (IVDs) is from the pathogenesis of IVD degeneration (IDD). had been identified. Different GO terms and KEGG pathways were potently associated with IDD, including autophagy, mTOR signaling pathway and angiogenesis. Especially, high oxygen tension increased ROS production in NP cells. It also accelerated the matrix metabolism of NP cells and induced NP cell cycle CX-4945 cost arrest to retard cell growth. This study, for the first time, analyzes the transcriptome and AS of NP cells in response to high oxygen tension, indicating that high oxygen tension is involved in the establishment and progression of IDD through its wide effects on the viability and function of disc cells. evidence to elucidate the comprehensive effect of CX-4945 cost high oxygen tension on matrix homeostasis of IVDs. The proliferation of disc cells is crucial to maintaining the number of functional cells in IVDs. It relies on cell cycle ...
Study Design. This will be a multi-center, prospective, double-blind clinical trial of physiologic (5%) oxygen tension in culture media vs. standard of care, atmospheric (SOC, 20%) oxygen tension with 840 eligible couples recruited to participate. The randomization scheme will be coordinated through the central data coordinating center (DCC-Yale) and the randomization will be stratified by age group of the woman (18-34, 35-37, 38-40 and 40-42) and each participating site.. Treatment. Couples will be randomized to either have their gametes and embryos placed in a physiologic (5%) oxygen atmosphere or in the currently widely used atmospheric (20%) oxygen atmosphere. ...
During pregnancy, oxygen diffuses from maternal to fetal blood through villous trees in the placenta. In this paper, we simulate blood flow and oxygen transfer in feto-placental capillaries by converting three-dimensional representations of villous and capillary surfaces, reconstructed from confocal laser scanning microscopy, to finite-element meshes, and calculating values of vascular flow resistance and total oxygen transfer. The relationship between the total oxygen transfer rate and the pressure drop through the capillary is shown to be captured across a wide range of pressure drops by physical scaling laws and an upper bound on the oxygen transfer rate. A regression equation is introduced that can be used to estimate the oxygen transfer in a capillary using the vascular resistance. Two techniques for quantifying the effects of statistical variability, experimental uncertainty and pathological placental structure on the calculated properties are then introduced. First, scaling arguments are used to
Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Volume 166, Number 6, 02.04.2019, p E153-E158 Control of the dissolved oxygen concentration is crucial for the use of liquid lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a coolant of advanced nuclear reactors. An electrochemical oxygen pumping (EOP) system was applied to a non-isothermal liquid LBE loop in order to evaluate its capability to control oxygen in 700 liters of flowing LBE. Oxygen pumps were fabricated using one end closed tube of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) as the solid electrolyte and LSCF (lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite) as electrode. The oxygen transfer through the oxygen pump was regulated by controlling the applied electric current using a PID controller with feedback from a potentiometric oxygen sensor. The oxygen was added to or removed from the LBE by oxygen pumps depending on target oxygen concentration and a process value given by the oxygen sensor. At low oxygen concentrations, oxygen removal rates were limited by oxygen mass ...
Diwali festivities are never devoid of toxic air because of an unusual increase in motor-vehicles on the road, emmisions and wastage in celebrations like firecrackers and many other factors. MyOxys pure oxygen can helps you recover from problems you may face because of this polluted air. Buy Myoxy pure oxygen can for diwali pollution today.
Oxygen Sensitivity of Anammox and Coupled N-Cycle Processes in Oxygen Minimum Zones. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Bedside catheterization of the right heart with a percutaneously introduced flowdirected catheter was carried out in 24 critically ill patients; 71 determinations of mixed venous oxygen saturation (MVo2) were obtained. A second catheter was inserted either into a central intrathoracic vein or the right atrium for simultaneous sampling of central venous (CVo2) or right atrial (RAo2) oxygen saturation.. For the group as a whole, mean CVo2 (57.9% ± 15.25) was significantly greater than mean MVo2 (53.3% ± 14.84) (P,0.001), but there was no significant difference and correlation was good between changes in central venous compared to changes in mixed venous oxygen saturation. On the other hand, there was no significant mean difference as well as an excellent correlation between individual values of RAo2 and MVo2 (r=+0.95).. Patients with heart failure or shock showed poor correlation between CVo2 and simultaneously determined MVo2. Furthermore, subjects with shock showed a mean CVo2 (58.0%±13.05) ...
The treatment of perinatal oxygen deprivation with high oxygen tensions could cause additional damage to the still immature brain of the neonate. Using the model of juvenile hippocampale organotypical slice cultures we investigated the effects of high oxygen tensions on neuronal function and structure directly after periods of hypoxia or normoxia. Impairment of neuronal function was electrophysiologically analyzed regarding changes in spontaneously and stimulus evoked field potential characteristics. Cell injury was quantified by propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence and by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release into the culture medium. In a first experimental study I could demonstrate that hypoxia induced structural cell injury which was substantially larger if high oxygen tensions were used during reoxygenation. In a second experimental study I could show that hypoxia induced changes in field potential characteristics in area CA1 and that the following hyperoxic reoxygenation caused a long lasting ...
Chapter 5 Oxygen Transfer in Bioreactors Oxygen is needed by cells for respiration. Oxygen used by cells in suspension must be available as dissolved oxygen. Since oxygen solubility is quite small, about 6 to 7 mg/L under normal cultivation conditions, metabolic oxygen requirement is supplied on a as needed basis by continuous aeration of culture medium. Actively respiring yeast requires about 0.15 g O2 (g cell)-1 h. At a cell concentration of 10 g L-1, medium saturated with air can support less than 30 seconds worth of metabolic oxygen. That is, a continuous supply of oxygen must be maintained in any viable aerobic manufacturing process. In this Chapter, we will first get a quantitative appreciation for metabolic oxygen demand, followed by methods used in calculating rates at which oxygen is transfered from sparged air. We will then examine methods useful in characterizing oxygen mass transfer coefficient. Finally we will evaluate bioreactor operation and design based on oxygen transfer ...
Oxygen therapy, which is ordered frequently for patients with chronic pulmonary disease, remains a cornerstone of modern medical practice. This study was conducted to compare the efficiency and comfort of a binasal cannula versus a face mask during oxygen therapy. Sixty hypoxemic patients participated in this randomized controlled study. While each patient was hypoxemic, arterial blood gas analysis was performed before oxygen supplementation was begun. Arterial oxygen saturation was continuously monitored during oxygen therapy with a face mask or a binasal cannula. Subjects were allowed to return to their oxygen saturation level in room air before the device for oxygen treatment was changed. The same procedure was then repeated with the other device. Patient comfort was evaluated through the use of a questionnaire that was completed after each treatment period. The mean age±standard deviation was 62±13 y. No statistically significant difference was noted in oxygen saturation levels achieved ...
Finger Heart Rate and Blood Oxygen Saturation Monitors are designed to provide an accurate way for spot-checking heart rate, blood oxygen saturation levels, and pulse rate. Awesome for people with respiratory conditions, heart conditions and more. Perfect for exercise enthusiasts, athletes, and those who need to monit
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxygen permeability and stability of Al2O3-doped SrCo0.8Fe0.2O3-δ mixed conducting oxides. AU - Wu, Zhentao. AU - Jin, Wanqin. AU - Xu, Nanping. PY - 2006/8/1. Y1 - 2006/8/1. N2 - A new series of Al2O3-doped SrCo0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (SCFA) mixed conducting oxides were synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method. Effects of doping Al2O3 (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt.%, respectively) on the crystal structure, order-disorder phase transition, microstructure, oxygen permeability and structure stability of SrCo0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (SCF) were investigated by XRD, TG-DSC, SEM, oxygen permeation measurement and the partial oxidation of methane (POM) to syngas reaction. Although the oxygen permeability of the SCF was weakened in the oxygen permeation measurement at the air/He gradient due to the doping of Al2O3, perovskite structure of SCFA was found stable in the low oxygen partial pressure (about 1.01325 × 102 Pa (10-3 atm)). In the POM reaction, the rate of the oxygen permeation of SCFA3 (the ...
The catalytic combustion of hydrocarbons has been studied further, with particular attention given to the ionization phenomena associated therewith. The greater ion yield of highly branched alkanes relative to straight-chain alkanes was confirmed. The effect of the concentration of O2 in the gas mixture on the extent of oxidation and ionization varied with the hydrocarbon used. In general, increase in O2 content caused considerable enhancement of the ion yield. However, with some hydrocarbons the fraction oxidized decreased markedly with increased O2 concentration. The data seem consistent with an explanation based on lower temperature oxidation occurring only on the Pt surface, whereas at higher temperatures the catalytic process extends itself to some degree into the vapor phase. It is also suggested that dissociative adsorption of O2 at higher temperatures is involved in the ion-producing process. (Author)(*HYDROCARBONS
Aug 22, 2017 · When your body doesnt receive enough oxygen and you have a low blood oxygen level, hypoxemia or hypoxia, cyanosis and other conditions may occur. Because COPD and other chronic lung diseases restrict or obstruct normal breathing, low blood oxygen levels can be a serious issue.
Hi, Here is my proposal for the Oxygen service release dates and the Oxygen+1 release dates. Ive basically taken last/this years dates and adapted them accordingly. Please see below for my questions. Once the planning council approves, I will communicate these dates on the cross-project-issues-dev mailing list. Oxygen Service Releases ======================= Oxygen GA Wednesday, 06/28/2017 Oxygen.1 Checkpoint Wednesday, 07/27 (no EPP packages, no release) Oxygen JDK Update Friday, 08/04 Oxygen.1 RC1 Friday, 08/25 Oxygen.1 RC2 Friday, 09/01 Oxygen.1 RC3 Friday, 09/08 Oxygen.1 RC4 Friday, 09/15 Oxygen.1 Quiet Week Friday, 09/15 - Tuesday, 09/26 Oxygen.1 GA Wednesday, 09/27/2017 Oxygen.2 Checkpoint Wednesday, 10/19 (no EPP packages, no release) Oxygen.2 RC1 Friday, 11/17 Oxygen.2 RC2 Friday, 11/24 Oxygen.2 RC3 Friday, 12/01 Oxygen.2 RC4 Friday, 12/08 Oxygen.2 Quiet Week Friday, 12/08 - Tuesday, 12/19 Oxygen.2 GA Wednesday, 12/20/2017 Oxygen.3 Checkpoint Wednesday, 01/17 (no EPP packages, no ...
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Preterm infants are born with immature lungs and often require help with breathing shortly after birth. This traditionally involves administering 100% oxygen. Unfortunately, delivery of high oxygen concentrations leads to the production of free radicals that can injure many organ systems. Term and near-term newborns deprived of oxygen during or prior to birth respond as well or better to resuscitation with room air (21% oxygen) compared to 100% oxygen. However, a static concentration of 21% oxygen may be inappropriate for preterm infants with lung disease.Purpose of the study is to investigate if preterm neonates where resuscitation is initiated with 21% fiO2 and adjusted to meet transitional goal saturations (Limited oxygen strategy or LOX) would have less oxidative stress as measured by the oxidative balance ratio of biological antioxidant potential/total hydroperoxide compared to infants where resuscitation is initiated with pure oxygen and titrated for targeted saturations of 85-94% ...
inproceedings{2101216, author = {Schauvliege, Stijn and Savvas, I and Gasthuys, Frank}, booktitle = {AVA spring meeting Davos 2012}, language = {eng}, location = {Davos, Switzerland}, pages = {34--34}, publisher = {Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists (AVA)}, title = {The effect of pure oxygen or air/oxygen mixture on arterial blood oxygenation in spontaneously ventilated isoflurane anaesthetized horses: a retrospective study}, year = {2012 ...
Ten rats born and maintained in a pure oxygen environment at a total pressure of 210 mm. Hg absolute were placed individually in metabolism cages at 21 days of age and remained there for 6 weeks. They were compared with a similar group of ground-level controls. In additon, 6 rats maintained at altitude and 6 controls were sacrificed at 21 days of age to provide an initial estimate of whole-body energy. Growth rates did not differ significantly; however, overall digestibility was lowered in experimentals, 74.3% versus 79.5% for controls (P < .001), with even greater differences in protein digestibility, 65.5% versus 74.6% (P < .001). Although less fat was also digested by experimentals, 75.6% versus 81.4%, this difference was not significant. Net caloric intake for both groups was the same, however, as a result of increased food intake by experimentals. Calories given off as heat did not differ, suggesting similar metabolic rates. Carcass content of fat and protein, as a percentage of dry matter,
A bit more on the oxygen dissociation curve…. This is a graph that plots the proportion of oxyhaemoglobin (haemoglobin in its oxygen-carrying form) on the vertical (y) axis against the partial pressure of oxygen on the horizontal (x) axis. It is a valuable tool in understanding how the blood carries and releases oxygen.. The oxygen dissociation curve has a sigmoid shape because of the the way oxygen binds to haemoglobin, a process called co-operative binding. Haemoglobin is formed by 4 polypeptide chains, each of which can bind to one oxygen molecule. Co-operative binding means that haemoglobin has a greater affinity to bind oxygen after a subunit has already done so. Also, a haemoglobin molecule that has 1 polypeptide chain bound to oxygen will have less affinity to bind another oxygen molecule than a haemoglobin molecule that has 3 of its polypeptide chains already bound to oxygen. The top part of the dissociation curve represents what happens at the pulmonary capillaries. Here, at high ...
In a non-emergency situation, assess the patient using a pulse oximeter before administrating oxygen. Find out whether the patient has any relevant medical history, for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In COPD even moderate levels of supplementary oxygen may increase the patients carbon dioxide levels and may lead to respiratory depression and respiratory arrest.. The target oxygen saturation level is 94-98%. Give high levels of oxygen for adults with critical illnesses until their vital signs are normal then decrease the oxygen dose to maintain saturation between 94-98% Cardiac arrest - Oxygen can be attached to a Bag-Valve Mask (BVM) or pocket mask. Carbon monoxide poisoning - give high flow oxygen until emergency medical help arrives. ...
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Does Low Oxygen Level information apply to YOU?. If your oxygen levels are not low, maybe you think you dont need to worry.. How do you know if you have low oxygen levels?. If you go to an appointment with your doctor and you are tested with a blood oxygen level evaluation tool called an oximeter and your blood oxygen saturation levels appear to be fine, does that mean you dont need to concern yourself with low oxygen level information?. Answer these question for yourself: Continue reading article →. ...
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to simulate an in flight environment at sea level with a fractional inspired concentration of oxygen (FiO2) of 0.15 to determine how much supplemental oxygen was needed to restore a subjects oxygen saturation (SaO2) to 90% or to the level previously attained when breathing room air (FiO2 of 0.21). METHODS: Three groups were selected with normal, obstructive, and restrictive lung function. Using a sealed body plethysmograph an environment with an FiO2 of 0.15 was created and mass spectrometry was used to monitor the FiO2. Supplemental oxygen was administered to the patient by nasal cannulae. SaO2 was continuously monitored and recorded at an FiO2 of 0.21, 0.15, and 0.15 + supplemental oxygen. RESULTS: When given 2 l/m of supplemental oxygen all patients in the 15% environment returned to a similar SaO2 value as that obtained using the 21% oxygen environment. One patient with airways obstruction needed 3 l/m of supplemental oxygen to raise his SaO2 above 90%. ...
Typically, the system used to measure oxygen molecule levels transcutaneously requires a monitor that weighs around 5 lbs to be plugged into an electrical outlet with all sensors wired to its interface. However, the device Guler and her team have created will utilize wireless power and data transfer. It also will make innovative use of IoT technology as it can connect to the internet wirelessly; thus, if there is a sudden decline in a babys oxygen levels an alarm directly connected to a doctors office or smartphone app would notify the relevant healthcare practitioner as well as the infants family members.. Whats more, is that the device is compact and discreet, around the size of a band-aid, with the capability to measure the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). This feature gives a more precise index of respiratory health when compared with only oxygen saturation measurements. Guler and her team at WPI claim that their system, that measures PO2 levels via non-invasive means, is as conclusive ...
In isolated mitochondria and many types of small cells (such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts etc), zero-order kinetics with respect to oxygen pressure (i.e., independence of flux with declining oxygen concentration) applies over a wide range down to very low oxygen levels, where then a hyperbolic oxygen dependence is observed. With a p50 (c50, apparent Km) in the order of ,1 µM and a hyperbolic oxygen dependence of flux, 99 % saturation of flux and hence zero-order kinetics is observed at an oxygen concentration ,19 µM (i.e., ,2 kPa, ,2 % oxygen saturation or ,10 % air saturation). For reviews see Gnaiger et al 1995, Scandurra and Gnaiger 2010 ...
Sedentary people with low level of physical activity are at higher risk of heart disease. This study was done with to find the effect of exercise on oxygen saturation and heart rate in healthy young adults of different body mass index. This was a cross- sectional study done on 136 medical students of 17-25years. 56 subjects who were doing minimum 30min of exercise per day for 3 days a week were control and another 80 subjects who did not do any type of exercise were cases. Informed consent and approval from the college ethics committee was taken. BMI was calculated and subjects were divided into normal, low and high BMI groups. The 6-min walk test was conducted according to a standardized protocol. Oxygen saturation and pulse rate were assessed at the start and end of the 6-min walk test using Pulse Oximetry. A statistical package SPSS Version 17.0 used. P≤ 0.0 considered significant. The oxygen saturation of normal BMI non-exercising subjects (97.52±1.82) were low compared to exercising ...
METHOD FOR MEASURING BLOOD OXYGEN CONTENT UNDER LOW PERFUSION - A method for measuring blood oxygen content under low perfusion, which is used in a device for measuring blood oxygen content, includes the steps of: initializing the device that is applied with power, collecting and processing data with a driving circuit of light emitting device, a bias circuit, a gain circuit and an A/D sampling circuit, which are controlled under a cone control module; calculating blood oxygen saturation based on the collected data with a data processing module which integrates the collected data in a period of time with an area integration method; and outputting from a communication functional module results of the blood oxygen saturation or pulse rate calculated with the data processing module. The method further includes a decision step of deciding the two results acquired from the data processing module with the waveform method and the integration method respectively based on the intensity of the measured ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Global Blood Oxygen Sensor market report addresses the detail source of information which offers a telescopic view of the current and future market status. Various key factors are discussed in the report, which will help the buyer in studying the Global Blood Oxygen Sensor market sales trends and opportunities.. The Global Blood Oxygen Sensor market report also analyses company profiles and the growth strategies of the major Global Blood Oxygen Sensor market leaders. A detailed study of product specifications, revenue, cost, price, gross capacity, production capacity, company profiles and contact information is carried out in the analysis of Global Blood Oxygen Sensor industry key manufacturers section.. View details of this meticulous Global Blood Oxygen Sensor market research Study @ This Research study emphasis on Types:-. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preschool healthcare utilisation related to home oxygen status. AU - Greenough, A.. AU - Alexander, J.. AU - Burgess, S.. AU - Bytham, J.. AU - Chetcuti, P.. AU - Hagen, J.. AU - Lenney, W.. AU - Melville, S.. AU - Shaw, N J. AU - Boorman, J.. AU - Coles, S.. AU - Pang, F.. AU - Turner, J.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Objective: To determine, in prematurely born children who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), if respiratory morbidity, healthcare utilisation, and cost of care during the preschool years were influenced by use of supplementary oxygen at home after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Design: Observational study. Setting: Four tertiary neonatal intensive care units. Patients: 190 children, median gestational age 27 weeks (range 22-31), 70 of whom received supplementary oxygen when discharged home. Interventions: Review of hospital and general practitioner records together with a parent completed respiratory questionnaire. Main outcome measures: ...
As mentioned above, Brandon Curry right now sits on the throne. He was trained by Abbdullah Al Otaibi. Overseas they call him the Pro-Maker. Not to be confused with Hany Rambod, the Pro-Creator. Abbdullah would literally follow Brandon around, making sure everything he does sets him up for success. That being said, will Brandon return to Kuwait for another productive off-season? Personally, I think so. But then you have guys like Big Ramy, Victor Martinez, Nathan De Asha, Regan Grimes, Roelly Winklaar, Breon Ansley, Ahmad Ashkanani, among others who all have trained at Oxygen Gym.. But lets take a look at some of these guys mentioned above. Roelly Winklaar is one of the bigger names to be training out of Oxygen Gym. Hes one of the biggest competitors to step on a bodybuilding stage (it doesnt matter where that stage may be). Yet, the crew at Oxygen Gym cant seem to nail Roellys conditioning. He comes in soft at just about every Olympia appearance. Ultimately, his conditioning is his ...
A piston ventilator is disclosed herein which uniquely includes an oxygen blending module which supplies oxygen enhancement for aiding patients requiring respiratory treatment. The oxygen blending module supplies a preselected enrichment of oxygen to a piston and cylinder assembly wherein the amount of oxygen permitted to flow therein is continuously monitored and controlled according to the volume above the piston in the cylinder as calculated by a controller. The oxygen blending module includes a flow sensor which monitors the flow of supplemental oxygen into the piston and cylinder assembly, and further includes a primary oxygen control valve which restricts the flow of oxygen through the flow sensor to the piston and cylinder assembly depending on the difference between the calculated desired amount of oxygen and the target amount of oxygen provided to the controller.
Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The air we breathe normally contains 21% oxygen. We can receive up to 100% oxygen.. WHY IS OXYGEN USED?. Babies with heart or lung problems may need to breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood.. HOW IS OXYGEN DELIVERED?. There are several different ways to deliver oxygen to a baby. Which method is used depends on how much oxygen is needed and whether the baby needs a breathing machine.. An oxygen hood is used for babies who can breathe on their own but still need extra oxygen. A hood is a plastic dome or box with warm, moist oxygen inside. The hood is placed over the babys head.. A thin, soft, plastic tube called a nasal cannula may be used instead. This tube has soft prongs that gently fit into the babys nose. Oxygen flows through the tube. The baby must be able to breathe without assistance to use this type of oxygen therapy.. Another method is a nasal CPAP system. CPAP stands for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiac Performance by Echocardiography, Cardiovascular Biomarker, Kidney Function, and Venous Oxygen Saturation as Mortality Predictors of Septic Shock. AU - Rahasto, Pudjo. AU - Setianto, Budhi. AU - Timan, Ina S.. AU - Suhendro, Suhendro. AU - Sukrisman, Lugyanti. AU - Sukamawan, Renan. AU - Sudaryo, Mondastri K.. AU - Kabo, Peter. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: cardiac function in patients with septic shock at the cellular level can be assessed by measuring troponin I and NT Pro BNP levels. Venous oxygen saturation is measured to evaluate oxygen delivery and uptake by organ tissue. Our study may provide greater knowledge and understanding on pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorder in patients with septic shock. This study aimed to evaluate the roles of echocardiography, cardiovascular biomarkers, venous oxygen saturation and renal function as predictors of mortality rate in patients with septic shock. METHODS: this is a prospective cohort study in patients ...
We gave a perfluorochemical oxygen-transport fluid and plasma expander, Fluosol-DA, to seven severely anemic patients before surgery to determine its effectiveness in supplementing oxygen transport. The dose of Fluosol in the five patients completing the study was 20 ml per kilogram of body weight. When the patients breathed low levels of supplemental oxygen (mean partial pressure of arterial oxygen +/- S.D., 101 +/- 25 torr), the perfluorochemical carried a small amount of oxygen, but when they received pure oxygen (arterial oxygen pressure, 361 +/- 65 torr) it carried approximately 0.8 per cent of oxygen (by volume). This increase accounted for 7 +/- 3 per cent of the patients arterial oxygen content and 24 +/- 7 per cent of their oxygen consumption. The cardiac index and left ventricular stroke-work index decreased, whereas the oxygen delivery increased, although these changes were not statistically significant. Significant changes included a 22 per cent increase in oxygen consumption, a 59 per cent
Insights from Sustained Investigations in the Northern California Current Large Marine Ecosystem Abstract. Coastal upwelling ecosystems around the world are defined by wind-generated.... Oxygen is fundamental for life in the ocean. Low oxygen environments occur naturally in some habitats, including oxygen minimum zones, deep basins of semi-enclosed seas or coastal lagoons and coastal upwelling regions. They are often associated with highly productive surface waters, where input of nutrients via upwelling, riverine or atmospheric supply fuels production of organic matter, part of which is subsequently respired and thereby consumes oxygen. The spatial extent and the severity of low oxygen conditions have increased during the past decades, and there are serious concerns that global warming, together with agricultural run-off and human waste and input of anthropogenic aerosols enhances the deoxgenation of the ocean, which will have extensive impacts on the oceans chemistry and ecosystems and eventually
Doctors give trusted answers on uses, effects, side-effects, and cautions: Dr. Sneid on high oxygen levels in blood: Well you would anticipate 95 to 100% oxygen saturation for a young healthy adult. The lower the oxygen saturation the more concern.
Oxygen is fundamental for life in the ocean. Low oxygen environments occur naturally in some habitats, including oxygen minimum zones, deep basins of semi-enclosed seas or coastal lagoons and coastal upwelling regions. They are often associated with highly productive surface waters, where input of nutrients via upwelling, riverine or atmospheric supply fuels production of organic matter, part of which is subsequently respired and thereby consumes oxygen. The spatial extent and the severity of low oxygen conditions have increased during the past decades, and there are serious concerns that global warming, together with agricultural run-off and human waste and input of anthropogenic aerosols enhances the deoxgenation of the ocean, which will have extensive impacts on the oceans chemistry and ecosystems and eventually also affect human wellbeing.
Purpose: Optimal function of the retina is dependent on adequate oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina including the retinal ganglion cells is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on non-invasive techniques in humans.. Methods: In a total of 8 healthy subjects, absolute retinal blood flow values and optical density ratio for each retinal vessel entering the optic nerve head were assessed using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and spectrophotometric measurements, respectively. These experiments were done during breathing of ambient room air as well as during breathing of 100% oxygen. Based on these measurements, retinal oxygen extraction was calculated.. Results: Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 3.0 ml/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 µl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P , 0.001). Corrected arterio-venous oxygen difference was 0.053 ± 0.008 [ml(O2)/ml] at ...
The time to onset of symptoms is highly variable but most individuals can tolerate 12-16 hours of oxygen at 1.0 ATA, 8-14 hours at 1.5 ATA, and 3-6 hours at 2.0 ATA before developing mild symptoms. There are several ways to track developing pulmonary oxygen toxicity but the most sensitive and accurate is the development of symptoms. A second technique is to monitor the vital capacity. Vital capacity (the amount of air that can be moved in one large breath) decreases with increasing pulmonary toxicity. A reduction of approximately 2% in vital capacity correlates with mild symptoms while a reduction of 10% correlates symptoms so severe that most individuals will not voluntarily continue breathing oxygen. These mild effects are completely reversible and no permanent lung damage occurs. However, the damage will take 2 to 4 weeks to heal. The pathology of pulmonary oxygen toxicity is understood but beyond the scope of this discussion.. A third way to keep track, in rough terms, of pulmonary oxygen ...
All physicians know that hemoglobin carries oxygen and that anemia can lead to severe hypoxemia. However, the partial pressure of oxygen and the concentration (content) of O2 requires knowledge of the oxygen content equation in order to be understood.. CaO2 = (SaO2 x Hb x 1.34) + .003(PaO2). Oxygen is a gas and its molecules do exert a pressure but, like any other substance, oxygen also has a finite content in the blood, in units of ml O2/dl blood. Tissues have to have a certain amount of oxygen per minute in order to live, a need met by oxygen content, not oxygen pressure. (Patients can and do live with very low PaO2 values, as long as their oxygen content and cardiac output are adequate.). The oxygen carrying capacity of one gram of hemoglobin is 1.34 ml.. Given normal pulmonary gas exchange (i.e., a normal respiratory system), factors that lower oxygen content - such as anemia, carbon monoxide poisoning, methemoglobinemia, shifts of the oxygen dissociation curve - do not affect PaO2. PaO2 is ...
To our knowledge, our study is the first to systematically correlate BOLD SI changes to endothelial-mediated blood flow changes in the human forearm. With increasing blood flow, we observed an increase in BOLD SI, with saturation at high blood flow levels. However, after intermittent ischemia, BOLD SI remained elevated even after normalization of blood flow. Because O2 consumption is constant for Po2 levels of ≥1 mm Hg and thus does not account for the observed dissociation, the decay time constant for the BOLD MRI signal may indicate the presence of microvascular oxygen reserve.. Our reactive hyperemia results are consistent with the magnitude and dynamics of BOLD SI-related changes reported previously.10,11 Very recent data by Towse et al also provided evidence for a dissociation of flow and BOLD SI.18 Persisting high values of BOLD SI after blood flow normalization are met by postischemic and even posthyperemic elevations of oxygen saturation of venous blood and tissue oxygen tension.19-21 ...
To understand the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of energy metabolism of tumor cells, its effect on the respiration and calcium homeostasis was examined with ascites hepatoma (AH130) cells under different oxygen tensions. NO reversibly inhibited the respiration and depolarized the membrane potential of AH130 cells in an oxygen-dependent manner; the inhibition was more marked at physiologically low oxygen concentrations than at its high tensions. NO reversibly decreased the cellular ATP levels and elevated the cytosolic calcium, particularly under low oxygen concentrations. Since the peritoneal cavity is fairly anaerobic, the results suggested that small amounts of NO generated in this compartment might strongly affect the energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis of tumor cells in vivo.. ...
1. We studied the relationship between trans-cutaneous oxygen tension at the foot and local arteriovenous pressure difference in 15 normal men and women; arteriovenous pressure difference was varied by changing the height of the foot with respect to the heart and by applying external pressure to the foot.. 2. Control transcutaneous oxygen tension was 67 ± 9 sd mmHg (8.9 ± 1.2 kPa) at a control arteriovenous pressure difference of 80 ± 6 sd mmHg (10.6 ± 0.8 kPa).. 3. In every subject transcutaneous oxygen tension fell non-linearly with a decrease in arteriovenous pressure difference; transcutaneous oxygen tension was relatively insensitive to changes in arteriovenous pressure difference when arteriovenous pressure difference was high, but always fell sharply to zero at some positive arteriovenous pressure difference [range 13-34 mmHg (1.7-4.5 kPa)].. 4. An analysis of the data indicated that transcutaneous oxygen tension varied with arteriovenous pressure difference approximately as the ...
OBJECTIVE: Continuous assessment of central venous oxygen saturation (S(cevox)O(2)) with the CeVOX device (Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany) was evaluated against central venous oxygen saturation (S(cv)O(2)) determined by co-oximetry. METHODS: In 20 cardiac surgical patients, a CeVOX fiberoptic probe was introduced into a standard central venous catheter placed in the right internal jugular vein and advanced 2-3 cm beyond the catheter tip. After in vivo calibration of the probe, S(cevox)O(2), S(cv)O(2), mixed venous oxygen saturation (S(mv)O(2)) haemoglobin (Hb), body temperature, heart rate, central venous and mean arterial pressure, and cardiac index were assessed simultaneously at 30 min intervals during surgery and at 60 min intervals during recovery in the intensive care unit. Agreement between S(cevox)O(2), and S(cv)O(2) was determined by Bland-Altman analysis. Simple regression analysis was used to assess the correlation of S(cevox)O(2), and S(cv)O(2) to Hb, body temperature and ...
Little evidence exists regarding the optimal concentration of oxygen to use in the treatment of term neonates with spontaneous pneumothorax (SP). The practice of using high oxygen concentrations to promote
The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body. The a-vO2 diff and cardiac output are the main factors that allow variation in the bodys total oxygen consumption, and are important in measuring VO2. The a-vO2 diff is usually measured in millilitres of oxygen per 100 millilitres of blood (mL/100 mL). The arteriovenous oxygen difference is usually taken by comparing the difference in the oxygen concentration of oxygenated blood in the femoral, brachial, or radial artery and the oxygen concentration in the deoxygenated blood from the mixed supply found in the pulmonary artery (as an indicator of the typical mixed venous supply). Put in simple terms: a-vO2 diff = Ca - Cv where: Ca = the oxygen concentration of arterial blood (oxygenated blood) Cv = the oxygen concentration of ...
Lactating rats must continuously maintain a critical balance between caring for pups and aggressively responding to nest threats. We tested the neural response of lactating females to the presentation of their own pups and novel intruder males using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T. Dams were presented with a single sequence of a control stimulus, pups or a male intruder in one imaging session (n = 7-9). To further determine the selectivity of neural processing, dams were imaged for their response to a male intruder in both the absence and presence of their pups (n = 6). Several maternal cortical and limbic brain regions were significantly activated by intruder presentation but not by pups or a control stimulus. These included the nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal gray, anterior cingulate, anterior thalamus, basal nucleus of the amygdala, temporal cortex, prelimbic/orbital area and insula. The nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal gray, temporal cortex and
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective method to treat cancer and other nononcological lesions by means of light action on photosensitizer in tissue. It is assumed that the destroying effect is mainly due to the formation of singlet oxygen resulting from the interaction of light excited photosensitizer with molecular oxygen (triplet ground state). So the destroying effect will be proportional to the rate of singlet oxygen formation which in turn depends on light intensity, photosensitizer concentration and molecular oxygen concentration. The present work deals with the investigation of blood oxygen saturation in vitro and in vivo during light irradiation in the PDT process. It has been observed that SO2 behavior strongly correlates with the light power density applied for PDT and photosensitizer concentration ...
Timely regulated changes in oxygen partial pressure are important for placental formation. Disturbances could be responsible for pregnancy-related diseases like preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. We aimed to (i) determine the effect of oxygen partial pressure on cytotrophoblast differentiation; (ii) measure mRNA expression and protein secretion from genes associated with placental angiogenesis; and (iii) determine the reversibility of these effects at different oxygen partial pressures. Term cytotrophoblasts were incubated at 21% and 2.5% O2 for 96 hr, or were switched between the two oxygen concentrations after 48 hr. Real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to evaluate cell fusion and differentiation, measuring transcript levels for those genes involved in cell fusion and placental angiogenesis, including VEGF, PlGF, VEGFR1, sVEGFR1, sENG, INHA, and GCM1. Cytotrophoblasts underwent fusion and differentiation in 2.5% O2 . PlGF expression was ...
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Circulatory efficiency is the relationship between oxygen consumption and global oxygen delivery. Manipulation of circulatory efficiency has been shown to be beneficial in critically ill surgical and medical adults, and in children. Circulatory efficiency is best assessed by measuring an index of mixed venous oxygenation (content, saturation and partial pressure) and viewing this in the context of oxygen consumption. Mixed venous oxygenation has until now required intermittent sampling via a pulmonary artery catheter, or by using a pulmonary artery catheter equipped with a fibre optic bundle for continuous mixed venous oxygen saturation monitoring. However, the use of the pulmonary artery catheter is declining as it has been (correctly or incorrectly) indicted of being an invasive tool. Attempts have been made to estimate mixed venous oxygenation non-invasively using the NICO monitor[6], near infrared spectroscopy[7], skeletal muscle oxygen saturation[8], thenar muscle ...
The oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve mathematically equates the percentage saturation of hemoglobin to the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve represents...
The aim of this study is to investigate effects of oxygen transfer conditions on recombinant glucose isomerase (r-GI) production by Pichia pastoris under glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (PGAP). Two different sets of operation strategies were investigated in terms of oxygen transfer conditions. In the first one, aeration rate was kept constant at QO/V = 3 vvm, 6 vvm, and 10 vvm while agitation rate was kept at N = 900 rpm; and in the second one, dissolved oxygen concentration was kept constant at CDO = 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 40% air saturation throughout the bioprocesses. In the strategies where oxygen supplementation was relatively high, QO/V = 6 vvm and 10 vvm, excessive abundance of oxygen at the earlier hours of the bioprocesses limited cell growth and GI activity. Regardless of the oxygen transfer conditions, the cell concentration and glucose isomerase activity profiles showed similar trends in each strategy with different highest values. The highest cell concentration was ...
Not everyone with breathlessness will benefit from oxygen therapy. Oxygen therapy will only help you if you have low levels of oxygen in your blood.. If your doctor thinks that you will benefit from oxygen therapy, he or she will send you for an oxygen assessment. After your assessment, if the specialist thinks that you will benefit from oxygen therapy, you will be prescribed oxygen for use at home.. To get the benefits of oxygen therapy, you will need to use your oxygen for at least 15 hours a day. This is known as long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). LTOT is normally provided at home using an oxygen concentrator, a machine which takes air from the room and separates the oxygen from the other gases in the air, so that you can breathe in pure oxygen. Oxygen is breathed through a nasal cannula (a small plastic tube that fits inside your nostrils) or a face mask, whichever suits you best.. If you want to use oxygen away from home, you can use portable cylinders of oxygen with a nasal cannula or mask. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute volume expansion with colloid increases oxygen delivery and consumption but does not improve the oxygen extraction in severe preeclampsia. AU - Belfort, Michael A.. AU - Saade, George R.. AU - Wasserstrum, Nathan. AU - Johansen, Richard. AU - Anthony, John. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The objective of this study was to determine the effect of volume expansion with colloid on oxygen consumption (VO2), oxygen delivery (DO2) and the oxygen extraction ratio in patients with severe preeclampsia. The study was prospective and descriptive and took place in the tertiary care labor and delivery unit in a university hospital. Fourteen women with severe preeclampsia who received a pulmonary artery catheter and radial arterial line to monitor their hemodynamic and respiratory status took part in the study. Patients who had received prior medication or volume expansion were excluded. The intervention employed was acute volume expansion, using colloidal solutions (Dextran 70 or ...
The mechanism of oxygen sensing in arterial chemoreceptors is unknown but has often been linked to mitochondrial function. A common criticism of this hypothesis is that mitochondrial function is insensitive to physiological levels of hypoxia. Here we investigate the effects of hypoxia (down to 0.5% O2) on mitochondrial function in neonatal rat type-1 cells. The oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial [NADH] was assessed by monitoring autofluorescence and increased in hypoxia with a P50 of 15 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 133.3 Pa) in normal Tyrode or 46 mm Hg in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode. Hypoxia also depolarised mitochondrial membrane potential (m, measured using rhodamine 123) with a P50 of 3.1, 3.3 and 2.8 mm Hg in normal Tyrode, Ca(2+)-free Tyrode and Tyrode containing the Ca(2+) channel antagonist Ni(2+), respectively. In the presence of oligomycin and low carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP; 75 nm) m is maintained by electron transport working against an artificial proton leak. Under these
Oxygen concentration in tissues is a key factor for cell and organ survival. In normal conditions, partial oxygen pressure (pO2) results in the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. Oxygen is transported, in mammals, by circulating red blood cells. Partial oxygen pressure in tissues varies widely, depending on their respective metabolic requirements and their functional status. In normal physiological conditions, partial oxygen pressure is called physioxia. Any alteration of tissue environment leading to a decrease in partial oxygen pressure is called hypoxia ...
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abstractNote = {The dynamics of animal`s mortality after acute gamma radiation at doses of 800, 960, and 1140 cGy was investigated. Mortality was compared with the initial partial oxygen pressure in subdermal space. A positive correlation between the animal radiosensitivity and oxygen pressure was found ...
Background Administration of oxygen in the delivery room is informed by oxygen saturation (SpO2). An oxygen saturation range of 60%-70% is the threshold for administering oxygen in the first minutes after birth. The accuracy of newer generation oximeters to measure SpO2 has not been compared against the gold standard, direct arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) when SaO2 is low. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of Nellcor and Masimo oximeters to measure SpO2 when SaO2 ,70%.. ...
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Hypoxia is common after stroke and is associated with worse outcomes. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and secondary brain damage. OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess whether or not routine low-dose oxygen supplementation in patients with acute stroke improves outcome compared with no oxygen; and (2) to assess whether or not oxygen given at night only, when oxygen saturation is most likely to be low, is more effective than continuous supplementation. DESIGN: Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open, blinded-end point trial. SETTING: Secondary care hospitals with acute stroke wards. PARTICIPANTS: Adult stroke patients within 24 hours of hospital admission and 48 hours of stroke onset, without definite indications for or contraindications to oxygen or a life-threatening condition other than stroke. INTERVENTIONS: Allocated by web-based minimised randomisation to: (1) continuous oxygen: oxygen via nasal cannula continuously (day and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxygen transfer during exercise-induced hypocapnia. AU - Robertshaw, D.. AU - Rawson, R.. AU - Entin, P.. AU - Cole, F.. AU - Wilson, D.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - A panting animal, the sheep, develops hyperthermia (40-41°C) , hypocapnia (10-20 Torr), and lactacidosis (3-5 mM) during exercise at 50% of maximum oxygen consumption. Experiments were performed to determine if the lactacidosis was caused by impaired oxygen transfer caused by a hypocapnic increase in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. A flow probe (Transonic Systems, Inc., Ithaca, NY) was placed on the external iliac artery and blood samples were taken from the carotid artery and iliac vein. Net oxygen and lactate flux were calculated for one hindlimb during exercise. Oxygen delivery to the limb increased due to a rise in both hemoglobin concentration (7 to 11 g/dl) and blood flow (0.5 to 2.5 1/min). Oxygen extraction remained constant during exercise and the arteriovenous difference in lactate was zero. It was ...
Car seats and beds are essential safety devices. However, previous studies have found that placement of infants in these devices may alter respiratory performance. As in our previous study,12 we confirmed our hypothesis that the respiration of term infants is compromised in both car beds and car seats. Our primary and secondary outcomes, including mean oxygen saturation, minimal oxygen saturation, and percentage of time with oxygen saturation level ,95%, were all significantly altered from the values obtained while infants were placed in cribs. Not all of the infants were equally affected, however. Indeed, a subgroup of infants spent ,50% of their time with oxygen saturation levels ,95%. The car bed performed better than the car seat on 1 parameter: mean oxygen saturation values recorded in the car bed were significantly higher (P , .001) than in the car seat. In the car seat, there was a trend toward more obstructive apneic events (P = .052), implicating obstructive apnea as a likely factor in ...
Apr 23, 2016 · Each hemoglobin molecule can carry how many oxygen molecules? a. 4 b. 6 c. 8 d. 10 e. 12. Hemoglobin is made up of four subunits and can bind up to four oxygen molecules. that binds the globin molecules; one molecule binds one molecule of oxygen. The oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin determines how much oxygen.. Fluorescence is a phenomenon in which an electron in a molecule absorbs energy from. lasting only a few billionths of a second. Many biologically important colored molecules such as hemoglobin-an.. Within the body, the transport of oxygen is performed by hemoglobin. chemically modified because free hemoglobin, without encapsulation in cells, is unstable, breaking down into smaller component.. It works a bit like sonar - scientists bombard molecules with X-rays, then measure the angles as the X-rays bounce off, or diffract. They can. in hemoglobin is crucial for oxygen transport to.. and deliver that oxygen to all cells in the body, including muscles. in the body ...
A pulse oximeter is a non-invasive electro-optical device for measuring both the heart rate and the degree to which the hemoglobin in ones blood has been saturated with oxygen. This quantity is inferred by measuring the optical transmittance of perfused skin in different wavelengths of light. Red, green and infrared LEDs are convenient and common light sources. Blood oxygen saturation can be determined by comparing the values of Oxy-hemoglobin to Deoxy-hemoglobin. One method for doing this is by shining both a red LED and an infrared LED into a body part (such as a finger or wrist), and then measuring and comparing the relative intensities of the light from each LED in terms of a ratio. This ratio is then typically expressed as the percentage of oxygen saturation.. Pulse oximeter designs call for low power consumption and extensive analog and digital filtering. They are often implemented both as stand-alone medical and fitness devices as well as components of more comprehensive vital sign ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging in patients with dypiridamole induced ischaemia; a PET comparative study. AU - Egred, M.. AU - Waiter, Gordon David. AU - Semple, Scott Ian Kay. AU - Redpath, Thomas William. AU - Al-Mohammad, A.. AU - Norton, Murdoch Young. AU - Metcalfe, M. J.. AU - Walton, S.. PY - 2007/1/31. Y1 - 2007/1/31. N2 - Background: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI relies on changes in deoxyhaemoglobin level in tissues under stress for signal variation and may be used for detection of ischaemic myocardium.Methods: 15 patients with stress induced myocardial ischaemia on PET scanning underwent rest and dypiridamole stress MRI using a double breath-hold T2*-weighted, ECG gated sequence to produce BOLD contrast images and cine-MRI for wall thickening assessment. Signal change on BOLD MRI and wall thickening were compared between rest and stress images in ischaemic and non-ischaemic myocardial segments.Results: Using PET, 156 segments ...
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Oxygen partial pressure and temperature are measured in living tissue by inserting a thin probe into living tissue. The probe includes a plurality of spatially separated thermal sensors secured to the probe substrate. A plurality of oxygen sensors is positioned along the length of the probe substrate and each oxygen sensor is associated with and positioned adjacent to or is an integral part of one of the thermal sensors. Electrical parameters of the sensors located on the probe are measured and used to determine oxygen partial pressure and to determine temperature at each of a plurality of sites along the probe.
0084] As discussed above, ammonia combustion in Oxygen is affected by the concentrations of both in a gaseous mixture. In an ideally balanced fermentation using substantially pure oxygen, the Oxygen input 30, 40 will maintain the desired dissolved Oxygen levels 90 without significant amounts of Oxygen gas being emitted into headspace 110. In operation, there are many times when Oxygen input 30, 40 will at least transiently exceed the necessary input levels. For example, at the start of fermentation, Oxygen input levels may be deliberately set higher than necessary and then calibrated back to the optimum input level. Another point in fermentation will be the shift from exponential growth to stationary growth. Oxygen input 30, 40 may transiently exceed the requirement for the target dissolved oxygen level 90 due to decreases in Oxygen consumption by the fermentation microorganisms. During such adjustments periods, Oxygen concentrations 140 in the headspace 110 may be very high such as 25 or 30% of ...
1. Arginine vasopressin reduces whole-body oxygen consumption in conscious dogs. To determine whether this decrease could result from limited oxygen delivery, studies were performed in two groups of chronically instrumented dogs.. 2. In the first group (n = 7), vasopressin was infused at a rate of 18.5 pmol min−1 kg−1 while the animals were breathing 10% oxygen. Hypoxaemia alone (arterial partial pressure of oxygen 4.67 kPa) decreased whole-body oxygen delivery by 30%. The fall in whole-body oxygen consumption induced by vasopressin during hypoxaemia was not different from that measured under normoxic conditions, even though whole-body oxygen delivery was more reduced.. 3. In a second group of seven dogs, hindquarter blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter on lower abdominal aorta) and oxygen consumption (blood flow multiplied by arteriovenous oxygen difference) were measured as infusions of vasopressin were given either systemically or into the lower abdominal aorta. Systemic vasopressin ...
An implantable medical device for detecting and treating an arrhythmia includes an optical sensor adapted for positioning adjacent to a blood-perfused tissue volume. In one embodiment for controlling arrhythmia therapies delivered by the device, the optical sensor is controlled to emit light in response to detecting an arrhythmia, detect light scattered by the volume of blood perfused tissue including measuring an optical sensor output signal corresponding to the intensity of scattered light for at least four spaced-apart wavelengths, and compute a volume-independent measure of tissue oxygen saturation from the detected light. The hemodynamic status of the arrhythmia is detected in response to the measure of tissue oxygen saturation.
Cancer Center For Healing uses Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) as one of the integrative treatment plans for our patients. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy is a well-established treatment for cancer and other diseases. Through breathing pure oxygen in a pressurized room, patients lungs can gather up to three times more oxygen than would be possible breathing pure oxygen at normal air pressure. The patients blood carries this pure oxygen throughout the body to stimulate the release of growth factors and stem cells. The release of the stem cells and growth factors promote healing.. Cancer Center For Healings Oxidative Preconditioning Therapy is to give patients hyperbaric oxygen sessions combined with Nutraceuticals and Trental (Pentoxifylline), to augment HBOTs effect. Trental is FDA-approved for the improvement the flow of blood by decreasing its viscosity (making it thinner), increasing blood flow through the microcirculation system and enhancing tissue oxygenation.. Our staff of physicians ...
We studied photosensitization reaction progress in a cell culture well by oxygen partial pressure distribution measurement along the well depth direction with a high concentration of talaporfin sodium solution. The talaporfin sodium solution of 20 μg/ml in concentration with 2.8 mm thickness in the well was irradiated from the well bottom by 663 nm excitation laser with 0.29 W/cm2. A small Clark-type oxygen electrode was used to measure oxygen partial pressure during the photosensitization reaction with approximately 200 μm resolution. Corrections against solution temperature change and direct light irradiation were applied to the electrode output. The oxygen partial pressures at various depths were decreased uniformly from the atmospheric oxygen partial pressure with the photosensitization reaction progress up to the irradiation of 1.0 J/cm2 in radiant exposure. In the case of photosensitization reaction over 1.0 J/cm2 in radiant exposure, the oxygen partial pressure distribution along the ...
An emergency breathing device including a hood having use and storage configurations, which when compactly wrapped proximate to an oxygen control device for storage is recoverable for use. In use configuration, the hood is capable of being worn upon a users head, which substantially surrounds the users head. Hood surface beneath the users head includes an opening lined with elastic material, which forms a seal about the users neck at the opening when the hood is donned. An oxygen control device connected to a hood includes a valve body, an actuator, and an oxygen bottle. The valve body provides airflow communication with the interior of the hood, and the oxygen control device is connected to a plumbed breathable oxygen supply through a plumbed source disconnect means removably connected to the valve body. When connected, the oxygen control device permits airflow from the plumbed breathable oxygen supply and valve body to the interior of the hood. A cam within the valve body rotates with the
Pulse oximetry probes placed peripherally may fail to give accurate values of blood oxygen saturation when the peripheral circulation is poor. Because central blood flow may be preferentially preserved, we investigated the oesophagus as an alternative monitoring site. A reflectance blood oxygen saturation probe was developed and evaluated in 49 patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. The oesophageal pulse oximeter results were in good agreement with oxygen saturation measurements obtained by a blood gas analyser, a CO-oximeter and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. The median (IQR [range]) difference between the oesophageal oxygen saturation results and those from blood gas analysis were 0.00 (-0.30 to 0.30 [-4.47 to 2.60]), and between the oesophageal oxygen saturation results and those from CO-oximetry were 0.75 (0.30 to 1.20 [-1.80 to 1.80]). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the bias and the limits of agreement between the oesophageal and finger pulse oximeters were -0.3% and -3.3 to ...
When your blood oxygen levels drop too low, Centric Healthcare (Centric Healthcare) offers services that can help. Copyright © 2020 , Centric Healthcare , All Rights Reserved , Designed by. When it gets that low, it is life threatening and you should seek medical attention immediately. What is the difference between Dyspnea-and-Hypoxia. Hypoxemia can deprive your body of much needed oxygen. Because your arteries are deeper than your veins, drawing blood for an ABG test can cause discomfort. When measuring your blood oxygen level, your doctor may also find it helpful to perform a physical examination and listen to your heart and lungs. Dr. Brendan Rice answered. Anything over 90% is acceptable but worrisome. Hypoxemia can happen in high altitudes. When your body is unable to do this, and the level of oxygen in your blood drops too low, the condition is called hypoxemia. If your doctor discovers that your blood oxygen level (oxygen saturation) is less than about 90% during the day (when you are ...
Some regions of the deep ocean floor support abundant populations of organisms, despite being overlain by water that contains very little oxygen, according to an international study led by scientists at the United Kingdoms National Oceanography Center, Southampton. But global warming is likely to exacerbate oxygen depletion and thereby reduce biodiversity in these regions, they warn.. The sunlit surface waters tend to be well oxygenated as a result of their connection with the atmosphere. Here, tiny marine algae called phytoplankton thrive. When they die and sink, they are degraded by bacteria, using oxygen from the water column.. In regions of high plant growth, this can result in the natural development of mid-water oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), especially where oxygen is not replenished by mixing of the water column. Where they touch the continental slope, OMZs create strong seafloor oxygen gradients at depths between 100 and 1000 m.. In addition to low oxygen, sediments within OMZs often ...
The Types of Haemoglobin Throughout Human Life.. Introduction: In this article I will be briefly running through the various forms of haemoglobin present in a human; from an embryo to an adult.. Firstly lets recap the role and structure of haemoglobin.. Role:. The role of haemoglobin is rather similar to a delivery truck driver. This is because haemoglobin loads oxygen, transports oxygen and then finally unloads oxygen.. The process by which haemoglobin loads oxygen is called associating, and this occurs in regions of high oxygen concentrations - the lungs. Here the oxygen and haemoglobin combine forming oxyhaemoglobin.. The process in which haemoglobin unloads oxygen is called disassociating, and occurs in regions of low oxygen concentrations - in tissues. Here oxyhaemoglobin splits back into oxygen and haemoglobin.. Therefore the reversible reaction can be summarised by the equation:. Oxygen + Haemoglobin ⇌ Oxyhaemoglobin. Structure:. Haemoglobin is a large protein molecule folded around ...
Few tasks are simpler to perform than a breath hold; however, the neural basis underlying this voluntary inhibitory behaviour, which must suppress spontaneous respiratory motor output, is unknown. Here, using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI), we investig …
Estimates of macrofaunal secondary production and normalized biomass size-spectra (NBSS) were constructed for macrobenthic communities associated with the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in four areas of the continental margin off Chile. The presence of low oxygen conditions in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) off Chile was shown to have important effects on the size structure and secondary production of the benthic communities living in this ecosystem. The distribution of normalized biomass by size was linear (log2log2 scale) at all stations. The slope of the NBSS ranged from -0.481 to-0.908. There were significant differences between the slopes of the NBS-spectra from the stations located in the OMZ (slope = - 0.837) and those located outside the OMZ(slope = - 0.463) (p , 0.05). The results of this study suggest that low oxygen conditions (, 0.5 ml L-1) appear to influence biomass size-spectra, because small organisms are better able to satisfy their metabolic demands. The annual secondary ...
The interface conductance of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures was investigated under high temperature oxygen equilibrium. The dependence of the heterostructure’s conductance on oxygen partial pressure (from 10-22 to 1 bar) and temperature (800 to 1100 K) was compared to the characteristic of SrTiO3 single crystals, which is described in terms of a defect chemistry model. Up to 950 K the equilibrated heterostructures reveal an additional influence of a metallic-like conduction path with a very slight dependence on the oxygen partial pressure. Donor-type interface states which may result from either lattice distortions or A-site cation intermixing during processing are discussed as a possible origin for the exceptional interface conduction of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures ...
Nehme and coworkers tested out the effect of air versus oxygen on myocardial injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).1 When administered in the first 12 hours after STEMI oxygen was associated with a dose-dependent increase in troponin and creatine kinase. In 2015 the same group of investigators published a study in Circulation showing that air instead of oxygen supplementation in STEMI led to improved outcome. The conclusions of these two studies seem to be that supplemental oxygen therapy in patients with STEMI but without hypoxia may increase early myocardial injury and is associated with larger myocardial infarct size assessed at 6 months. In 1980 we were the first to suggest that due to production of oxygen free radicals air could be better than oxygen supplementation during reoxygenation.2 During the next 30 years we performed a series of studies demonstrating that air compared to 100% oxygen caused significantly less oxidative stress and less myocardial and kidney injury, and ...
Heart surgery patients are more at risk of poor peripheral perfusion, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement is regular care for continuous analysis of blood oxygen saturation in these patients. With regard to controversial studies on accuracy of the current pulse oximetry probes and lack of data related to patients undergoing heart surgery, the present study was conducted to determine accuracy of pulse oximetry probes of finger, toe, forehead and earlobe in detection of oxygen saturation in patients admitted to intensive care units for coronary artery bypass surgery. In this clinical trial, 67 patients were recruited based on convenience sampling method among those admitted to intensive care units for coronary artery bypass surgery. The SpO2 value was measured using finger, toe, forehead and earlobe probes and then compared with the standard value of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). Data were entered into STATA-11 software and analyzed using descriptive, inferential and Bland
Oxygen Generating Systems Intl. (OGSI) designs and manufactures oxygen generators. Using Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) technology, OGSI offers a complete line of on-site plants with outputs from 15 (7.5 LPM) to 5000 SCFH (5tpd). The typical oxygen purity from our generators is 93% (+/- 3%). With only air and electricity required, OGSI can provide an oxygen generating system that can operate almost anywhere.. In addition to oxygen generation plants, OGSI offers complete oxygen cylinder filling plants (CFPs) with capacities from 1 to 180 cylinders filled per day.. Currently OGSI has oxygen plants in over 70 countries worldwide, serving many diverse markets. Please review the rest of our website to learn how an OGSI oxygen system can benefit you. If you are an oxygen user, OEM or system integrator, OGSI has an oxygen generating system that fits your needs. At OGSI, manufacturing quality oxygen machines is our specialty, and we are happy to discuss special design requirements with you.. Learn More ...
Acceptor-type doping of perovskite-type La1-x,SrxGa0.80-y,MgyM0.20O3-delta (x = 0-0.20, y = 0.15-0.20, M = Fe, Co, Ni) leads to significant enhancement of the oxygen permeability due to increasing oxygen vacancy concentration and, thus, ionic conductivity. The increase in strontium and magnesium content is accompanied, however, with increasing role of the surface exchange kinetics as a permeation-limiting factor. At temperatures below 1223 K, the oxygen permeation (OP) fluxes through dense La(Sr)Ga(Mg,M)O3-delta membranes with the thickness less than 1.5 mm are mainly limited by the exchange rate at membrane/gas boundaries. For transition metal-containing La(Sr)Ga(Mg)O3-delta (LSGM) ceramics, the oxygen transport increases in the sequence Co < Fe < Ni. The highest permeation is observed for La0.90Sr0.10Ga0.65Mg0.15Ni0.20O3-delta perovskite membranes, which exhibit level of the oxygen permeability similar to that of La(Sr)Fe(Co)O3-delta and La2NiO4-based solid solutions. The average thermal expansion
Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ) are the places in the world ocean where oxygen saturation in the water column is at its lowest. This zone typically occurs at depths of about 200 to 1,000 meters. The AOG lab is interested in OMZs because of their importance in controlling carbon and nitrogen cycling in the oceans. OMZ water is exposed to the rain of sinking organic matter, which we evaluate using our drifting net traps and in situ incubators. Bacteria and archea feed on this organic matter and oxygen is used. Thus, the concentration of oxygen in deep water is dependent on the amount of oxygen it had when it was at the surface minus depletion by deep sea organisms.. In many OMZ regions oxygen actually reaches zero, in which case the OMZ can be called an ODZ (oxygen deficient zone). ODZs provide appropriate conditions to enable substantial nitrogen loss because in the absence of oxygen, nitrate represents the next best electron acceptor available for respiration. Starting with organic nitrogen ...
HBOT damages bacterial cellular DNA and enhances the oxygen dependent peroxidase system leukocytes used to kill bacteria. The transport of certain antibiotics into tissues that use oxygen-dependent transport mechanisms is increased, thereby, enhancing their efficacy. This is most effective for aminoglycosides and trimethoprim sulfa. Flouroquinolones are less effective in a hypoxic environment and HBOT will restore their effectiveness.. Creating a large oxygen gradient at the periphery of ischemic or poorly healing wounds enhances fibroblast function and the oxygen dependent matrix formation needed for angiogenesis, enhances wound healing.. During reperfusion injuries, leukocytes adhere to damaged/ischemic tissues releasing oxygen free radicals and proteases, further damaging tissues and causing further vasoconstriction. HBOT will reduce leukocyte adherence and post-ischemic vasoconstriction thereby providing a beneficial effect on reperfusion injuries (crush injuries, compartment syndromes, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of hyperventilation on conjunctival oxygen tension in humans. AU - Nisam, M.. AU - Albertson, Timothy E. AU - Panacek, Edward A. AU - Rutherford, W.. AU - Fisher, C. J.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - A polarographic conjunctival oxygen sensor was used to measure oxygen tension in a tissue bed supplied by the internal carotid artery. The shared vascular source of the conjunctiva and brain suggests that conjunctival PO2 monitoring may provide an index of cerebral perfusion. We studied the effects of hyperventilation, a known stimulus of cerebral vasconstriction, on conjunctival oxygen tension (P(cj)O2) in six normal, healthy adults; arterial blood gases were simultaneously measured in four of these subjects. A 5-min period of hyperventilation to a PaCO2 near 20 torr resulted in a rapid and significant (p,.01) increase in systemic oxygen tension as measured by arterial blood gases and a transcutaneous oxygen monitor. These values gradually returned to baseline upon cessation of ...
The Innovo Premium CPE Fingertip pulse oximeter shows your blood oxygen saturation levels (SpO2) and Pulse Rate on a OLED screen (with six multidirectional display choices). The product comes with a Plethysmograph and Perfusion Index (PI). Each wave corresponds to a heartbeat and the amplitude to the amount of blood detected in your blood vessels. When the height of the wave amplitude no longer fluctuates, this means that the pulse oximeter is now optimized and you may now take the readings. Meanwhile, the Perfusion Index informs you of the strength of your pulse. If the PI value is less than 0.2%, this means that your hands are too cold or improperly positioned in the pulse oximeter. Simply warm your finger and reposition it so that it is right under the LED lights. Comes with a lanyard and 2 AAA batteries so that you can use the pulse oximeter right out of the box. Please note that this is not a medical device. Intended for home use. The oximeter might not work on kids or adults with small ...
As seen on the figure above does the oxygen saturation change very little when pO2 is between 80 and 100 mmHg. Its only when pO2 becomes lower than 80 that the saturation starts to decrease significantly and rapidly.. When oxygenated blood has reached an area that requires oxygen will the oxygen that is dissolved in the blood diffuse across the capillary wall to the interstitium. Oxygen in the interstitium is then taken up by the cells. Oxygen will then dissociate from haemoglobin to refill the dissolved oxygen in the blood that was just emptied.. In the veins is the oxygen saturation only 75%, which equals 40 mmHg of pO2, as seen on the figure above. Arterial blood contains 20 mL oxygen per 100 mL blood, while venous blood contains 15 mL O2 per 100 mL blood. The difference is only 5 mL. Oxygen content of blood can also be expressed as a volume percentage. For example, 20% of arterial blood is oxygen, while 15% of venous blood is oxygen. Because of this we can also write the difference ...
Very fast atrial fibrillation (AF) can be beyond this upper limit, and this is often cited as a limitation for the use of fingertip pulse oximeters in patients with fast AF. Tracking SpO2 during exercise maximizes fitness regimens. Whether you are safeguarding your own or your childs sleep and breathing, keeping abreast of oxygen saturation levels during the pandemic, or assessing lung function improvements. Mike in California. individual parameters) is a bit small, so that selection is a bit cumbersome or you need good eyesight. China Sleep Apneas Screening Monitor with Oxycare APP. 2019;15(2):195-200. Contact Now. Many recent models can produce digital readouts and SpO2 waveforms. The CMS Model 50-F is based on CMSs uniquely patented algorithms that use dual see-through sensor technology for the accurate measurement of blood oxygen saturation levels and heart pulse rate. High quality 250bpm 99% SpO2 1. We promise to deliver the best in line product to the customers. Tests The Need for A ...
Introduction - Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a non-invasive therapy that uses 100% oxygen under increased atmospheric pressure in a controlled total body chamber, to treat patients.. Mechanism of Action of HBOT? : At hyperbaric (higher than atmospheric) pressures, gases can accumulate at higher concentrations and dissolve more readily in liquids. In a hyperbaric oxygen chamber, a specially designed chamber that delivers pressurized oxygen to the body in a safe, painless, and non-invasive way, a patients exposure to 100% oxygen can infuse their tissues with oxygen. The oxygen not only saturates the red blood cells, it also dissolves in the plasma, lymph system, and cerebrospinal fluid. As a patient relaxes inside a HBOT chamber, the bodys tissues and organs receive a massive infusion of oxygen, resulting in remarkable benefits that cannot be achieved by any other therapy.. Indications: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy promotes physiological changes in the body that support healing and ...
Emergency passenger oxygen is provided via a chemical oxygen generator but the aircraft would have been carrying therapeutic ... Anything nearby that happens to ignite will burn intensely because of the rich oxygen supply.) and Chemical oxygen generator ( ... Oxygen. During the crash, oxygen masks deployed (and presumably dispensed O2) - at sea level. Has there been any discussion as ... It is a major issue, insofar as masks falling out triggers the oxygen generators to produce oxygen, if that is what the plane ...
Oxygen binds in an "end-on bent" geometry where one oxygen atom binds to Fe and the other protrudes at an angle. When oxygen is ... which normally binds oxygen at high partial pressures of oxygen, must be able to bind oxygen when it is present at a lower ... Oxygen saturation[edit]. In general, hemoglobin can be saturated with oxygen molecules (oxyhemoglobin), or desaturated with ... Binding for ligands other than oxygen[edit]. Besides the oxygen ligand, which binds to hemoglobin in a cooperative manner, ...
Oxygen scavenging[edit]. Oxygen scavenging chemicals are very often added to the deaerated boiler feedwater to remove any last ... Dissolved oxygen in feedwater will cause serious corrosion damage in a boiler by attaching to the walls of metal piping and ... A deaerator is a device that removes oxygen and other dissolved gases from liquids. Deaerators are commonly used to remove ... The most commonly used oxygen scavenger for lower pressure systems is sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). It is very effective and rapidly ...
Addition of oxygen atoms[edit]. Solutions of C60 can be oxygenated to the epoxide C60O. Ozonation of C60 in 1,2-xylene at 257K ... this conductivity is attributed to intrinsic or oxygen-related defects.[35] Fcc C60 contains voids at its octahedral and ...
Oxygen content[edit]. C. a. O. 2. =. 1.36. ⋅. Hgb. ⋅. S. a. O. 2. 100. +. 0.0031. ⋅. P. a. O. 2. {\displaystyle C_{a}{\ce {O2 ... Oxygen saturation[edit]. SO. 2. =. (. 23. ,. 400. p. O. 2. 3. +. 150. p. O. 2. +. 1. ). −. 1. {\displaystyle {\ce {SO2}}=\left ... Oxygen tension[edit]. Arterial blood oxygen tension (normal). PaO2 - Partial pressure of oxygen at sea level (765 mmHg) in ... Venous blood oxygen tension (normal). PvO2 - Oxygen tension in venous blood at sea level is between 30 mmHg and 40 mmHg.[6][7] ...
Free radical and singlet oxygen oxidations[edit]. Oxidative stress in cells and tissues produces Free radical and singlet ... Free radical and singlet oxygen oxidations of linoleic acid produce a similar set of 13-HODE metabolites (see 9- ... 12Z-octadecaenoic acid while singlet oxygen attacks on linoleic acid produce (presumably) racemic mixtures of 9-hydroxy-10E,12- ... Since oxidative stress commonly produces both free radicals and singlet oxygen, most or all of these products may form together ...
2, is generally known as oxygen, but may be called dioxygen, diatomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, or oxygen gas to distinguish it ... Atomic oxygen[edit]. Atomic oxygen, denoted O(3P) or O(3P),[1] is very reactive, as the single atoms of oxygen tend to quickly ... Phases of solid oxygen[edit]. Main article: Solid oxygen. There are six known distinct phases of solid oxygen. One of them is a ... Singlet oxygen[edit]. Main article: Singlet oxygen. Singlet oxygen is the common name used for the two metastable states of ...
Oxygen[note 2]. Medicines for pain and palliative care[edit]. Non-opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs ... No more than 30% oxygen should be used to initiate resuscitation of neonates less than or equal to 32 weeks of gestation. ...
The reactive oxygen kills the target cells.[5] Reactive oxygen species[edit]. In air and tissue, molecular oxygen (O2) occurs ... It is possible that (over a 6 μs period) singlet oxygen can diffuse up to approximately 300 nm in vivo. Singlet oxygen can ... with oxygen to produce singlet oxygen. This species is highly cytotoxic, rapidly attacking any organic compounds it encounters ... singlet oxygen quantum yield (ΦΔ): the singlet oxygen generated by the photosensitiser must diffuse out of the carrier system; ...
In the absence of oxygen (and sometimes even in the presence of oxygen[8]), the cell will continue some metabolic functions ( ... The role of oxygen[edit]. Yeasts are facultative anaerobes meaning that they can exist in both the presence and absence of ... In the presence of oxygen several species of Candida and Pichia can create a film surface on top of the wine in the tank of ... In the absence of oxygen, yeast converts the sugars of wine grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide through the process of ...
Effect of oxygen[edit]. Fermentation does not require oxygen. If oxygen is present, some species of yeast (e.g., Kluyveromyces ... Because yeasts perform this conversion in the absence of oxygen, alcoholic fermentation is considered an anaerobic process. It ... it provides energy when oxygen is scarce.[1] ...
For oxygen[edit]. Oxygen binds with red blood cells in the blood stream. The oxygen affinity with hemoglobin on red blood cell ... Oxygen-facilitated diffusion occurs in a homogeneous environment where oxygen pressure can be relatively controlled.[11] [12] ... Carbon monoxide also combines with hemoglobin and myoglobin with the help of facilitated diffusion just as it is in oxygen[12] ... Only small, non-polar molecules, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, can diffuse easily across the membrane. Hence, no nonpolar ...
Heavy-oxygen water[edit]. Water enriched in the heavier oxygen isotopes 17. O and 18. O is also commercially available, e.g., ... while those of oxygen-16 and oxygen-17 are 0.19 and 0.24 millibarns, respectively. 17O makes up 0.038% of natural oxygen, ... Therefore, in D2O with natural oxygen, 21% of neutron captures are on oxygen, rising higher as 17O builds up from neutron ... Oral doses of heavy water in the range of several grams, as well as heavy oxygen 18O, are routinely used in human metabolic ...
Generation of reactive oxygen species[edit]. Figure 2: Disease Pathways for SDHB mutations. Electron path during normal ... The O1 carbonyl oxygen of ubiquinone is oriented at the active site (image 4) by hydrogen bond interactions with Tyr83 of SDHD ... PHD action normally requires oxygen and alpha-ketoglutarate as cosubstrates and ferrous iron and ascorbate as cofactors. ... However, the sensitivity of these cells to oxygen levels may play a role. ...
... thus oxygen diffusion from ambient air strongly influences their blood oxygen saturation. Because of oxygen diffusion, hypoxic ... Blood oxygen dynamics[edit]. The bulbar conjunctival microvasculature is in close proximity to ambient air, ... Modified fundus cameras have been used to measure conjunctival blood flow [27] and to measure blood oxygen saturation.[23] ... "Effects of sickle cell anemia on conjunctival oxygen tension and temperature". Archives of Internal Medicine. 147 (1): 67-69. ...
Based on oxygen utilization and body mass[edit]. The original definition of metabolic equivalent of task is the oxygen used by ... A MET also is defined as oxygen uptake in ml/kg/min with one MET equal to the oxygen cost of sitting quietly, equivalent to 3.5 ... This value was first experimentally derived from the resting oxygen consumption of a particular subject (a healthy 40-year-old ... or 3.5 ml of oxygen per kilogram of body mass per minute) and is roughly equivalent to the expenditure of 1 kcal per kilogram ...
Oxygen nucleophiles[edit]. In the acetalisation reaction, under acidic or basic conditions, an alcohol adds to the carbonyl ... In industry, formaldehyde is produced on a large scale by oxidation of methanol.[12] Oxygen is the reagent of choice, being " ... Aldehydes feature an sp2-hybridized, planar carbon center that is connected by a double bond to oxygen and a single bond to ... Lyophilized cell cultures of Trametes hirsuta in the presence of oxygen.[18] ...
Scientists use oxygen sensors to measure respiration or production of oxygen and use a different approach. Oxygen sensors are ... An oxygen optode is a sensor based on optical measurement of the oxygen concentration. A chemical film is glued to the tip of ... The type of oxygen sensor used in most underwater diving applications is the electro-galvanic oxygen sensor, a type of fuel ... Typically, soil oxygen sensors use a galvanic cell to produce a current flow that is proportional to the oxygen concentration ...
Low oxygen levels (and G-LOC) model[edit]. Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxia or anoxia) have been hypothesized to induce ... lack of oxygen, or malnutrition-established eighty years ago by Cécile and Oskar Vogt.[64] ... hallucinations and hence possibly explain NDEs.[15][33] This is because low oxygen levels characterize life-threatening ... of complete disabling of brain function during general anesthesia or near-complete cessation of cerebral blood flow and oxygen ...
Oxygen carriers[edit]. Hemoglobin, which is the principal oxygen-carrier in humans, has four subunits in which the iron(II) ion ... Hemerythrin is another iron-containing oxygen carrier. The oxygen binding site is a binuclear iron center. The iron atoms are ... Hemocyanins carry oxygen in the blood of most mollusks, and some arthropods such as the horseshoe crab. They are second only to ... Cytochrome P450 enzymes perform the function of inserting an oxygen atom into a C−H bond, an oxidation reaction.[17][18] ...
... further decreasing oxygen content. The ocean has already lost oxygen, throughout the entire water column and oxygen minimum ... Oxygen depletion. Main article: Ocean deoxygenation. Warmer water cannot contain as much oxygen as cold water, so heating is ... 2 uptake, oceanic oxygen concentrations, and shifts in fisheries.[237] According to a 2019 assessment in the IPCC's Special ... Shaffer, G. .; Olsen, S. M.; Pedersen, J. O. P. (2009). "Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide ...
Lavoisier's oxygen theory of acids[edit]. The first scientific concept of acids and bases was provided by Lavoisier in around ... This acid-base theory was a revival of oxygen theory of acids and bases, proposed by German chemist Hermann Lux[22][23] in 1939 ... 4 (sulfuric acid), which tend to contain central atoms in high oxidation states surrounded by oxygen, and since he was not ... until the 1810 article and subsequent lectures by Sir Humphry Davy in which he proved the lack of oxygen in H. 2S, H2Te, and ...
Oxygen supply to cornea[edit]. Dr. David M. Maurice (1922-2002), an eye specialist and semi-retired adjunct professor at ... Brain energy use in REM sleep, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism, equals or exceeds energy use in waking. The rate ... oxygen from iris had to reach cornea by diffusion through aqueous humor, which was not sufficient. According to the theory, ... Columbia University, proposed that REM sleep was associated with oxygen supply to the cornea, and that aqueous humor, the ...
Oxygen[edit]. Examples of oxygen nucleophiles are water (H2O), hydroxide anion, alcohols, alkoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, ... In the example below, the oxygen of the hydroxide ion donates an electron pair to form a new chemical bond with the carbon at ... Sulfur is in general a better nucleophile than oxygen. Nucleophilicity[edit]. Many schemes attempting to quantify relative ... Within a series of nucleophiles with the same attacking element (e.g. oxygen), the order of nucleophilicity will follow ...
... which has a greater inherent affinity for oxygen than normal adult hemoglobin. This reduces oxygen delivery to the kidneys, ... Altered oxygen sensing[edit]. Inherited mutations in three genes which all result in increased stability of hypoxia-inducible ... December 2002). "Disruption of oxygen homeostasis underlies congenital Chuvash polycythemia". Nat. Genet. 32 (4): 614-21. doi: ... Hypoxic disease-associated - for example in cyanotic heart disease where blood oxygen levels are reduced significantly, may ...
PGH2 has a 5-carbon ring bridged by molecular oxygen. Its derived PGS have lost this oxygen bridge and contain a single, ... Peroxidation and reactive oxygen species[edit]. Next, the free fatty acid is oxygenated along any of several pathways; see the ... The eicosanoid pathways (via lipoxygenase or COX) add molecular oxygen (O2). Although the fatty acid is symmetric, the ... The 5-carbon ring of prostacyclin is conjoined to a second ring consisting of 4 carbon and one oxygen atom. And, the 5 member ...
Oxygen decompression[edit]. The use of pure oxygen for accelerated decompression is limited by oxygen toxicity. In open circuit ... or more oxygen. The high partial pressure of oxygen in such decompression mixes create the effect of the oxygen window.[64] ... Further information: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Evidence of the effectiveness of recompression therapy utilizing oxygen was ... Air breaks are taken between oxygen breathing to reduce the risk of oxygen toxicity.[16] ...
Response to oxygen[edit]. The sensitivity of members of the genus Bifidobacterium to O2 generally limits probiotic activity to ...
Oxygen 1.208 31.83 52.86 2.06 Chlorine 1.988 56.22 93.36 2.39 Van der Waals radii calculated from the van der Waals constants. ...
"08 Oxygen". Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ Cook, Gerhard A.; Lauer, Carol M. (1968). "Oxygen". In Clifford ... Prepared by bombardment of californium with oxygen atoms.[152] 107 Bohrium 1981 G.Münzenberg et al. (GSI in Darmstadt) Obtained ... Oxygen 1771 W. Scheele 1604 Sendivogius Obtained it by heating mercuric oxide and nitrates in 1771, but did not publish his ... Sendivogius had produced oxygen by heating saltpetre, correctly identifying it as the "food of life".[43] ...
2014) Oxygen and animal evolution: Did a rise of atmospheric oxygen "trigger" the origin of animals? BioEssays 36(12):1145-1155 ... 2013) Quantifying the areal extent and dissolved oxygen concentrations of Archean oxygen oases. Chem Geol 362:35-43. ... atmosphere oxygen levels (1). Molecular oxygen (O2) is by far the most energetic of the abundant terminal oxidants used in ... Earths oxygen cycle and the evolution of animal life. Christopher T. Reinhard, Noah J. Planavsky, Stephanie L. Olson, Timothy ...
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy effects on MS have been published in a variety of studies, the review of which is beyond the scope of ... HBOT Epigenetic Treatment for Brain Injury - HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY. HBOT Neurology , Brain Trauma , Carbon Monoxide , ... Hyperbaric oxygen therapy effects on MS have been published in a variety of studies, the review of which is beyond the scope of ... Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Autism - A Healing Victory. *HBOT in Cerebral Palsy & Pediatric Neurology: A Scientific ...
Oxygen, as a mild euphoric, has a history of recreational use in oxygen bars and in sports. Oxygen bars are establishments ... Oxygen tents were once commonly used in oxygen supplementation, but have since been replaced mostly by the use of oxygen masks ... See also: Liquid oxygen and solid oxygen. Oxygen dissolves more readily in water than nitrogen, and in freshwater more readily ... Oxygen storage methods include high pressure oxygen tanks, cryogenics and chemical compounds. For reasons of economy, oxygen is ...
Subterranean Oxygen Park is a breath of fresh air in the Qatari desert. *Lucy Wang ... Ingenious Chlorella Oxygen Pavilion helps city dwellers breathe clean, unpolluted air using algae. *Katie Medlock ... Future Mars colonists are going to need oxygen, and NASA has a plan to make it. Their Mars 2020 Rover will be equipped... ... Stunning prefab OxyGen project will deliver a green oasis to Paris. *Lucy Wang ...
How Much Oxygen Does the Amazon Rain Forest Provide?. "There are many many reasons to be concerned…but a risk to the worlds ... Who Is Mark Hacking? New Oxygen Series Focuses on Lies and Murder. How far would you go to keep a lie under wraps? ... Ocean Oxygen Shortage Preceded Mass Extinction. The finding fills in the gap between volcanic eruptions and marine extinctions ... Oxygen Is Disappearing From the Worlds Oceans. The ocean cant seem to catch a break-or its breath. ...
An oxygen tank is an oxygen storage vessel, which is either held under pressure in gas cylinders, or as liquid oxygen in a ... All equipment coming into contact with high pressure oxygen must be "oxygen clean" and "oxygen compatible", to reduce the risk ... oxygen rebreather, built in breathing system (BIBS), oxygen tent, and hyperbaric oxygen chamber. ... Breathing oxygen is delivered from the storage tank to users by use of the following methods: oxygen mask, nasal cannula, full ...
... The term oxygen free copper can be a little confusing, partly because it is inaccurate, at best it will ... Oxygen Free copper is produced in several grades:. BS C103, Cu-OF and C110, Cu-OFE are melted and cast in an oxygen free ... An oxygen level under 3 to 4 ppm is needed for reliable welding, and for this purpose reduced oxygen copper was developed. ... This level of oxygen makes welding a problem because hydrogen then combines with the oxygen to produce water vapour, which ...
NL) Rihanna - American Oxygen, Ultratop. URL consultato il 17 luglio 2015.. *^ (FR) Rihanna - American Oxygen, Ultratop. URL ... American Oxygen · Work · Kiss It Better · Needed Me · Sledgehammer · Love on the Brain · Sex with Me · Pose · Desperado · Lemon ... American Oxygen è un singolo della cantante barbadiana Rihanna, pubblicato il 14 aprile 2015 dalla Roc Nation. ... Rihanna Debuts New Track American Oxygen Via Tidal (UPDATE) *^ Certificeringer, International Federation of the Phonographic ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Oxygen. ... Immediately download the Oxygen summary, chapter-by-chapter ... Oxygen Oxygen is the first element in Group 16 of the periodic table, a group of elements sometimes known as the oxygen family ... Oxygen Oxygen is colorless, odorless, gas element denoted by the atomic symbol, O. Its atomic number is 8 and it has an atomic ... Oxygen Symbol O Atomic Number 8 Atomic Mass 15.9994 Family Group 16 (Via) Chalcogen Pronunciation OK-si-jun Overview Oxygen is ...
Source for information on oxygen cycle: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... oxygen cycle The cycling of oxygen between the biotic and abiotic components of the environment (see biogeochemical cycle). ... oxygen cycle The cycling of oxygen between the biotic and abiotic components of the environment (see biogeochemical cycle). The ... In the upper atmosphere, ozone is formed from oxygen and dissociates to release oxygen (see also ozone layer).. ...
The Modeling package provides tools and runtimes for building model-based applications. You can use it to graphically design domain models, to leverage those models at design time by creating and editing dynamic instances, to collaborate via Eclipses team support with facilities for comparing and merging models and model instances structurally, and finally to generate Java code from those models to produce complete applications. In addition, via the packages discover catalog, you can easily install a wide range of additional powerful, model-based tools and runtimes to suit your specific needs.. ...
Oxygen has become an important question. Whats going on? Im simply blown by all the news that is coming up regarding Oxygen ... People are totally confused, whether its Oxygen for life or, life for Oxygen. The whole thing is that when we are absolutely ... Lack of Oxygen is creating a threatening danger among the people. What is meant for life should create hope, not threat. Im ... Let Oxygen live and give life. This is heartbreaking to know many people are not getting the proper treatment because of the ...
Check out just released Oxygen Pics, Images, Clips, Trailers, Production Photos and more from Rotten Tomatoes Movie Pictures ...
Oxygen Offers Its Murderers Row. 12 Dark Days of Serial Killers might be just what some viewers want in these troubling ... Busted Pilot Podcast: Oxygens Non-Holiday Stuff, Station World Stars, The L Word Returns, and More. Kent Gibbons and ... Oxygen Clicks Into Digital Media For New Shows. Social Girls, Review Rage, Love To Hate inspired by social media ... True Crime Is Oxygens True North. Two years after its rebrand, content chief Rod Aissa evolves nets strategy ...
When oxygen atoms bind to a graphite surface, they fall into line and make bridges across carbon atoms. This is the spearhead ... to comply with the chemically preferred obtuse angle at the oxygen joints. The emerging network of such oxygen-zipped ridges ... Li et al.2 show that when oxygen atoms (in red) bind to a graphite surface, they form two-legged epoxy bridges, which line up ... When oxygen atoms bind to a graphite surface, they fall into line and make bridges across carbon atoms. This is the spearhead ...
For oxygen concentration cell type zircornia sensors for stoichiometric A/F control, its mechanism is discussed and a unified ... Some attempts at developments and analyses of oxygen sensors are presented with a review in this field. ... Oxygen Sensors A/F Control 830929. Some attempts at developments and analyses of oxygen sensors are presented with a review in ... For oxygen concentration cell type zircornia sensors for stoichiometric A/F control, its mechanism is discussed and a unified ...
Oxygen. [William Trubridge] -- The incredible under-water world of William Trubridge. A memoir of an aquatic affinity, the ... Exquisitely written, Oxygen is a mind-altering and immersive coming-of-age story about a boy who grew up on a sailing boat, ... Exquisitely written, Oxygen is a mind-altering and immersive coming-of-age story about a boy who grew up on a sailing boat, ... Exquisitely written, Oxygen is a mind-altering and immersive coming-of-age story about a boy who grew up on a sailing boat, ...
... has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but dont hold your breath for human colonization. ... Saturn Moon Has Oxygen Atmosphere. Saturns second largest moon, Rhea, has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but dont ... An oxygen atmosphere has been found on Saturns second largest moon, Rhea, astronomers announced Thursday-but dont hold your ... The amount of oxygen gas produced per second across Rheas surface weighs about 0.3 pound (130 grams), the study team reports ...
... also known as home oxygen treatment, including when its needed, how its given, the assessment process, and safety advice. ... Home oxygen therapy Home oxygen therapy involves breathing in air that contains more oxygen than normal from a cylinder or ... When oxygen therapy shouldnt be used. Oxygen therapy shouldnt be used to relieve breathlessness if your oxygen levels are ... Large oxygen cylinders. Oxygen cylinders will probably be prescribed if you only need oxygen for short periods to relieve ...
... oxygen) and then gave oxygen via a reservoir mask (approximately 80% oxygen) during a 27 minute journey to hospital. He became ... Emergency oxygen use. Oxygen is administered to about a third of emergency ambulance patients, and about 15% of UK hospital ... With nasal oxygen therapy at 2 L/minute, his oxygen saturation was 88%. The paramedics administered nebulised salbutamol driven ... and high oxygen partial pressure at PaO2 18.5 kPa (normal range 12.0-15.0) with high oxygen saturation at 100% (normal range 95 ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
When reactions like these occur, the two metals compete for the oxygen. The more reactive metal finishes up with the oxygen (as ... Competition for oxygen experiment - teacher sheet. Experiment Duration : 3 pages Competition for oxygen experiment - student ... When reactions like these occur, the two metals compete for the oxygen. The more reactive metal finishes up with the oxygen (as ... When reactions like these occur, the two metals compete for the oxygen. The more reactive metal finishes up with the oxygen (as ...
oxygen-isotope analysis* Method for estimating past ocean temperatures. The ratio of the stable oxygen isotopes [1], 18O and ... oxygen-isotope analysis Method for estimating past ocean temperatures. The ratio of the stable oxygen isotopes, 18O and 16O, is ... oxygen-isotope analysis A method for estimating past ocean temperatures. The ratio of the stable oxygen isotopes, 18O and 16O, ... Oxygen incorporated in the calcium-carbonate shells of marine organisms will reflect the prevailing 18O: 16O ratio (see OXYGEN- ...
Oxygen isotope composition of HEDs and angrites. Data for angrites and HEDs from Greenwood et al. (2005). EFL: eucrite ... Miller M.F. (2002) Isotopic fractionation and the quantification of 17O anomalies in the three oxygen isotope system: an ... Meteoritical Bulletin: Oxygen Isotope Plots. Change plot type: CI, CM, CO, CV, and CK chondrites: d17O vs. d18O. CK compared to ...
Neatorama Posts Tagged "liquid oxygen" Burning Iron in Liquid Oxygen Liquid oxygen presents us with a conundrum. When you ... When you expose a fire to oxygen , it burns brighter. When you expose fire to a liquid , it should put the fire out. And when ... He tried propane, acetylene torches, and even oxygen -fuel gas or racing fuel (the last one took 30 sec... ...] So Goble... ... NeatoShop Products Tagged "liquid oxygen" There are no products matching your search terms ...
Get a breath of fresh air with the Oxygen Supremacy Pack. Download these five gamer pics each with a different design. Register ... Get a breath of fresh air with the Oxygen Supremacy Pack. Download these five gamer pics each with a different design. Register ... Click to create ...
Students will learn about how the OGS produces breathable oxygen for the crew by converting wastewater from the ISS into oxygen ... OXYGEN GENERATOR SYSTEM Maintaining a permanent human presence on the International Space Station requires a well organized ... If you know the author of OXYGEN GENERATOR SYSTEM, please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. ... You just viewed OXYGEN GENERATOR SYSTEM. Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
Fire can be put out by depriving it of oxygen, or caused to grow by giving it more oxygen. Oxygen is thus one leg of the fire ... medical} Humans need oxygen to survive and take it from the air through the lungs by breathing. Without oxygen the brain can ... This is to increase the amount of oxygen reaching the brain and other body parts, helping to stave off shock. Medical oxygen is ... If a cell doesnt have mitochondria, it has no need for oxygen. Our red blood cells, designed to carry oxygen, use none of it ...
According to the first large survey of oxygen users, more than half of patients using supplemental oxygen experienced problems ... To help those struggling with supplemental oxygen issues, the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation (PFF) has launched the Oxygen ... To help people struggling with supplemental oxygen issues, the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation has launched the Oxygen ... a prescription for supplemental oxygen therapy can seem overwhelming. Questions like which oxygen delivery system to use, how ...
neaclear s Liquid Oxygen Scar Advantage becomes #1!neaclear s Scar Advantage is already very popular in the medical community ... The powerful combination of liquid oxygen, Vitamins C & E, chamomile and watercress is what distinguishes this scar remedy from ... The powerful combination of liquid oxygen, Vitamins C & E, chamomile and watercress is what distinguishes this scar remedy from ... the ultimate scar treatment - liquid oxygen, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamins A & D, cortisone & silicone. ...
  • Herein, we quantitatively explore one aspect of the evolutionary coupling between animal life and Earth's oxygen cycle-the influence of spatial and temporal variability in surface ocean O 2 levels on the ecology of early metazoan organisms. (
  • Oxygen is also a crucial component of enzymatic pathways leading to the synthesis of regulatory membrane lipids ( 5 ) and structural proteins ( 6 ) in eukaryotic organisms and provides a powerful shield against solar UV radiation at Earth's surface through stratospheric ozone production. (
  • 2 . Diatomic oxygen gas currently constitutes 20.95% of the Earth's atmosphere , though this has changed considerably over long periods of time. (
  • Oxygen makes up almost half of the Earth's crust in the form of oxides. (
  • Oxygen is continuously replenished in Earth's atmosphere by photosynthesis , which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. (
  • At room temperature and Earth's atmospheric pressure, Teolis estimates, this amount of oxygen would occupy about 3.5 cubic feet (0.1 cubic meter). (
  • The Atmosphere is of course the region of gases that lies above the Earth's surface and it is one of the largest reservoirs of free oxygen on earth. (
  • The atmosphere is actually the smallest source of oxygen on Earth comprising only 0.35% of the Earth's total oxygen. (
  • However, quantifying atmospheric oxygen levels in Earth's middle age remains a daunting challenge. (
  • We provide evidence that atmospheric oxygen levels decreased significantly after the "Great Oxygenation Event" in Earth's early history, to levels that would have negatively impacted the ecology of the earliest complex organisms. (
  • Reconstructing Earth's oxygenation has been the focus of an ongoing surge of research as geologists and paleontologists attempt to understand the environmental factors driving early biotic evolution ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ) and astrobiologists look to the early Earth to evaluate oxygen as a potential exoplanet "bio-signature" ( 6 ). (
  • By comparing their data with observations, they concluded that oxygen cannot be a major light element component of the Earth's outer core , because experiments on oxygen-rich materials do not align with geophysical observations. (
  • The scientists are in search of an exact record of how much oxygen gas Earth's developing atmosphere contained at key moments in geologic time. (
  • Intake Oxygen Sensor for EGR Measurement," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1070, 2016, . (
  • Greenwood R. C. and Franchi I. A. (2004) Alteration and metamorphism of CO3 chondrites: Evidence from oxygen and carbon isotopes. (
  • Oxygen has nine isotopes. (
  • Natural oxygen is a mixture of three isotopes. (
  • There are three stable and 14 radioactive isotopes of oxygen. (
  • However, due to the large disparity in atomic weight between all isotopes of oxygen compared with 1 H and 4 He, less than 0.5% of the atoms in the solar system are oxygen atoms. (
  • An oxygen concentrator machine is suitable if you'd benefit from having oxygen for many hours a day, including while you're asleep. (
  • An oxygen concentrator provides oxygen-enriched air by pressurizing ambient air through a molecular sieve which filters out nitrogen under pressure. (
  • An oxygen concentrator offers a portable and lower maintenance alternative to oxygen tanks. (
  • The various components of the oxygen concentrator, such as the motor control/drive circuitry for the air compressor, signal control circuitry for sensors, power management circuitry and the user interface need to work in careful coordination to achieve maximum efficiency. (
  • The Federal Aviation Administration has approved seven additional portable oxygen concentrator models for use aboard airplanes, bringing the total number of approved units to 21. (
  • The FAA is pursuing performance-based standards that will apply to all oxygen concentrator manufacturers and models. (
  • Your oxygen will be stored under pressure in tanks or produced by a machine called an oxygen concentrator. (
  • Oxygen main product and nitrogen byproduct are produced as high pressurized gases. (
  • Nitrogen and the majority of the Oxygen produced are supplied in gaseous phase. (
  • Free in the air and dissolved in water, oxygen is second only to nitrogen in abundance among uncombined elements in the atmosphere. (
  • The behavior of oxygen and nitrogen as components of air led to the advancement of the phlogiston theory of combustion, which captured the minds of chemists for a century. (
  • Oxygen is the third most abundant element found in the sun, and it plays a part in the carbon-nitrogen cycle, the process once thought to give the sun and stars their energy. (
  • Nitrogen and phosphorus pollution sets off algae blooms that draw oxygen out of the water, starving sea grass, crabs and other creatures of the essential element. (
  • Reducing the flows of nitrogen and phosphorus to the bay, in turn lowering the volume of oxygen-depleted water, has been the central focus of the bay restoration. (
  • Portable oxygen concentrators are small, portable devices that separate oxygen from nitrogen and other gases in the air and provide oxygen to users at greater than 90 percent concentration. (
  • During photosynthesis oxygen is evolved by the chemical splitting of water and returned to the atmosphere. (
  • CO 2 is then taken up by algae and terrestrial green plants and converted into carbohydrates during the process of photosynthesis , oxygen being a by-product. (
  • This resource provides information about photosynthesis and oxygen aquisition in plants. (
  • You just viewed Oxygen Source For Photosynthesis . (
  • This also has some free oxygen produced from photosynthesis and other life processes. (
  • Due to its reactivity free oxygen is extremely rare in nature and would not exist on Earth without the process of photosynthesis . (
  • Deep breathing early morning can really enhance the oxygen level and while sleeping, a particular posture of lying flat so that our lungs expand a bit and oxygen level get enhanced. (
  • medical } Humans need oxygen to survive and take it from the air through the lungs by breathing . (
  • Pulmonary fibrosis is a group of lung diseases that cause scarring in the lungs, which limits the oxygen intake necessary for the brain, heart, and other organs to function. (
  • When you breathe, your lungs take in (inhale) oxygen and breathe out (exhale) carbon dioxide. (
  • If there is an imbalance in the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in your blood, it can mean your lungs aren't working well . (
  • A blood oxygen level test is used to check how well your lungs are working and measure the acid-base balance in your blood. (
  • Hemoglobin is a protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. (
  • It helps show how well oxygen moves from your lungs to your bloodstream. (
  • Our bodies need a given amount of oxygen to function properly.When the lungs are unable to provide this amount,air must be enriched for the impaired lungs to deliver the needed amount of oxygen. (
  • Think of mountain climbers who at great altitudes nust use oxygen because of the thin air.The damage to our lungs makes it equivalent to us to living somewhere halfway up Mount Everest. (
  • Breathing almost pure oxygen at this pressure can increase the concentration of oxygen available to the lungs by up to three times. (
  • We all remember from high-school biology that when we take in a breath the air entersour lungs and the oxygen in it goes through our bloodstream to our body. (
  • For oxygen concentration cell type zircornia sensors for stoichiometric A/F control, its mechanism is discussed and a unified explanation is proposed. (
  • addition to oxygen concentration, the oxygen reduction potential of the growth medium influences bacterial growth. (
  • In this paper, the technology of using an oxygen sensor to measure the EGR concentration is discussed. (
  • The dependence of the behaviour on oxygen concentration strongly suggests that the oxygen dimer is responsible for this enhanced transport. (
  • They require oxygen, but at a lower concentration. (
  • This necessitates the measurement of the gas influx as well as the oxygen concentration in the off-gas stream over time. (
  • Everyone knows that trees and other plants consume carbon dioxide, producing a byproduct of pure oxygen that leaves. (
  • Some of these may carry pure oxygen for accelerated decompression or as a component of a rebreather. (
  • In some countries there are legal and insurance requirements and restrictions on the use, storage and transport of pure oxygen. (
  • An injured person is often given pure oxygen by EMT s and/or paramedic s or by a physician in the hospital emergency room . (
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) involves breathing almost pure oxygen in a special room or small chamber. (
  • Pictures of the dog being treated for a lack of oxygen have gone viral. (
  • Lack of Oxygen is creating a threatening danger among the people. (
  • Lack of oxygen has many effects on our health. (
  • Lack of oxygen causes illnessess and weakening of health. (
  • but as lack of oxygen does not hurt them, they can be found all along the test tube. (
  • Fish need oxygen to breathe as much humans do, and two new reports say there is less and less of it in some of the world's oceans. (
  • This won't be done if you are unable breathe without the oxygen. (
  • Respiration is when animals and humans breathe consuming oxygen to be used in metabolic process and exhaling carbon dioxide. (
  • Because of your sickness, you may need to use oxygen to help you breathe. (
  • How does the oxygen we breathe get to where it's going, what does it doon arrival, and what happens when we don't get enough? (
  • Wecommonly function in a hypoxic , or low-oxygen, environment, however, since thepartial pressure (more later) of oxygen we breathe decreases as our altitude increases.When we function in a hypoxic environment, the end result may be hypoxemia , or astate of inadequate oxygen content in the bloodstream. (
  • Portable oxygen concentrators (POCs) do not actually contain or generate oxygen, they concentrate it from the ambient air. (
  • Portable oxygen concentrators (POCs) take air from the room and convert it into concentrated oxygen. (
  • The Department of Transportation requires that U.S. airlines and foreign air carriers flying into the United States allow passengers to use portable oxygen concentrators approved by the FAA during all phases of a flight if the unit displays a manufacturer's label that indicates it meets FAA requirements for portable medical electronic devices. (
  • The Department strongly encourages airlines to voluntarily allow the inflight use of oxygen concentrators even if not labeled as FAA-approved because they pose no safety danger. (
  • BS C106, ISO-CEN Cu-DHP has low enough oxygen for welding, and is commonly used for tubes, extrusions etc. (
  • There are already a number of areas -- so called dead zones -- where fish don't have enough oxygen to live and either die or swim to safety. (
  • Glucose begins fermenting when there is not enough oxygen at cell level. (
  • Make sure your tanks have more than enough oxygen for the whole trip and to get you back home. (
  • Dioxygen provides the energy released in combustion [3] and aerobic cellular respiration , [4] and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen atoms, such as proteins , nucleic acids , carbohydrates , and fats , as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, teeth, and bone. (
  • Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water , the major constituent of lifeforms. (
  • Oxygen is too chemically reactive to remain a free element in air without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms. (
  • In the process of respiration oxygen is taken in by living organisms and released into the atmosphere, combined with carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide . (
  • For example, over time, detritus from living organisms transfers oxygen-containing compounds such as calcium carbonates into the lithosphere. (
  • These creatures destroy the oxygen in living organisms. (
  • When oxygen atoms bind to a graphite surface, they fall into line and make bridges across carbon atoms. (
  • The bonds between the atoms are chemically inert, so unless there are flaws in the lattice, such as missing carbon atoms, the interaction of oxygen gas with a graphite surface is weak. (
  • One kind of chemical group that forms on the graphite surface is known as an epoxy bridge, where a single oxygen atom bonds to two adjacent carbon atoms, forming a triangle. (
  • Where the bridged atoms were once only bound to other carbon atoms in a planar, hexagonal honeycomb arrangement, they are now bound to an oxygen atom sitting above the lattice surface, in place of a lattice carbon atom, and adopt an almost three-dimensional, distorted form. (
  • Mechanistically, the oxygen atom acts as a minuscule wedge, pushing apart the bridge's carbon atoms and stretching the carbon-carbon bond. (
  • 2 show that when oxygen atoms (in red) bind to a graphite surface, they form two-legged epoxy bridges, which line up to lower their energy. (
  • Having broken up carbon bonds, the bridging oxygen atoms go on to hold the fractured graphite sheet together, forming a seam between the separated lattice fragments. (
  • Oxygen, which is very reactive, is a component of hundreds of thousands of organic compounds and combines with most elements. (
  • Most of this oxygen is not on its own or free moving but part of chemical compounds such as silicates and oxides. (
  • As a result, many naturally occurring compounds contain oxygen. (
  • After hydrogen and helium , oxygen is the third- most abundant element in the universe by mass. (
  • This level of oxygen makes welding a problem because hydrogen then combines with the oxygen to produce water vapour, which causes fractures. (
  • Fuel cells make electricity by combining hydrogen, or hydrocarbon fuels, with oxygen. (
  • Students will learn about how the OGS produces breathable oxygen for the crew by converting wastewater from the ISS into oxygen and hydrogen through the process of electrolysis. (
  • Computer models had predicted the light elements to include sulfur, oxygen, silicon, carbon and hydrogen. (
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy effects on MS have been published in a variety of studies, the review of which is beyond the scope of this website. (
  • The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the neurogenic vesico-urethral dysfunction of multiple sclerosis. (
  • Common uses of oxygen include production of steel , plastics and textiles , brazing, welding and cutting of steels and other metals , rocket propellant , oxygen therapy , and life support systems in aircraft , submarines , spaceflight and diving . (
  • Home oxygen therapy involves breathing in air that contains more oxygen than normal from a cylinder or machine in your home. (
  • Oxygen therapy also helps prevent damage to the heart and brain, which can be caused by low levels of oxygen in the blood. (
  • People who have oxygen therapy have different requirements. (
  • Oxygen therapy shouldn't be used to relieve breathlessness if your oxygen levels are normal. (
  • If you have a long-term condition and your doctor thinks oxygen therapy might be helpful, you'll be asked to visit your nearest oxygen clinic for an assessment. (
  • CHICAGO , June 27, 2018 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- For more than one million people living with serious lung conditions, such as pulmonary fibrosis (PF), a prescription for supplemental oxygen therapy can seem overwhelming. (
  • Are receiving oxygen therapy while in the hospital. (
  • If you are on oxygen therapy, your oxygen may be turned off for about 20 minutes before the test. (
  • Now, it is realized that oxygen therapy can enrich and prolong your life. (
  • What is hyperbaric oxygen therapy good for? (
  • Despite conclusive evidence in terms of its efficiency, doctors frequently prescribe home oxygen therapy (HOT) to treat CHF symptoms, which can be inconvenient for patients, as well as expensive. (
  • Researchers at the University of Hull have just started a major new trial to examine the effects of home oxygen therapy in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) to provide clear guidelines as to whether HOT should in fact be routinely offered to this patient group. (
  • There is a strong belief that oxygen must be vital for patients suffering from breathlessness: however we can't be certain that home oxygen therapy is effective, particularly since we know many CHF patients who are well treated with medication have normal levels of arterial oxygen in their blood while they are at rest and during exercise. (
  • The third group will continue to receive their normal medical therapy with no home oxygen. (
  • The results of the research will offer clinicians useful guidance on whether home oxygen therapy is beneficial to patients with chronic heart failure. (
  • In the study , published in the October 2017 issue of the Annals of the American Thoracic Society , oxygen users cited frequent and varied problems, particularly a lack of access to effective instruction and adequate portable systems. (
  • Debby Beece, Oxygen's president of programming and marketing, said that Oxygen generally looks for programming featuring "big, bold, larger-than-life" characters. (
  • Oxygen Media Wednesday selected RealNetworks Inc. as the exclusive streaming media provider of Oxygen's online audio and video content. (
  • The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier , who first recognized oxygen as a chemical element and correctly characterized the role it plays in combustion. (
  • 1. Know the capital investment required Examine the operating costs & raw materials consumption Oxygen is obtained from air separation processes and it is applied in fuels combustion to supply heat, light, and power, as well as in oxygenation applications. (
  • Are you sure you want to remove Oxygen-enhanced combustion from your list? (
  • Oxygen-enhanced combustion edited by Charles E. Baukal. (
  • Saturn's second largest moon, Rhea, has an atmosphere of oxygen and carbon dioxide-but don't hold your breath for human colonization. (
  • Plants and animals use oxygen to respire and return it to the air and water as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). (
  • A blood oxygen level test, also known as a blood gas analysis, measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. (
  • 2. An oxygen scavenging packet of claim 1 , wherein said oxygen absorber of (b) further comprises silica gel and a carbon dioxide generator. (
  • 9. A method of claim 8 , wherein said oxygen absorber further comprises silica gel and a carbon dioxide generator. (
  • An oxygen tank is an oxygen storage vessel, which is either held under pressure in gas cylinders , or as liquid oxygen in a cryogenic storage tank. (
  • Medical use liquid oxygen airgas tanks are typically 350 psi (24 bar). (
  • Oxygen is also supplied in liquid phase, as well as all argon produced. (
  • The combination of carbon and oxygen holds implications for finding possible life on ice moons, such as Europa, thought to harbor subsurface liquid oceans. (
  • Liquid oxygen presents us with a conundrum. (
  • Three months ago, there was a change in the company's top-selling product and the #1 selling product became neaclear's Liquid Oxygen Scar Advantage. (
  • The powerful combination of liquid oxygen, Vitamins C & E, chamomile and watercress is what distinguishes this scar remedy from its competitors. (
  • neaclear s Liquid Oxygen Scar Advantage becomes #1! (
  • They do not use compressed or liquid oxygen, which the government classifies as hazardous material. (
  • The oxygen containers may be stationary or movable, and the oxygen may be stored as gas or liquid. (
  • Where oxygen is stored as a liquid, noncombustible surfacing shall be provided in an area in which any leakage of liquid oxygen might fall during operation of the system and filling of a storage container. (
  • When locating bulk oxygen systems near above-ground flammable or combustible liquid storage which may be either indoors or outdoors, it is advisable to locate the system on ground higher than the flammable or combustible liquid storage. (
  • Where it is necessary to locate a bulk oxygen system on ground lower than adjacent flammable or combustible liquid storage suitable means shall be taken (such as by diking, diversion curbs, or grading) with respect to the adjacent flammable or combustible liquid storage to prevent accumulation of liquids under the bulk oxygen system. (
  • Description=Aerobically different bacteria behave differently when grown in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. (
  • Be aware that liquid oxygen will slowly run out, even when you are not using it, because it evaporates into the air. (
  • To help people struggling with supplemental oxygen issues, the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation has launched the Oxygen Information Line, 844-825-5733. (
  • This phone line will provide information and resources to individuals who are using supplemental oxygen and to their caregivers. (
  • According to the first large survey of oxygen users, more than half of patients using supplemental oxygen experienced problems with their equipment. (
  • The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation provides a downloadable Quick Start Guide for Supplemental Oxygen and a Traveling with Supplemental Oxygen Guide . (
  • In addition, a new video on how to use supplemental oxygen is available on the PFF's YouTube Channel. (
  • Get a prescription for supplemental oxygen from your physician, and keep this with you -- always. (
  • Plants and animals rely on oxygen for respiration. (
  • It may be possible to use a small, portable oxygen cylinder outside your home. (
  • When you make your reservation, ask the airline about its policies on portable oxygen. (
  • A long-standing and pervasive view is that there have been intimate mechanistic links between the evolution of complex life on Earth-in other words, the emergence and ecological expansion of eukaryotic cells and their aggregation into multicellular organisms-and the secular evolution of ocean−atmosphere oxygen levels ( 1 ). (
  • BS C103, Cu-OF and C110, Cu-OFE are melted and cast in an oxygen free atmosphere to give very low oxygen level, typically under 2ppm. (
  • In the upper atmosphere, ozone is formed from oxygen and dissociates to release oxygen (see also ozone layer ). (
  • An oxygen atmosphere has been found on Saturn 's second largest moon , Rhea, astronomers announced Thursday-but don't hold your breath for colonization opportunities. (
  • And at less than 62 miles (100 kilometers) thick, the newfound oxygen layer is so thin that, at Earthlike temperatures and pressure, Rhea's entire atmosphere would fit in a single midsize building. (
  • Rhea's oxygen atmosphere is believed to be maintained by the ongoing chemical breakdown of water ice on the moon's surface, driven by radiation from Saturn's magnetosphere. (
  • The major implication of this finding at Rhea is that oxygen atmospheres at icy moons, until now only detected at Europa and Ganymede, may in fact be commonplace around those irradiated icy moons throughout the universe with sufficient mass to hold an atmosphere,' said study leader Ben Teolis of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. (
  • NASA's Cassini spacecraft , which has been orbiting the Saturnian system since 2004, detected the oxygen atmosphere around Rhea during a close flyby of the icy moon in March. (
  • The oxygen then gets ejected from the surface ice and captured by Rhea's gravity to form the atmosphere. (
  • A gaseous element, oxygen forms 21% of the atmosphere by volume and is obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation. (
  • The atmosphere of Mars contains about 0.15% oxygen. (
  • The oxygen cycle is the cycle that helps move oxygen through the three main regions of the Earth, the Atmosphere, the Biosphere, and the Lithosphere. (
  • In the atmosphere Oxygen is freed by the process called photolysis. (
  • Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. (
  • Oxygen has an atomic number of 8 and an atomic m. (
  • Oxygen has an atomic number of 8, an atomic mass of 15.9994, and a chemi. (
  • Oxygen has an atomic number of 8 and an atomic ma. (
  • Oxygen Oxygen is colorless, odorless, gas element denoted by the atomic symbol, O. Its atomic number is 8 and it has an atomic weight of 15.9994. (
  • Oxygen Symbol O Atomic Number 8 Atomic Mass 15.9994 Family Group 16 (Via) Chalcogen Pronunciation OK-si-jun Overview Oxygen is the first element in Group 16 (VIA) of the periodic table. (
  • Controlled oxidation reactions are useful for the preparation of very thin graphite flakes, or for chopping carbon nanotubes into shorter lengths, but the details of how oxygen attacks carbon bonds to break up the atomic structure of graphite have never been understood. (
  • O2 oxygen molecule is broken down to atomic oxygen by the ultra violet radiation of sunlight. (
  • Radioisotopes range from 10 O to 26 O, with the two most stable being 15 O and 14 O. This gives oxygen an atomic weight of slightly below 16. (
  • The more reactive metal finishes up with the oxygen (as a metal oxide). (
  • Oxygen is highly reactive. (
  • Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of multiple sclerosis. (
  • oxygen mask , nasal cannula , full face diving mask , diving helmet , demand valve , oxygen rebreather , built in breathing system (BIBS), oxygen tent , and hyperbaric oxygen chamber. (
  • They define HBOT as: "An intervention in which an individual breathes near 100% oxygen intermittently while inside a hyperbaric chamber that is pressurized to greater than sea level pressure. (
  • Breathing oxygen is delivered from the storage tank to users by use of the following methods: oxygen mask, nasal cannula, full face diving mask, diving helmet, demand valve, oxygen rebreather, built in breathing system (BIBS), oxygen tent, and hyperbaric oxygen chamber. (
  • An iron-based oxygen scavenging packet is set forth in which the rate of uptake of oxygen is increased by virtue of the presence of an oxygen uptake accelerator such as water which is introduced into the packet. (
  • 4. An oxygen scavenging packet of claim 1 , wherein said oxygen uptake accelerator further comprises a salt. (
  • 6. An oxygen scavenging packet of claim 1 , wherein said oxygen uptake accelerator is contained within an enclosed space within said packet. (
  • 7. An oxygen scavenging packet of claim 1 , wherein said oxygen uptake accelerator is contained within a bibulous wick, said wick extending from the exterior of said packet into the interior of said packet. (
  • 10. A method of claim 8 , wherein said oxygen uptake accelerator further comprises a salt. (
  • The present invention relates generally to a device and method for maximizing the rate of oxygen uptake of an oxygen absorber. (
  • In addition, low oxygen concentrations promote adaptations, such as small body size and enlarged body surfaces, which enhance oxygen uptake. (
  • Tracking the oxygen uptake by the cells-crucial as it is-takes more effort than might be expected, but scientists at Bilfinger Industrietechnik Salzburg make the process easier and more accurate. (
  • Recently, Bilfinger's R&D supervisor in the field of bioprocessing, Wolfgang Sommeregger, and his colleagues described an oxygen uptake rate (OUR) software-sensor that can provide continuous, real-time data. (
  • The oxygen uptake rate of the cultured cells is commonly determined using a mass balance equation," Sommeregger says. (
  • A recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) process was subjected to temperature shifts in order to explore the impact on specific oxygen uptake rates. (
  • Oxygen saturation (O2Sat). (
  • The mean oxygen saturation level was significantly lower in the car seat (95.7 percent) and the car bed (96.3 percent) compared to the crib (97.9 percent). (
  • The use of oxygen cylinders should be regularly reviewed, and treatment should be stopped if your blood oxygen levels have returned to normal. (
  • Another type of test, called pulse oximetry, also checks blood oxygen levels. (
  • In addition, symptoms of breathlessness in patients with CHF are not always related to low blood oxygen levels. (
  • Hence, hyperoxygenation improves oxygen content but decreases oxygen delivery . (
  • Separately, Oxygen said Tuesday that it has inked a deal with Yahoo Video to provide programming content for the site, including long- and short-form programming. (
  • Oxygen content (O2CT). (
  • Oxygen Media is a multi-platform lifestyle brand that delivers relevant and engaging content to young women who like to 'live out loud. (
  • Oxygen Forensic Suite 2014 guarantees zero-footprint operation, leaving no traces and making no modifications to the content of the devices. (
  • In return, Oxygen Media will provide women-oriented content through the Network, which includes RealPlayer and the Guide. (
  • Ozone (O 3 ), a highly active compound, is formed by the action of an electrical discharge or ultraviolet light on oxygen. (
  • This free oxygen then recombines with existing O2 molecules to make O3 or ozone. (
  • Another form (allotrope) of oxygen, ozone (O 3), strongly absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation. (
  • Founded in 2000, Oxygen Forensics is the worldwide leading maker of the advanced forensic data examination tools for smartphones and other mobile devices. (
  • Without oxygen the brain can die from anoxia or hypoxia in less than five minutes, with permanent brain damage possible in less than three minutes. (
  • Low tissue oxygen levels (hypoxia) can suppress some aspects of the immune response, while at the same time it induces and accentuates other immune cell functions. (
  • Another signature feature of Oxygen Forensic Suite allows investigators to perform a global search on all devices ever analyzed with the toolkit. (
  • For a 10-page description of our methodology, visit Reports Focused on Oxygen Production Economics ECONOMICS OF OXYGEN PRODUCTION VIA CRYOGENIC DISTILLATION (O2 E11A) Techno-economic study of Oxygen production from air in the USA using a typical cryogenic distillation process. (
  • ECONOMICS OF OXYGEN PRODUCTION VIA CRYOGENIC DISTILLATION (O2 E12A) Economics of Oxygen production from air in a plant also located in the United States. (
  • If you have a health condition that causes low levels of oxygen in your blood, you may feel breathless and tired, particularly after walking or coughing. (
  • We used different statistical methods and we looked at different levels of oxygen," said David Jasinski, a water monitoring data analyst with the Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program office. (
  • However, this posture can partially compress the chest wall and reduce airway size, resulting in lower levels of oxygen. (
  • Hospitals frequently prescribe oxygen for patients with respiratory ailments. (
  • There is no metabolism without oxygen. (
  • Many cells in the body can function for a short time using anaerobic metabolism,or metabolism without oxygen. (
  • Discussion has gravitated toward threshold levels of environmental free oxygen (O 2 ) necessary for early evolving animals to survive under controlled conditions. (
  • This is when high energy sunlight breaks apart oxygen bearing molecules to produce free oxygen. (
  • When a oxygen bearing mineral is exposed to the elements a chemical reaction occurs that wears it down and in the process produces free oxygen. (
  • Geologists and paleontologists believe that free oxygen first appeared during the "Great Oxygenation Event" around 2.4 billion years ago. (
  • Some airlines may provide oxygen for a fee. (
  • FAA officials said Monday that they were looking into concerns that some masks for passengers did not deploy during the incident while others failed to provide oxygen. (
  • Oxygen Oxygen is the first element in Group 16 of the periodic table, a group of elements sometimes known as the oxygen family. (
  • The oxygen is added intentionally and has beneficial effect on conductivity, as described in the main text. (
  • Oxygen reduction is one of two main reactions in a fuel cell, and the one that has limited their overall performance - so finding improved materials for that reaction could be a key advance for fuel cells, the researchers say. (
  • Main oxygen suppliers are rain forests and sea plankton. (
  • The main key to our health is in optimal metabolism and in the balance between nutrients and oxygen. (
  • The main goal of the theme is to keep integration as close to perfect as possible imitating the elegant Oxygen style , the default style theme of KDE . (
  • These are the main oxygen cycles and each play an important role in helping to protect and maintain life on the Earth. (
  • Molecular oxygen (O 2 ) is by far the most energetic of the abundant terminal oxidants used in biological metabolism (e.g., ref. 2 ). (
  • Cassini's data show that molecular oxygen (O2) forms inside the moon's surface ice when water molecules (H2O) are split by energetic ions, a process known as radiolysis. (
  • A detailed review of the entire spectrum of molecular oxygen has been published by Krupenie, 1972 . (
  • When they die and sink, they are degraded by bacteria, using oxygen from the water column. (
  • Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. (
  • Obligate anaerobic bacteria gather at the bottom to avoid oxygen. (
  • Aerotolerant bacteria are not affected at all by oxygen, and they are evenly spread along the test tube. (
  • This section does not apply to oxygen manufacturing plants or other establishments operated by the oxygen supplier or his agent for the purpose of storing oxygen and refilling portable containers, trailers, mobile supply trucks, or tank cars, nor to systems having capacities less than those stated in paragraph (b) (1) of this section. (
  • Oxygen isotope composition of HEDs and angrites. (
  • Miller M.F. (2002) Isotopic fractionation and the quantification of 17O anomalies in the three oxygen isotope system: an appraisal and geochemical significance. (
  • Oxygen isotope composition of CK chondrites. (
  • Clayton R. N. and Mayeda T. K. (1999) Oxygen isotope studies of carbonaceous chondrites. (
  • American Oxygen è un singolo della cantante barbadiana Rihanna , pubblicato il 14 aprile 2015 dalla Roc Nation . (
  • Emilee Lidner, Rihanna Gifts The Earth With New Song, American Oxygen' , MTV News , 5 aprile 2015. (
  • Evan Minsker, Rihanna Shares Politically-Charged "American Oxygen" Video , Pitchfork Media , 16 aprile 2015. (
  • Madeline Boardman, Video: Rihanna's Stunning "American Oxygen" Music Video Tells the Country's Story: Watch , su Us Weekly , 16 aprile 2015. (
  • Music Videos - American Oxygen by Rihanna , iTunes Store (US). (
  • DE ) Rihanna - American Oxygen , (
  • NL ) Rihanna - American Oxygen , Ultratop. (
  • EN ) Rihanna - American Oxygen , (
  • American Oxygen " é uma canção da artista musical barbadense Rihanna . (
  • American Oxygen" foi composta por Alex da Kid , Sam Harris, Candice Pillay e Rihanna, sendo produzida pelo primeiro juntamente com Kanye West . (
  • De acordo com Harris, a composição de "American Oxygen" foi particularmente inspirada por "Born in the U.S.A.", do cantor estadunidense de rock Bruce Springsteen . (
  • American Oxygen" fez parte de comerciais que promoveram a edição de 2015 do torneio de basquete da primeira divisão masculina do NCAA Basketball Championship . (
  • «Rihanna to release new song 'American Oxygen' on iTunes» (em inglês). (
  • «Rihanna Gifts The Earth With New Song, American Oxygen ' » (em inglês). (
  • «American Oxygen - Single by Rihanna» (em inglês). (
  • Plik Oxygen preference.svg znajduje się w Wikimedia Commons - repozytorium wolnych zasobów. (
  • Despite the burning of fossil fuel and the reduction of natural vegetation (on land and in the sea), the level of atmospheric oxygen appears to be relatively stable because of the increase in plant productivity resulting from agricultural advances worldwide. (
  • In particular, the rise of atmospheric oxygen above trace levels was an essential prerequisite for the development of animals. (
  • Here we use a combination of sedimentology, geochemical constraints, and oceanographic modeling to provide a quantitative estimate of Precambrian atmospheric oxygen. (
  • However, atmospheric oxygen partial pressures ( p O 2 ) estimates for large swaths of the Precambrian remain intensely debated. (
  • We combine these results with a Ce oxidation model to provide a quantitative constraint on atmospheric p O 2 1.87 billion years ago (Ga). Our results suggest Paleoproterozoic atmospheric oxygen concentrations were low, near 0.1% of the present atmospheric level. (
  • This work provides another crucial line of empirical evidence that atmospheric oxygen levels returned to low concentrations following the Lomagundi Event, and remained low enough for large portions of the Proterozoic to have impacted the ecology of the earliest complex organisms. (
  • Of course, there are people who are working continuously on the arrangements of the oxygen cylinders. (
  • Oxygen cylinders will probably be prescribed if you only need oxygen for short periods to relieve attacks of breathlessness after an illness. (
  • Get a breath of fresh air with the Oxygen Supremacy Pack. (
  • DURING an investigation of high temperature flames (at more than 2,500° K), we have developed a burner system capable of burning up to 6 g/sec (50 lb./h) of coal in oxygen to form a stable, continuous flame. (
  • Natural occurring oxygen 18 is stable and available commercially, as is water (H2O with 15% 18O). (
  • Contrary to popular belief scuba divers very rarely carry oxygen tanks. (
  • Oxygen tanks are normally stored in well-ventilated locations, far from potential sources of fire and concentrations of people. (
  • Some are anxious about traveling with oxygen tanks, though, so they stay home instead of enjoying time away. (
  • While many people do take tanks of compressed oxygen when traveling, there's another choice. (
  • This includes the 100 kg of oxygen stored in ATV's tanks. (
  • It takes up less space than oxygen tanks. (
  • It is the easiest form of oxygen to transfer to smaller tanks to take with you when you go out. (
  • The FAA has been concerned for some time about oxygen mask failures aboard Boeing 757s and 737s -- aircraft that are popular with foreign and domestic airlines. (
  • Oxygen is breathed in through a face mask or soft tube inserted into your nose (nasal cannula). (
  • It filters oxygen from the air in the room and delivers it through plastic tubes to a mask or nasal cannula. (
  • Medical oxygen is typically found in green canisters with clear plastic tubing attached, and is given to a patient through either a mask or nasal cannulae . (
  • It is best for when you need higher amounts of oxygen or when your nose gets too irritated from the nasal cannula. (
  • Electrons trapped in high energy states tumble into the welcoming arms of oxygen , screaming with delight, releasing light and heat as they settle into their pajamas, ready for rest. (
  • Our cells need oxygen gas for one reason only--to accept electrons released from food as they travel down their energy gradients, settling into basal states of energy. (
  • The oxygen accept the electrons (and associated protons) to form water . (
  • The Bay Program says that the volume of oxygen-depleted, or hypoxic, water has shown a downward trend since 1985. (
  • Many people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) need extra oxygen. (
  • Oxyview is endorsed by the leading foundations in respiratory care, including the COPD Foundation and the National Home Oxygen Patient Association. (
  • In total unconsciousness, we keep on breathing and never ever think it's oxygen that keeps us going. (
  • Breathing air with oxygen increases the amount of oxygen in your blood. (
  • Emergency oxygen provides a supply of oxygen for people experiencing breathing difficulties and cardiac emergencies. (
  • It helps ensure sufficient oxygen reaches the cells and provides relief from pain and breathing discomfort. (
  • We might notice fatigue ordegradation of night vision beginning at pressure altitudes as low as 5000 or 6000 feet.Headache, drowsiness, hyperventilation (breathing fast), unconsciousness, coma, andultimately death can occur as oxygen partial pressure declines with increasing altitude -first in the environment, thence the bloodstream, and finally in our cells. (
  • Some of the timeline is awry, not only the inconsistent pacing of oxygen depletion but also the duration of her cryo state. (
  • But global warming is likely to exacerbate oxygen depletion and thereby reduce biodiversity in these regions, they warn. (
  • However, if oxygen depletion is very severe, many types of animals disappear. (
  • Other methods of oxygen removal include carbon reduction, which avoids adding impurities. (
  • The analysis of the stress required to unpin locking impurities from dislocations pinned by oxygen for different times and temperatures allows us to deduce the diffusivity of oxygen. (
  • Federal officials say emergency oxygen masks are supposed to work whether they are automatically deployed during depressurization or manually activated by the flight crew, as was the case with Flight 31. (
  • We think this is a win-win for our customers, our cable partners and for RealNetworks," said Geraldine Laybourne, chairwoman and chief executive officer of Oxygen Media. (
  • This is the best way for us to launch new brands," Oxygen Media chairman and CEO Geraldine Laybourne said. (
  • While one of the oxides was already known as an especially good material for such electrodes, the combination of the two is far more potent in promoting oxygen reduction than either oxide alone. (
  • For oxide semiconductor type oxygen sensors, TiO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 and CeO 2 sensors are described with an emphasis on a recently developed Nb 2 O 5 thin film oxygen sensor. (
  • Oxygen was discovered in 1774 by Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire , England by heating mercuric oxide , and independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in Upssala , Sweden in 1772, although he did not publish his findings until after Priestley. (
  • A new study in the journal Nature has found that the amount of dissolved oxygen in the ocean is declining worldwide. (
  • The amount of oxygen in your blood will be measured by taking a blood sample from your earlobe or wrist, or by attaching a sensor to your finger (a pulse oximetry test). (
  • This is to increase the amount of oxygen reaching the brain and other body parts, helping to stave off shock . (
  • This measures the amount of oxygen in the blood. (
  • The test can help make sure you are getting the right amount of oxygen. (
  • The divide over the amount of oxygen-depleted water echoes the debate over whether the primary measure of bay progress should be the Bay Program's computer model or actual water samples. (
  • An oxygen absorbing composition having an effective amount of at least one oxygen absorbent contained in an emulsion. (
  • Our research will consider the role of oxygen sensing in the immune system, particularly how changes in the amount of oxygen available in tissues act in immune responses to infections and cancer. (