The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a protein-disulfide in the presence of glutathione, forming a protein-dithiol. Insulin is one of its substrates. EC 1.8.4.2.
Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.
A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.
NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.
A broad category of oxidoreductases that either reduce double bonds or oxidize single bonds between OXYGEN and CARBON in organic compounds.
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
(5Z)-(15S)-11 alpha-Hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprostanoate:NAD(P)+ delta(13)-oxidoreductase. An enzyme active in prostaglandin E and F catabolism. It catalyzes the reduction of the double bond at the 13-14 position of the 15-ketoprostaglandins and uses NADPH as cofactor. EC 1.3.1.48.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cellular antigens that are specific for MELANOMA cells.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.
Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.

The repressed nuclear receptor CAR responds to phenobarbital in activating the human CYP2B6 gene. (1/1035)

The endogenous CYP2B6 gene becomes phenobarbital (PB) inducible in androstenol-treated HepG2 cells either transiently or stably transfected with a nuclear receptor CAR expression vector. The PB induction mediated by CAR is regulated by a conserved 51-base pair element called PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) that has now been located between -1733 and -1683 bp in the gene's 5'-flanking region. An in vitro translated CAR acting as a retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer binds directly to the two nuclear receptor sites NR1 and NR2 within PBREM. In a stably transfected HepG2 cell line, both PBREM and NR1 are activated by PB and PB-type compounds such as chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorpromazine. In addition to PBREM, CAR also transactivates the steroid/rifampicin-response element of the human CYP3A4 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, activation of the repressed nuclear receptor CAR appears to be a versatile mediator that regulates PB induction of the CYP2B and other genes.  (+info)

The aromatase inactivator 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) inhibits tamoxifen metabolism by rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A: potential for drug-drug interaction of tamoxifen and 4-OH-A in combined anti-breast cancer therapy. (2/1035)

Tamoxifen (tam), an anti-breast cancer agent, is metabolized into tam-N-oxide by the hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase and into N-desmethyl- and 4-hydroxy-tam by cytochrome P-450s (CYPs). Additionally, tam is metabolically activated by hepatic CYP3A, forming a reactive intermediate that binds covalently to proteins. Tam and 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) are currently used to treat breast cancer, and it has been contemplated that 4-OH-A be given concurrently with tam to contravene potential tumor resistance to tam. Because alterations in tam metabolism may influence its therapeutic efficacy, the effect of 4-OH-A on tam metabolism was examined. Incubation of tam with liver microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rats, in the presence of 4-OH-A (10-100 microM), resulted in marked inhibition of tam-N-demethylation and tam covalent binding and in decreased tam-N-oxide accumulation; however, there was no inhibition of the formation of 4-hydroxy-tam and of 3,4-dihydroxytamoxifen. These findings indicate that 4-OH-A inhibits CYP3A, but not P-450(s) that catalyze tam 4-hydroxylation. The diminished tam-N-oxide accumulation could be due to decreased N-oxide formation and/or due to increased N-oxide reduction. Incubation of tam-N-oxide with liver microsomes containing heat-inactivated flavin-containing monooxygenase demonstrated that 4-OH-A increases the accumulation of tam, possibly by diminishing its P-450-mediated metabolism. Kinetic studies indicate that 4-OH-A is a competitive inhibitor of CYP3A, but not a time-dependent inactivator. Consequently, the concurrent treatment of tam and 4-OH-A may result in increased tam half-life and thus could potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of tam and diminish the potential side effects of tam by inhibiting its covalent binding to proteins and possibly to DNA.  (+info)

Comparison of urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio between neonates and their mothers. (3/1035)

AIMS: To assess CYP3A enzyme activity in human neonates by measuring the urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6beta-OHF/C) ratio. METHODS: Fifty-six mature male neonates with normal delivery, seventeen of their mothers and twenty-four healthy non-pregnant young women participated in this study. Urinary 6beta-OHF/C ratio was determined on the day of birth in neonates and their mothers. In addition, changes in the ratio after birth were determined in neonates. RESULTS: On the day of birth, the urinary 6beta-OHF/C ratio of neonates was significantly higher than that of their mothers (20.5 vs 6.9). In contrast, no significant difference was observed in the mean ratio of urinary 6beta-OHF/C between women with and without pregnancy (6.9 vs 9.0). The urinary 6beta-OHF/C ratio after birth was decreased day by day in neonates. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the high urinary 6beta-OHF/C ratio in mature neonates on the day of birth is independent of the activity of CYP3A enzyme in their mothers.  (+info)

Transport of rhodamine 123, a P-glycoprotein substrate, across rat intestine and Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence of cytochrome P-450 3A-related compounds. (4/1035)

Effects of cytochrome P-450 3A- and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-related compounds, erythromycin, midazolam, ketoconazole, verapamil, and quinidine, on transport of rhodamine 123 (Rho-123), a P-gp substrate, were studied in rat intestine and in Caco-2 cells. Ileum was mainly used in rat studies because this segment showed greater P-gp-mediated Rho-123 transport. In an in vitro everted rat ileum, all the compounds examined significantly inhibited the transport of Rho-123 from serosal to mucosal surfaces across the intestine, with different inhibitory potencies among these compounds. In an in vivo rat study, the exsorption of Rho-123 from blood to the intestinal lumen, which was evaluated as exsorption clearance of Rho-123 under a steady-state plasma concentration of Rho-123, was also inhibited when these compounds were added to the intestinal lumen. Similarly, transepithelial transport of Rho-123 from the basolateral to apical side across Caco-2 cell monolayers was inhibited by these compounds. A linear relationship was observed in their inhibitory potencies on Rho-123 transport between in vitro and in vivo studies using rat ileum and between studies with rat ileum and Caco-2 cells. P-gp-mediated transport across the intestine was found to be inhibited not only by P-gp-related but also by all the cytochrome P-450 3A-related compounds examined. Within experimental error, the relative inhibitory potencies were the same between the studies with rat ileum (in vivo, in vitro) and those with Caco-2 cells. Thus, it is suggested that the function of P-gp and its sensitivity to these drugs may be similar in rat intestine and Caco-2 cells.  (+info)

Monospecific antipeptide antibody to cytochrome P-450 2B6. (5/1035)

To study cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2B6 contribution to methoxychlor metabolism within human liver microsomes and to initiate an investigation of CYP2B6 protein expression, we developed a polyclonal antibody targeted to a 20-residue peptide within that protein. The antibody was found to be highly sensitive and monospecific for CYP2B6 on immunoblots. Although many immunological studies have described the absence or low expression of CYP2B6 in human livers, in the present investigation, we have found this not to be the case. We immunoquantified CYP2B6 apoprotein expression in a panel of 28 livers and found concentrations ranging from 2 to 82 pmol/mg protein, with a mean value of 25 pmol/mg protein. Five livers ( approximately 18%) displayed relatively high levels of CYP2B6 (>40 pmol/mg protein). There were no sex-related differences, although the highest level was observed in a 1-week postpartum donor given several medications. A marked diminution in variability was found in individuals aged 56 or older (n = 12), but there were no age-related trends in mean CYP2B6 content. We suggest that CYP2B6 represents a significant portion of total CYP in human liver. The exquisite sensitivity of this antibody (fmol quantities are detected easily on immunoblots) may explain our detection of CYP2B6 in 100% of livers versus its detection in a limited number of livers by certain other investigators. The antibody also was found to immunoinhibit CYP2B6-catalyzed N-demethylation of (S)-mephenytoin in human liver microsomes by 68 to 79%. The utility of this antibody for determining human liver microsomal CYP2B6 contribution to the ortho-hydroxylation of methoxychlor was demonstrated.  (+info)

Role of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in the in vitro N-dechloroethylation of (R)- and (S)-ifosfamide in human liver microsomes. (6/1035)

The central nervous system toxicity of ifosfamide (IFF), a chiral antineoplastic agent, is thought to be dependent on its N-dechloroethylation by hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes. The purpose of this study was to identify the human CYPs responsible for IFF-N-dechloroethylation and their corresponding regio- and enantioselectivities. IFF exists in two enantiomeric forms, (R) - and (S)-IFF, which can be dechloroethylated at either the N2 or N3 positions, producing the corresponding (R,S)-2-dechloroethyl-IFF [(R, S)-2-DCE-IFF] and (R,S)-3-dechloroethyl-IFF [(R,S)-3-DCE-IFF]. The results of the present study suggest that the production of (R)-2-DCE-IFF and (S)-3-DCE-IFF from (R)-IFF is catalyzed by different CYPs as is the production of (S)-2-DCE-IFF and (R)-3-DCE-IFF from (S)-IFF. In vitro studies with a bank of human liver microsomes revealed that the sample-to-sample variation in the production of (S)-3-DCE-IFF from (R)-IFF and (S)-2-DCE-IFF from (S)-IFF was highly correlated with the levels of (S)-mephenytoin N-demethylation (CYP2B6), whereas (R)-2-DCE-IFF production from (R)-IFF and (R)-3-DCE-IFF production from (S)-IFF were both correlated with the activity of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A4/5). Experiments with cDNA-expressed P-450 and antibody and chemical inhibition studies supported the conclusion that the formation of (S)-3-DCE-IFF and (S)-2-DCE-IFF is catalyzed primarily by CYP2B6, whereas (R)-2-DCE-IFF and (R)-3-DCE-IFF are primarily the result of CYP3A4/5 activity.  (+info)

Defect in dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, a new inborn error of metabolism: NMR spectroscopy study. (7/1035)

BACKGROUND: A38-year-old man presented with a history of fish odor (since age 5) and unusual muscle fatigue with increased serum creatine kinase. Our aim was to identify the metabolic error in this new condition. METHODS: We used 1H NMR spectroscopy to study serum and urine from the patient. RESULTS: The concentration of N, N-dimethylglycine (DMG) was increased approximately 100-fold in the serum and approximately 20-fold in the urine. The presence of DMG as a storage product was confirmed by use of 13C NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The high concentration of DMG was caused by a deficiency of the enzyme dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH). A homozygous missense mutation was found in the DMGDH gene of the patient. CONCLUSIONS: DMGDH deficiency must be added to the differential diagnosis of patients complaining of a fish odor. This deficiency is the first inborn error of metabolism discovered by use of in vitro 1H NMR spectroscopy of body fluids.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in human renal cell cancer. (8/1035)

Renal cell cancer is the main malignant tumour of the kidney and has an increasing incidence. This type of tumour has a poor prognosis and shows intrinsic resistance to several anti-cancer drugs. The CYP3A P450 family, which consists of three closely related forms, is involved in the oxidative activation and deactivation of a variety of carcinogens and several anti-cancer drugs. In this study the presence and cellular localization of CYP3A has been investigated using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in renal cell cancer and corresponding normal kidney. CYP3A was consistently expressed in both renal call cancer and in normal kidney. In renal cell cancer, CYP3A was localized to tumour cells and in normal kidney the predominant cellular localization of CYP3A was to proximal tubular epithelial cells. RT-PCR showed that both CYP3A5 mRNA and CYP3A7 mRNA were consistently present in both tumour and normal samples, while CYP3A4 mRNA was present in 65% of tumours and 90% of normal samples. This study indicates that individual members of the CYP3A family are expressed in renal cell cancer. The presence of CYP3A in renal cell cancer might be important in the metabolic potentiation as well as the detoxification of chemotherapeutic agents used to renal cancer.  (+info)

An imbalance in antioxidant defense affects cellular function: the pathophysiological consequences of a reduction in antioxidant defense in the glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1) knockout mouse Journal Articles Refereed ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Constitutive androstane receptor protein (ab81846). Please download our general protocols booklet
Trimethylamine dehydrogenases from bacterium W3A1 and Hyphomicrobium X and the dimethylamine dehydrogenase from Hyphomicrobium X were found to contain only one kind of subunit. The millimolar absorption coefficient of a single [4Fe-4S] cluster in trimethylamine dehydrogenase from bacterium W3A1 was estimated to be 14.8 mM-1 . cm-1 at 443 nm. From this value a 1:1 stoicheiometry of the prosthetic groups, 6-S-cysteinyl-FMN and the [4Fe-4S] cluster, was established. Millimolar absorption coefficients of the three enzymes were in the range 49.4-58.7 mM-1 . cm-1 at approx. 440 nm. This range of values is consistent with the presence of two [4Fe-4S] clusters and two flavin residues, for which the millimolar absorption coefficient had earlier been found to be 12.3 mM-1 . cm-1 at 437 nm. The N-terminal amino acid was alanine in each of the three enzymes. Sequence analysis of the first 15 residues from the N-terminus of dimethylamine dehydrogenase indicated a single unique sequence. Two identical ...
Shop Probable lysine-specific demethylase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Probable lysine-specific demethylase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) was recently identified as the first histone demethylase that specifically demethylates monomethylated and dimethylated histone H3 at K4. It is a component of the CoREST and other corepressor complexes and plays a
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Of special note are genetic factors impacting metabolism through the CYP enzyme system, particularly the CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 isoforms the authors conclude are likely important for hepatic methadone metabolism. Both genes are polymorphic in humans, and the polymorphic nature of both genes has been demonstrated to affect the rates or clearance, production of metabolites, and probability of reaching clinical endpoints for various drugs, including methadone. Crettol et al. ,6 for example, attempted to associate CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 polymorphisms with methadone plasma levels in 209 patients in methadone maintenance with positive associations found for only the CYP2B6 variants. The predominant effects were on S -methadone levels, which is consistent with the findings of Totah et al. 2 In a follow-up study by the same group involving 245 patients in methadone maintenance, these authors reproduced their initial genetic associations with S -methadone metabolism and CYP2B6 variants, although CYP3A4 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histone demethylase JMJD3 contributes to epigenetic control of INK4a/ARF by oncogenic RAS. AU - Barradas, Marta. AU - Anderton, Emma. AU - Acosta, Juan Carlos. AU - Li, SiDe. AU - Banito, Ana. AU - Rodriguez-Niedenführ, Marc. AU - Maertens, Goedele. AU - Banck, Michaela. AU - Zhou, Ming Ming. AU - Walsh, Martin J.. AU - Peters, Gordon. AU - Gil, Jesús. PY - 2009/5/15. Y1 - 2009/5/15. N2 - The INK4a/ARF tumor suppressor locus, a key executor of cellular senescence, is regulated by members of the Polycomb group (PcG) of transcriptional repressors. Here we show that signaling from oncogenic RAS overrides PcG-mediated repression of INK4a by activating the H3K27 demethylase JMJD3 and down-regulating the methyltransferase EZH2. In human fibroblasts, JMJD3 activates INK4a, but not ARF, and causes p16INK4a-dependent arrest. In mouse embryo fibroblasts, Jmjd3 activates both Ink4a and Arf and elicits a p53-dependent arrest, echoing the effects of RAS in this system. Our findings directly ...
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates Lys-9 of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Preferentially demethylates mono- and dimethylated H3 Lys-9 residue, with a preference for dimethylated residue, while it has weak or no activity on trimethylated H3 Lys-9. Demethylation of Lys residue generates formaldehyde and succinate. Involved in hormone-dependent transcriptional activation, by participating in recruitment to androgen-receptor target genes, resulting in H3 Lys-9 demethylation and transcriptional activation. Involved in spermatogenesis by regulating expression of target genes such as PRM1 and TNP1 which are required for packaging and condensation of sperm chromatin. Involved in obesity resistance through regulation of metabolic genes such as PPARA and UCP1.
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates Lys-4 of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Does not demethylate histone H3 Lys-9, H3 Lys-27, H3 Lys-36, H3 Lys-79 or H4 Lys-20. Demethylates trimethylated and dimethylated but not monomethylated H3 Lys-4. Participates in transcriptional repression of neuronal genes by recruiting histone deacetylases and REST at neuron-restrictive silencer elements (By similarity). Represses the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer-mediated transcriptional activation of the core clock component PER2.
Efavirenz primary and secondary metabolism was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In human liver microsome (HLM) samples, 7- and 8-hydroxyefavirenz accounted for 22.5 and 77.5% of the overall efavirenz metabolism, respectively. Kinetic, inhibition, and correlation analyses in HLM samples and experiments in expressed cytochrome P450 show that CYP2A6 is the principal catalyst of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation. Although CYP2B6 was the main enzyme catalyzing efavirenz 8-hydroxylation, CYP2A6 also seems to contribute. Both 7- and 8-hydroxyefavirenz were further oxidized to novel dihydroxylated metabolite(s) primarily by CYP2B6. These dihydroxylated metabolite(s) were not the same as 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz, a metabolite that has been suggested to be directly formed via 14-hydroxylation of 8-hydroxyefavirenz, because 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz was not detected in vitro when efavirenz, 7-, or 8-hydroxyefavirenz were used as substrates. Efavirenz and its primary and secondary metabolites that were identified in ...
BioAssay record AID 541841 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of CYP2B6 in human liver microsomes assessed as 8-hydroxyefavirenz 14-hydroxylation after 10 mins.
The major new findings of the present study were that CYP2A6-mediated efavirenz 7-hydroxylation accounts for ∼23% of efavirenz metabolism; CYP2A6 is a partial contributor toward efavirenz 8-hydroxylation; efavirenz is metabolized sequentially to novel dihydroxylated metabolite(s), via CYP2B6-mediated 7- and 8-hydroxyefavirenz hydroxylation as intermediary; and 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz is formed in vivo but not in vitro, suggesting novel metabolic reactions and challenging previous notion that it is formed through direct 14-hydroxylation of 8-hydroxyefavirenz (Mutlib et al., 1999b; Ward et al., 2003). The identification and quantification of all the efavirenz primary (7- and 8-hydroxyefavirenz) and secondary (8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz and a dihydroxylated) metabolites and the first demonstration of their full pharmacokinetics in plasma of healthy subject taking a single 600-mg oral dose of efavirenz confirm clinical relevance of the in vitro findings. Finally, the role CYP2B6 plays in efavirenz ...
ABSTRACTDrug interactions involving methadone and/or HIV antiretrovirals can be problematic. Mechanisms whereby antiretrovirals induce clinical methadone clearance are poorly understood. Methadone is N-demethylated to 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) by CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in v
Bastian Daniel, Tea Pavkov-Keller, Barbara Steiner, Angela Dodic, Alexander Gutmann, Bernd Nidetzky, Christoph Wilhelm Sensen, Eric van der Graaff, Silvia Wallner, Karl Gruber and Peter Macheroux Oxidation of monolignols by members of the berberine bridge enzyme family suggests a role in plant cell wall metabolism The journal of biological chemistry 290, 18770-18781, 2015 Show publication in PURE ...
Methadone is an opioid. Methadone is synthetic by nature. Methadone is also an analgesic. Methadone is basically recommended for the chronic drug abusers. Methadone has been found to be an ideal medication for the treatment of addiction from narcotic substances.
Methadone is an opioid. Methadone is synthetic by nature. Methadone is also an analgesic. Methadone is basically recommended for the chronic drug abusers. Methadone has been found to be an ideal medication for the treatment of addiction from narcotic substances.
Bupropion is indicated to promote smoking cessation. Animal studies suggest that the pharmacologic activity of bupropion can be mediated by its major metabolite, hydroxybupropion. We measured plasma bupropion and its metabolite levels in a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized smoking-cessati …
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
can you tell me if methadone makes other drugs stay in your system longer? Answered by a verified doctor: No: There are many drugs which inhibit methadone metabolism, and incre...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The progenitor state is maintained by lysine-specific demethylase 1-mediated epigenetic plasticity during drosophila follicle cell development. AU - Lee, Ming Chia. AU - Spradling, Allan C.. PY - 2014/12/15. Y1 - 2014/12/15. N2 - Progenitors are early lineage cells that proliferate before the onset of terminal differentiation. Although widespread, the epigenetic mechanisms that control the progenitor state and the onset of differentiation remain elusive. By studying Drosophila ovarian follicle cell progenitors, we identified lysine-specific demethylase 1 (lsd1) and CoRest as differentiation regulators using a GAL4∷GFP variegation assay. The follicle cell progenitors in lsd1 or CoRest heterozygotes prematurely lose epigenetic plasticity, undergo the Notch-dependent mitotic-endocycle transition, and stop dividing before a normal number of follicle cells can be produced. Simultaneously reducing the dosage of the histone H3K4 methyltransferase Trithorax reverses these effects, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolism of nitrosamines by cytochrome P-450 isozymes.. AU - Yang, C. S.. AU - Tu, Y. Y.. AU - Hong, J.. AU - Patten, C.. PY - 1984/12/1. Y1 - 1984/12/1. N2 - Results are presented to show that N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase is P-450 mediated and N-nitrosodimethylamine is efficiently metabolized by specific P-450 isozymes inducible by a group of new inducers. The P-450-mediated N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase also responds differently to inhibitors when activities are compared with those of classical monooxygenase systems.. AB - Results are presented to show that N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase is P-450 mediated and N-nitrosodimethylamine is efficiently metabolized by specific P-450 isozymes inducible by a group of new inducers. The P-450-mediated N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase also responds differently to inhibitors when activities are compared with those of classical monooxygenase systems.. UR - ...
At least 35 mutations in the KDM6A gene have been identified in people with Kabuki syndrome, a disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, and abnormalities affecting other parts of the body.. Most of the KDM6A gene mutations associated with Kabuki syndrome delete genetic material in the KDM6A gene sequence or result in a premature stop signal that leads to an abnormally short lysine-specific demethylase 6A enzyme. As a result of these mutations, the enzyme is nonfunctional. A lack of functional lysine-specific demethylase 6A enzyme disrupts its role in histone demethylation and impairs proper regulation of certain genes in many of the bodys organs and tissues, resulting in the abnormalities of development and function characteristic of Kabuki syndrome.. Although lysine-specific demethylase 6A is believed to act as a tumor suppressor, a loss of this enzymes function does not seem to increase cancer risk in people with Kabuki syndrome. ...
A postdoctoral position is available in the groups of Danica Fujimori and Mark Kelly in the Departments of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Chemistry at UCSF (Mission Bay Campus) to investigate how the KDM5 family of histone demethylases regulate gene expression by modulating the methylation status of histone proteins within chromatin (Torres et al., 2015 Nature Communications 6: 6204; doi: 10.1038/ncomms7204). Through a collaboration between Danica Fujimoris and Mark Kellys groups these studies will bridge cell signaling, cell biology, and experimental biophysics and chemical biology to provide a mechanistic insight into the functional coupling between the reader and catalytic domains in KDM5 demethylases. The goal of this work is to expand our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie regulation of chromatin methylation and consequently transcription.. The position is ideal for applicants who have a strong background in biophysics, chemistry or a related field and ...
Rph1 and Gis1 are two related yeast zinc finger proteins that function as downstream effectors in the Ras/PKA, TOR and Sch9 nutrient signaling pathways. Both proteins also contain JmjC histone demethylase domains, but only Rph1 is known to be an active enzyme, demethylating lysine 36 of histone H3. We have studied to what extent the demethylase activity of Rph1 contributes to its role in nutrient signaling by performing gene expression microarray experiments on a yeast strain containing a catalytically inactive allele of RPH1. We find that the enzymatic activity of Rph1 is not essential for its role in growth phase dependent gene regulation. However, the ability of Rph1 to both activate and repress transcription is partially impaired in the active site mutant, indicating that the demethylase activity may enhance its function in vivo. Consistent with this, we find that the Rph1 mutation and a deletion of the histone H3 methylase Set2 affect the same target genes in opposite directions. Genes that ...
The JmjC domain-containing L3K4 histone demethylase jumonji AT-rich interactive domains 1B (JARID1C) (also known as KDM5C and PLU1) is overexpressed in breast cancer and is a potential target for breast cancer treatment. on L3T4 at boosters (9). JARID1C is normally extremely portrayed in individual breasts tumors as well as many breasts cancer tumor cell lines (10, 11). Consistent with these results, JARID1C contributes to growth of MCF-7 and 4T1 breasts cancer tumor cells and (4, 12). In addition to its demethylase function, JARID1C can type a complicated with HDAC4 (13) and LSD1/NuRD (14) to mediate transcriptional dominance. Its known oppressed focus on genetics in breasts cancer tumor consist of (4, 14). JARID1C is normally overexpressed PLXNA1 in malignancies of the prostate also, lung, and bladder (15, 16). Even more lately, JARID1C emerged into the spot light for its association with a gradual bicycling cell people and medication level of resistance in most cancers (17, 18). The ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and benzoate X receptor (BXR) define three pharmacologically distinct classes of nuclear receptors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
A model for methadone N-demethylation by CYP2C19 was required to explain stereoselective metabolism, nonstereoselective enantiomeric interaction, and substrate inhibition, which occurred with lower concentrations of racemic methadone than with single enantiomers. The model best describing the data suggested that formation of homogenous ternary complexes (RER and SES) is less favorable than that of heterogenous (RES and SER) complexes. Substrate inhibition usually occurs when substrates have access to both the inhibitory and catalytic sites and when the substrate concentration exceeds the Ki (Lin et al., 2001). Substrate inhibition has been previously reported for CYP2C19 and meperidine and other drugs (Ramirez et al., 2004). This appears to be the first report of CYP2C19 substrate inhibition by methadone. Previously, methadone metabolism by CYP2C19 did not evaluate concentrations high enough to observe substrate inhibition and was analyzed by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Gerber et al., ...
Shop JmjC domain-containing protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and JmjC domain-containing protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Jmjd2c is a candidate oncogene that encodes histone lysine demethylase. In this study, we discovered that over-expression of Jmjd2c increased the expression of Mdm2 oncogene dependent on its demethylase activity, which led to the reduction of p53 tumor suppressor gene product in the cells. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Jmjd2c was recruited to the P2 promoter region of Mdm2 gene resulting in demethylation of histone H3 lysine 9, as typically found in actively transcribed genes. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Jmjd2c caused the reduction of Mdm2 expression in the cells. These results indicate that Mdm2 oncogene is a downstream target of Jmjd2c and may play an important role in Jmjd2c-mediated oncogenesis ...
Purified Histone Demethylase (H3-K9 Specific) Activity/Inhibition Fast Assay Kit from Creative Biomart. Histone Demethylase (H3-K9 Specific) Activity/Inhibition Fast Assay Kit can be used for research.
KDM2A/7A-IN-1 is a first-in-class, selective and cell-permeable inhibitor of histone lysine demethylases KDM2A/7A, with an IC50 of 0.16 μM for KDM2A, exhibits 75 fold selevtivity over other JmjC lysine demethylases, and is inactive on methyl transferases, and histone acetyl transferases ...
We have mapped binding sites for the histone demethylase, JMJD2C/KDM4C/GASC1, and the effect of JMJD2C depletion on H3K9me3 and H3K36me3 distributions in KYSE150 cells. The human esophageal carcinoma cell line, KYSE150, contains an amplification of the JMJD2C locus. ChIP-seq was performed using chromatin from control or JMJD2C-depleted KYSE150 cells and antibodies recognizing JMJD2C, H3K4me3, H3K9me3 or H3K36me3.
The Epigenase JMJD3/UTX Demethylase Activity/Inhibition Assay Kit (Fluorometric) is a complete set of optimized reagents, designed for measuring activity/inhibition of JMJD3 and UTX using nuclear extracts or purified enzymes...
. Genomic instability is a major contributing factor to the development and onset of age-related diseases such as cancer. Aberrant regulation of the spatial-tem...
Sorry, but the advert you were looking for has expired. To see more employment opportunities with University of Oxford, please click here. Perhaps you were looking for something totally different? In that case, it might be best start a new job search from our Home Page. You might also find our Site Map useful too. ...
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The long-term goal of this application is to elucidate the fundamental mechanism by which dysregulation of the histone demethylase, GASC1 (Gene Amplified in Squ...
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Excessive consumption of diets high in sugars and saturated fat, frequently known as western diet (WD), may lead to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence shows that WD-induced obesity impairs cardiac function, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of specific dietary nutrients, has emerged as a key contributor to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that elevated circulating TMAO levels contribute to cardiac dysfunction in WD-induced obesity. CD1 mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or a WD, without or with 1.0 % 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB, an inhibitor of trimethylamine formation) in drinking water for 8 weeks. Compared with mice fed a ND, mice fed a WD showed a significant increase in body weight and dyslipidemia, and had markedly higher plasma TMAO levels at the end of the feeding protocol. Echocardiography revealed that cardiac systolic and diastolic function was impaired in mice
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Background The nuclear protein JMJD5, also known as Kdm8, is a histone lysine demethylase that contains a JMJC domain in the C-terminal region. It is recognized as a protein that protects the genome against insertions and...
Effects of NR1I2 TGT and CYP2B6*6 on induction of bupropion hydroxylation by SF.Individual profiles showing AUC_hyd/AUC_bup ratios for the basal and SF-induced
Complete information for KDM2A gene (Protein Coding), Lysine Demethylase 2A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Plasmid pAAV-hSyn-DIO {hCAR}off-{hM4Di-mCherry}on-W3SL from Dr. Adam Kepecss lab contains the inserts hCAR and hM4Di-mCherry and is published in Neuron. 2018 Jun 6;98(5):905-917.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.05.028. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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The systematic name of this enzyme class is sarcosine:acceptor oxidoreductase (demethylating). Other names in common use ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donor with other ... include sarcosine N-demethylase, monomethylglycine dehydrogenase, and sarcosine:(acceptor) oxidoreductase (demethylating). ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is vanillate:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating). Other names in common use include ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and ...
... (EC 1.14.13.128) is an enzyme with systematic name 7-methylxanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase ( ... demethylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 7-methylxanthine + O2 + NAD(P)H + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is trimethylamine:electron-transferring flavoprotein oxidoreductase (demethylating). ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donors with a flavin as ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is N,N-dimethylglycine:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating). It employs one cofactor ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donors with oxygen as ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is N,N-dimethylglycine:acceptor oxidoreductase (demethylating). Other names in common ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donors with other ... use include N,N-dimethylglycine oxidase, and N,N-dimethylglycine:(acceptor) oxidoreductase (demethylating). This enzyme ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is N6-methyl-L-lysine:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating). Other names in common use ... oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating). Kim S, Benoiton L, Paik WK (1964). "alpha-Alkyllysinase. Purification and properties of ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donors with oxygen as ... include epsilon-alkyl-L-lysine:oxygen oxidoreductase, N6-methyllysine oxidase, epsilon-N-methyllysine demethylase, epsilon- ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-methyl-L-glutamate:acceptor oxidoreductase (demethylating). Other names in common ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donors with other ... use include N-methylglutamate dehydrogenase, and N-methyl-L-glutamate:(acceptor) oxidoreductase (demethylating). This enzyme ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-methyl-L-amino-acid:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating). Other names in common ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donors with oxygen as ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-methyl-L-alanine:NADP+ oxidoreductase (demethylating, deaminating). Lin MC, ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH2 group of donors with NAD+ or ...
... (EC 1.14.11.31, T6ODM) is an enzyme with systematic name thebaine,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase ... 6-O-demethylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction thebaine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
... oxidoreductases, n-demethylating MeSH D08.811.682.662.582.276 - aminopyrine n-demethylase MeSH D08.811.682.662.582.338 - ... amino acid oxidoreductases MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.062 - alanine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.125 - d-amino-acid ... succinate cytochrome c oxidoreductase MeSH D08.811.600.250.875.249 - electron transport complex ii MeSH D08.811.600.250.875.249 ... aldehyde oxidoreductases MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.249 - aldehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.249.750 - omega- ...
... oxygen oxidoreductase (formaldehyde-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 4-methylaminobutanoate + O2 ... "A novel gamma-N-methylaminobutyrate demethylating oxidase involved in catabolism of the tobacco alkaloid nicotine by ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is Latia-luciferin,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating). Other names ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and ... In enzymology, a Latia-luciferin monooxygenase (demethylating) (EC 1.14.99.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... in common use include luciferase (Latia luciferin), and Latia luciferin monooxygenase (demethylating). It has 2 cofactors: FAD ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-methoxybenzoate,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (O-demethylating). Other ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and ... In enzymology, a 4-methoxybenzoate monooxygenase (O-demethylating) (EC 1.14.99.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... names in common use include 4-methoxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase (O-demethylating), 4-methoxybenzoate O-demethylase, p-anisic O- ...
The demethylated products of the CYP51 reaction are vital intermediates in pathways leading to the formation of cholesterol in ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is sterol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (14-methyl cleaving). Other names in common use ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and ...
The main metabolite, N-demethylated piperazine derivative, is also active. The major route of elimination is in the bile and ... an oxidoreductase. Imatinib also inhibits the abl protein of non-cancer cells, but these cells normally have additional ...
The demethylated products of the CYP51 reaction are vital intermediates in pathways leading to the formation of cholesterol in ... Oxidoreductases: dioxygenases, including steroid hydroxylases (EC 1.14). 1.14.11: 2-oxoglutarate. *Prolyl hydroxylase ... The aldehyde then departs as formic acid and a double bond is simultaneously introduced to yield the demethylated product.[7] ...
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating Grant support * 1U54CA153603/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ...
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating / genetics * Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating / metabolism* * Schizosaccharomyces / enzymology ...
oxidoreductase activity - oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen ... Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating. *Testicular Cancer. *Polymorphism. *Pyrimidines. *Transcription. *Asian Continental Ancestry ...
... was recently identified as the first histone demethylase that specifically demethylates monomethylated and dimethylated histone ... Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating / chemistry*, genetics, metabolism. Protein Structure, Tertiary*. Sequence Alignment. Grant ... 0/Histones; EC 1.14.11.-/Histone Demethylases; EC 1.5.-/KDM1A protein, human; EC 1.5.-/Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating ... 15035646 - Subunit proximity in the h+-translocating nadh-quinone oxidoreductase probed by zero-le.... 12636086 - Molecular ...
0 (Electron-Transferring Flavoproteins); 42HK56048U (Tyrosine); 94ZLA3W45F (Arginine); EC 1.5.- (Oxidoreductases, N- ... Demethylating); EC 1.5.8.2 (trimethylamine dehydrogenase). p gina 1 de 4 ir para p gina ...
... demethylating);. Me2GlyDH;. N,N-dimethylglycine:electron-transfer flavoprotein oxidoreductase (demethylating). ... N,N-dimethylglycine,5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate:electron-transferflavoprotein oxidoreductase (demethylating,5,10- ... Oxidoreductases;. Acting on the CH-NH group of donors;. With a flavin or flavoprotein as acceptor. ...
Systematic name: 7-methylxanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating) Comments: A non-heme iron oxygenase. The enzyme from ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is sarcosine:acceptor oxidoreductase (demethylating). Other names in common use ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donor with other ... include sarcosine N-demethylase, monomethylglycine dehydrogenase, and sarcosine:(acceptor) oxidoreductase (demethylating). ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is vanillate:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating). Other names in common use include ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and ...
thebaine,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-O-demethylating). Reaction(IUBMB). thebaine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = neopinone ... Oxidoreductases;. Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;. With 2-oxoglutarate as one ...
... demethylating); NAD(P)H: theobromine reductase; NAD(P)H: theobromine oxidoreductase (demethylating); theobromine reductase; NAD ... Synonyms: 7-methylxanthine dehydrogenase; 7-methylxanthine: NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase (methylating); theobromine oxidoreductase [ ... P)H: theobromine oxidoreductase; theobromine reductase [NAD(P)H]. *EC number: 1.13.12.-. *Enzyme-specific links *ExPASy *IntEnz ...
... oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating) (EC 1.5.3.1); D-aspartate:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating) (EC 1.4.3.1); L-serine ... acceptor oxidoreductase.. Rule 18.. (Systematic Names). For oxidoreductases using NAD+ or NADP+, the coenzyme should always be ... oxidoreductase.. Rule 20.. (Common Names). Oxidoreductases that bring about the incorporation of molecular oxygen into one ... Oxidoreductases bringing about the incorporation of oxygen into one of paired donors should be named on the pattern donor,donor ...
WW domain containing oxidoreductase), Authors: Teresa Druck, Hoda Hagrass, Kay Huebner. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet ... Treatment with 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine to demethylate the WWOX promoter successfully restored WWOX expression in WWOX-deficient ... WW domain containing oxidoreductase gene expression is altered in non-small cell lung cancer.. ... WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase). Written. 2007-04. Teresa Druck, Hoda Hagrass, Kay Huebner. ...
All four JARID proteins demethylate di- and tri-methyl histone H3 Lys4; JARID1B also demethylates mono-methyl histone H3 Lys4 ( ... All four JARID proteins demethylate di- and tri-methyl histone H3 Lys4; JARID1B also demethylates mono-methyl histone H3 Lys4 ( ... Monkey Oxidoreductase Activity. Polyclonal Antibody - TRXR1 Antibody - Western Blotting, UniProt ID Q16881, Entrez ID 7296 # ... As part of this complex, LSD1 demethylates mono-methyl and di-methyl histone H3 at Lys4 through a FAD-dependent oxidation ...
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Involved in oxidoreductase activity. Specific Function. Histone demethylase that demethylates both Lys-4 (H3K4me) and Lys-9 ... Demethylates di-methylated Lys-370 of p53/TP53 which prevents interaction of p53/TP53 with TP53BP1 and represses p53/TP53- ... Demethylates both mono- (H3K4me1) and di-methylated (H3K4me2) H3K4me. May play a role in the repression of neuronal genes. ... Metzger E, Wissmann M, Yin N, Muller JM, Schneider R, Peters AH, Gunther T, Buettner R, Schule R: LSD1 demethylates repressive ...
trimethylamine:electron-transferring flavoprotein oxidoreductase (demethylating) Catalysis of the reaction: trimethylamine + ...
Based on its enzymatic mechanism, LSD1 cannot demethylate trimethylated H3K4Me3, but members of the iron-dependent JMJ histone ...
O Demethylating Oxidoreductases O-Demethylase O-Demethylases O-Demethylating Oxidoreductases Oxidoreductases, O Demethylating ... O Demethylating Oxidoreductases. O-Demethylase. O-Demethylases. O-Demethylating Oxidoreductases. Oxidoreductases, O ... Oxidoreductases, O-Demethylating Entry term(s). Demethylating Oxidoreductases, O O Demethylase O Demethylases ... Oxidoreductases, (O-demethylating) Entry term(s):. Demethylating Oxidoreductases, O. O Demethylase. O Demethylases. ...
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating/biosynthesis. *Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating/genetics. *Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating/ ...
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating. *Troglitazone. *Rifampin. Grant support. *223-97-3004/PHS HHS/United States ...
Grobman, W. A., Thom, E. A., Spong, C. Y., Iams, J. D., Saade, G. R., Mercer, B. M., Tita, A. T. N., Rouse, D. J., Sorokin, Y., Wapner, R. J., Leveno, K. J., Blackwell, S., Esplin, M. S., Tolosa, J. E., Thorp, J. M., Caritis, S. N. & Van Dorsten, J. P., Nov 2012, In : American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 207, 5, p. 390.e1-390.e8. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating. V. D. Nair, Ge, Y., Balasubramaniyan, N., Kim, J., Okawa, Y., Chikina, M., Troyanskaya, O., ...
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating, Protein Transport, Substrate Specificity, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt", ...
Animals , Female , Liver/enzymology , Male , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism , Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating/metabolism ... Animals , Ethylmorphine-N-Demethylase/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Male , Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating/metabolism , ... Animals , Diethylcarbamazine/metabolism , Female , Male , Microsomes, Liver/enzymology , Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating/ ... Artificial Gene Fusion , Genetic Vectors , NAD (+) and NADP (+) Dependent Alcohol Oxidoreductases , Genetics , Oxidoreductases ...
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating [1]. Oximetry [1]. Oxygen [6]. Oxygen Consumption [1]. Oxyhemoglobins [1]. ...
Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors (0) * Oxidoreductases, O-Demethylating (0) * Oxygenases (0) ... Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors (0) * Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH2 Group Donors (3) * Amine Oxidase (Copper- ... Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors (0) * ... Oxidoreductases Acting on Aldehyde or Oxo Group Donors (0) * ...
Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors [D08.811.682.662]. *Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating [D08.811.682.662.582] ...
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is sarcosine:acceptor oxidoreductase (demethylating). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include sarcosine N-demethylase, monomethylglycine dehydrogenase, and sarcosine:(acceptor) oxidoreductase (demethylating). (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidoreductase that catalyzes the demethylation of sarcosine to glycine. (roche.com)
  • Histone demethylase that demethylates both 'Lys-4' (H3K4me) and 'Lys-9' (H3K9me) of histone H3, thereby acting as a coactivator or a corepressor, depending on the context. (hmdb.ca)
  • Histone demethylase that demethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code (PubMed:24952722, PubMed:27214403, PubMed:28262558). (genecards.org)
  • Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) was recently identified as the first histone demethylase that specifically demethylates monomethylated and dimethylated histone H3 at K4. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Based on its enzymatic mechanism, LSD1 cannot demethylate trimethylated H3K4Me3, but members of the iron-dependent JMJ histone demethylases are known to serve this function. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is the first discovered histone lysine demethylase and, with the help of its cofactor CoREST, specifically demethylates mono- and dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3-K4), thus repressing transcription. (creative-biostructure.com)
  • LSD1 is a histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3, a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation, thereby acting as a corepressor. (thermofisher.com)
  • LSD1 demethylates both mono- and tri-methylted 'Lys-4' of histone H3. (thermofisher.com)
  • Purpose: WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) is a tumor suppressor gene that maps to the common fragile site FRA16D . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently, in the WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase), a candidate tumor suppressor gene, chromosome 16q23.3-24.1 was isolated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have previously shown that WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) has tumour-suppressing effects and that its expression is frequently reduced in pancreatic carcinoma. (nature.com)
  • The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase ( WWOX ) gene is a tumour suppressor gene that spans a common chromosomal fragile site, FRA16D (16q23.3-24.1). (nature.com)
  • The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase ( WWOX ) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, the abnormal expression of which will lead to osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. (dovepress.com)
  • The WW-domain containing oxidoreductase ( WWOX ) gene was demonstrated as a bona fide tumor suppressor gene, located on chromosome 16q23, spanning the common fragile site FRA16D. (dovepress.com)
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Alcohol Oxidoreductases" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Alcohol Oxidoreductases" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Alcohol Oxidoreductases" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. (umassmed.edu)
  • The demethylated products of the CYP51 reaction are vital intermediates in pathways leading to the formation of cholesterol in humans, ergosterol in fungi, and other types of sterols in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • B) A gaggle of Jumonji C-domain histone demethylase demethylates several -N-methylated lysine residues while in the presence of Fe and -ketoglutarate because of the activity of dioxygenase. (dna-alkylating.com)
  • Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates Lys-9 of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. (genecards.org)
  • Azelastine, an antiallergy and antiasthmatic drug, has been reported to be mainly N -demethylated to desmethylazelastine in humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Demethylates di-methylated 'Lys-370' of p53/TP53 which prevents interaction of p53/TP53 with TP53BP1 and represses p53/TP53-mediated transcriptional activation. (hmdb.ca)
  • Regulates androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity by demethylating H3K4me3 active transcription marks. (uniprot.org)
  • It may also demethylate 'Lys-9' of histone H3, a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression, thereby leading to derepression of androgen receptor target genes. (thermofisher.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donor with other acceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired donors, with O2 as oxidant and incorporation or reduction of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is (24R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,24-diol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (7alpha-hydroxylating) . (wikivisually.com)
  • The constitutive level of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) and glutathione S -transferase (GST) enzyme activities in cytosols from small intestine was typically found to be between 30% and 70% lower in samples prepared from Nrf2 mutant mice fed a control diet than in equivalent samples from Nrf2 (+/+) mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This entry describes a group of enzymes that demethylate N-methylated L-lysine residues at position 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). (kegg.jp)
  • Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. (hindawi.com)
  • Treatment with 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine to demethylate the WWOX promoter successfully restored WWOX expression in WWOX-deficient breast cancer cells. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Methylation analysis showed that site-specific promoter hypermethylation was detected in 2 cell lines (22%) and treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine demonstrated an increase in the expression of WWOX . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, 2-oxoglutarate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom each of oxygen into both donors . (genecards.org)
  • Structural and functional insights into sulfide: Quinone oxidoreductase. (springer.com)
  • The genes that were transcriptionally suppressed by DNA hypermethylation in hepatoma cells or gastric cancer cells were demonstrated to be demethylated and reactivated after PCA treatment. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Analysis of genes upregulated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in gastric cancer cell lines. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A) -Alkyllysinase may be the 1st lysine-specific demethylase identified and converts -N-monomethyl-lysine to formaldehyde and cost-free lysine through the action of FAD-dependent amine oxidase (oxygen oxidoreductase). (dna-alkylating.com)
  • Demethylates both mono- (H3K4me1) and di-methylated (H3K4me2) H3K4me. (hmdb.ca)
  • Alone, it is unable to demethylate H3K4me on nucleosomes and requires the presence of RCOR1/CoREST to achieve such activity. (hmdb.ca)
  • The degradation was followed both spectrophotometrically and using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS), and the products formed were identified using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The results show that the two remediation approaches produced different sets of intermediates, with only one common species (a demethylated form of ThT). (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, these data indicated that PCA had growth-inhibitory and demethylating effects on human hepatoma cells and gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)