An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
The act of BREATHING out.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Inorganic chemicals that contain manganese as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Relating to the size of solids.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Retinoic acid, but not arsenic trioxide, degrades the PLZF/RARalpha fusion protein, without inducing terminal differentiation or apoptosis, in a RA-therapy resistant t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL patient. (1/1663)

Primary blasts of a t(11;17)(q23;q21) acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) patient were analysed with respect to retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) sensitivity as well as PLZF/RARalpha status. Although RA induced partial monocytic differentiation ex vivo, but not in vivo, As203 failed to induce apoptosis in culture, contrasting with t(15;17) APL and arguing against the clinical use of As203 in t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL. Prior to cell culture, PLZF/RARalpha was found to exactly co-localize with PML onto PML nuclear bodies. However upon cell culture, it quickly shifted towards microspeckles, its localization found in transfection experiments. Arsenic trioxide, known to induce aggregation of PML nuclear bodies, left the microspeckled PLZF/RARalpha localization completely unaffected. RA treatment led to PLZF/RARalpha degradation. However, this complete PLZF/RARalpha degradation was not accompanied by differentiation or apoptosis, which could suggest a contribution of the reciprocal RARalpha/PLZF fusion product in leukaemogenesis or the existence of irreversible changes induced by the chimera.  (+info)

Determination of the anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide di- and trihexoside by chromium trioxide oxidation. (2/1663)

The anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide dihexoside and ceramide trihexoside were determined by chromium trioxide oxidation and the structures of these lipids were shown to be Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide and Man-alpha(1 leads to 4)-Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide. These results are compatible with those obtained by enzymic hydrolysis reported previously.  (+info)

A functional model for O-O bond formation by the O2-evolving complex in photosystem II. (3/1663)

The formation of molecular oxygen from water in photosynthesis is catalyzed by photosystem II at an active site containing four manganese ions that are arranged in di-mu-oxo dimanganese units (where mu is a bridging mode). The complex [H2O(terpy)Mn(O)2Mn(terpy)OH2](NO3)3 (terpy is 2,2':6', 2"-terpyridine), which was synthesized and structurally characterized, contains a di-mu-oxo manganese dimer and catalyzes the conversion of sodium hypochlorite to molecular oxygen. Oxygen-18 isotope labeling showed that water is the source of the oxygen atoms in the molecular oxygen evolved, and so this system is a functional model for photosynthetic water oxidation.  (+info)

Arsenic trioxide and melarsoprol induce apoptosis in plasma cell lines and in plasma cells from myeloma patients. (4/1663)

Recent data have renewed the interest for arsenic-containing compounds as anticancer agents. In particular, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been demonstrated to be an effective drug in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia by inducing programmed cell death in leukemic cells both in vitro and in vivo. This prompted us to study the in vitro effects of As2O3 and of another arsenical derivative, the organic compound melarsoprol, on human myeloma cells and on the plasma cell differentiation of normal B cells. At pharmacological concentrations (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L), As2O3 and melarsoprol caused a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of survival and growth in myeloma cell lines that was, in some, similar to that of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Both arsenical compounds induced plasma cell apoptosis, as assessed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, detection of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface using annexin V, and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay. As2O3 and melarsoprol also inhibited viability and growth and induced apoptosis in plasma-cell enriched preparations from the bone marrow or blood of myeloma patients. In nonseparated bone marrow samples, both arsenical compounds triggered death in myeloma cells while sparing most myeloid cells, as demonstrated by double staining with annexin V and CD38 or CD15 antibodies. In primary myeloma cells as in cell lines, interleukin 6 did not prevent arsenic-induced cell death or growth inhibition, and no synergistic effect was observed with IFN-alpha. In contrast to As2O3, melarsoprol only slightly reduced the plasma cell differentiation of normal B cells induced by pokeweed mitogen. Both pokeweed mitogen-induced normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells showed a normal nuclear distribution of PML protein, which was disrupted by As2O3 but not by melarsoprol, suggesting that the two arsenical derivatives acted by different mechanisms. These results point to the use of arsenical derivatives as investigational drugs in the treatment of multiple myeloma.  (+info)

A physiological barrier distal to the anatomic blood-brain barrier in a model of transvascular delivery. (5/1663)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) provides a method for transvascular delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. The apparent global delivery of viral-sized iron oxide particles to the rat brain after BBB opening as seen on MR images was compared with the cellular and subcellular location and distribution of the particles. METHODS: Two dextran-coated superparamagnetic monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticle contrast agents, MION and Feridex, were administered intraarterially in rats at 10 mg Fe/kg immediately after osmotic opening of the BBB with hyperosmolar mannitol. After 2 to 24 hours, iron distribution in the brain was evaluated first with MR imaging then by histochemical analysis and electron microscopy to assess perivascular and intracellular distribution. RESULTS: After BBB opening, MR images showed enhancement throughout the disrupted hemisphere for both Feridex and MION. Feridex histochemical staining was found in capillaries of the disrupted hemisphere. Electron microscopy showed that the Feridex particles passed the capillary endothelial cells but did not cross beyond the basement membrane. In contrast, after MION delivery, iron histochemistry was detected within cell bodies in the disrupted hemisphere, and the electron-dense MION core was detected intracellularly and extracellularly in the neuropil. CONCLUSION: MR images showing homogeneous delivery to the brain at the macroscopic level did not indicate delivery at the microscopic level. These data support the presence of a physiological barrier at the basal lamina, analogous to the podocyte in the kidney, distal to the anatomic (tight junction) BBB, which may limit the distribution of some proteins and viral particles after transvascular delivery to the brain.  (+info)

Comparison of ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced T2-weighted, conventional T2-weighted, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (6/1663)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIO) constitute a contrast agent that accumulates in cells from the mononuclear phagocytic system. In the CNS they may accumulate in phagocytic cells such as macrophages. The goal of this study was to compare USPIO-enhanced MR images with conventional T2-weighted images and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: Nine rats with EAE and four control rats were imaged at 4.7 T and 1.5 T with conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences, gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, and T2-weighted sequences obtained 24 hours after intravenous injection of a USPIO contrast agent, AMI-227. Histologic examination was performed with hematoxylin-eosin stain, Perls' stain for iron, and ED1 immunohistochemistry for macrophages. RESULTS: USPIO-enhanced images showed a high sensitivity (8/9) for detecting EAE lesions, whereas poor sensitivity was obtained with T2-weighted images (1/9) and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images (0/9). All the MR findings in the control rats were negative. Histologic examination revealed the presence of macrophages at the site where abnormalities were seen on USPIO-enhanced images. CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity of USPIO for macrophage activity relative to other imaging techniques is explained by the histologic findings of numerous perivascular cell infiltrates, including macrophages, in EAE. This work supports the possibility of intracellular USPIO transport to the CNS by monocytes/macrophages, which may have future implications for imaging of human inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

Iron reductase for magnetite synthesis in the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum. (7/1663)

Ferric iron reductase was purified from magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum (formerly Aquaspirillum) magnetotacticum (ATCC 31632) to an electrophoretically homogeneous state. The enzyme was loosely bound on the cytoplasmic face of the cytoplasmic membrane and was found more frequently in magnetic cells than in nonmagnetic cells. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was calculated upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be about 36 kDa, almost the same as that calibrated by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme required NADH and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as optimal electron donor and cofactor, respectively, and the activity was strongly inhibited by Zn2+ acting as a partial mixed-type inhibitor. The Km values for NADH and FMN were 4.3 and 0. 035 microM, respectively, and the Ki values for Zn2+ were 19.2 and 23.9 microM for NADH and FMN, respectively. When the bacterium was grown in the presence of ZnSO4, the magnetosome number in the cells and the ferric iron reductase activity declined in parallel with an increase in the ZnSO4 concentration of the medium, suggesting that the ferric iron reductase purified in the present study may participate in magnetite synthesis.  (+info)

Evidence of a cyclooxygenase-related prostaglandin synthesis in coral. The allene oxide pathway is not involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis. (8/1663)

Certain corals are rich natural sources of prostaglandins, the metabolic origin of which has remained undefined. By analogy with the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase pathway to jasmonic acid in plants, the presence of (8R)-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase in the coral Plexaura homomalla suggested a potential metabolic route to prostaglandins (Brash, A. R., Baertshi, S. W., Ingram, C.D., and Harris, T. M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 15829-15839). Other evidence, from the Arctic coral Gersemia fruticosa, has indicated a cyclooxygenase intermediate in the biosynthesis (Varvas, K., Koljak, R., Jarving, I., Pehk, T., and Samel, N. (1994) Tetrahedron Lett. 35, 8267-8270). In the present study, active preparations of G. fruticosa have been used to identify both types of arachidonic acid metabolism and specific inhibitors were used to establish the enzyme type involved in the prostaglandin biosynthesis. The synthesis of prostaglandins and (11R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was inhibited by mammalian cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, aspirin, and tolfenamic acid), while the formation of the products of the 8-lipoxygenase/allene oxide pathway was not affected or was increased. The specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, nimesulide, did not inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins in coral. We conclude that coral uses two parallel routes for the initial oxidation of polyenoic acids: the cyclooxygenase route, which leads to optically active prostaglandins, and the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase metabolism, the role of which remains to be established. An enzyme related to mammalian cyclooxygenases is the key to prostaglandin synthesis in coral. Based on our inhibitor data, the catalytic site of this evolutionary early cyclooxygenase appears to differ significantly from both known mammalian cyclooxygenases.  (+info)

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

The symptoms of PFCS can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes)
* Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
* Poor feeding and weight gain
* Fatigue and lethargy
* Low blood pressure
* Abnormal heart rhythms

PFCS is often diagnosed during the newborn period, and treatment may involve a combination of medications, oxygen therapy, and surgical interventions. In some cases, PFCS may be associated with other congenital anomalies, such as heart defects or intestinal atresias.

The prognosis for PFCS varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any additional anomalies. However, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Example Sentence: The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension and began treatment with medication to lower her blood pressure and improve her symptoms.

Word class: Noun phrase / medical condition

In some cases, hyperemia can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires medical attention. For example, if hyperemia is caused by an inflammatory or infectious process, it may lead to tissue damage or organ dysfunction if left untreated.

Hyperemia can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, muscles, organs, and other tissues. It is often diagnosed through physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for hyperemia depends on its underlying cause, and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgery.

In the context of dermatology, hyperemia is often used to describe a condition called erythema, which is characterized by redness and swelling of the skin due to increased blood flow. Erythema can be caused by various factors, such as sun exposure, allergic reactions, or skin infections. Treatment for erythema may include topical medications, oral medications, or other therapies depending on its underlying cause.

Reperfusion injury can cause inflammation, cell death, and impaired function in the affected tissue or organ. The severity of reperfusion injury can vary depending on the duration and severity of the initial ischemic event, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment to restore blood flow.

Reperfusion injury can be a complicating factor in various medical conditions, including:

1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the heart muscle after a heart attack, leading to inflammation and cell death.
2. Stroke: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the brain after an ischemic stroke, leading to inflammation and damage to brain tissue.
3. Organ transplantation: Reperfusion injury can occur when a transplanted organ is subjected to ischemia during harvesting or preservation, and then reperfused with blood.
4. Peripheral arterial disease: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to a previously occluded peripheral artery, leading to inflammation and damage to the affected tissue.

Treatment of reperfusion injury often involves medications to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications. In some cases, experimental therapies such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy may be used to promote tissue repair and regeneration.

Shock refers to a severe and sudden drop in blood pressure, which can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. There are several types of shock, including hypovolemic shock (caused by bleeding or dehydration), septic shock (caused by an overwhelming bacterial infection), and cardiogenic shock (caused by a heart attack or other cardiac condition).

Septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream, which can cause a range of symptoms including fever, chills, and confusion. Sepsis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.

Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, which is the body's systemic inflammatory response to an infection. Septic shock is characterized by severe vasopressor (a medication used to increase blood pressure) and hypotension (low blood pressure), and it can lead to multiple organ failure and death if not treated promptly and effectively.

In summary, shock refers to a drop in blood pressure, while septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream. Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, and it can be a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly and effectively.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.

The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.

The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.

The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.

Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.

In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.

There are several types of ischemia, including:

1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.

Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several potential causes of ED, including:

1. Aging: As men age, the blood vessels that supply the penis with blood can become less responsive, leading to ED.
2. Heart disease: Men with heart disease are at a higher risk for developing ED.
3. Diabetes: Men with diabetes are also at a higher risk for developing ED.
4. Prostate surgery or treatment: Surgery or treatment for prostate cancer can sometimes cause ED.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants and blood pressure drugs, can cause ED as a side effect.
6. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a lack of exercise can contribute to ED.
7. Psychological factors: Psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and relationship issues can also contribute to ED.
8. Neurological disorders: Certain neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease, can cause ED.
9. Peyronie's disease: A condition in which scar tissue inside the penis causes it to curve and become less responsive to stimulation.
10. Trauma: Injury to the penis or nerves that control erections can cause ED.
11. Venous leak: A condition in which the veins that empty blood from the penis are damaged, leading to a weak or inconsistent erection.

There are several treatment options available for ED, including:

1. Medications: Drugs such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra) can help improve blood flow to the penis and achieve an erection.
2. Vacuum constriction devices: These devices are placed over the penis and use vacuum pressure to increase blood flow and create an erection.
3. Penile injections: Alprostadil (Caverject) is a medication that can be injected into the penis to increase blood flow and achieve an erection.
4. Penile implants: A surgically implanted device that can be inflated with saline solution to create an erection.
5. Lifestyle changes: Improving physical activity, losing weight, quitting smoking, and reducing stress can help improve blood flow and reduce the risk of ED.
6. Counseling and therapy: Addressing relationship issues or psychological factors that may be contributing to ED can also be helpful.

It's important to note that ED is a common condition and can affect men of all ages and backgrounds. If you are experiencing erectile dysfunction, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Example sentence:
The patient was admitted to the hospital with toxemia caused by a severe allergic reaction to a new medication.

Some common types of lung diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arteries of the heart, brain, and legs. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and is often associated with aging and other factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking.

There are several types of arteriosclerosis, including:

1. Atherosclerosis: This is the most common type of arteriosclerosis and occurs when plaque builds up inside the arteries.
2. Arteriolosclerosis: This type affects the small arteries in the body and can cause decreased blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and brain.
3. Medial sclerosis: This type affects the middle layer of the artery wall and can cause stiffness and narrowing of the arteries.
4. Intimal sclerosis: This type occurs when plaque builds up inside the innermost layer of the artery wall, causing it to become thick and less flexible.

Symptoms of arteriosclerosis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain or cramping during exercise, and numbness or weakness in the limbs. Treatment for arteriosclerosis may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to open up or bypass blocked arteries.

There are several types of hypercholesterolemia, including:

1. Familial hypercholesterolemia: This is an inherited condition that causes high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, in the blood.
2. Non-familial hypercholesterolemia: This type of hypercholesterolemia is not inherited and can be caused by a variety of factors, such as a high-fat diet, lack of exercise, obesity, and certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
3. Mixed hypercholesterolemia: This type of hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high levels of both LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood.

The diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia is typically made based on a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as a lipid profile, which measures the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hypercholesterolemia usually involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, and may also include medication, such as statins, to lower cholesterol levels.

Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.

There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:

1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.

Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.

1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This can lead to heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.
2. Hypertension: High blood pressure that can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions.
3. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and weakness in the affected limbs.
4. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition that causes blood vessels in the hands and feet to constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress, leading to discoloration, numbness, and tissue damage.
5. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, often caused by immobility or injury.
6. Varicose veins: Enlarged, twisted veins that can cause pain, swelling, and cosmetic concerns.
7. Angioplasty: A medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open up narrowed blood vessels, often performed to treat peripheral artery disease or blockages in the legs.
8. Stenting: A medical procedure in which a small mesh tube is placed inside a blood vessel to keep it open and improve blood flow.
9. Carotid endarterectomy: A surgical procedure to remove plaque from the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, to reduce the risk of stroke.
10. Bypass surgery: A surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is used to bypass a blocked or narrowed blood vessel, often performed to treat coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease.

Overall, vascular diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life and can increase the risk of serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, and amputation. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are several types of edema, including:

1. Pitting edema: This type of edema occurs when the fluid accumulates in the tissues and leaves a pit or depression when it is pressed. It is commonly seen in the skin of the lower legs and feet.
2. Non-pitting edema: This type of edema does not leave a pit or depression when pressed. It is often seen in the face, hands, and arms.
3. Cytedema: This type of edema is caused by an accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the limbs, particularly in the hands and feet.
4. Edema nervorum: This type of edema affects the nerves and can cause pain, numbness, and tingling in the affected area.
5. Lymphedema: This is a condition where the lymphatic system is unable to properly drain fluid from the body, leading to swelling in the arms or legs.

Edema can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as imaging studies and blood tests. Treatment options for edema depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications, lifestyle changes, and compression garments. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to remove excess fluid or tissue.

Hyperoxia can cause damage to the body's tissues and organs, particularly the lungs and brain. In severe cases, hyperoxia can lead to respiratory failure, seizures, and even death.

There are several ways to diagnose hyperoxia, including:

1. Blood tests: These can measure the levels of oxygen in the blood.
2. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis: This is a test that measures the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
3. Pulse oximetry: This is a non-invasive test that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood by shining a light through the skin.

Treatment for hyperoxia depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: This involves administering oxygen to the patient through a mask or nasal tubes.
2. Medications: These may be used to treat any underlying conditions that are causing hyperoxia.
3. Mechanical ventilation: In severe cases, this may be necessary to support the patient's breathing.

In summary, hyperoxia is a condition where there is too much oxygen in the body, and it can cause damage to the body's tissues and organs. Diagnosis is typically made through blood tests or other tests, and treatment may involve oxygen therapy, medications, or mechanical ventilation.

The disease begins with endothelial dysfunction, which allows lipid accumulation in the artery wall. Macrophages take up oxidized lipids and become foam cells, which die and release their contents, including inflammatory cytokines, leading to further inflammation and recruitment of more immune cells.

The atherosclerotic plaque can rupture or ulcerate, leading to the formation of a thrombus that can occlude the blood vessel, causing ischemia or infarction of downstream tissues. This can lead to various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, and obesity. It is diagnosed by imaging techniques such as angiography, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Treatment options for atherosclerosis include lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, dietary changes, and exercise, as well as medications such as statins, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In severe cases, surgical interventions such as bypass surgery or angioplasty may be necessary.

In conclusion, atherosclerosis is a complex and multifactorial disease that affects the arteries and can lead to various cardiovascular diseases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent or slow down its progression, reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes.

... oxide (Al2O) Aluminium(II) oxide (AlO) (aluminium monoxide) Aluminium(III) oxide (aluminium oxide), (Al2O3), the most common ... Aluminium oxides or aluminum oxides are a group of inorganic compounds with formulas including aluminium (Al) and oxygen (O). ... form of aluminium oxide, occurring on the surface of aluminium and also in crystalline form as corundum, sapphire, and ruby. ...
... , also called hydrous iron oxides and iron(III) oxide-hydroxides are hydrous oxide inorganic compounds. ... Hydrous iron oxides include ferrihydrite, akaganéite, feroxyhyte, goethite, lepidocrocite and limonite. They may also be ...
... are a group of chemical compounds with the formula SO3+x where x lies between 0 and 1. They contain peroxo ... The structure of the polymers is based on β-SO3 (one of the three forms of solid SO3) with oxide bridges (−O−) replaced ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. v t e (Sulfur oxides, Sulfur(VI) compounds, Non-stoichiometric compounds, Interchalcogens, All stub ...
The lower sulfur oxides are a group of inorganic compounds with the formula SmOn, where 2m > n. These species are often ... Some well characterized examples include sulfur monoxide (SO), its dimer S2O2, and a series of cyclic sulfur oxides, SnOx (x = ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. R. Steudel (2003). "Sulfur-Rich Oxides SnO and SnO2". In Steudel, R. (ed.). Elemental Sulfur und Sulfur ... Interest in the lower sulfur oxides has increased because of the need to understand terrestrial atmospheric sulfur pollution ...
... (MON) are solutions of nitric oxide (NO) in dinitrogen tetroxide/nitrogen dioxide (N2O4 and NO2). It ... nitric oxide, MON25 25% nitric oxide). An upper limit is MON40 (40% by weight). In Europe MON 1.3 is mostly used for rocket ... A broad range of compositions is available, and can be denoted as MONi, where i represents the percentage of nitric oxide in ... The addition of nitric oxide also reduces the freezing point to a more desirable temperature. The freezing point of pure ...
Although most metal oxides are crystalline solids, some oxides are molecules. Examples of molecular oxides are carbon dioxide ... One exception is copper, for which the highest oxidation state oxide is copper(II) oxide and not copper(I) oxide. Another ... This applies to binary oxides, that is, compounds containing only oxide and another element. Far more common than binary oxides ... Suboxide Oxohalide Oxyanion Complex oxide See Category:Oxides for a list of oxides. Salt Wet electrons Hein, Morris; Arena, ...
... (abbreviated Li-NMC, LNMC, or NMC) are mixed metal oxides of lithium, nickel, manganese ... C. S. Johnson, J. T. Vaughey, M. M. Thackeray, T. E. Bofinger, and S. A. Hackney "Layered Lithium-Manganese Oxide Electrodes ... Structurally materials in this group are closely related to lithium cobalt(III) oxide (LiCoO2) and have a layered structure but ... US US6677082, Thackeray, M; Amine, K. & Kim, J. S., "Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries" US ...
Lithium oxide (Li2O) is the lightest alkali metal oxide and a white solid. It melts at 1570 °C. Sodium oxide (Na2O) is a white ... Potassium oxide (K2O) is a pale yellow solid that decomposes at 350 °C. Rubidium oxide (Rb2O) is a yellow solid that melts at ... Caesium peroxide (Cs2O2) is produced by the decomposition of caesium oxide above 400 °C. Rubidium sesquioxide (Rb4O6)is a black ... The alkali metals react with oxygen to form several different compounds: suboxides, oxides, peroxides, sesquioxides, ...
Lithium nickel oxide LiNiO2, which is closely related to NCA, or nickel oxide NiO2 itself, cannot yet be used as a battery ... The lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxides (abbreviated as Li-NCA, LNCA, or NCA) are a group of mixed metal oxides. Some of ... Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxides (NCAs) are mixed metal oxides of particular importance in their application in lithium- ... The coatings demonstrated in research may comprise fluorides such as aluminium fluoride AlF3, crystalline oxides (e.g. CoO2, ...
... is used as a flux in ceramic glazes; and creates blues with copper and pinks with cobalt. Lithium oxide reacts ... Lithium oxide absorbs carbon dioxide forming lithium carbonate: Li 2O + CO 2 → Li 2CO 3 The oxide reacts slowly with water, ... O 2 Solid lithium oxide adopts an antifluorite structure with four-coordinated Li+ centers and eight-coordinated oxides. The ... forming lithium hydroxide Li 2O + H 2O → 2LiOH Lithium monoxide anion Lithium peroxide Lithium cobalt oxide Lithium-oxide ...
"Discussing the State of DirectX 12 With Microsoft & Oxide Games". Retrieved 2022-06-08. "AMD and Oxide Games ... In 2016 Oxide and Dan Baker were part of the first major tech Demo for DX12 along with Brian Langley, Microsoft's DirectX 12 ... Oxide Games focuses primarily on games and game engines for the Personal computer (PC) and Xbox Series X. Initially founded to ... "Oxide Games is a new studio of strategy veterans, with a new 64-bit engine". VG247. 2013-10-23. Retrieved 2022-06-15. "Xbox ...
... , or dibutyloxotin, is an organotin compound with the chemical formula (C4H9)2SnO. It is a colorless solid that ... 3.0.CO;2-H T. V. (Babu) RajanBabu, Junzo Otera "Di-n-butyltin Oxide" eEROS, 2005. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rd071.pub2 Jorge ... The structure of diorganotin oxides depends on the size of the organic groups. For smaller substituents, the materials are ... ISBN 978-3-527-31023-4. Harris, Robin K.; Sebald, Angelika (September 1987). "The structure of polymeric dialkyltin oxides [ ...
... (TBTO) is an organotin compound chiefly used as a biocide (fungicide and molluscicide), especially a wood ... Historically, tributyltin oxide's biggest application was as a marine anti-biofouling agent. Concerns over toxicity of these ... Today, it is mainly used in wood preservation "Tributyltin oxide_msds". "Focus on IMO - Anti-fouling systems" (PDF). ... ISBN 978-3-527-31023-4 National Pollutant Inventory Fact Sheet for organotins Tributyltin oxide in the Pesticide Properties ...
... CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Nitrous Oxide Nitrous Oxide FAQ Erowid article on Nitrous Oxide ... Today, nitrous oxide is used in dentistry as an anxiolytic, as an adjunct to local anaesthetic. Nitrous oxide was not found to ... Nitrous oxide is 30 to 40 times more soluble than nitrogen. The effects of inhaling sub-anaesthetic doses of nitrous oxide have ... Nitrous oxide is stored as a compressed liquid; the evaporation and expansion of liquid nitrous oxide in the intake manifold ...
... with sodium ions tetrahedrally coordinated to 4 oxide ions and oxide cubically coordinated to 8 sodium ions. Sodium oxide is ... Instead "sodium oxide" is used to describe components of various materials such as glasses and fertilizers which contain oxides ... The structure of sodium oxide has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Most alkali metal oxides M2O (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) ... sodium oxide, 70% silica (silicon dioxide), and 9% lime (calcium oxide). The sodium carbonate "soda" serves as a flux to lower ...
... can refer to: Phosphorus pentoxide (phosphorus(V) oxide, phosphoric anhydride), P2O5 Phosphorus trioxide ( ... phosphorus(III) oxide, phosphorous anhydride), P2O3 Phosphorus tetroxide, P2O4 Several other, less common, oxides of phosphorus ...
... acidic oxides, basic oxides, and amphoteric oxides and neutral oxides.[according to whom?] Basic oxides, can also called base ... H2O Magnesium oxide Calcium oxide Sodium hydroxide Wikimedia Commons has media related to Basic oxides. Acidic oxide Amphoteric ... Basic oxides are oxides that show basic properties in opposition to acidic oxides and that either react with water to form a ... "Basic oxides" is a compound of the words "Basic" and "oxides". The word oxides referred to the chemical compounds that one or ...
... reacts slowly with mercury, producing mercury fluorides, and nitrogen oxides. Trifluoramine oxide is fairly ... Trifluoramine oxide or Nitrogen trifluoride oxide (F3NO) is an inorganic molecule with strong fluorinating powers. ... Trifluoramine oxide has a Trouton's constant of 20.7. Heat of vapourisation at the boiling point is 3.85 kcal/mol. The F3NO ... This differs from the amine oxides where the amine is much more basic and with a positive charge. The N-O bond-length is 1.158 ...
... is on the EPA's Toxics Release Inventory list if it is a fibrous form. Aluminium oxide is an amphoteric ... Aluminium oxide is insoluble in water. In its most commonly occurring crystalline form, called corundum or α-aluminium oxide, ... It is the most commonly occurring of several aluminium oxides, and specifically identified as aluminium oxide. It is commonly ... The primitive cell contains two formula units of aluminium oxide. Aluminium oxide also exists in other metastable phases, ...
... caused widespread damage to concrete council houses built in the United Kingdom in the post World War II era. ... Oxide jacking damaged the terra cotta cornice on the Land Title Building in Philadelphia, designed in 1897 and expanded in 1902 ... The expansive force of rusting, which may be called oxide jacking or rust burst, is a phenomenon that can cause damage to ... Harris also wrote that oxide jacking also damaged the ancient Horses of Saint Mark on the exterior of St. Mark's Basilica in ...
LSAT is a hard, optically transparent oxide of the elements lanthanum, aluminum, strontium and tantalum. LSAT has the ... LSAT substrates are popular for epitaxial oxides and their heterostructures, often in the study of electron correlation ... Å makes it compatible for the growth of a wide range of perovskite oxides with a relatively low strain. LSAT's melting ...
Oxides of FeII FeO: iron(II) oxide, wüstite Mixed oxides of FeII and FeIII Fe3O4: Iron(II,III) oxide, magnetite Fe4O5 Fe5O6 ... Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen. Several iron oxides are recognized. All are black magnetic ... Information from Nano-Oxides, Inc. on Fe2O3. The Iron One-Pot Reaction Iron Oxide Pigments Statistics and Information CDC - ... Iron oxides are important pigments, coming in a variety of colors (black, red, yellow). Among their many advantages, they are ...
... , also known as iodohypoiodite, is an oxide of iodine that is equivalent to an acid anhydride of hypoiodous acid ... Diiodine oxide can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium iodate (KIO3) in 96% sulfuric acid and then extracting it into ... Diiodine oxide reacts with water to form hypoiodous acid: I2O + H2O → 2 HIO Oxygen difluoride Dichlorine monoxide Dibromine ...
Triphenylphosphine oxide is an example. An inorganic phosphine oxide is phosphoryl chloride (POCl3). Tertiary phosphine oxides ... Secondary phosphine oxides (R2P(O)H) are tautomers of phosphinous acids (R2POH). Phosphine oxide is reported as an intermediate ... Phosphine oxides are phosphorus compounds with the formula OPX3. When X = alkyl or aryl, these are organophosphine oxides. ... One commercially available example of a secondary phosphine oxide is diphenylphosphine oxide. SPOs are used in the formulation ...
Since styrene oxide has a chiral center at the benzylic carbon atom, there are (R)-styrene oxide and (S)-styrene oxide. If ... Styrene oxide is subsequently hydrolyzed in vivo to styrene glycol by epoxide hydrolase. Styrene oxide has a chiral center and ... styrene oxide was preferentially formed in mice, especially in the lung, whereas the (S)-styrene oxide was preferentially ... Styrene oxide is an epoxide derived from styrene. It can be prepared by epoxidation of styrene with peroxybenzoic acid, in the ...
... (often abbreviated TPPO) is the organophosphorus compound with the formula OP(C6H5)3, also written as ... ISBN 0-444-89307-5. M. C. Etter and P. W. Baures (1988). "Triphenylphosphine oxide as a crystallization aid". J. Am. Chem. Soc ... van Kalkeren, H. A.; van Delft, F. L.; Rutjes, F. P. J. T. (2013). "Organophosphorus Catalysis to Bypass Phosphine Oxide Waste ... Spek, Anthony L. (1987). "Structure of a second monoclinic polymorph of triphenylphosphine oxide". Acta Crystallographica. C43 ...
... (SOx) refers to one or more of the following: Lower sulfur oxides (SnO, S7O2 and S6O2) Sulfur monoxide (SO) and ... Sulfur oxide refers to many types of sulfur and oxygen containing compounds such as SO, SO2, SO3, S7O2, S6O2, S2O2, etc. ... its dimer, Disulfur dioxide (S2O2) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Sulfur trioxide (SO3) Higher sulfur oxides (SO3 and SO4 and polymeric ...
... is an organophosphorus compound with the formula (C6H5)2P(O)H. It is a white solid that soluble in ... Diphenylphosphine oxide can be prepared by the reaction of phosphonic esters, such as diethylphosphite, with Grignard reagents ... Diphenylphosphine oxide exists in equilibrium with its minor tautomer diphenylphosphinous acid, ((C6H5)2POH: (C6H5)2P(O)H ⇌ ( ... Hunt, B. B.; Saunders, B. C. (1957). "Preparation and Reactions of Diphenylphosphine Oxide". J. Chem. Soc.: 2413-2414. doi: ...
... may refer to: Tellurium monoxide, TeO Tellurium dioxide, TeO2 Tellurium trioxide, TeO3 This set index page ...
... is an oxide of the element uranium. The metal uranium forms several oxides: Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide ... oxide (UO3) Triuranium octoxide (U3O8), the most stable uranium oxide; yellowcake typically contains 70 to 90 percent ... 3 UO2 + O2 → U3O8; at 700 °C (970 K) During World War II, "Preparation 38" was the codename for uranium oxide used by German ... 135 Uranium Oxide International Bio-Analytical Industries, Inc. Archived January 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Geoffrey ...
Ethylene Oxide "Gas" Sterilization. Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities (2008) ...
Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide have been found in at least 9 and 6 of the 1,585 National Priorities List sites identified by ... Exposure to high levels of nitrogen oxides can damage the respiratory airways. Contact with the skin or eyes can cause burns. ... Everybody is exposed to small amounts of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. Higher exposure may occur by burning wood or kerosene ... What are nitrogen oxides?. Nitrogen oxides are a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Two of the most ...
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), ,svg xmlns:xlink= xmlns= ... match well with JCPDS card number 39-1346 for cubic-structure iron oxide with nm. However, it is difficult to distinguish the γ ... Facile Synthesis and Special Phase Transformation of Hydrophilic Iron Oxides Nanoparticles. Liqiao Chen. ,1Yunqian Long. ,1Zhe ... Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), -Fe2O3, with hydrophilic surfaces are fabricated in ethylene glycol ...
Nitrous Oxide Systems. The originator of the laughing-gas market, Nitrous Oxide Systems, better known as NOS (not Nossss!) has ... Mustang Nitrous Oxide Kits - A Laughing Matter - Tech. And They Say Having Gas Is A Bad Thing. ... In that case, the laughing will come when you beat up that pesky Camaro after activating the shot of nitrous oxide you ...
Significance and Use 3.1 Zinc oxide is an important rubber compounding material. It is used to activate the organic ... 1.1 This classification system covers the compounding material commercially known as zinc oxide. The types of zinc oxide used ... 3.1 Zinc oxide is an important rubber compounding material. It is used to activate the organic accelerators to increase the ... Standard Classification for Rubber Compounding Materials-Zinc Oxide. Standard Classification for Rubber Compounding Materials- ...
We offer the Tim Holtz Distress® Oxide® Spray Set #2, 3ct. for $13.99 with free shipping available. ... Tim Holtz Distress® Oxide® Spray Set #2, 3ct.. .css-fyhb53{color:#757575;font-family:inherit;font-size:12px;font-weight:400; ...
... of the metal-oxide/organic interface. We evidence that plasmonically sensitized metal-oxide layers facilitate electron ... As underlying mechanism the transfer of hot holes from the metal to the oxide upon illumination with hν < Eg is verified. ... In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are used to plasmonically sensitize metal-oxide based EELs in the vicinity (1-20 nm) ... It is shown that in the plasmonically sensitized metal-oxides the illumination with visible light lowers the WF due to ...
Brass Oxide will make a great addition to your Celtic themed decor adding the finishing touch to your cabinets or drawers. ... Each Buck Snort Lodge unique Celtic Knob, Brass Oxide will make a great addition to your Celtic themed decor adding the ... Each Buck Snort Lodge unique Celtic Knob, Brass Oxide will make a great addition to your Celtic themed decor adding the ...
T 1596/16 (Aluminum oxide/Fujimi) of 14.6.2019. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2019:T159616.20190614. ... 1. Aluminum oxide particles characterized by primary particles each having a hexahedral shape and an aspect ratio of 1 to 5. ... The only independent claim of the patent as granted (main request) relates to aluminum oxide particles and reads as follows:. ... 3.3 According to Table 1 and Figures 1-2 of the patent in suit, aluminum oxide particles having the required shape and aspect ...
The semiconducting oxide material can be a transition metal oxide material such as zinc oxide, and can be in an active layered ... deposited on an exposed region of the oxide layer such as by spinning, spincasting, evaporation, or vacuum deposition or an ... In transistor structures such as thin film transistors (TFTs) in an array of cells, a layer of semiconducting oxide material ... zinc-indium-oxide, zinc-tin-oxide, indium oxide, and indium-gallium oxide; the layer of semiconducting oxide material can be ...
INEOS Launches new Bio-Attributed Ethylene Oxide, Completely Substitutes Fossil... Read more ... INEOS Oxide news and the latest information. ...
The most common forms of copper oxide are copper (I) oxide and copper (II) oxide. These forms of copper oxide and other formats ... Copper (I) oxide is a reddish powder, whereas Copper (II) oxide is a black powder. These inorganic compounds occur naturally as ... Both forms of copper oxide are used to produce pigments. The I and II in copper oxide represent the number of electrons th ... What is copper oxide?. The most common forms of copper oxide are copper (I) oxide and copper (II) oxide. These forms of copper ...
"Heterocyclic Oxides" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Heterocyclic Oxides" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ... Oxides of a ring compound having atoms other than carbon in its ring. ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Heterocyclic Oxides" by people in Profiles. ...
A meta description is an HTML tag in the HTML code of your website, which allows you to customize a section of text that describes the page itself. It plays a role in how your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and how it appears in SERPs
Due to recent changes and regulations, Klingspors Woodworking Shop has changed its Sales Tax Policy. If you or your company are Sales Tax Exempt and you have NOT submitted your Exemption Certificate for application to your account within the last year, please send a copy to [email protected] before proceeding any further. If your certificate has NOT been received and applied to your account, you will be charged NONREFUNDABLE sales tax on your order. This applies to ALL customers within the United States as we currently meet NEXUS requirements to collect and remit sales tax in 32 states. If you have NOT submitted an updated copy of your certificate or provided us with your Certificate of Exemption within the last year, please confirm that your information did make the transition over to the new system. You can confirm your exemption status by sending an email with your name, address, and phone number to [email protected]. ...
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Graphene oxide is an insulating and defective version of graphene that can be converted to a conductor or a semiconductor when ... The researchers are the first to show that a flexible paper composed entirely of graphene oxide sheets can charge and discharge ... For example, reduced graphene oxide sheets, or rGO, produced at high temperature have near zero sodium capacity, while reduced ... Singh and his team also studied the mechanical behavior of the electrodes made of reduced graphene oxide sheets. The ...
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Oxide interfaces. Our group focusses on the electronic structure of correlated systems in various forms, e.g. transition metal ... Recently, we also started to investigate oxide heterostructure materials.. The main experimental method is photoemission ... oxides (TMOs), high-TC superconductors and other low-dimensional systems like organic systems and nanowires on semiconductor ...
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  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about nitrogen oxides. (
  • Everybody is exposed to small amounts of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. (
  • Exposure to high levels of nitrogen oxides can damage the respiratory airways. (
  • What are nitrogen oxides? (
  • Nitrogen oxides are a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are released to the air from the exhaust of motor vehicles, the burning of coal, oil, or natural gas, and during processes such as arc welding, electroplating, engraving, and dynamite blasting. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are used in the production of nitric acid, lacquers, dyes, and other chemicals. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are also used in rocket fuels, nitration of organic chemicals, and the manufacture of explosives. (
  • What happens to nitrogen oxides when they enter the environment? (
  • Nitrogen oxides are broken down rapidly in the atmosphere by reacting with other substances commonly found in the air. (
  • Small amounts of nitrogen oxides may evaporate from water, but most of it will react with water and form nitric acid. (
  • When released to soil, small amounts of nitrogen oxides may evaporate into air. (
  • Nitrogen oxides do not build up in the food chain. (
  • How might I be exposed to nitrogen oxides? (
  • The general population is primarily exposed to nitrogen oxides by breathing in air. (
  • People who live near combustion sources such as coal burning power plants or areas with heavy motor vehicle use may be exposed to higher levels of nitrogen oxides. (
  • Households that burn a lot of wood or use kerosene heaters and gas stoves tend to have higher levels of nitrogen oxides in them when compared to houses without these appliances. (
  • Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide are found in tobacco smoke, so people who smoke or breathe in second-hand smoke may be exposed to nitrogen oxides. (
  • Workers employed in facilities that produce nitric acid or certain explosives like dynamite and trinitrotoluene (TNT), as well as workers involved in the welding of metals may breath in nitrogen oxides during their work. (
  • How can nitrogen oxides affect my health? (
  • Low levels of nitrogen oxides in the air can irritate your eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, possibly causing you to cough and experience shortness of breath, tiredness, and nausea. (
  • Breathing high levels of nitrogen oxides can cause rapid burning, spasms, and swelling of tissues in the throat and upper respiratory tract, reduced oxygenation of body tissues, a build-up of fluid in your lungs, and death. (
  • We do not know if exposure to nitrogen oxides will result in reproductive effects in humans. (
  • How likely are nitrogen oxides to cause cancer? (
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified nitrogen oxides for potential carcinogenicity. (
  • NITROGEN OXIDES (nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, etc. (
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about nitrogen oxides (nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, etc. (
  • The reaction of nitrogen dioxide with Nitrogen oxides are a mixture of gases that are composed of chemicals produced by sunlight leads to the formation of nitrogen and oxygen. (
  • at room temperature, whereas nitrogen dioxide has a strong, ` Small amounts of nitrogen oxides may evaporate from harsh odor and is a liquid at room temperature, becoming a water, but most of it will react with water and form nitric acid. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are released to the air from the exhaust of converted to nitric acid or other compounds. (
  • motor vehicles, the burning of coal, oil, or natural gas, and ` Nitrogen oxides do not build up in the food chain. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are used in the production of nitric acid, sources such as coal burning power plants or areas with lacquers, dyes, and other chemicals. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are heavy motor vehicle use may be exposed to higher levels of also used in rocket fuels, nitration of organic chemicals, and nitrogen oxides. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are broken down rapidly in the ` Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide are found in tobacco atmosphere by reacting with other substances commonly smoke, so people who smoke or breathe in second-hand smoke may be exposed to nitrogen oxides. (
  • But we do not know if exposure to nitrogen oxides might well as workers involved in the welding of metals may breath cause developmental effects in humans. (
  • in nitrogen oxides during their work. (
  • Low levels of nitrogen oxides in the air can irritate your eyes, Families with indoor gas stoves, space heaters, or indoor nose, throat, and lungs, possibly causing you to cough and cigarette smoke can minimize indoor exposure to nitrogen experience shortness of breath, tiredness, and nausea. (
  • We measure exposure to ground-level nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) using a country's ambient ground-level concentration. (
  • Nitrous oxide (N 2 0) is a colorless gas stored as a liquid. (
  • Breathing nitrous oxide can cause dizziness, unconsciousness, and even death. (
  • Contact with liquid nitrous oxide can cause severe frostbite. (
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to nitrous oxide. (
  • Nitrous oxide is used in many industries. (
  • If you work in an industry that uses nitrous oxide, read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to nitrous oxide. (
  • Useful search terms for nitrous oxide include "dinitrogen monoxide," "hyponitrous acid anhydride," and "laughing gas. (
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on nitrous oxide - NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (
  • NIOSH (FACE) Fire Investigation Report - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. F2003-03 (2003) - Volunteer fire fighter dies following nitrous oxide cylinder explosion while fighting commercial structure fire in Texas. (
  • NIOSH Hazard Control - Control of Nitrous Oxide During Cryosurgery - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 99-105 (1999) - NIOSH studies have shown that N 2 O in the air in cryosurgical units can be effectively controlled by ventilation and equipment maintenance, and if this is not possible, through using a less hazardous cryogenic gas. (
  • NIOSH Hazard Control - Control of Nitrous Oxide in Dental Operatories - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 96-107 (1998) - Dental workers are exposed to nitrous oxide (N 2 O) when patients receive it as an anesthetic. (
  • NIOSH Report - Control of Nitrous Oxide in Dental Operatories - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-129 (1994) - Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), conducted four in-depth field evaluations, and one laboratory study to evaluate three commercial dental operatory waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems for their effectiveness in reducing nitrous oxide exposure. (
  • NIOSH Alert - Controlling Exposures to Nitrous Oxide During Anesthetic Administration - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-100 (1994) - This alert presents control measures for preventing or greatly reducing exposure to N 2 O during the administration of anesthetic gas. (
  • NIOSH Update - NIOSH Warns: Nitrous Oxide Continues to Threaten Health Care Workers - DHHS (NIOSH) (1994) - NIOSH warns that even with preventive measures such as scavenging systems in place workers may be at risk for serious health effects due to their exposure to nitrous oxide. (
  • In that case, the laughing will come when you beat up that pesky Camaro after activating the shot of nitrous oxide you stealthily hooked up. (
  • The Trudeau government, as part of its "net-zero" framework, has set its sights on one particular greenhouse gas that's near and dear to the hearts, lungs and stomachs of Canadians-namely nitrous oxide, a gas species composed of two atoms of nitrogen, one atom of oxygen and sometimes known as laughing gas. (
  • Canada's biggest source of nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions is its agricultural sector where N₂O emissions were about three-and-a-half times higher than other major sources combined (in 2018). (
  • Nitrogen, from fertilizer applied to crops that is not taken up or later re-excreted by plants, is used by organisms in the soil for their own metabolic needs and they generate nitrous oxide as a byproduct. (
  • One such alert, Request for Assistance in Controlling Exposures to Nitrous Oxide During Anesthetic Administration (1), was published recently and is available to the public. (
  • Nitrous oxide is used as an anesthetic agent in medical, dental, and veterinary operatories. (
  • in a 1991 survey by the American Dental Association, 58% of dentists reported having nitrous oxide anesthetic equipment. (
  • Workers exposed to nitrous oxide may suffer adverse reproductive effects and decreases in mental performance, audiovisual ability, and manual dexterity. (
  • This alert presents control measures for preventing or substantially reducing exposure to nitrous oxide during administration of anesthetic gas. (
  • More and more, sedation with nitrous oxide has been proved a useful tool for such procedures, but its use requires a previous knowledge of their biochemistry and equipment to make it possible in a safe and secure way for both the professional and the patient. (
  • Objective: This paper aims discussing the use of nitrous oxide in dental practice as clinical tool for conscious sedation, as well as the care needed and its indications and contraindications. (
  • Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide have been found in at least 9 and 6 of the 1,585 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), respectively. (
  • Nitric oxide is a sharp sweet-smelling gas at room temperature, whereas nitrogen dioxide has a strong, harsh odor and is a liquid at room temperature, becoming a reddish-brown gas above 70°F. (
  • Nitric oxide is a sharp sweet-smelling gas breathe. (
  • Objectives: The current study was designed to evaluate protective role of the ethanolic fenugreek seed extract (FSE) and potentiating its effects with nitric oxide (NO) modulators in experimental arthritis and its comparison with the standard drug methotrexate. (
  • Gurpreet Singh, assistant professor of mechanical and nuclear engineering, and Lamuel David, doctoral student in mechanical engineering, India , published their findings in the Journal of Physical Chemistry in the article "Reduced graphene oxide paper electrode: Opposing effect of thermal annealing on Li and Na cyclability. (
  • Graphene oxide is an insulating and defective version of graphene that can be converted to a conductor or a semiconductor when it is heated. (
  • Singh and his team studied graphene oxide sheets as flexible paper electrodes for sodium- and lithium-ion batteries. (
  • For example, reduced graphene oxide sheets, or rGO, produced at high temperature have near zero sodium capacity, while reduced graphene oxide sheets produced at 500 degrees C have the maximum capacity. (
  • The observation is important because graphite, which is a precursor for making graphene oxide, has negligible capacity for sodium and has long been ruled out as viable electrode for sodium-batteries," Singh said. (
  • The researchers are the first to show that a flexible paper composed entirely of graphene oxide sheets can charge and discharge with sodium-ions for more than 1,000 cycles. (
  • Singh and his team also studied the mechanical behavior of the electrodes made of reduced graphene oxide sheets. (
  • Through videography, they showed the ability of the crumpled graphene oxide papers to sustain large strains before failing. (
  • They found their answer in graphene oxide, which can cycle sodium-ions for more than 1,000 cycles. (
  • INEOS Launches new Bio-Attributed Ethylene Oxide, Completely Substitutes Fossil. (
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that the IARC Monographs volume on styrene, styrene-7,8-oxide, and quinoline is now available online. (
  • This volume provides evaluations of the carcinogenicity of styrene, styrene-7,8-oxide, and quinoline. (
  • Styrene-7,8-oxide is primarily used to produce epoxy resins. (
  • Styrene-7,8-oxide is the primary metabolite of styrene in humans. (
  • Styrene and styrene-7,8-oxide are found in workplace air, particularly in the reinforced plastics and rubber industries. (
  • Clara cells lining the respiratory epithelium metabolize ST to styrene 7,8- oxide (SO), which is cytotoxic and weakly genotoxic. (
  • Our group focusses on the electronic structure of correlated systems in various forms, e.g. transition metal oxides (TMO's), high-TC superconductors and other low-dimensional systems like organic systems and nanowires on semiconductor substrates. (
  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) attracted increasing attention due to their promising applications like tissue cryopreservation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), immunoassay, biomolecule separation, hyperthermia, and drug delivery [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • Benefiting from previous study [ 13 ], we find a novel route to synthesize superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles through α -Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles as precursor in this study, only in presence of ethylene glycol, without the presence of any other agents, surfactants, and additives. (
  • In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are used to plasmonically sensitize metal-oxide based EELs in the vicinity (1-20 nm) of the metal-oxide/organic interface. (
  • Leaves extract of Citrofortunella macrocarpa (Calamondin) is used to synthesize Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) as a green and environment-friendly reducing agent and a capping agent. (
  • Indium tin oxide, which does not occur naturally, is a chemical with a low production volume that is a mixture of indium oxide and stannic oxide. (
  • The patent in suit concerns aluminum oxide particles and a polishing composition containing the same. (
  • In its decision, the opposition division dealt with the ground for opposition pursuant to Article 100(b) EPC and found that the invention was not sufficiently disclosed because how to obtain the claimed aluminum oxide particles was not known. (
  • 1. Aluminum oxide particles characterized by primary particles each having a hexahedral shape and an aspect ratio of 1 to 5. (
  • It was common ground between the parties that the claimed aluminum oxide particles could be produced by calcining a hydrated alumina having the claimed morphology and aspect ratio, the morphology and aspect ratio of said hydrated alumina used as raw material being maintained during the calcination (paragraph [0037] of the patent in suit). (
  • Prior to the impact of COVID-19 on the chemicals and materials industry and the price of the Spherical Aluminum Oxide Powder, many industry observers expected low to flat growth in 2021 in all regions outside Asia, with many countries seeing slower growth compared to recent years. (
  • A request was received from the International Chemical Workers Union to investigate respiratory symptoms occurring from possible exposure to silica (7631869) dust along with neurologic symptoms of memory loss and disorientation from possible exposure to aluminum-oxide (1344281) dust at the Sancap Abrasives Inc. (SIC-3291) facility in Alliance, Ohio. (
  • The amounts of quartz (14808607) and cristobalite (14464461) in two bulk samples of aluminum-oxide were also below the detection limits. (
  • It has over 12 years of experience providing ultra-high quality chemicals and nanotechnology materials, including copper oxide, nitride powder, graphite powder, sulfide powder, and 3D printing powder. (
  • It is shown that in the plasmonically sensitized metal-oxides the illumination with visible light lowers the WF due to desorption of previously ionosorbed oxygen, in analogy to the process found in neat metal oxides upon UV exposure, only. (
  • These forms of copper oxide and other formats are formed when oxygen combines with copper in different ways. (
  • Oxides of a ring compound having atoms other than carbon in its ring. (
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to magnesium oxide, other antacids or laxatives, or any other drugs. (
  • Exposure to indium tin oxide occurs mainly in occupational settings, during production and processing, or during recycling of elemental indium. (
  • Recently, we also started to investigate oxide heterostructure materials. (
  • If you are taking magnesium oxide on a regular schedule, take the missed dose as soon you remember it. (
  • Influence of surface treatment of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconium oxides and cement type on crown retention after artificial aging. (
  • A general phenomenon of OSCs incorporating these metal-oxides is the requirement to illuminate the devices with UV light in order to improve device characteristics. (
  • The general applicability of this concept to most common metal-oxides (e.g. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Heterocyclic Oxides" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Heterocyclic Oxides" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Heterocyclic Oxides" by people in Profiles. (
  • The most common forms of copper oxide are copper (I) oxide and copper (II) oxide. (
  • If you were to come into skin or eye contact with high concentrations of nitrogen oxide gases or nitrogen dioxide liquid, you would likely experience serious burns. (
  • If you are looking for high-quality and cost-effective copper oxide, you are welcome to contact us or inquire any time. (
  • Copper oxide particle size and purity will affect the product's Price, and the purchase volume can also affect the cost of Copper oxide. (
  • The Price of copper oxide is on our company's official website. (
  • oxides by periodically allowing fresh outdoor air into the Exposure to low levels can also result in fluid build-up in the home. (
  • Both forms of copper oxide are used to produce pigments. (
  • If you become pregnant while taking magnesium oxide, call your doctor immediately. (
  • Copper(II) oxide forms naturally in the Earth due to the weathering of copper sulfides (Cu2S and CuS). (
  • Heterocyclic Oxides" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Hazardous Decomposition Products: Copper oxide fume. (

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