An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
The act of BREATHING out.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Inorganic chemicals that contain manganese as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Relating to the size of solids.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Retinoic acid, but not arsenic trioxide, degrades the PLZF/RARalpha fusion protein, without inducing terminal differentiation or apoptosis, in a RA-therapy resistant t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL patient. (1/1663)

Primary blasts of a t(11;17)(q23;q21) acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) patient were analysed with respect to retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) sensitivity as well as PLZF/RARalpha status. Although RA induced partial monocytic differentiation ex vivo, but not in vivo, As203 failed to induce apoptosis in culture, contrasting with t(15;17) APL and arguing against the clinical use of As203 in t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL. Prior to cell culture, PLZF/RARalpha was found to exactly co-localize with PML onto PML nuclear bodies. However upon cell culture, it quickly shifted towards microspeckles, its localization found in transfection experiments. Arsenic trioxide, known to induce aggregation of PML nuclear bodies, left the microspeckled PLZF/RARalpha localization completely unaffected. RA treatment led to PLZF/RARalpha degradation. However, this complete PLZF/RARalpha degradation was not accompanied by differentiation or apoptosis, which could suggest a contribution of the reciprocal RARalpha/PLZF fusion product in leukaemogenesis or the existence of irreversible changes induced by the chimera.  (+info)

Determination of the anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide di- and trihexoside by chromium trioxide oxidation. (2/1663)

The anomeric configurations of Corbicula ceramide dihexoside and ceramide trihexoside were determined by chromium trioxide oxidation and the structures of these lipids were shown to be Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide and Man-alpha(1 leads to 4)-Man-beta(1 leads to 4)-Glc-beta(1 leads to 1)-ceramide. These results are compatible with those obtained by enzymic hydrolysis reported previously.  (+info)

A functional model for O-O bond formation by the O2-evolving complex in photosystem II. (3/1663)

The formation of molecular oxygen from water in photosynthesis is catalyzed by photosystem II at an active site containing four manganese ions that are arranged in di-mu-oxo dimanganese units (where mu is a bridging mode). The complex [H2O(terpy)Mn(O)2Mn(terpy)OH2](NO3)3 (terpy is 2,2':6', 2"-terpyridine), which was synthesized and structurally characterized, contains a di-mu-oxo manganese dimer and catalyzes the conversion of sodium hypochlorite to molecular oxygen. Oxygen-18 isotope labeling showed that water is the source of the oxygen atoms in the molecular oxygen evolved, and so this system is a functional model for photosynthetic water oxidation.  (+info)

Arsenic trioxide and melarsoprol induce apoptosis in plasma cell lines and in plasma cells from myeloma patients. (4/1663)

Recent data have renewed the interest for arsenic-containing compounds as anticancer agents. In particular, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been demonstrated to be an effective drug in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia by inducing programmed cell death in leukemic cells both in vitro and in vivo. This prompted us to study the in vitro effects of As2O3 and of another arsenical derivative, the organic compound melarsoprol, on human myeloma cells and on the plasma cell differentiation of normal B cells. At pharmacological concentrations (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L), As2O3 and melarsoprol caused a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of survival and growth in myeloma cell lines that was, in some, similar to that of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Both arsenical compounds induced plasma cell apoptosis, as assessed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, detection of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface using annexin V, and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay. As2O3 and melarsoprol also inhibited viability and growth and induced apoptosis in plasma-cell enriched preparations from the bone marrow or blood of myeloma patients. In nonseparated bone marrow samples, both arsenical compounds triggered death in myeloma cells while sparing most myeloid cells, as demonstrated by double staining with annexin V and CD38 or CD15 antibodies. In primary myeloma cells as in cell lines, interleukin 6 did not prevent arsenic-induced cell death or growth inhibition, and no synergistic effect was observed with IFN-alpha. In contrast to As2O3, melarsoprol only slightly reduced the plasma cell differentiation of normal B cells induced by pokeweed mitogen. Both pokeweed mitogen-induced normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells showed a normal nuclear distribution of PML protein, which was disrupted by As2O3 but not by melarsoprol, suggesting that the two arsenical derivatives acted by different mechanisms. These results point to the use of arsenical derivatives as investigational drugs in the treatment of multiple myeloma.  (+info)

A physiological barrier distal to the anatomic blood-brain barrier in a model of transvascular delivery. (5/1663)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) provides a method for transvascular delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain. The apparent global delivery of viral-sized iron oxide particles to the rat brain after BBB opening as seen on MR images was compared with the cellular and subcellular location and distribution of the particles. METHODS: Two dextran-coated superparamagnetic monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticle contrast agents, MION and Feridex, were administered intraarterially in rats at 10 mg Fe/kg immediately after osmotic opening of the BBB with hyperosmolar mannitol. After 2 to 24 hours, iron distribution in the brain was evaluated first with MR imaging then by histochemical analysis and electron microscopy to assess perivascular and intracellular distribution. RESULTS: After BBB opening, MR images showed enhancement throughout the disrupted hemisphere for both Feridex and MION. Feridex histochemical staining was found in capillaries of the disrupted hemisphere. Electron microscopy showed that the Feridex particles passed the capillary endothelial cells but did not cross beyond the basement membrane. In contrast, after MION delivery, iron histochemistry was detected within cell bodies in the disrupted hemisphere, and the electron-dense MION core was detected intracellularly and extracellularly in the neuropil. CONCLUSION: MR images showing homogeneous delivery to the brain at the macroscopic level did not indicate delivery at the microscopic level. These data support the presence of a physiological barrier at the basal lamina, analogous to the podocyte in the kidney, distal to the anatomic (tight junction) BBB, which may limit the distribution of some proteins and viral particles after transvascular delivery to the brain.  (+info)

Comparison of ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced T2-weighted, conventional T2-weighted, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (6/1663)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIO) constitute a contrast agent that accumulates in cells from the mononuclear phagocytic system. In the CNS they may accumulate in phagocytic cells such as macrophages. The goal of this study was to compare USPIO-enhanced MR images with conventional T2-weighted images and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: Nine rats with EAE and four control rats were imaged at 4.7 T and 1.5 T with conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences, gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, and T2-weighted sequences obtained 24 hours after intravenous injection of a USPIO contrast agent, AMI-227. Histologic examination was performed with hematoxylin-eosin stain, Perls' stain for iron, and ED1 immunohistochemistry for macrophages. RESULTS: USPIO-enhanced images showed a high sensitivity (8/9) for detecting EAE lesions, whereas poor sensitivity was obtained with T2-weighted images (1/9) and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images (0/9). All the MR findings in the control rats were negative. Histologic examination revealed the presence of macrophages at the site where abnormalities were seen on USPIO-enhanced images. CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity of USPIO for macrophage activity relative to other imaging techniques is explained by the histologic findings of numerous perivascular cell infiltrates, including macrophages, in EAE. This work supports the possibility of intracellular USPIO transport to the CNS by monocytes/macrophages, which may have future implications for imaging of human inflammatory diseases.  (+info)

Iron reductase for magnetite synthesis in the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum. (7/1663)

Ferric iron reductase was purified from magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum (formerly Aquaspirillum) magnetotacticum (ATCC 31632) to an electrophoretically homogeneous state. The enzyme was loosely bound on the cytoplasmic face of the cytoplasmic membrane and was found more frequently in magnetic cells than in nonmagnetic cells. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was calculated upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be about 36 kDa, almost the same as that calibrated by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme required NADH and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as optimal electron donor and cofactor, respectively, and the activity was strongly inhibited by Zn2+ acting as a partial mixed-type inhibitor. The Km values for NADH and FMN were 4.3 and 0. 035 microM, respectively, and the Ki values for Zn2+ were 19.2 and 23.9 microM for NADH and FMN, respectively. When the bacterium was grown in the presence of ZnSO4, the magnetosome number in the cells and the ferric iron reductase activity declined in parallel with an increase in the ZnSO4 concentration of the medium, suggesting that the ferric iron reductase purified in the present study may participate in magnetite synthesis.  (+info)

Evidence of a cyclooxygenase-related prostaglandin synthesis in coral. The allene oxide pathway is not involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis. (8/1663)

Certain corals are rich natural sources of prostaglandins, the metabolic origin of which has remained undefined. By analogy with the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase pathway to jasmonic acid in plants, the presence of (8R)-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase in the coral Plexaura homomalla suggested a potential metabolic route to prostaglandins (Brash, A. R., Baertshi, S. W., Ingram, C.D., and Harris, T. M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 15829-15839). Other evidence, from the Arctic coral Gersemia fruticosa, has indicated a cyclooxygenase intermediate in the biosynthesis (Varvas, K., Koljak, R., Jarving, I., Pehk, T., and Samel, N. (1994) Tetrahedron Lett. 35, 8267-8270). In the present study, active preparations of G. fruticosa have been used to identify both types of arachidonic acid metabolism and specific inhibitors were used to establish the enzyme type involved in the prostaglandin biosynthesis. The synthesis of prostaglandins and (11R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was inhibited by mammalian cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, aspirin, and tolfenamic acid), while the formation of the products of the 8-lipoxygenase/allene oxide pathway was not affected or was increased. The specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, nimesulide, did not inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins in coral. We conclude that coral uses two parallel routes for the initial oxidation of polyenoic acids: the cyclooxygenase route, which leads to optically active prostaglandins, and the lipoxygenase/allene oxide synthase metabolism, the role of which remains to be established. An enzyme related to mammalian cyclooxygenases is the key to prostaglandin synthesis in coral. Based on our inhibitor data, the catalytic site of this evolutionary early cyclooxygenase appears to differ significantly from both known mammalian cyclooxygenases.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Arsenic trioxide. T2 - Its use in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. AU - Sanz, Miguel A.. AU - Lo-Coco, Francesco. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) represents approximately 10-15% of all adult cases of acute myeloid leukemia and is characterized by a unique genetic abnormality and frequent association with a severe hemorrhagic diathesis. An arsenic trioxide formulation for intravenous infusion has been developed and is currently licensed for the induction of remission and consolidation in adult patients with relapsed/refractory APL. Several studies have shown that arsenic trioxide is highly effective in the treatment of relapsed/refractory patients with APL, achieving remission rates of ,80%, high rates of molecular remission, and durable periods of disease-free survival. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that arsenic trioxide may also have a role in the treatment of newly diagnosed patients, either as a single agent or in combination ...
Cycle 1 cytarabine 10 mg/m^2 was administered subcutaneously (sc) twice daily (bid) on days 1-14. 0.25 mg/kg arsenic trioxide was administered intravenously (iv) on days 1-5 and days 8-12. Cycle 2 A second identical cycle of cytarabine and arsenic trioxide was given to patients with persistent disease. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR), complete remission with incomplete platelet count recovery (CRp), or partial remission (PR) after 1 or 2 cycles received a 14-day consolidation cycle of cytarabine and arsenic trioxide with the doses and schedule identical to the initial cycle. A recovery period of up to 4 weeks between the attainment of CR, CRp, or PR and the initiation of consolidation treatment was allowed. Patients who completed consolidation treatment started maintenance treatment of arsenic trioxide 0.25 mg/kg iv on days 1 and 4 and cytarabine 10 mg/m^2 sc bid on days 1 through 7 of a 28-day cycle ...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether NRX 195183 is effective in the treatment of relapsed or refractory Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
The purpose of this study is to study the effect of an anticancer drug, Arsenic Trioxide, in patients with small cell lung cancer who have failed at least one standard chemotherapy regimen as well as patients who are unable to tolerate the standard treatment for their cancer. The investigators seek to establish the safety of and efficacy of Arsenic Trioxide in this patient group. The study will include up to 36 participants with small cell lung cancer.. The investigators want to find out what effects, good or bad, that the study drug has on your cancer. This study will also look at specific biomarkers in your blood and in the tumor tissue which may help the investigators to determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to tumor response to treatment.. Arsenic Trioxide, also known by the brand name, Trisenox, is a chemotherapy drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of a specific type of blood cancer called Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia. It works in part ...
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JERUSALEM--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jan. 15, 2018-- Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (NYSE and TASE: TEVA) announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Admini, Teva Announces U.S. FDA Approval of TRISENOX® (arsenic trioxide) Injection for First Line Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
JERUSALEM--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jan. 15, 2018-- Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (NYSE and TASE: TEVA) announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Admini, Teva Announces U.S. FDA Approval of TRISENOX® (arsenic trioxide) Injection for First Line Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
Inhibition of mitochondrial protein translation sensitizes melanoma cells to arsenic trioxide cytotoxicity via a reactive oxygen species dependent mechanism. Benjamin D. Bowling, Nicole Doudican, Prashiela Manga, and Seth J. Orlow, Department of Dermatology, NYU School of Medicine, New York City, New York. (Sponsored by David J. Leffell, Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine). Current standard chemotherapeutic regimens for malignant melanoma are unsatisfactory. Although in vitro studies of arsenic trioxide (ATO) have demonstrated promise against melanoma, recent phase II clinical trials have failed to show any significant clinical benefit when used as a single agent. To enhance the efficacy of ATO in the treatment of melanoma, we sought to identify compounds that potentiate the cytotoxic effects of ATO in melanoma cells. Through a screen of 2000 marketed drugs and naturally occurring compounds, and subsequent mechanistic testing, a variety of antibiotic inhibitors of ...
Description of the drug arsenic trioxide Intravenous. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is arsenic trioxide Intravenous!
Teva Receives FDA Priority Review for First Line Use of TRISENOX® (arsenic trioxide) in Patients with Low to Intermediate Risk Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)
Learn about Trisenox (Arsenic Trioxide Injection) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
(2010) A., S.D.. Blood Reviews. Over the last 17years, clinical trials conducted worldwide have demonstrated the efficacy of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Currently, the role of As2O3 in front-line therapy is under investigation. Recent ...
PubMed journal article: Arsenic Trioxide, Itraconazole, All-Trans Retinoic Acid and Nicotinamide: A Proof of Concept for Combined Treatments with Hedgehog Inhibitors in Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown anti-tumour activity against a variety of solid tumours in vitro. However, the mechanisms responsible for its cytotoxicity against ovarian carcinoma remain elusive. In this thesis, the molecular determinants of its effects and factors mediating its chemoresistance in ovarian cancer cells were investigated. It was found that As2O3 treatment caused both apoptosis induction and caspase-independent cell death involving mitochondrial dysfunction. This was accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum stress induction and an increase in intracellular glutathione (GSH) level. The latter was in turn prevented by the concurrent use of GSH modulator, buthionine sulfoximine but not ascorbic acid. Gene expression analysis of arsenic-resistant OVCAR-3 (OVCAR-3/AsR) cells showed the involvement of multiple factors mediating its chemoresistance. Of particular interest, a genetic hub involving elevated interleukin 1A signalling was identified. This could consecutively modulate the ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of drug resistance by arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) and its possible mechanism in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADM. METHODS: Cytotoxicity of As(2)O(3) and the sensibility to adriamycin (ADM) in MCF-7/ADM cel
Figure 4: Arsenic Trioxide Suppresses Tumor Growth through Antiangiogenesis via Notch Signaling Blockade in Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Arsenic Trioxide, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Glioma That Has Been Removed By Surgery This study is currently…
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Adult patients who received the chemotherapy drug arsenic trioxide (Trisenox) immediately after standard chemotherapy had a significantly higher remission rate and better overall survival than those who received standard chemotherapy, according results of a phase III cancer clinical trial for an uncommon form of leukemia.. Seventy-seven percent of adult patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia who received arsenic trioxide remained alive and in remission, free of relapse, three years after diagnosis. This compared with 59 percent on the standard treatment. The greater effectiveness of the experimental combination also resulted in better overall survival of 86 percent after three years for the patients who received the arsenic trioxide compared to 77 percent for patients on the standard treatment arm.. Dr. Fred Appelbaum, director of the Centers Clinical Research Division, helped conceive, write the protocol, enroll patients and write up the results for the NCI-sponsored trial.. Acute ...
FROM JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. The combination of all-trans--retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide continues to show advantages over ATRA and chemotherapy as first-line therapy for patients with low- or intermediate-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), investigators report.. The final analysis of the APL046 study , a noninferiority trial of ATRA plus arsenic trioxide (ATRA-ATO) vs. ATRA and standard chemotherapy, showed that event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly better among patients assigned to ATRA-ATO. Patients in this group also had a significantly lower cumulative incidence of relapse, reported Francesco Lo-Coco, MD, of University Tor Vergata in Rome and colleagues.. Our results support the use of ATRA-ATO in patients with newly diagnosed APL and point to this strategy as the new standard of care for low- or intermediate-risk patients. Studies exploring the role of ATRA-ATO are warranted in other APL subsets including high-risk, pediatric, and ...
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Rabbit Polyclonal to ACRO (H chain, Cleaved-Ile43) TL may become an effective restorative agent for the treatment of MDS (25), several 162808-62-0 types of human being pancreatic (26) and adrenal (27) malignancy, and Capital t cell lymphocytic leukemia (28) via inducing cell apoptosis through the service of caspase-3 and generation of reactive oxygen varieties (ROS) (25C27). Although particular combination treatments including As2O3 and additional providers, are ongoing for several types of human being tumor, few As2O3 combination treatments are clinically effective. These include combination therapy of As2O3 with ascorbic acid in nonrefractory APL hematologic malignancies and multiple myeloma (18), but not in additional AML except nonrefractory APL, acute lymphoid leukemia (18), chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphoid leukemia (18). The use of phase 2 combination therapy with 162808-62-0 As2O3 and gemtuzumab ozogamicin for the treatment of MDS and secondary AML offers been found to have ...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. PURPOSE: Phase II trial
Learn about the potential side effects of Trisenox (arsenic trioxide). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals. Wenchao Zhou, Lin Cheng, Yu Shi, Susan Q. Ke, Zhi Huang, Xiaoguang Fang, Cheng-wei Chu, Qi Xie, Xiu-wu Bian, Jeremy N. Rich, Shideng Bao
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Functionalized metal oxide particles comprising, on the surface, a radical of formula I (I) wherein the particle comprises an oxide of a metal; R1 is C, (CH2)1-12-C, or (CH2)1-12-O(O)C-C1;R2 is CR4R5, where R4 and R5 are independently se ...
Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) ultrasonic transducers (CUTs) and methods for forming CUTs are described. The CUTs may include monolithically integrated ultrasonic transducers and integ
Global Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) for Batteries Market 2017 intends to provide the elementary information focusing on elite market players, industry competitors to acquaint the users with company breakthroughs which will help them in making appropriate decisions. The indepth study of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) for Batteries market will further help the readers in identifying the growth opportunities and the risk factors on a global scale.. Global Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) for Batteries Report covers distinct aspects of the market including the product category, product specifications, a range of applications and major geographical producing regions. The key regions covered in Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) for Batteries report are the countries present in North America, Europe, APAC, South America, Middle East and Africa.. Global Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) for Batteries Report covers every minute details of the industry and the prominent market ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nano-sized manganese oxide particles prepared by low-pressure spray pyrolysis using FEAG process. AU - Ju, Seo Hee. AU - Kang, Yun Chan. PY - 2008/3/4. Y1 - 2008/3/4. N2 - Nano-sized manganese oxide particles were prepared by low-pressure spray pyrolysis using the new type of liquid aerosol generator called as FEAG process. The particles prepared from polymeric precursors spray solution with organic additives had large size, hollow and fractured morphologies due to the gas evolution from the decomposition of the organic additives. The precursor particles with micron size, hollow and thin wall structures turned to nano-sized manganese oxide particles after post-treatment at temperatures of 700 and 800 °C. The optimum concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene glycol (EG) to prepare the nano-sized manganese oxide particles by spray pyrolysis using the FEAG process were 0.3 M each. The manganese oxide particles prepared from the polymeric precursors spray solutions with high ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biotransformation of manganese oxides by fungi: solubilization and production of manganese oxalate biominerals. AU - Wei, Zhan. AU - Hillier, Stephen. AU - Gadd, Geoffrey M.. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - The ability of the soil fungi Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides to tolerate and solubilize manganese oxides, including a fungal-produced manganese oxide and birnessite, was investigated. Aspergillus niger and S. himantioides were capable of solubilizing all the insoluble oxides when incorporated into solid medium: MnO2 and Mn2O3, mycogenic manganese oxide (MnOx) and birnessite [(Na0.3Ca0.1K0.1)(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O(4)center dot 1.5H2O]. Manganese oxides were of low toxicity and A. niger and S. himantioides were able to grow on 0.5% (w/v) of all the test compounds, with accompanying acidification of the media. Precipitation of insoluble manganese and calcium oxalate occurred under colonies growing on agar amended with all the test manganese oxides after growth of A. niger and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Size control of arsenic trioxide nanocrystals grown in nanowells. AU - You, Eun Ah. AU - Ahn, Richard W.. AU - Min, Hyung Lee. AU - Raja, Meera R.. AU - OHalloran, Thomas V.. AU - Odom, Teri W.. PY - 2009/8/12. Y1 - 2009/8/12. N2 - (Figure Presented) This paper describes a new strategy to generate nanocrystalline drugs through the precipitation of drug molecules in attoliter nanowells. We controlled the size of arsenic trioxide (ATO) nanocrystals by simply changing the concentration of ATO solution in the nanowells; particles with sizes ranging from 55 to 175 nm were formed. This approach only requires the drugs to be soluble in a solvent and thus can be broadly applicable to produce other drugs in nanocrystalline form.. AB - (Figure Presented) This paper describes a new strategy to generate nanocrystalline drugs through the precipitation of drug molecules in attoliter nanowells. We controlled the size of arsenic trioxide (ATO) nanocrystals by simply changing the concentration ...
You searched for: Author Bhat, Ritesh Ashok Remove constraint Author: Bhat, Ritesh Ashok Degree Level Doctoral Remove constraint Degree Level: Doctoral Type Theses Remove constraint Type: Theses Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Metal oxide semiconductors, Complementary Remove constraint Subject: Metal oxide semiconductors, Complementary Subject Radio frequency modulation--Transmitters and transmission Remove constraint Subject: Radio frequency modulation--Transmitters and transmission ... internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine
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Inclusion Criteria: - Diagnosis Patients must have a clinical diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) morphology or FAB M3 variant confirmed by RT-PCR assay for PML-RARα or chromosome analysis/FISH showing t(15:17) translocation. A patient may be entered prior to confirmatory studies, but a patient who is subsequently found to be PML-RARα negative will be removed from protocol treatment. - Prior Treatment The patient must not have received any systemic definitive treatment for APL, including cytotoxic chemotherapy, retinoids or arsenic trioxide. Prior therapy with corticosteroids, hydroxyurea or leukapheresis will not exclude the patient. - Age: Patients must be of age eighteen (18) or above. - Other Criteria - Patients must have the following laboratory values: - Bilirubin equal or less than 1.5 times the upper limit of normal. - Creatinine equal or less than 1.5 times the upper limit of normal - Pregnancy / Nursing Status - Patients entered into this study should be non-pregnant and ...
This phase III trial studies tretinoin and arsenic trioxide in treating patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Standard treatment for
1. Manganese dioxide suspended in an acacia-sodium chloride solution provides a non-toxic injection which in the present experiments has contained no particles larger than 1µ and which, when deposited in the body, can be determined quantitatively and seen microscopically.. 2. Intravenous injections have been made under precautions which preclude removal from the blood or deposition in organs through simple capillary blockage.. 3. In nine experiments out of thirteen the circulating blood contained no manganese after 18 minutes. In the four remaining instances there was a steady slight elimination which was incomplete at the end of 1 hour. Within certain limits the rate of removal from the circulating blood and the sites of deposition in the animal are not influenced by the concentration of the suspension, the blood pressure, or antecedent introduction of acacia or histamine.. 4. In the cat amounts of manganese dioxide varying between 9.8 and 3.9 mg. of manganese and containing from ...
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In the quest for cheap and earth abundant but highly effective and energy efficient water splitting catalysts, manganese oxide represents one of the materials of choice. In the framework of a new hierarchical modeling strategy we employ free non-ligated manganese oxide clusters MnxOx+y(+) (x = 2-5, y = -1, 0, 1, 2) as simplified molecular models to probe the interaction of water with nano-scale manganese oxide materials. Infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IR-MPD) spectroscopy in conjunction with first-principles spin density functional theory calculations is applied to study several series of MnxOx+y(H2O)n(+) complexes and reveal that the reaction of water with MnxOx+y(+) leads to the deprotonation of the water molecules via hydroxylation of the cluster oxo-bridges. This process is independent of the formal Mn oxidation state and occurs already for the first adsorbed water molecule and it proceeds until all oxo-bridges are hydroxylated. Additional water molecules are bound intact and ...
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Graphene is a carbon based material that can be viewed as a one atom thick sheet of graphite and has been investigated intensely in recent years following a report by Novoselov et al. on its isolation and measurement of its unique electronic properties.1 Quickly after its initial discovery, graphene was used to make electronic devices for a variety of applications.2 Because high quality sheets of graphene is often prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD),3,4 which requires expensive equipment, many groups have looked at using graphene oxide as a solution processable alternative for the preparation of graphene like materials.5,6,7 Indeed, graphene oxide can be reduced in solution and as a thin film using a variety of reducing conditions, and reduction converts the graphene oxide into a material that has a large enhancement in electrical conductivity.7,8 In addition to its use in making reduced graphene oxide for electronic devices, graphene oxide
Glossary of terms for the photographic industry CMOS sensor (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconduct An alternative capture device to the CCD Its currently as stable as a CCD but has the advantages of higher pixel count, less battery consumption and lower cost - SWPP
One of the advantages of the gaphene oxide is its easy dispersability in water and other organic solvents, as well as in different matrixes, due to the presence of the oxygen functionalities. This remains as a very important property when mixing the material with ceramic or polymer matrixes when trying to improve their electrical and mechanical properties.. On the other hand, in terms of electrical conductivity, graphene oxide is often described as an electrical insulator, due to the disruption of its sp2 bonding networks. In order to recover the honeycomb hexagonal lattice, and with it the electrical conductivity, the reduction of the graphene oxide has to be achieved. It has to be taken into account that once most of the oxygen groups are removed, the reduced graphene oxide obtained is more difficult to disperse due to its tendency to create aggregates.. Functionalization of graphene oxide can fundamentally change graphene oxides properties. The resulting chemically modified graphenes could ...
As an energy-storage material for batteries and capacitors, manganese dioxide has a lot going for it: its cheap, environmentally friendly and abundant. However, chemical capacitors made with manganese dioxide have lacked the power of the typical carbon-based physical capacitor. Michigan Technological University scientist Dennis Desheng Meng theorized that the situation could be improved if the manganese dioxide were made into nanorods, which are like nanotubes, only solid instead of hollow. However, a stumbling block has been making manganese dioxide nanorods with the right set of attributes. Until now, researchers have been able to grow nanorods that either have the best crystalline structure or were aligned, but not both.. Now, Mengs research group has developed a technique to grow manganese dioxide nanorods that are not only straight and tall (at least by nano-standards), but also have the optimal crystal structure, known as α-MnO2.. This minimizes the internal resistance, allowing the ...
Cell culture and cellular transplant therapies are adversely affected by oxidative species and radicals. Herein, we present the production of bioactive manganese oxide nanoparticles for the purpose of radical scavenging and cytoprotection. Manganese comprises the core active structure of somatic enzymes that perform the same function, in vivo. Formulated nanoparticles were characterized structurally and surveyed for maximal activity (superoxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging with resultant oxygen generation) and minimal cytotoxicity (48-h direct exposure to titrated manganese oxide concentrations). Cytoprotective capacity was tested using cell exposure to hydrogen peroxide in the presence or absence of the nanoparticles. Several ideal compounds were manufactured and utilized that showed complete disproportionation of superoxide produced by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction. Further, the nanoparticles showed catalase-like activity by completely converting hydrogen peroxide into the
During the last decade, ATO has been used effectively to treat both newly diagnosed and relapsed APL patients, with patients showing complete remission after low dose ATO treatment [4]. The anti-cancer ability of ATO is not limited to APL [36] and many other tumors in animal models have been shown to be sensitive to ATO treatment [37, 38]. However, the lack of information on sites of action for ATO cytotoxicity in tumor types other than APL has limited its uptake for the treatment of other cancers until recent years [5].. In this study, we have demonstrated that complex IV of the ETC is a target for ATO. From a panel of ETC inhibitors, the decrease in ROS, decrease in ATP production and MMP depolarisation caused by low dose ATO treatment of T-47D cells was reproduced only by cyanide, a well characterised complex IV inhibitor (Figure 5). Direct measurement of cytochrome C oxidase activity in whole cells treated with ATO confirmed the ability of ATO to inhibit this enzyme activity directly. The ...
This phase III trial studies tretinoin and arsenic trioxide in treating patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Standard treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia involves high doses of a common class of chemotherapy drugs called anthracyclines, which are known to cause long-term side effects, especially to the heart. Tretinoin may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Arsenic trioxide may stop the growth of cancer cells by either killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Completely removing or reducing the amount of anthracycline chemotherapy and giving tretinoin together with arsenic trioxide may be an effective treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia and may reduce some of the long-term side effects.. See detailed information including eligibility.. ...
Using samples of marine sediment taken 20 miles off the California coast and about 1,800 feet deep near methane seeps in the Pacific, Beal incubated a variety of sediment systems including as controls, an autoclaved sterile sample, a sample with sulfate as a control and a sample that was sulfate, iron oxide and manganese oxide free, but live. She also incubated samples that were sulfate free but contained iron oxide or manganese oxide. She placed methane gas that contained the non-radioactive carbon-13 isotope in the empty space in the flasks above the sediment and tested any resulting carbon dioxide produced by the samples. All the carbon dioxide had the carbon-13 isotope and so came from the methane samples ...
Degradation of organic chemicals in natural soils depends on oxidation-reduction conditions. To protect our groundwater resources we need to understand the degradation processes under anaerobic conditions. Available iron and manganese oxides are used as electron acceptors for anaerobic degradation and are reduced to the dissolved form of metallic cations in pore water. To monitor this process is a challenge, because anaerobic conditions are difficult to sample directly without introducing oxygen. A few studies have shown an impact of iron reduction on spectral induced polarisation (SIP) signature, often associated with bacterial growth. Our objective is to study the impact of iron and manganese oxide dissolution, caused by degradation of an organic compound, with spectral induced polarisation signatures. Twenty-six vertical columns (30cm high, inner diameter 4.6cm) were filled with a sand rich in oxides (manganese and iron) with a static water table in the middle. In half of the columns, a 2cm ...
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A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT). However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR) processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge. In this article, two machine learning based single-frame SR processing types are proposed and compared for lensless blood cell counting, namely the Extreme Learning Machine based SR (ELMSR) and Convolutional Neural Network based SR (CNNSR). Moreover, lensless blood cell counting prototypes using commercial CMOS image sensors and custom designed backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors are demonstrated with ELMSR and CNNSR.
Free Online Library: Acute promyelocytic leukaemia, all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic.(Leading Article) by Clinical Dermatology; Health, general Arsenic Physiological aspects Arsenic trioxide Proteases Protein binding Proteins Retinoids
Trisenox (arsenic trioxide) injection has been approved in combination with tretinoin for the treatment of adults with newly-diagnosed low-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)
Reduction in hydraulic conductivity due to manganese dioxide precipitation has been identified as a potential limitation for practical application of in-situ permanganate oxidation remediation technology. The objective of the present research is to quantify the reduction in permeability due to manganese dioxide precipitation. One-dimensional column experiments were performed using medium grain size silica sand to determine hydraulic conductivity reduction as a function of hydraulic gradient and amount of manganese dioxide. Complete plugging of the sand packs was observed at hydraulic gradients near unity within four to eight days of testing. Calculated manganese dioxide concentrations of approximately 0.02 g per cubic centimetre of sand caused complete plugging at hydraulic gradients near unity. The hydraulic conductivity values were highly dependent on hydraulic gradient, where the reduction in hydraulic conductivity was lower for higher gradients. At low hydraulic gradients, the reduction in hydraulic
A functionalized magnetic nickel ferrite/manganese dioxide (NiFe2O4/MnO2) with 3D hierarchical flower-like and core-shell structure was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach and applied for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the effect of solution pH, initial Pb(II) concentration, and dose of
2-Methoxyestradiol Induces Mitotic Arrest, Apoptosis, and Synergistic Cytotoxicity with Arsenic Trioxide in Human Urothelial Carcinoma Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This study is investigating transarterial chemoembolization containing arsenic trioxide in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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University of Manchester scientists have studied membranes from a chemical derivative of graphene called graphene oxide. Graphene oxide is the same graphene sheet but it is randomly covered with other molecules such as hydroxyl groups OH-. Graphene oxide sheets stack on top of each other and form a laminate.. The researchers prepared such laminates that were hundreds times thinner than a human hair but remained strong, flexible and were easy to handle.. When a metal container was sealed with such a film, even the most sensitive equipment was unable to detect air or any other gas, including helium, to leak through.. It came as a complete surprise that, when the researchers tried the same with ordinary water, they found that it evaporates without noticing the graphene seal. Water molecules diffused through the graphene-oxide membranes with such a great speed that the evaporation rate was the same independently whether the container was sealed or completely open.. Dr Rahul Nair, who was leading the ...
Synthesis of Graphene Oxide GO by Modified Hummers Method and Its Thermal Reduction to Obtain Reduced Graphene Oxide rGO*. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
You can imagine that these microscale sheets may be stacked together and chemically linked, allowing us to further optimize the mechanical properties of the resulting macroscale object, Ruoff says. This combination of excellent mechanical properties and chemical tunability should make graphene-based paper an exciting material.. Of further interest are the electrical properties of the graphene oxide paper in comparison to graphene sheets. When we oxidize the graphene sheets to create graphene oxide, the material goes from being an electrical conductor to an electrical insulator, Ruoff says. This is an important step and in the future it will be possible to tune the material as a conductor, semiconductor or insulator. One will be able to control the electrical properties without sacrificing exceptional mechanical properties.. Ruoff sees a wide variety of applications for graphene oxide paper, including membranes with controlled permeability, and for batteries or supercapacitors for energy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modification of standard CMOS technology for cell-based biosensors. AU - Graham, Anthony H D. AU - Surguy, S M. AU - Langlois, P. AU - Bowen, Christopher R. AU - Taylor, John. AU - Robbins, J. PY - 2012/1/15. Y1 - 2012/1/15. N2 - We present an electrode based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology that can be made fully biocompatible and chemically inert using a simple, low-cost and non-specialised process. Since these devices are based on ubiquitous CMOS technology, the integrated circuits can be readily developed to include appropriate amplifiers, filters and wireless subsystems, thus reducing the complexity and cost of external systems. The unprocessed CMOS aluminium electrodes are modified using anodisation and plating techniques which do not require intricate and expensive semiconductor processing equipment and can be performed on the bench-top as a clean-room environment is not required. The resulting transducers are able to detect both the fast ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Confinement of Ultrasmall Cobalt Oxide Clusters within Silicalite-1 Crystals for Efficient Conversion of Fructose into Methyl Lactate. AU - Yan, Yue. AU - Zhang, Zihao. AU - Bak, Seong Min. AU - Yao, Siyu. AU - Hu, Xiaobing. AU - Shadike, Zulipiya. AU - Do-Thanh, Chi Linh. AU - Zhang, Feng. AU - Chen, Hao. AU - Lyu, Xilei. AU - Chen, Kequan. AU - Zhu, Yimei. AU - Lu, Xiuyang. AU - Ouyang, Pingkai. AU - Fu, Jie. AU - Dai, Sheng. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Chemocatalysis of sugars to methyl lactate (MLA) exhibits great advantages over the conventional fermentation approach because of its higher productivity and cost-effective separation process. However, widely used supported metal oxide catalysts suffer from deactivation resulting from sintering during the reaction and removal of coke at high temperatures. Herein, we report ultrasmall cobalt oxide clusters (∼1.7 nm) stabilized within silicalite-1 crystals catalyst ([email protected]), exhibiting superior catalytic ...
The researchers then set out to test the efficiency of the hydrogel, and see how it affected the growth of three different organisms - Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively), and the fungus Candida albicans. To check this, they grew the organisms on four types of surface: plain agar, agar shaped to mimic the crabs carapace, agar with embedded graphene oxide and the agar hydrogel itself.. They found that both the agar shaped to resemble the carapace and the agar containing graphene oxide reduced the growth of all organisms by about 10% as compared to the plain agar. But when the agar was both shaped to mimic the carapace and contained graphene oxide, this reduction of growth was much more prominent. The growth of S. aureus was reduced by as much as 53%, E. coli by 40% and C. albicans by 30%.. The colonies of the organisms that were able to grow were also significantly smaller on the agar hydrogel, with S. aureus colonies reduced by 70%, ...
The most well understood of these substances are carbon monoxide (CO); small particulate matter; nitrous oxide; sulfur oxides; ...
... oxide (iron oxide) reduction. This organism as well as species from the families Shewanella and Geobacteraceae, which includes ... In order to integrate Fe(III) into their respiration, certain DIRB must be able to solubilize Fe(III) oxide, a molecule which ... Though this organism is the first example of such non-contact metabolism of Fe(III) oxide by iron-reducing bacteria, it is ... There are two proposed mechanisms through which this may be accomplished by the bacteria that need insoluble Fe(III) oxide. The ...
... sulfur oxides; nitrogen oxides; and lead. The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants are additional emission ...
Soc., 1960, 82 (17), pp 4663-4669 doi:10.1021/ja01502a053 Amine Oxides. VII. The Thermal Decomposition of the N-Oxides of N- ... ISBN 978-0-471-72091-1. Amine Oxides. VIII. Medium-sized Cyclic Olefins from Amine Oxides and Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides ... The amine oxide is prepared by oxidation of the corresponding amine with an oxidant such as mCPBA. The actual elimination just ... The Cope reaction or Cope elimination, developed by Arthur C. Cope, is an elimination reaction of the N-oxide to form an alkene ...
Malinovskii, M. S.; Medyantseva, N. M. (1953). "Olefin Oxides. IX. Condensation of Olefin Oxides with Nitrosyl Chloride". ... The oxide is converted to caprolactam, a precursor to Nylon-6. Nitrosyl chloride is very toxic and irritating to the lungs, ... In the case of propylene oxide, the addition proceeds with high regiochemistry: It converts amides to N-nitroso derivatives. ... For example, aziridine reacts with NOCl to give ethene, nitrous oxide and hydrogen chloride. NOCl and cyclohexane react ...
"Oxides and Hydroxides." Simon & Schuster's Guide to Rocks and Minerals. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1977. Entry 69. Print. ...
Less well known of the oxides of hydrogen is the trioxide, H2O3. Berthelot proposed the existence of this oxide in 1880 but his ... Tellurium forms an oxide sulfate Te2O3(SO)4. Less common: Polonium forms a sulfate Po(SO4)2. It has been suggested that the ... Germanium forms an unstable sulfate Ge(SO4)2 (d 200 °C). Arsenic forms oxide sulfates As2O(SO4)2 (= As2O3.2SO3) and As2(SO4)3 ... 34-35, doi: 10.1021/ed028p34 Furuseth S, Selte K, Hope H, Kjekshus A & Klewe B 1974, 'Iodine oxides. Part V. The crystal ...
... , also spelled as haematite, is a common iron oxide compound with the formula, Fe2O3 and is widely found in rocks and ... Cornell, Rochelle M.; Schwertmann, Udo (1996). The Iron Oxides. Germany: Wiley. pp. 4, 26. ISBN 9783527285761. LCCN 96031931. ... Levato, Chiara (2016). "Iron Oxides Prehistoric Mines: A European Overview" (PDF). Anthropologica et Præhistorica. 126: 9-23. ... or iron-oxide-rich clay, especially Armenian bole, have been used in gilding. Hematite is also used in art such as in the ...
The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II,III) oxide and the common chemical name is ferrous-ferric oxide. In addition to igneous ... It is one of the oxides of iron, and is ferrimagnetic; it is attracted to a magnet and can be magnetized to become a permanent ... Though a causal link has not been established, laboratory studies suggest that iron oxides like magnetite are a component of ... The relationships between magnetite and other iron oxide minerals such as ilmenite, hematite, and ulvospinel have been much ...
I. Decomposition of nitrous oxide on zinc oxide". Journal of Physical Chemistry. 75 (8): 1037-1043. doi:10.1021/j100678a004. ... One of the pioneer experiments was that of Bach in 1893, who observed the formation of lower uranium oxides upon irradiation of ... For example, during the 1970s it was generally agreed that nitrous oxide (N2O) has a short residence time in the troposphere, ... Working with an iron oxide catalyst, Baly concluded in 1930 that "the analogy between the laboratory process and that in the ...
3 tunnels formed by Mn oxide octahedra. It is associated with hematite, barite, pyrolusite, quartz and other manganese oxide ... Carmichael SK, Doctor DH, Wilson CG, Feierstein J, McAleer RJ (2017-09-01). "New insight into the origin of manganese oxide ore ... Romanechite, Romanechite, Harlow G, Peters J, Prinz M (1977). "Oxides and Htdroxides.". Simon & ... Post JE (March 1999). "Manganese oxide minerals: crystal structures and economic and environmental significance". Proceedings ...
Chemically it is an aromatic heterocycle di-N-oxide. Its full chemical name is 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine-1,4 dioxide. ... Synthesis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of 3-aminobenzo-1,2,4-triazines and their mono- and di-N-oxides". Journal of ...
K. D. Kreuer (2003). "Proton-conducting oxides". Annual Review of Materials Research. 33: 333-359. Bibcode:2003AnRMS..33..333K ...
Oxides, e.g. Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, P2O5, K2O, SiO2 Carbonates: Na2CO3 (soda ash), K2CO3 (potash) Bicarbonates, e.g. ... consist mostly of metal oxides. Ash is one of the components in the proximate analysis of biological materials, consisting ...
... high-κ oxides on high mobility substrates such as InGaAs, Ge (modelling); transparent conducting oxides, amorphous oxide ... oxides, carbon materials, and hybrid density functional calculations for correct band gaps; functional oxides, TiO2. His ... "Band offsets of wide-band-gap oxides and implications for future electronic devices". Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B ... high-κ dielectrics for complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistors; ...
Oxides). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0-9622097-2-4. Retrieved December 5, 2011. CS1 maint: ...
With Principal Research Scientist Ken McTaggart, Bear studied phototropic effects in white oxides, including titanium oxide. ... McTaggart, F. K.; Bear, Joy (1955). "Phototropic effects in oxides. I. Titanium dioxide". Journal of Applied Chemistry. 5 (12 ...
Other oxides, e.g. Na2O and SrO, behave similarly. In another obsolete application, barium peroxide was once used to produce ... Barium peroxide arises by the reversible reaction of O2 with barium oxide. The peroxide forms around 500 °C and oxygen is ... ISBN 0-12-352651-5. Barium oxide International Chemical Safety Card 0381 MSDS at sigma aldrich. ...
In Portland cement kilns, C12A7 is an early reaction product of aluminium and calcium oxides in the temperature range 900-1200 ... 1997). "Mayenite". Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF). III (Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of ... sulfide and oxide ions. C12A7 is an important mineral phase in calcium aluminate cements and is an intermediate in the ... heating a mixture of calcium carbonate and aluminium oxide or aluminium hydroxide powders, in air. It is not formed in oxygen ...
III (Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides). Chantilly, VA: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0962209724. Archived (PDF) from the ...
The mechanism of the Boekelheide reaction begins by an acyl transfer from the trifluoroacetic anhydride to the N-oxide oxygen. ... Boekelheide, V.; Linn, W. J. (March 1954). "Rearrangements of N-Oxides. A Novel Synthesis of Pyridyl Carbinols and Aldehydes". ... The Boekelheide reaction is a rearrangement of α-picoline-N-oxides to hydroxymethylpyridines. It is named after Virgil ...
... belongs to the oxide group, having a composition of ZrO2. Similar minerals belonging to the same group are the ... Baddeleyite is a rare zirconium oxide mineral (ZrO2 or zirconia), occurring in a variety of monoclinic prismatic crystal forms ... Baddeleyite's structure is a combination of tetrahedrally coordinated oxide ions parallel to (100) with triangular coordinated ... Oxides). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0962209724. Retrieved December 5, 2011. Baddeleyite. ...
Buttrey J, Douglas; Thomas, Vogt (2019). Complex Oxides: An Introduction. World Scientific. p. 95. ISBN 9789813278592. Huang, ... Above this it decomposes to BF3 boric oxide and Sn3[B3O7]F. PbB2O3F2 contains two-dimensional sheets of BFOB pairs connected by ...
Additionally, due to radioactive decay, the ore also contains oxides of lead and trace amounts of helium. It may also contain ... Oxides). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0-9622097-2-4. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 14 ...
Bear, J., & McTaggart, F. K. (1958). Phototropic effects in oxides. II. White oxides in general. Journal of Applied Chemistry, ... Phototropic effects in oxides. II. White oxides in general. Journal of Applied Chemistry, 8(1), 72-76. McTaggart, F. K., & ... McTaggart, F. K.; Bear, Joy (1955). "Phototropic effects in oxides. I. Titanium dioxide". Journal of Applied Chemistry. 5 (12 ... McTaggart, F. K. (1961). Reduction of zirconium and hafnium Oxides. Nature, 191(4794), 1192-1192. McTaggart FK, New proton- ...
Oxides). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0962209724. Retrieved December 5, 2011. Fluorite. ...
Oxides). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0-9622097-2-4. Retrieved December 5, 2011. Keramidas, K. G ...
... niobium oxide, zirconia, silica, sapphire, beryllium oxide, and zirconium tin titanate Some piezoelectric materials can be used ... Indium tin oxide (ITO), lanthanum-doped strontium titanate (SLT), yttrium-doped strontium titanate (SYT) Yttria-stabilized ... Ferrites including iron(III) oxide and strontium carbonate display magnetic properties. Lanthanum strontium manganite exhibits ... semiconducting oxides - environmental monitoring. Recent advances in these areas are described in the Journal of ...
The oxides of uranium". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): S303. doi:10.1039/JR949000S303. v t e. ... Diuranium pentoxide (uranium(V) oxide) is an inorganic chemical compound of uranium and oxygen. Alberman, K. B.; Anderson, J. S ...
... is the classical graphite oxide and its single-sheet version graphene oxide. More than 20 oxides and ozonides of fullerene are ... Graphene oxide and other stable polymeric carbon oxides with unbounded molecular structures exist. Carbon dioxide (CO2) occurs ... Many other oxides are known today, most of them synthesized since the 1960s. Some of these new oxides are stable at room ... An oxocarbon or oxide of carbon is a chemical compound consisting only of carbon and oxygen. The simplest and most common ...
Magnesium oxide is used as an oxide barrier in spin-tunneling devices. Owing to the crystalline structure of its thin films, ... Magnesium oxide has poor solubility in water and is poorly absorbed from the gut. For this reason, magnesium oxide is ... Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of ... Magnesium oxide for the Animal Feed Industry. *^ "Mass Deacidification: Saving the Written Word". Library of ...
Nitric oxide, the same chemical that helps men achieve an erection, may also help women preserve their fertility and improve ... Nitric Oxide May Keep Eggs Young. In the study, published in the journal Biochemistry, researchers collected more than 1,500 ... 9, 2005 -- Nitric oxide, the same chemical that helps men achieve an erection, may also help women preserve their fertility and ... A new study shows that exposure to nitric oxide delayed the signs of aging in mouse eggs, which, like eggs from older women, ...
Here are 5 benefits of nitric oxide supplements for health and performance. ... Supplements that increase nitric oxide in the body are incredibly popular. ... Nitric oxide is produced by nearly every type of cell in the human body and one of the most important molecules for blood ... Nitric oxide is needed for the muscles in the penis to relax. This relaxation allows chambers inside the penis to fill with ...
... oxide (Al2O) Aluminium(II) oxide (AlO) (aluminium monoxide) Aluminium(III) oxide (aluminium oxide), (Al2O3), the most common ... Aluminium oxides or aluminum oxides are a group of inorganic compounds with formulas including aluminium (Al) and oxygen (O). ... form of aluminium oxide, occurring on the surface of aluminium and also in crystalline form as corundum, sapphire, and ruby. ...
Hydrous ferric oxides, also called hydrous iron oxides and iron(III) oxide-hydroxides are hydrous oxide inorganic compounds. ... Hydrous iron oxides include ferrihydrite, akaganéite, feroxyhyte, goethite, lepidocrocite and limonite. They may also be ...
Retrieved from "" ...
Media in category "Oxides". The following 49 files are in this category, out of 49 total. ... Retrieved from "" ...
Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide have been found in at least 9 and 6 of the 1,585 National Priorities List sites identified by ... Exposure to high levels of nitrogen oxides can damage the respiratory airways. Contact with the skin or eyes can cause burns. ... Everybody is exposed to small amounts of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. Higher exposure may occur by burning wood or kerosene ... What are nitrogen oxides?. Nitrogen oxides are a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Two of the most ...
Metal oxides (MOs) are the most abundant materials in the Earths crust and are ingredients in traditional ceramics. MO ... commercialization of amorphous oxide semiconductors for flat panel displays. This Review surveys the uniqueness and ... including the discovery and characterization of new transparent conducting oxides, realization of p-type along with traditional ... tunable conducting properties and easy processability make metal oxides key materials for advanced optoelectronic devices. This ...
oxide (countable and uncountable, plural oxides) *(chemistry) A binary chemical compound of oxygen with another chemical ... oxide m (plural oxides) *Obsolete spelling of oxyde *1800, Mathurin-Jacques Brisson, Élemens ou principes physio-chymiques, ... Archaic French oxide (now oxyde), from a blend of ox(ygene) and (ac)ide, coined by G. de Morveau and A. Lavoisier. [1] ... dans cette combinaison, lhydrogène de lammoniaque se combine avec loxigène de loxide, et forme de leau ; et lazote se ...
Breathing nitrous oxide can cause dizziness, unconsciousness, and even death. Long-term exposure can lead to infertility ... Nitrous oxide (N20) is a colorless gas stored as a liquid. ... Nitrous oxide (N20) is a colorless gas stored as a liquid. ... Contact with liquid nitrous oxide can cause severe frostbite. Workers may be harmed from exposure to nitrous oxide. The level ... The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to nitrous oxide. Useful search terms for nitrous oxide ...
Exposure to ethylene oxide may cause headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, breathing difficulty, drowsiness, weakness, ... Ethylene oxide (C₂H₄O) is a flammable gas with a somewhat sweet odor. ... IARC Monographs (Vol 100F): Ethylene Oxidepdf iconexternal icon. *IARC Monographs (Vol 97): Ethylene Oxidepdf iconexternal icon ... Ethylene oxide (C₂H₄O) is a flammable gas with a somewhat sweet odor. Exposure to ethylene oxide may cause headache, nausea, ...
... oxide (or tetraphosphorus hexoxide), P4O6, and phosphorus(V) oxide (or tetraphosphorus decaoxide), P4O10. Both oxides have a ... Oxides of phosphorus: Phosphorus forms two common oxides, phosphorus(III) ... Phosphorus(III) oxide is a white crystalline solid that smells like garlic and has a poisonous vapour. It oxidizes slowly in ... Phosphorus(V) oxide is a white flocculent powder that can be prepared by heating elemental phosphorus in excess ...
calcium oxide (uncountable). *(inorganic chemistry) A white powderous substance, CaO, normally made by heating calcium ... Retrieved from "" ...
This volume explores three main aspects of nitric oxide (NO) research: NO treatment and detection, NO modifications, and NO ... Measurements of Intra-oocyte Nitric Oxide Concentration Using Nitric Oxide Selective Electrode ... Cutting edge and authoritative, Nitric Oxide: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for anyone interested in learning ... Quantum Cascade Lasers-Based Detection of Nitric Oxide Gracia Montilla-Bascón, Julien Mandon, Frans J. M. Harren, Luis A. J. ...
calcium oxide. calcium oxide, chemical compound, CaO, a colorless, cubic crystalline or white amorphous substance. It is also ... decomposing it into the oxide and carbon dioxide. Calcium oxide is widely used in industry, e.g., in making porcelain and glass ... Calcium oxide is a basic anhydride, reacting with water to form calcium hydroxide during the reaction (slaking) much heat is ...
Recently, there has been growing interest in creating hybrid metal oxides to tailor the morphology and properties of these ... From this perspective, we highlight several recent developments in cross-linked hybrid metal oxides, focusing on chemical cross ... This perspective article highlights the recent advances in the area of covalently cross-linked hybrid metal oxides. ... Metal oxides are ubiquitous in our daily lives because they are robust and possess versatile electrochemical properties. ...
Heparin/nitric oxide. Lack of efficacy, bleeding around chest tube site and intracranial bleeding: case report ... She also exhibited lack of efficacy to nitric oxide for the treatment of deterioration of respiratory status with hypoxia and ...
Shell chemicals companies are among the largest global producers of ethylene oxide, with facilities in Europe, the US and Asia ... Propylene oxide Propylene oxide is a chemical building block for the manufacture of a versatile range of derivatives including ... Ethylene oxide. Shell chemicals companies are among the largest global producers of high purity ethylene oxide, a versatile ... High Purity Ethylene oxide (HPEO) is a colourless, highly reactive and flammable gas at room temperature. It is produced by ...
CHEBI:36601 - triphenylphosphane oxide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... A phosphine oxide in which the substituents on phosphorus are three phenyl groups.. ...
Pyrrolidinyl Diaminopyrimidine Oxide Strengthens hair from root to tip Promotes hair thickness Ceases hair loss Accelerates ... Kopyrrol (Pyrrolidinyl Diaminopyrimidine Oxide) * 1. 1 , P a g e Kopyrrol (Pyrrolidino diamino pyrimidine oxide) An enlivening ... Kopexil (Diaminopyrimidine Oxide) -... by Kumar Organic Pro... 5281 views * Kopexil aqua- 100 % water soluble h... by Dr. ... Applications: Pyrrolidinyl Diaminopyrimidine Oxide Hair Serum Hair Lotion, Creams Hair Shampoo/ Conditioner Eye Liner & Mascara ...
CHEBI:31344 - calcium oxide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... A member of the class of calcium oxides of calcium and oxygen in a 1:1 ratio.. ...
Exposure to ethylene oxide can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and lungs, and damage to the brain and nerves ... Large amounts of ethylene oxide are produced in the United States. Most of it is used to make other chemicals such as ethylene ... What is ethylene oxide?. Ethylene oxide is a man-made flammable gas with a somewhat sweet odor when it is at very high levels. ... Can ethylene oxide cause cancer? Studies of the highest exposed workers who were exposed to ethylene oxide over an average of ...
... began experimenting with the effects of inhaling nitrous oxide [2]. ... Nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide was first identified by Joseph Priestley [1] in 1772. Years later in the late 1790s, British ... Nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide (N2O), also called di-nitrogen monoxide, is one of several gaseous oxides of nitrogen . It is ... Nitrous oxide should not be confused with the potentially toxic gas known as nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is found in the ...
STYRENE OXIDE. ICSC. : 1201. (Epoxyethyl)benzene. 1,2-Epoxyethylbenzene. Styrene-7,8-oxide. Phenylethylene oxide. Phenyl ...
Ethylene oxide was first prepared in 1859 by French chemist Charles Adolphe Wurtz (1817-1884). Source for information on ... Ethylene OxideOVERVIEWEthylene oxide (ETH-ih-leen OK-side) is a flammable, colorless gas with the odor of ether. The gas is a ... Ethylene Oxide. OVERVIEW. Ethylene oxide (ETH-ih-leen OK-side) is a flammable, colorless gas with the odor of ether. The gas is ... Ethylene oxide is a very unstable compound that catches fire or explodes readily and must be handled with the greatest care. ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
Propylene oxide. Shell chemicals companies are leading players in propylene oxide and its principal derivatives - polyether ... Propylene oxide (PO) is a colourless, reactive liquid used primarily as a building block for the manufacture of a versatile ... waterproof clothing and aircraft de-icers are just some of the many ultimate applications of propylene oxide. ... bowling balls are applications of propylene oxide ... First propylene oxide plant acquired in Carrington, UK. 1959. ...
Oxides are widely and abundantly distributed in nature. Water is the oxide of hydrogen. Silicon dioxide is the major component ... oxide oxide. oxide, chemical compound containing oxygen and one other chemical element . Oxides are widely and abundantly ... Nitrous oxide is an oxide of nitrogen often called laughing gas. Many of the metals form oxides. Some metal oxides, e.g., those ... Oxides are usually named according to the number of oxygen atoms present in a molecule, e.g., monoxide (or simply oxide), ...
  • Sept. 9, 2005 -- Nitric oxide, the same chemical that helps men achieve an erection, may also help women preserve their fertility and improve their chances of having a healthy baby by fighting the effects of aging on their ovaries. (
  • A new study shows that exposure to nitric oxide delayed the signs of aging in mouse eggs, which, like eggs from older women, deteriorate rapidly and are more difficult to fertilize properly. (
  • But exposing the eggs to appropriate levels of nitric oxide "could extend this fertilizable time window in both old and young women," says Abu-Soud. (
  • Researchers say the findings also suggest that nitric oxide may be used to enhance the fertility of eggs harvested for in vitro fertilization . (
  • Researchers exposed the mouse eggs to varying concentrations of nitric oxide, a chemical that among other things keeps the arteries supple. (
  • The results showed that nitric oxide appeared to slow the hardening of the eggs' outer shells, increase the release of molecules that prevent improper fertilization by more than one sperm, and fight other signs of aging that could interfere with fertilization. (
  • Researchers say that in addition to possibly prolonging fertility in women, the results suggest that nitric oxide may help prevent genetic abnormalities during early embryo development, which may have applications in preventing Down syndrome , spontaneous miscarriages , and other problems often associated with pregnancies among older women. (
  • Nitric oxide is produced by nearly every type of cell in the human body and one of the most important molecules for blood vessel health. (
  • In this way, nitric oxide increases blood flow and lowers blood pressure. (
  • Supplements that increase nitric oxide in the body make up one of the most popular supplement categories today. (
  • These supplements don't contain nitric oxide itself. (
  • However, they contain compounds that your body can use to make nitric oxide and have been shown to provide many benefits for health and performance. (
  • Here are 5 health and performance benefits of taking nitric oxide supplements. (
  • L-citrulline is an amino acid that may help treat erectile dysfunction by increasing the production of nitric oxide ( 2 ). (
  • Nitric oxide is needed for the muscles in the penis to relax. (
  • Two other nitric-oxide-boosting supplements have been shown to treat erectile dysfunction - the amino acid L-arginine and Pycnogenol, a plant extract from the pine tree. (
  • Summary Nitric oxide plays an important role in erectile function. (
  • Several supplements, including L-citrulline, L-arginine and Pycnogenol, have been shown to increase levels of nitric oxide in men with erectile dysfunction (ED). (
  • A form of L-citrulline called citrulline malate not only increases nitric oxide production, but also decreases muscle soreness. (
  • Citrulline malate increases nitric oxide production, which increases blood flow to active muscles. (
  • Summary Citrulline malate is a form of L-citrulline that may help alleviate muscle soreness by increasing nitric oxide. (
  • People with high blood pressure are thought to have an impaired ability to use nitric oxide in their bodies ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • When you consume nitrate, your body converts it to nitric oxide, which in turn causes blood vessels to relax and dilate, lowering blood pressure. (
  • Many studies have shown nitrate may help lower blood pressure by increasing the production of nitric oxide ( 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ). (
  • Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide have been found in at least 9 and 6 of the 1,585 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), respectively. (
  • Nitric oxide is a sharp sweet-smelling gas at room temperature, whereas nitrogen dioxide has a strong, harsh odor and is a liquid at room temperature, becoming a reddish-brown gas above 70°F. (
  • Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide are found in tobacco smoke, so people who smoke or breathe in second-hand smoke may be exposed to nitrogen oxides. (
  • This volume explores three main aspects of nitric oxide (NO) research: NO treatment and detection, NO modifications, and NO detoxification. (
  • The book also covers methods used to study human/animal and plant nitric oxide. (
  • The chapters are divided into three parts: part one looks at NO treatments using gaseous nitric oxide and detection using a NO-sensitive electrode, electron spin resonance, and fluorescence-based NO-sensor proteins. (
  • She also exhibited lack of efficacy to nitric oxide for the treatment of deterioration of respiratory status with hypoxia and hypercarbia [ times to reactions onsets not stated ]. (
  • nitric oxide, NO) by treatment with iron powder or a mixture of iron and sulfur powders. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) are together referred to as nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Combustion of fossil fuels is by far the dominant source of NO X emissions. (
  • Nitrous Oxide is not the same as Nitric Oxide. (
  • Nitric Oxide is a poisonous gas. (
  • The right heart cath may be a more involved procedure that may include cardiac output determination, oxygen saturations, wedge pressures, thermodilution studies, NITRIC OXIDE STUDIES, etc. (
  • Nitric Oxide as therapy for respiratory distress syndrome? (
  • An electrode sensor which may be used to specifically and quantitatively measure nitric oxide is provided, as well as a method of preparing and using such an electrode sensor to measure nitric oxide concentration in solution. (
  • A nitric oxide (NO) microsensor based on catalytic oxidation of NO comprises. (
  • A nitric oxide (NO) microsensor based on catalytic oxidation of NO comprises a thermally-sharpened carbon fiber with a tip diameter of about 0.5-0.7 μm coated with several layers of p-type semiconducting polymeric porphyrin and cationic exchanger deposited thereon. (
  • 3. The electrode sensor of claim 2, which additionally comprises a gas-permeable membrane coating that is permeable to nitric oxide and is not permeable to nitrite. (
  • One trick that we've recently discovered is a way of overriding this connective idiom of brain function with one that is purely spatial, nitric oxide neurotransmission. (
  • Some neurons, when inundated with enough calcium ion s, activate an enzyme named NOS ( nitric oxide synthase ). (
  • This enzyme metabolizes the amino acid L-arginine to form, I bet you could have guessed, nitric oxide (NO) gas. (
  • Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs). (
  • Nitric-oxide dioxygenases (NODs) are enzymes that efficiently convert NO and O 2 to nitrate ( 1 ). (
  • The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. (
  • Nitric oxide involvement in Drosophila immunity. (
  • The augmented production of nitric oxide (NO) was observed during the hemocyte-mediated melanotic encapsulation responses of Drosophila melanogaster and D. teissieri. (
  • EEA-32 emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO X ) have decreased by 41% between 1990 and 2009. (
  • This indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides. (
  • A number of policies have been implemented that directly or indirectly reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides. (
  • Figure 2: Vapour-phased metal oxide and thin-film transistor. (
  • Figure 3: Solution-processed metal oxide. (
  • Figure 4: Metal oxide electronics. (
  • In particular, in the case of hybrid polymer-metal oxide materials, the flexibility of the polymer is imparted to the system, which allows for facile processing into macrostructures. (
  • Various metal oxide hybrids have been tailored with novel 2D and 3D morphologies that demonstrate superior properties (e.g., electrochemical activity) to their bulk counterparts. (
  • This review article contains a reminder of the fundamentals of heterogeneous catalysis and a description of the main domains of heterogeneous catalysis and main families of metal oxide catalysts, which cover acid-base reactions, selective partial oxidation reactions, total oxidation reactions, depollution, biomass conversion, green chemistry and photocatalysis. (
  • Metal oxide catalysts are essential components in most refining and petrochemical processes. (
  • This paper attempts to review the major current industrial applications of supported and unsupported metal oxide catalysts. (
  • Following a review of the major types of metal oxide catalysts and the processes that use these catalysts, this paper considers current and prospective major applications, where recent advances in the science of metal oxide catalysts have major economic and environmental impacts. (
  • 17. The electronic device of claim 1 , wherein the dielectric layer includes a dielectric metal oxide in which the metal is a metal other than tantalum or hafnium. (
  • Many metal oxides react with water to form alkaline hydroxides, e.g., calcium oxide (lime) reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide (slaked lime). (
  • Do all basic oxides react with water to form a product with (OH) in it? (
  • How can I be exposed to ethylene oxide? (
  • Studies of the highest exposed workers who were exposed to ethylene oxide over an average of 10 years or longer had higher risks of certain types of cancer, such as some blood cancers and breast cancer. (
  • Hydrous ferric oxides, also called hydrous iron oxides and iron(III) oxide-hydroxides are hydrous oxide inorganic compounds. (
  • Iron oxides are inorganic chemicals used as colorants. (
  • Teijin Engineering has developed a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) denitration device for midsized ship engines to ensure compliance with the Tier III nitrogen oxides emissions regulation, which goes into effect in 2016. (
  • As of 2016, nitrous oxide is covered by the Psychoactive Substances Act and is illegal to supply for its psychoactive effect. (
  • For example, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) produces carbon dioxide and calcium oxide (CaO). (
  • It is prepared by heating calcium carbonate (e.g., limestone ) in a special lime kiln to about 500°C to 600°C, decomposing it into the oxide and carbon dioxide. (
  • Calcium oxide is widely used in industry, e.g., in making porcelain and glass in purifying sugar in preparing bleaching powder , calcium carbide, and calcium cyanamide in water softeners and in mortars and cements. (
  • Calcium oxide is a basic anhydride, reacting with water to form calcium hydroxide during the reaction (slaking) much heat is given off and the solid nearly doubles its volume. (
  • A member of the class of calcium oxides of calcium and oxygen in a 1:1 ratio. (
  • Two centimeter-sized chunks of aurorite (a hydrated manganese silver calcium oxide) disseminated throughout calcite from the type locality of the Aurora Mine , Treasure Hill, Hamilton, White Pine County, Nevada. (
  • Useful search terms for nitrous oxide include "dinitrogen monoxide," "hyponitrous acid anhydride," and "laughing gas. (
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on nitrous oxide - NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (
  • Useful search terms for ethylene oxide include "dimethylene oxide," "1,2-epoxy ethane," and "oxirane. (
  • Oxides are commonly classified as acidic or basic oxides or anhydrides. (
  • From my recollection, acidic and basic oxides with water becomes two products. (
  • Aluminium oxides or aluminum oxides are a group of inorganic compounds with formulas including aluminium (Al) and oxygen (O). Aluminium(I) oxide (Al2O) Aluminium(II) oxide (AlO) (aluminium monoxide) Aluminium(III) oxide (aluminium oxide), (Al2O3), the most common form of aluminium oxide, occurring on the surface of aluminium and also in crystalline form as corundum, sapphire, and ruby. (
  • Nitrous oxide (N 2 0) is a colorless gas stored as a liquid. (
  • Ethylene oxide (ETH-ih-leen OK-side) is a flammable, colorless gas with the odor of ether. (
  • nitrous oxide or nitrogen (I) oxide, chemical compound, N 2 O, a colorless gas with a sweetish taste and odor. (
  • Mixed oxide , abbreviated as MOX , refers to nuclear fuel consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide for use in nuclear reactors. (
  • Control Technology for Ethylene oxide Sterilization in Hospitals -DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 89-120 (1989). (
  • This report examines control methods and systems for Ethylene oxide sterilization in hospitals. (
  • NIOSH Alert: Preventing Worker Injuries and Deaths From Explosions in Industrial Ethylene oxide Sterilization Facilities -DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2007-164. (
  • Ethylene oxide sterilization is an important sterilization method that manufacturers widely use to keep medical devices safe. (
  • For ethylene oxide sterilization, two voluntary consensus standards (ANSI AAMI ISO 11135:2014 and ANSI AAMI ISO 10993-7:2008(R)2012) describe how to develop, validate, and control ethylene oxide sterilization processes for medical devices and the acceptable levels of residual ethylene oxide and ethylene chlorohydrin left on a device after it has undergone ethylene oxide sterilization. (
  • DUBLIN , Sept. 13, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The 'Opportunity Assessment of Graphene Oxide' report has been added to's offering. (
  • Nov. 8, 2019 -- The Environmental Protection Agency has proposed its first of two new rules to curb emissions of cancer -causing ethylene oxide. (
  • Women report being very satisfied with nitrous oxide (laughing gas) to manage labor pain, experiencing no adverse side effects to the baby, although over half of the women ultimately opted for an epidural or other pain management technique, suggests a study being presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY 2019 annual meeting. (
  • Exposure to high levels of nitrogen oxides can damage the respiratory airways. (
  • Breathing high levels of nitrogen oxides can cause rapid burning, spasms, and swelling of tissues in the throat and upper respiratory tract, reduced oxygenation of body tissues, a build-up of fluid in your lungs, and death. (
  • Because of the high levels of nitrogen oxide along the motorways of the Inn valley and the Brenner pass, driving bans and speed limits pursuant to the Austrian Clean Air Protection Act (IG-L) have already been introduced. (
  • High Purity Ethylene oxide (HPEO) is a colourless, highly reactive and flammable gas at room temperature. (
  • Propylene oxide (PO) is a colourless, reactive liquid used primarily as a building block for the manufacture of a versatile range of derivative products. (
  • Nitrous oxide is a colourless gas that's most commonly found in pressurised metal canisters. (
  • Nitrogen oxides are a mixture of gases that are composed of nitrogen and oxygen. (
  • Phosphorus(V) oxide is a white flocculent powder that can be prepared by heating elemental phosphorus in excess oxygen. (
  • oxide, chemical compound containing oxygen and one other chemical element . (
  • The halogens and inactive metals do not combine directly with oxygen, but their oxides can be formed by indirect methods. (
  • Oxides are usually named according to the number of oxygen atoms present in a molecule, e.g., monoxide (or simply oxide), dioxide, trioxide. (
  • An oxide is a term used in chemistry for a material which has been exposed and reacted to oxygen . (
  • In the chemical nomenclature adopted by Guyton de Morveau, Lavoisier,and their associates, the term oxides was made to include all compounds of oxygen which had no acid (F. acide ) properties, as contrasted with the acid, all of which were at that time supposed to contain oxygen. (
  • When one type of an oxide structure called perovskite is exposed to both water vapor and streams of electrons, it exhibits behavior that researchers had never anticipated: The material gives off oxygen and begins oscillating, almost resembling a living, breathing organism. (
  • Perovskite oxides are promising candidates for a variety of applications, including solar cells, electrodes in rechargeable batteries, water-splitting devices to generate hydrogen and oxygen, fuel cells, and sensors. (
  • If you take too much nitrous oxide you risk falling unconscious and/or suffocating from the lack of oxygen. (
  • [ 1 ] The specially designed nasal mask fully covers the nose, allowing the mixture of nitrous oxide with oxygen to flow while the dentist works on the patient's mouth. (
  • [ 7 ] A 2009 prospective, randomized study showed that a 70:30 mix of nitrous oxide in oxygen, administered for 3 minutes, was effective in reducing pain in children undergoing venipuncture. (
  • The highly successful performances showed the uninhibiting effects of nitrous oxide on audience volunteers eager to try the gas. (
  • A dielectric layer containing a hafnium tantalum oxide film and a method of fabricating such a dielectric layer produce a dielectric layer for use in a variety of electronic devices. (
  • Embodiments of a dielectric layer containing a hafnium titanium oxide film structured as one or more monolayers include the dielectric layer disposed in an integrated circuit. (
  • 6. The electronic device of claim 1 , wherein the dielectric layer includes a nanolaminate containing the hafnium tantalum oxide layer. (
  • Nitrous oxide is contraindicated in patients with significant respiratory compromise. (
  • A larger scale sensor utilizing porphyrin and cationic exchanger deposited on larger fibers or wires, platinum mesh or tin indium oxide layered on glass, can also be employed when measurement of NO concentration in chemical media, tissue or cell culture is desired. (
  • MIR 9000 CLD includes a built-in chemiluminescence module for the measurement of low to ultra-low concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and a paramagnetic sensor for O2 measurements. (
  • This material reduces the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 25 to 45 per cent, said prof. Jos Brouwers in his inaugural lecture last Friday. (
  • We continuously measure the concentration of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compounds at our urban observatory in Innsbruck. (
  • Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration has increased by some 20 percent over the past century, and continues to rise at a rate of about 0.2 to 0.3 percent per year. (
  • Because 105% alveolar concentration is needed to induce general anesthesia when nitrous oxide is used as a sole anesthetic agent, it is ineffective as a single agent for general anesthesia. (
  • Propylene oxide is a chemical building block for the manufacture of a versatile range of derivatives including polyols and propylene glycols. (
  • Shell chemicals companies are leading players in propylene oxide and its principal derivatives - polyether polyols and propylene glycols. (
  • Foams in furniture and car seats, artificial sports tracks, building insulation, waterproof clothing and aircraft de-icers are just some of the many ultimate applications of propylene oxide. (
  • An object of this invention is to provide a very distinctive and valuable rubbery substance by homopolymerizing or copolymerizing monomers having an 1,2-epoxy group such as, for example, propylene oxide or epichlorohydrin. (
  • Although Priestley is credited with discovering nitrous oxide, another scientist recognized the potential value of its numbing and intoxicating effects. (
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to nitrous oxide. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to nitrous oxide. (
  • NIOSH Update - NIOSH Warns: Nitrous Oxide Continues to Threaten Health Care Workers - DHHS (NIOSH) (1994) - NIOSH warns that even with preventive measures such as scavenging systems in place workers may be at risk for serious health effects due to their exposure to nitrous oxide. (
  • Mandatory nitrous horror story: Layzer (in (1978) "Myeloneuropathy after prolonged exposure to nitrous oxide," _Lancet_ 2:1227) reports a case of 15 people who had been inhaling nitrous oxide for long periods of time and developed a condition resembling subacture combined degneration of the cord, whatever that means. (
  • The second most important application of ethylene oxide is in the synthesis of ethyoxylates and ethanolamines, substances used in the production of synthetic detergents. (
  • In 1978, however, Amess et al showed that 24 h of nitrous oxide administration caused interference with DNA synthesis in humans. (
  • Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. (
  • Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of these products. (
  • Zinc oxide can cause symptoms if it is eaten, or if its fumes are breathed in. (
  • Other products may also contain zinc oxide. (
  • Most of the harmful effects of zinc oxide come from breathing in the gas form of zinc oxide at industrial sites in the chemical or welding industry. (
  • If someone swallows a lot of zinc oxide, give them water or milk right away. (
  • Zinc oxide is not very poisonous if it is eaten. (
  • A zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle photodetector was fabricated using a simple method. (
  • Zinc Oxide Shiseido may be available in the countries listed below. (
  • If you were to come into skin or eye contact with high concentrations of nitrogen oxide gases or nitrogen dioxide liquid, you would likely experience serious burns. (
  • In the 1700s and the 1800s, chemists, doctors, and dentists in Europe and the United States experimented with three different anesthetic gases: nitrous oxide, ether (EETH-uhr), and chloroform (KLOR-uh-form). (
  • A research report titled "Inhalant Abuse," prepared by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and updated in 2005, noted that "nitrous oxide is the most abused of these [three] gases. (
  • Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen are among the waste gases of gasoline-burning internal-combustion engines. (
  • The inert gases do not form oxides. (
  • Vehicle exhaust gases contain nitrogen oxides (NOx), which cause acid rain and smog. (
  • Water is the oxide of hydrogen. (
  • In addition to our traditional focus on solid state proton conductors, which show potential for next-generation solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen sensors, we are currently also working on other classes of hydrogen containing oxides, such as hydride-ion conductors and materials used to store hydrogen, as well as oxide phosphors for their future application in solid-state lighting devices. (
  • Formula For Hydrogen Oxide? (
  • So water is Hydrogen Oxide? (
  • H2O is water It could also be calssified as Hydrogen Oxide. (
  • The simplest and best systematic name of water is hydrogen oxide. (
  • This is analogous to related compounds such as hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen sulfide, and deuterium oxide (heavy water). (
  • Medical devices are sterilized in a variety of ways including using moist heat (steam), dry heat, radiation, ethylene oxide gas, vaporized hydrogen peroxide, and other sterilization methods (for example, chlorine dioxide gas, vaporized peracetic acid, and nitrogen dioxide). (
  • This invention relates to a novel method for the polymerization of olefin oxides, and more particularly to a method for the polymerization or copolymerization of olefin oxides using a catalyst system consisting of an organo aluminum compound and a chelate compound of a metal of Groups I to III of the Periodic Table. (
  • Plot of aluminum oxide photodetector typical responsivity in the EUV. (
  • Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) photodiodes are issued by NIST as transfer standard detectors in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region (5 nm to 125 nm). (
  • Nitrous oxide is small inorganic chemical molecule and may also be known as dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide. (
  • 6: Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Catalytic Oxide Materials. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has concluded that inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide is carcinogenic to humans. (
  • In 1844, Horace Wells, a native of Vermont, discovered that the inhalation of nitrous-oxide gas produces anaesthesia. (
  • Nitrous oxide is administered by inhalation, absorbed by diffusion through the lungs, and eliminated via respiration. (
  • Magnesium oxide ( Mg O ), or magnesia , is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide ). (
  • Although some decomposition of the carbonate to oxide occurs at temperatures below 700 °C, the resulting materials appears to reabsorb carbon dioxide from the air. (
  • If rust development or flaking occurs, black oxide should be removed from the object. (
  • Nitrous oxide occurs naturally in the atmosphere and is a greenhouse gas. (
  • Some of the nonmedical uses of nitrous oxide include the semiconductor industry, car racing, and food processing. (
  • LSB Industries Inc., the largest merchant manufacturer of concentrated nitric acid in North America, will pay an estimated $6.3 million to $11.7 million to meet nitrogen oxide emission limits that are among the lowest for the industry in the US, the EPA and Department of Justice announced today. (
  • This result is relatively representative for the whole city," says Karl who points out the far-reaching relevance of the results: "Even newer atmospheric models are based on emission inventories that underestimate nitrogen oxide emission levels up to a factor of four. (
  • The actual nitrogen oxide emission levels may be four times higher than predicted in the some models. (
  • Oxides and hydroxides are a large and diverse group of ore minerals. (
  • Workers exposed to high concentrations of ethylene oxide for short and long amounts of time reported having effects such as headaches, memory loss, numbness, nausea, and vomiting. (
  • The new CLD 62 nitrogen oxide analyzer is the economical solution for the continuous measurement of NO and NOX concentrations in fixed or mobile applications. (
  • The analysis of the data of a three months long measurement campaign, which took place in 2015 and is now published in Scientific Reports , shows two main sources for nitrogen oxide concentrations in the Innsbruck air: traffic and residential combustion, with traffic accounting for more than 80 % of the nitrogen oxide emissions in the surroundings of the test station at the University. (
  • Nitrogen oxide is toxic in higher concentrations and classified as hazardous air pollutant. (
  • Rates of nitrous oxide production via denitrification in small streams increase with nitrate concentrations. (
  • Nitrous oxide converts the cobalt from the monovalent form to the bivalent form. (
  • The air purifying concrete contains titanium dioxide, a photocatalytic material that removes the nitrogen oxides from the air and converts them with the aid of sunlight into harmless nitrate. (
  • It happens via a microbial process called denitrification, which converts nitrogen to nitrous oxide and an inert gas called dinitrogen. (
  • Carbon forms two well-known oxides, carbon monoxide , CO, and carbon dioxide , CO 2 . (
  • For example, copper (II) oxide, CuO, and iron (III) oxide, Fe 2 O 3 , are both reduced to the metal by carbon monoxide. (
  • Volume 2 goes on to cover the use of metal oxides in catalytic reactions. (
  • If you work in an industry that uses nitrous oxide, read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (
  • From this perspective, we highlight several recent developments in cross-linked hybrid metal oxides, focusing on chemical cross-linking techniques to enrich their properties. (
  • Shell chemicals companies are among the largest global producers of high purity ethylene oxide, a versatile chemical intermediate used in the production of derivatives that provide the raw materials for polyester fibres and drinks bottles, soap and detergent components, antifreeze, cosmetics and paints. (
  • Ethylene oxide is used mostly to make ethylene glycol (a chemical used to make antifreeze and polyester). (
  • Federal data recently linked emissions of the widely used chemical ethylene oxide to a higher risk of cancer. (
  • For decades, the chemical ethylene oxide has been used to make everything from antifreeze to detergents to adhesives. (
  • KELLY RIMER: And, recently, the new studies about the chemical ethylene oxide tells us that it's more potent than science previously understood. (
  • Phosphorus forms two common oxides, phosphorus(III) oxide (or tetraphosphorus hexoxide), P 4 O 6 , and phosphorus(V) oxide (or tetraphosphorus decaoxide ), P 4 O 10 . (
  • Both oxides have a structure based on the tetrahedral structure of elemental white phosphorus. (
  • Phosphorus(III) oxide is a white crystalline solid that smells like garlic and has a poisonous vapour. (
  • A phosphine oxide in which the substituents on phosphorus are three phenyl groups. (