Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.F2-Isoprostanes: Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Isoprostanes: A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Diamide: A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.AcetophenonesOxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.PeroxidasesUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Metalloporphyrins: Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Peroxiredoxin III: A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Aryldialkylphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2).Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Benzene DerivativesEndothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Glutaredoxins: A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Peroxiredoxin VI: A peroxiredoxin that is a cytosolic bifunctional enzyme. It functions as a peroxiredoxin via a single redox-active cysteine and also contains a Ca2+-independent acidic phospholipase A2 activity.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases: Reductases that catalyze the reaction of peptide-L-methionine -S-oxide + thioredoxin to produce peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O.MaleatesTranscription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Heat-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseGene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Diquat: A contact herbicide used also to produce desiccation and defoliation. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Advanced Oxidation Protein Products: A class of dityrosine-containing protein-derived molecules formed by OXIDATIVE STRESS. Their accumulation in plasma is associated with certain pathological conditions.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Nitrilotriacetic Acid: A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)Metallothionein: A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hormesis: Biphasic dose responses of cells or organisms (including microorganisms) to an exogenous or intrinsic factor, in which the factor induces stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or adverse effects at high doses.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.

Daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in rat cardiac myocytes is inhibited by dexrazoxane. (1/22885)

-The clinical efficacy of anthracycline antineoplastic agents is limited by a high incidence of severe and usually irreversible cardiac toxicity, the cause of which remains controversial. In primary cultures of neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes, we found that daunorubicin, at concentrations /=10 micromol/L induced necrotic cell death within 24 hours, with no changes characteristic of apoptosis. To determine whether reactive oxygen species play a role in daunorubicin-mediated apoptosis, we monitored the generation of hydrogen peroxide with dichlorofluorescein (DCF). However, daunorubicin (1 micromol/L) did not increase DCF fluorescence, nor were the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or the combination of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid able to prevent apoptosis. In contrast, dexrazoxane (10 micromol/L), known clinically to limit anthracycline cardiac toxicity, prevented daunorubicin-induced myocyte apoptosis, but not necrosis induced by higher anthracycline concentrations (>/=10 micromol/L). The antiapoptotic action of dexrazoxane was mimicked by the superoxide-dismutase mimetic porphyrin manganese(II/III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-peridyl)porphyrin (50 micromol/L). The recognition that anthracycline-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis, perhaps mediated by superoxide anion generation, occurs at concentrations well below those that result in myocyte necrosis, may aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to limit the toxicity of these drugs.  (+info)

Base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage activated by XPG protein. (2/22885)

Oxidized pyrimidines in DNA are removed by a distinct base excision repair pathway initiated by the DNA glycosylase--AP lyase hNth1 in human cells. We have reconstituted this single-residue replacement pathway with recombinant proteins, including the AP endonuclease HAP1/APE, DNA polymerase beta, and DNA ligase III-XRCC1 heterodimer. With these proteins, the nucleotide excision repair enzyme XPG serves as a cofactor for the efficient function of hNth1. XPG protein promotes binding of hNth1 to damaged DNA. The stimulation of hNth1 activity is retained in XPG catalytic site mutants inactive in nucleotide excision repair. The data support the model that development of Cockayne syndrome in XP-G patients is related to inefficient excision of endogenous oxidative DNA damage.  (+info)

Chaperone activity with a redox switch. (3/22885)

Hsp33, a member of a newly discovered heat shock protein family, was found to be a very potent molecular chaperone. Hsp33 is distinguished from all other known molecular chaperones by its mode of functional regulation. Its activity is redox regulated. Hsp33 is a cytoplasmically localized protein with highly reactive cysteines that respond quickly to changes in the redox environment. Oxidizing conditions like H2O2 cause disulfide bonds to form in Hsp33, a process that leads to the activation of its chaperone function. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that Hsp33 protects cells from oxidants, leading us to conclude that we have found a protein family that plays an important role in the bacterial defense system toward oxidative stress.  (+info)

The Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in the vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/22885)

The vacuole is the major site of intracellular Ca2+ storage in yeast and functions to maintain cytosolic Ca2+ levels within a narrow physiological range. In this study, we examined how cellular Ca2+ homeostasis is maintained in a vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant. We found that growth of the vps33Delta strain was sensitive to high or low extracellular Ca2+. This strain could not properly regulate cytosolic Ca2+ levels and was able to retain only a small fraction of its total cellular Ca2+ in a nonexchangeable intracellular pool. Surprisingly, the vps33Delta strain contained more total cellular Ca2+ than the wild type strain. Because most cellular Ca2+ is normally found within the vacuole, this suggested that other intracellular compartments compensated for the reduced capacity to store Ca2+ within the vacuole of this strain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the contribution of the Golgi-localized Ca2+ ATPase Pmr1p in the maintenance of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. We found that a vps33Delta/pmr1Delta strain was hypersensitive to high extracellular Ca2+. In addition, certain combinations of mutations effecting both vacuolar and Golgi Ca2+ transport resulted in synthetic lethality. These results indicate that the Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis when vacuolar biogenesis is compromised.  (+info)

Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. (5/22885)

The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses. Others have attempted to examine the requirement of PKR in these roles by targeted disruption at the amino terminal-encoding region of the Pkr gene. By using a strategy that aims at disruption of the catalytic domain of PKR, we have generated mice that are genetically ablated for functional PKR. Similar to the other mouse model of Pkr disruption, we have observed no consequences of loss of PKR on tumor suppression. Anti-viral response to influenza and vaccinia also appeared to be normal in mice and in cells lacking PKR. Cytokine signaling in the type I interferon pathway is normal but may be compromised in the erythropoietin pathway in erythroid bone marrow precursors. Contrary to the amino-terminal targeted Pkr mouse, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and the anti-viral apoptosis response to influenza is not impaired in catalytic domain-targeted Pkr-null cells. The observation of intact eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha phosphorylation in these Pkr-null cells provides proof of rescue by another eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase(s).  (+info)

Increased lipophilicity and subsequent cell partitioning decrease passive transcellular diffusion of novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants. (6/22885)

Oxidative stress is considered a cause or propagator of acute and chronic disorders of the central nervous system. Novel 2, 4-diamino-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines are potent inhibitors of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, are cytoprotective in cell culture models of oxidative injury, and are neuroprotective in brain injury and ischemia models. The selection of lead candidates from this series required that they reach target cells deep within brain tissue in efficacious amounts after oral dosing. A homologous series of 26 highly lipophilic pyrrolopyrimidines was examined using cultured cell monolayers to understand the structure-permeability relationship and to use this information to predict brain penetration and residence time. Pyrrolopyrimidines were shown to be a more permeable structural class of membrane-interactive antioxidants where transepithelial permeability was inversely related to lipophilicity or to cell partitioning. Pyrrole substitutions influence cell partitioning where bulky hydrophobic groups increased partitioning and decreased permeability and smaller hydrophobic groups and more hydrophilic groups, especially those capable of weak hydrogen bonding, decreased partitioning, and increased permeability. Transmonolayer diffusion for these membrane-interactive antioxidants was limited mostly by desorption from the receiver-side membrane into the buffer. Thus, in this case, these in vitro cell monolayer models do not adequately mimic the in vivo situation by underestimating in vivo bioavailability of highly lipophilic compounds unless acceptors, such as serum proteins, are added to the receiving buffer.  (+info)

Inactivation of both RNA binding and aconitase activities of iron regulatory protein-1 by quinone-induced oxidative stress. (7/22885)

Iron regulatory protein-1 (IRP-1) controls the expression of several mRNAs by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) in their untranslated regions. In iron-replete cells, a 4Fe-4S cluster converts IRP-1 to cytoplasmic aconitase. IRE binding activity is restored by cluster loss in response to iron starvation, NO, or extracellular H2O2. Here, we study the effects of intracellular quinone-induced oxidative stress on IRP-1. Treatment of murine B6 fibroblasts with menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB), a redox cycling drug, causes a modest activation of IRP-1 to bind to IREs within 15-30 min. However, IRE binding drops to basal levels within 60 min. Surprisingly, a remarkable loss of both IRE binding and aconitase activities of IRP-1 follows treatment with MSB for 1-2 h. These effects do not result from alterations in IRP-1 half-life, can be antagonized by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, and regulate IRE-containing mRNAs; the capacity of iron-starved MSB-treated cells to increase transferrin receptor mRNA levels is inhibited, and MSB increases the translation of a human growth hormone indicator mRNA bearing an IRE in its 5'-untranslated region. Nonetheless, MSB inhibits ferritin synthesis. Thus, menadione-induced oxidative stress leads to post-translational inactivation of both genetic and enzymatic functions of IRP-1 by a mechanism that lies beyond the "classical" Fe-S cluster switch and exerts multiple effects on cellular iron metabolism.  (+info)

Identification and functional characterization of a novel mitochondrial thioredoxin system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/22885)

The so-called thioredoxin system, thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (Trr), and NADPH, acts as a disulfide reductase system and can protect cells against oxidative stress. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two thioredoxins (Trx1 and Trx2) and one thioredoxin reductase (Trr1) have been characterized, all of them located in the cytoplasm. We have identified and characterized a novel thioredoxin system in S. cerevisiae. The TRX3 gene codes for a 14-kDa protein containing the characteristic thioredoxin active site (WCGPC). The TRR2 gene codes for a protein of 37 kDa with the active-site motif (CAVC) present in prokaryotic thioredoxin reductases and binding sites for NADPH and FAD. We cloned and expressed both proteins in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant Trx3 and Trr2 proteins were active in the insulin reduction assay. Trx3 and Trr2 proteins have N-terminal domain extensions with characteristics of signals for import into mitochondria. By immunoblotting analysis of Saccharomyces subcellular fractions, we provide evidence that these proteins are located in mitochondria. We have also constructed S. cerevisiae strains null in Trx3 and Trr2 proteins and tested them for sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. The Deltatrr2 mutant was more sensitive to H2O2, whereas the Deltatrx3 mutant was as sensitive as the wild type. These results suggest an important role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in protection against oxidative stress in S. cerevisiae.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective effects of L-arginine on pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses during exhaustive exercise in rats. AU - Lin, Wan Teng. AU - Yang, Suh-Ching. AU - Chen, Kung Tung. AU - Huang, Chi Chang. AU - Lee, Ning Yuean. PY - 2005/8. Y1 - 2005/8. N2 - Aim: To assess the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in rats after exhaustive exercise. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary control with L-Arg treatment (SC+Arg), exhaustive exercise with control diet (E) and exhaustive exercise with L-Arg treatment (E+Arg). Rats in groups SC+Arg and E+Arg received a 2% L-Arg diet. Rats in groups E and E+Arg underwent an exhaustive running test on a motorized treadmill. Pulmonary oxidative stress indices [xanthine oxidase (XO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and malondialdehyde (MDA)] and antioxidant defense systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione ...
We show that RES increase the expression of FoxO1A, FoxO3A, and FoxO4 under chronic oxidative stress conditions (Fig. 2). This response is consistent with a homeostatic response to protect lens epithelial cells. Baur et al. 28 found that RES extended lifespan in a high-fat diet mouse model and that it appeared to be dependent on activation of Sir2. It was further demonstrated that the Sir2 homolog SIRT1 controls the cellular response to stress by regulating the FoxO family. 29 SIRT1 and the FoxO transcription factor FoxO3 form a complex in cells in response to oxidative stress. In our study, we found that RES increased expression of FoxO3A and also enhanced the expression of FoxO1A and FoxO4 under chronic oxidative stress conditions, suggesting that FoxO1A and FoxO4 may also be involved in the protective effects of RES (Fig. 2). This is further supported by the finding that knockdown of individual FoxOs by FoxO siRNAs decreases the protective effects of RES against acute oxidative stress. A ...
Markovitch, D., Tyrrell, R. M. and Thompson, D., 2005. Heme oxygenase-1 expression in human lymphocytes and resistance to oxidative stress following exercise. FASEB Journal, 19 (4), A131-A131.. ...
This is a phase II intervention to propose a new melanoma chemoprevention agent. The investigators believe oxidative stress/damage in nevi is a probable indication for melanoma risk, and propose that reduced melanoma risk in humans can be inferred by protection of nevi from ultraviolet light (UV)-induced oxidative changes. The investigators will 1) evaluate whether administration of NAC around the time of UV exposure will reduce melanoma risk in high-risk patient populations with genetic susceptibility to UV-induced oxidative stress, and 2) examine key genetic variants that will identify which individuals are most likely to benefit from chemoprotection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation In Vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative stress in mice. AU - Siegel, Michael P.. AU - Kruse, Shane E.. AU - Knowels, Gary. AU - Salmon, Adam. AU - Beyer, Richard. AU - Xie, Hui. AU - van Remmen, Holly. AU - Smith, Steven R.. AU - Marcinek, David J.. PY - 2011/11/22. Y1 - 2011/11/22. N2 - Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function are at the core of many degenerative conditions. However, the interaction between oxidative stress and in vivo mitochondrial function is unclear. We used both pharmacological (2 week paraquat (PQ) treatment of wild type mice) and transgenic (mice lacking Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 -/-)) models to test the effect of oxidative stress on in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy were used to measure mitochondrial ATP and oxygen fluxes and cell energetic state. In both models of oxidative stress, coupling of oxidative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Longevity is associated with increased vascular resistance to high glucose-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory gene expression in Peromyscus leucopus. AU - Labinskyy, Nazar. AU - Mukhopadhyay, Partha. AU - Toth, Janos. AU - Szalai, Gabor. AU - Veres, Monika. AU - Losonczy, Gyorgy. AU - Pinto, John T.. AU - Pacher, Pal. AU - Ballabh, Praveen. AU - Podlutsky, Andrej. AU - Austad, Steven N.. AU - Csiszar, Anna. AU - Ungvari, Zoltan. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - Vascular aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress and proinflammatory pheno- typic alterations. Metabolic stress, such as hyperglycemia in diabetes, is known to increase the production of ROS and promote inflammatory gene expression, accelerating vascular aging. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging predicts that vascular cells of long-lived species exhibit lower steady-state production of ROS and/or superior resistance to the prooxidant effects of metabolic stress. We tested this hypothesis using ...
The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is multifactorial and often associated with the development of brain oedema. In addition to ammonia playing a central role, systemic oxidative stress is believed to aggravate the neuropsychological effects of ammonia in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). The aim of this study was to (i) induce systemic oxidative stress in hyperammonaemic portacaval anastomosed (PCA) rats by inhibiting the antioxidant glutathione using Dimethyl maleate (DEM) and (ii) investigate whether a synergistic relationship between ammonia and oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of brain oedema in CLD. ...
BioAssay record AID 704663 submitted by ChEMBL: Antioxidant activity in tetracycline-removed human MC65 cells assessed as suppression of oxidative stress at 0.1 uM after 48 hrs by DCFH-DA assay.
Objective: To investigate the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in depression. Data Sources: We searched the literature without language restrictions through MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, Fisterra, and Galenicom from database inception until December 31, 2013, supplemented by a hand search of relevant articles. Search terms included (1) oxidative stress, antioxidant*, nitrosative stress, nitrative stress, nitro-oxidative stress, free radical*, and names of individual oxidative stress markers/antioxidants and (2) depression and related disorders and antidepressant. Study Selection: Included were studies in patients with depression comparing antioxidant or oxidative stress markers with those in healthy controls before and after antidepressant treatment. Data Extraction: Two authors independently extracted the data for antioxidant or oxidative stress markers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) +/- 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for results from |= 3 studies were calculated. Data Synthesis:
Neuronal Cell Protective Effect of Dendropanax morbifera Extract against High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress - Dendropanax morbifera;antioxidant;oxidative stress;high glucose;neuroprotective effect;
In the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis, oxidative stress (OS) enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to sustained cell growth, inflammation, excessive tissue remodelling and accumulation, which results in the development and acceleration of renal damage. In our previous work (128) we established protein DJ-1 (PARK7) as an important ROS scavenger and key player in renal cell response to OS. In the present study we investigated the impact of profibrogenic agonists on DJ-1 and shed light on the role of this protein in renal fibrosis. Treatment of renal fibroblasts and epithelial cells with the profibrogenic agonist ANG II or PDGF resulted in a significant up-regulation of DJ-1 expression parallel to an increase in the expression of fibrosis markers. Monitoring of DJ-1 expression in kidney extract and tissue sections from renal fibrosis mice model (Col4a3-deficient) revealed a disease grad dependent regulation of the protein. Overexpression of DJ-1 prompted cell resistance ...
Cells, particularly mechano-sensitive musculoskeletal cells such as tenocytes, routinely encounter oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can not only stimulate tissue repair, but also cause damage leading to tissue degeneration. As diabetes is associated with increased oxidative damage as well as increased risk of tendon degeneration, the aim of this study was to determine if extracellular glucose levels alter the response of tendon cells to oxidative stress. Primary human tenocytes were cultured in either high (17.5 mM) or low (5 mM) glucose and treated with 100 μM hydrogen peroxide. In low glucose, peroxide-treated cells remained fully viable and collagen synthesis was increased, suggesting an anabolic response. In high glucose, however, peroxide treatment led to increased bim-mediated apoptosis. The activities of both forkhead box O (FOXO1) and p53 were required for upregulation of bim RNA expression in high glucose. We found that both p53-mediated inhibition of the bim repressor micro RNA (miR17-92)
There was a statistically significant difference in oxidative stress status between men and women who were CAD(−) (−0.424 ± 1.3 vs. 0.64 ± 1.1 arbitrary units, respectively), but the CAD(+) women had oxidative stress levels almost three times those of the CAD(+) men (2.45 ± 2.5 vs. 0.9 ± 1.6 arbitrary units, respectively). After adjustment in the multivariate model, age and oxidative stress status in women and diabetes and age in men remained as statistically significant predictors of positive CAD findings.. Conclusion(s): ...
Oxidative stress biomarkers, in vivo heart rate (f(H)), and contraction dynamics of ventricle strips of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeiana) tadpoles were evaluated after 48 h of exposure to a sub-lethal concentration (1 ppm) of the herbicide Roundup Original (R) (glyphosate 41%). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased in the liver and decreased in muscle, while oxidative damage to lipids increased above control values in both tissues, showing that the generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress are involved in the toxicity induced by Roundup (R). Additionally, tadpoles hyperactivity was associated with tachycardia in vivo, probably due to a stress-induced adrenergic stimulation. Ventricle strips of Roundup (R)-exposed tadpoles (R-group) presented a faster relaxation and also a higher cardiac pumping capacity at the in vivo contraction frequency, indicating that bullfrog tadpoles were able to perform cardiac mechanistic adjustments ...
Hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in cardiomyocyte cell death leading to cardiac dysfunction. Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation process and can be induced by stressors such as nutrient depletion and acute ischemia, to promote cell survival. Oxidative stress is an important regulator of autophagy in various pathophysiological conditions such as ischemia/reperfusion injury and hypoxia. The role of autophagy in the oxidative stress tolerance of cardiac cells exposed to simultaneous hyperglycemia and hypoxia has not been studied. The aim of the present study is to determine the role of autophagy in cardiac cells in response to combined hyperglycemia and hypoxia. H9c2 rat cardiac cell lines were grown in DMEM supplemented with standard (5.6 mM), moderately high (25 mM) and high (33 mM) glucose concentrations. The cells were then exposed to hypoxia condition (1% oxygen, O2) for 24h and 48h using the hypoxia chamber. Cell viability and oxidative stress was ...
Keywords: Reactive Oxygen Species, NADPH, Ischemic strokes, cerebral ischemia, Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase. Abstract: The mechanisms leading to cellular damage from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury are complex and multi-factorial. Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for oxidative stress in the regulation of neuro-inflammation following stroke. Gene expression studies have revealed that the increase in oxygen radicals post-ischemia triggers the expression of a number of pro-inflammatory genes. These genes are regulated by the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-??B) which is redox-sensitive. It is hypothesised that changes in the oxidative state may modulate alterations in the neuro-inflammatory response following an I/R injury. Furthermore, NF-??B is involved in the transcriptional regulation of adhesion molecules, which play an important role in leukocyte-endothelium interactions. Recent studies have demonstrated that adhesion molecule-mediated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Skin fragility in obese diabetic mice. T2 - Possible involvement of elevated oxidative stress and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases. AU - Ibuki, Ai. AU - Akase, Tomoko. AU - Nagase, Takashi. AU - Minematsu, Takeo. AU - Nakagami, Gojiro. AU - Horii, Motoko. AU - Sagara, Hiroshi. AU - Komeda, Takashi. AU - Kobayashi, Masayuki. AU - Shimada, Tsutomu. AU - Aburada, Masaki. AU - Yoshimura, Kotaro. AU - Sugama, Junko. AU - Sanada, Hiromi. PY - 2012/3. Y1 - 2012/3. N2 - The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that obese diabetic mice exhibit marked skin fragility, which is caused by increased oxidative stress and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Scanning electron microscopy of skin samples from Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice revealed thinner collagen bundles, and decreased density and convolution of the collagen fibres. Furthermore, skin tensile strength measurements confirmed that the dorsal ...
This paper discusses the scientific evidence that has been collected regarding the influence of physical activity on oxidative stress. One of the bodys responses to exercise or physical activity is increased levels of free radicals. Physical activity can increase the formation of free radicals in the body thereby increasing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a condition that occurs because of an imbalance between the production of free radicals with antioxidant defense systems in the body. MDA (Malondialdehyde) is one of the indicators used to determine oxidative stress in humans. MDA is the result of lipid peroxidation in the body due to free radicals. Increased conditions of oxidative stress have implications for muscle damage and if it lasts in the long run will lead to various diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, heart failure, stroke, and other chronic diseases. It is recommended that the understanding of this should be understood by all sports actors, both ...
NIEHS Grant P30ES006096 An NIEHS grantee and colleagues report that biomarkers of oxidative stress are associated with hip fracture in postmenopausal women. If additional studies confirm these results, the biomarkers could help improve prediction of hip fracture, which is associated with substantial cost and a high risk of disability and death.. Oxidative stress occurs when the body insufficiently responds to reactive oxygen species. Environmental factors such as radiation and pollutants can add to the natural level of reactive oxygen species and overcome the bodys defenses. Studies in people have suggested that oxidative stress might be a risk factor for osteoporosis, but its relationship with fracture risk is poorly understood. To find out more, the researchers prospectively assessed oxidative stress by measuring fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP) in 996 women from the Nurses Health Study who were 60 or older at baseline blood collection between 1989 and 1990. FlOPs are markers of global ...
Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (−30% Energy): the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates), which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day), low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra) diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and
Not surprisingly, the body can also suffer from reductive stress which frequently goes unmentioned. Reductive stress is achieved when the concentrations of reducing agents exceeds that of oxidizing agents. This is commonly encountered with the metabolism of ethanol. It is therefore possible for "Health Fanatics" to overdose on anti-oxidants and push the body into reductive stress instead of the oxidative stress they are steadfastly trying to avoid. Exercise can have positive or negative effects with regard to Redox effects on the body according to how it is performed. Exercise increases oxidative stress due to metabolic processes but when exercise is undertaken on a regular basis the body up-regulates its own anti-oxidant capacity to cope with the increased demand. This improved anti-oxidant activity clearly has additional benefits when we are not exercising but are under oxidative stress in other ways. Intermittent exercise will increase the oxidative stress burden on the body but is not ...
Vision problems…. "Being able to stimulate the bodys own endogenous production of glutathione is the most significant breakthrough in natural medicine that Ive seen in 3o years.". Glutathione is the bodys most important defense against free radicals, chemical toxins, radiation, heavy metals, pollution and oxidative stress.. Oxidative stress is the damage caused to our cells as the result of normal oxidative processes occurring all the time in our bodies.. If you cut an apple in half the exposed sliced parts will soon turn brown. This is an example of oxidative stress. It is the same process which causes metals to rust. A healthy body will keep the damaging effects of oxidative stress at bay. However, cells are damaged when the effects of oxidative stress overwhelm the bodys ability to protect itself.. Someone who spends too much time in the sun will have damaged skin due to the effects of free radicals and oxidative stress. In a sense, oxidative stress causes the body to "rust" and cause ...
An imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the detoxification of their reactive intermediates causes oxidative stress. Cells must respond to this imbalance before the highly reactive molecules damage cellular structures, particularly DNA. Severe and prolonged oxidative stress can trigger apoptosis and necrosis. Numerous pathological conditions have an oxidative stress component, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease, and chronic inflammation. Signaling pathways downstream of ROS detection, such as PKC, PI3K, and MAPK, phosphorylate the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This transcription factor binds the antioxidant response element (ARE) within the promoters of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and detoxifying enzymes. Key Nrf2 target genes include antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and genes involved in superoxide metabolism. These genes reduce oxidative ...
AbstractBackground:Although oxidative stress-related diseases mostly affect neonates with extremely low birthweight, healthy preterm and term newborns may also be at risk of oxidative damage. There have been studies concerning factors that affect the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in term and
SIGNIFICANCE. Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino acids. Recent Advances: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance.. CRITICAL ISSUES. The literature is very heterogeneous. It is often difficult to draw general conclusions on the significance of oxidative stress biomarkers, as only in a limited proportion of diseases have a range of different biomarkers been used, and different biomarkers have been used to study different diseases. In addition, biomarkers are often measured using nonspecific methods, while specific methodologies are often too sophisticated or laborious for routine ...
In certain situations, free radicals can be generated in an exaggerated manner and can injure tissues and organs by interacting with lipids, proteins, or DNA. So, oxidative stress has been implicated in a large number of human diseases. To survive, the human body has developed a complex, efficient, and highly adaptive antioxidant defense system. The eye is also protected against oxidative stress by several mechanisms involving antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as by low-molecular-weight antioxidants such as glutathion (GSH) and ascorbate.. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic, slowly progressive optic neuropathy, characterized by excavation of the optic nerve head (ONH) and a distinctive pattern of visual field (VF) defects. The disease is multifactorial in origin, so that besides more extensively investigated factors oxidative stress has also been proposed as a contributing factor in the etiology of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. ...
Oxidative stress is involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, and hyperglycemia is known to increase oxidative stress, which injures the endothelium and accelerates atherosclerosis. To clarify the relation between oxidative stress, diabetes mellitus (DM), and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we evaluated and compared time-specific oxidative stress after AMI in patients with and without DM by simple measurement of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) levels as indices of reactive oxygen species production. Sixty-eight AMI patients were enrolled (34 non-DM patients and 34 DM patients). Using the FRAS4 free radical analytical system, we measured d-ROMs levels in each patient at two time points: 1 and 2 weeks after AMI onset. d-ROM levels decreased significantly between week 1 and week 2 (from 475.4 ± 119.4 U.CARR to 367.7 ± 87.9 U.CARR, p | 0.001) in the non-DM patients but did not change in the DM patients (from 463.1 ± 109.3 U.CARR to 461.7 ± 126.8 U.CARR, p = 0
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Alzheimers disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder which is thought to affect 26.6 million individuals worldwide. There is growing concern over a worldwide dementia epidemic that is predicted to develop over the coming decades. The evidence thus far suggests that increased levels of oxidative stress and vascular risk factors are two major contributors, amongst others, to AD development. The thesis aimed to investigate markers of oxidative stress in AD plasma. Moreover, the oxidative status of specific proteins was investigated using both hypothesis driven and proteomic approaches. Results presented in this thesis suggest that global plasma protein oxidation levels are not different when AD and control subjects are compared, but that individual plasma proteins are specific targets for oxidative modification in AD. The thesis explores different methodologies to assess oxidative changes in AD. In addition it demonstrates that emerging novel and powerful mass spectrometry ...
Open access preprint on Evaluation of hemolytic activity and oxidative stress biomarkers in erythrocytes after exposure to bioactive glass nanoceramics
In the past few years there has been the increased recognition that the effects of oxidative stress are not limited to the damage of cellular constituents. There is now evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can alter cell function by acting upon the intermediates, or second messengers, in signal transductions. Such effects on signaling mechanisms probably account for the role of oxidative stress in inflammation, aging, and cancer. This volume brings together internationally recognized researchers in both the major areas covered by the book, oxidative stress and signal transduction. The work is organized in three sections. The first deals with the immediate cellular responses to oxidative stress and the production of second messengers. The second details the connection between second messengers and the gene. The third part looks more closely at the level of the gene.
Abstract: After the onset of a stroke, blood flows disrupted in areas affected by vascular occlusion limit the delivery of oxygen and metabolic substrates to neurons causing ATP reduction and energy depletion. The glucose and oxygen deficit that occurs after severe vascular occlusion is the origin of the mechanisms that lead to cell death and cerebral injury caused of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress constitutes mechanism of injury of many types of disease processes. On oxidative stress occurs on the increase in ROS and RNS. This paper will discuss about cerebral ischemia that causes activation of ROS and RNS, also themechanisms that play a role in cell death after cerebral ischemia, for example the role of phospholipase, Haber-Weiss reaction, and lipid peroxidation. It is also described about anti-oxidants to fight free radicals, for examples glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. ...
During physiological aerobic metabolism, the epidermis undergoes significant oxidative stress as a result of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To maintain a balanced oxidative state, cells have developed protective antioxidant systems, and preliminary studies suggest that the transcriptional factor p63 is involved in cellular oxidative defence. Supporting this hypothesis, the ΔNp63α isoform of p63 is expressed at high levels in the proliferative basal layer of the epidermis. Here we identify the CYGB gene as a novel transcriptional target of ΔNp63 that is involved in maintaining epidermal oxidative defence. The CYGB gene encodes cytoglobin, a member of the globin protein family, which facilitates the diffusion of oxygen through tissues and acts as a scavenger for nitric oxide or other ROS. By performing promoter activity assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation, reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and western blotting analyses, we confirm the direct regulation of CYGB by ΔNp63α.
Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress. Muscle levels of oxidative stress are further elevated with exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if dietary antioxidant supplementation would improve muscle function and cellular markers of oxidative stress in response to chronic repetitive loading in aging. The dorsiflexors of the left limb of aged and young adult Fischer 344 Br
TY - CHAP. T1 - Exploring the effect of redox enzyme modulation on the biology of mouse aging. AU - Salmon, Adam. AU - Richardson, Arlan. AU - Pérez, Viviana I.. PY - 2014/5/1. Y1 - 2014/5/1. N2 - The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most studied and tested mechanistic theory of why organisms age. However, most recent data on this theory suggest that broadly altering levels of oxidative stress or accumulation of oxidative damage has limited effects on the regulation of lifespan in mammals. This has led to the proposition that aging may be regulated through oxidation-induced changes to cellular redox state and redox signaling rather than through general oxidative stress mechanisms. Redox regulation of cell survival and homeostasis through modulating the pathways necessary for gene regulation, protein activation and deactivation, and apoptosis might then amplify minor alterations in oxidative stress to have drastic effects on an organism. In this chapter, we discuss the evidence that ...
... , Krishnamurthy N, Chinmoy Ghosh , Sumathi M E, Ashakiran S, Dayanand C D
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Most schemes for TGs role in acute and chronic neurodegeneration have centered around the ability of these enzymes to cross-link mutated and/or accumulated proteins in a host of diseases, including AD, HD, and PD (Caccamo et al., 2010). And while this model unifies diseases associated with proteotoxicity, it fails to account for the benefits of molecular or pharmacological TG deletion in ischemic (Hwang et al., 2009; Colak et al., 2011) or hemorrhagic stroke (Okauchi et al., 2009). Indeed, exciting new data on the role of TG in autophagosome formation (DEletto et al., 2009), in inhibiting axonal transport of growth factors such as BDNF (Borrell-Pagès et al., 2006), in repressing adaptive gene expression (McConoughey et al., 2010), and on influencing nuclear actin dynamics (Munsie et al., 2011) have focused attention on biological roles of these fascinating enzymes other than cross-linking. Here, we demonstrate that TG is a necessary component of oxidative stress-induced death signaling in ...
Title: Anti-Atherosclerotic Molecules Targeting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 27. Author(s):A. Adameova, Y. J. Xu, T. A. Duhamel, P. S. Tappia, L. Shan and N. S. Dhalla. Affiliation:Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Center, 351 Tache Avenue, Winnipeg, Canada R2H 2A6.. Keywords:Atherosclerosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, statins, fibrates, novel anti-atherosclerotic drugs. Abstract: The accumulation of lipids within arteries remains to be the initial impulse for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; however, both inflammation and oxidative stress are considered to play a critical role in this process. Several lipid lowering drugs are used as the first line therapy in atherosclerosis; however, different agents have been found to exhibit beneficial effects which are independent of their lipid lowering activity. Both statins and fibrates have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in addition to their ...
In this manuscript we have further defined the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of GM-CSF for the alveolar epithelium in the setting of oxidative stress. We found that treatment of AEC in vitro with GM-CSF resulted in increased tolerance of oxidative stress following exposure to hyperoxia or H2O2, manifest as preserved mitochondrial activity and decreased cellular injury and death. Intracellular events associated with this effect included activation of Akt, increased expression of Mcl-1, and phosphorylation of GSK3. Compared with the MLE-12 cell line, primary murine AEC in vitro were more resistant to oxidative injury, and demonstrated constitutive expression of GM-CSF and activation of Akt. Silencing GM-CSF expression in primary AEC increased the vulnerability of these cells to oxidant injury.. A wide variety of insults that lead to acute lung injury involve oxidative stress in the lung, often as a result of endogenously generated reactive oxygen species from inflammatory cells or ...
Title: Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Exercise. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):C. Leeuwenburgh and J. W. Heinecke. Affiliation:University of Florida, Biochemistry of Aging Laboratory, College of Health and Human Performance, P.O. Box 118206, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.. Keywords:Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, Electron Spin Resonance, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Increased aerobic metabolism during exercise is a potential source of oxidative stress. In muscle, mitochondria are one important source of reactive intermediates that include superoxide,hydrogen peroxide, and possibly hydroxyl radical . The recent discovery that mitochondria may generate nitric oxide also has implications for oxidant production and mitochondrial function. In this review, we critically examine the concept that production of reactive intermediates increases during exercise. Because the health benefits of regular exercise are well-documented, we also examine ...
M2 peptide is under clinical investigation as a target for universal flu vaccines. Studies have shown that Abs induced by M2 vaccines can provide cross-strain protection against flu A virus challenge. Because of the high level expression of M2 protein on the cell surface of flu virus infected cells and minimal neutralizing activities of M2 Abs in vitro, Ab-mediated cytotoxicity by NK cells has been implicated as a protection mechanism by M2 peptide vaccines. However, the studies were mostly based on the observations using M2 immune sera. Thus, to better understand immune protection mechanisms by M2 vaccines, we generated 4 mAbs. Although all mAbs showed little antiviral activity in vitro, adoptive transfer of 2 of 4 mAbs could confer protection against lethal flu A virus challenge in naïve mice. More importantly, the protection was not affected by depletion of NK cells in mice. Further characterizations revealed that the 2 protective mAbs recognize core epitopes located at the N-terminal 10 ...
Malaria is a significant public health problem in more than 100 countries and causes an estimated 200 million new infections every year. Despite the significant effort to eradicate this dangerous disease, lack of complete knowledge of its physiopathology compromises the success in this enterprise. In this paper we review oxidative stress mechanisms involved in the disease and discuss the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation as an adjuvant antimalarial strategy.
The generation of ROS induced by oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, and inflammatory diseases. Since excessive oxidative stress induces serious cell damage and finally leads to cell death, the inhibition of excessive oxidative stress may prevent various disorders [31-33]. The role of AR protein in a variety of disorders has been widely investigated. Several studies have shown that expression of AR protein protects against ROS formation and plays an important role as an antioxidant in neuronal cell [9-11]. On the other hand, some studies have demonstrated that inhibition of AR dramatically prevents production of LPS-induced cytokines, and inflammatory mediator proteins in Raw 264.7 cells, suggesting that inhibitors of AR could be used for therapeutic agent in inflammation [34]. Thus, the AR protein shows contradictory effects depending on cell type or disease. Therefore, we examined whether AR protein has a protective effect against oxidative ...
The clinical significance of oxidative stress and its role in hypertension was recently reviewed by Touyz,18 and so the current discussion is limited to the interaction between ET-1, Ang II, and superoxide.. Studies from Ortiz et al have shown that the slow pressor response to Ang II is associated with increases in ET, as well as isoprostanes, a marker of lipid oxidation and an index of oxidative stress.9 These effects could be prevented with bosentan, suggesting a role for ET in mediating the increase in oxidative stress in this model. They went on to demonstrate that antioxidant treatment with the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol, or the combination of vitamins C and E reduced Ang II-induced changes in ET expression.14 Acute administration of tempol also has antihypertensive effects in rats chronically infused with Ang II.15 Long-term treatment with tempol will lower arterial pressure in several models of hypertension associated with increases in ET production, including chronic Ang II, ...
The NanoVi Pro™ device works by triggering oxidative response, which is the bodys way of counteracting oxidative stress damage caused by free radicals. While free radicals are generally damaging, the final phase of certain free radicals acts as a signal for oxidative response. The excitation units inside NanoVi™ devices produce the same emission as the final phase of the radical. This mimics a biological process that triggers the bodys response to oxidative stress. Once triggered, oxidative response helps protect against and repair damage. Since the metabolism of oxygen and other factors constantly creates free radicals, strong oxidative response is essential to good health and vitality.. ...
Plants reconfigure their metabolic network under stress conditions. Changes of mitochondrial metabolism such as tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino acid metabolism are reported in Arabidopsis roots but the exact molecular basis underlying this remains unknown. We here hypothesise the reassembly of enzyme protein complexes to be a molecular mechanism for metabolic regulation and tried in the present study to find out mitochondrial protein complexes which change their composition under oxidative stress by the combinatorial approach of proteomics and metabolomics. Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with menadione to induce oxidative stress. The inhibition of several TCA cycle enzymes and the oxidised NADPH pool indicated the onset of oxidative stress. In blue native/SDS-PAGE analysis of mitochondrial protein complexes the intensities of 18 spots increased and those of 13 spots decreased in menadione treated samples suggesting these proteins associate with, or dissociate from, protein complexes. Some
Under normal cellular conditions there is a constant balancing act between the creation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by the antioxidant system including enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. Abnormally low levels of ROS can impede cellular signaling and some normal intracellular reactions, while overly high levels of ROS create oxidative stress which can lead to the improper oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA resulting eventually resulting in apoptosis, necrosis, and other cellular damage.. It has been demonstrated that acute hypoxia induces increased production of ROS in the brain by altering the activity of the cytochrome chain responsible for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This results in a decrease in ATP synthesis and an increase in ROS while decreasing the activity of the normal cellular antioxidant system. The resulting oxidative stress initiates apoptosis, which contributes significantly to the neuronal cell ...
Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on oxidative stress in aorta and heart of streptozotocin diabetic rats Author: Pon Velayutham Anandh Babu and Kuruvimalai Ekambaram Sabitha and Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamaladevi Hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress has been proposed as a cause of many complications of diabetes i
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Heat Stress and Ischemia/reperfusion Cause Oxidative Stress via Nadph Oxidase in Hypothalamic Neurons by Colin Rogers et al.
Oxidative stress[edit]. Oxidative stress occurs when the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is greater than their ... A rise in p66SHC promotes stress induced apoptosis.[8] p66SHC functionally is also involved in regulating oxidative and stress ... There is a link between oxidative stress, life span and p66SHC[12] in mice because of this relationship the SHC gene has been ... Selective resistance to oxidative stress and extended life span have been related to p66SHC.[12] ...
Oxidative Stress[edit]. Oxidative stress is a process characterized by a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that are ... The highest increase in oxidative markers occurred at the early stage of AD and kept increasing with ages. Oxidative stress has ... Thiamine Defficiency-induced Oxidative Stress and α-KGDHC Activity[edit]. Evidence suggests that deficiency in the TPP cofactor ... The extent of oxidative stress varies depending on the cell type and its metabolic state, but the substantial source of ROS is ...
Oxidative stress[edit]. This theory hypothesizes that toxicity and oxidative stress may cause autism in some cases. Evidence ... Evidence of toxicity, oxidative stress, and neuronal insult in autism. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2006;9(6):485-499. ... and enhanced biomarkers for oxidative stress; however, the overall evidence is weaker than it is for involvement oxidative ... Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidence base and therapeutic implications. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11(6): ...
Oxidative stress in disease[edit]. Further information: Pathology, Free-radical theory, and Oxidative stress ... This effect may involve a reduction in oxidative stress.[169] While there is some evidence to support the role of oxidative ... Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the development of a wide range of diseases including Alzheimer's disease,[159][ ... Davies KJ (1995). "Oxidative stress: the paradox of aerobic life". Biochemical Society Symposium. 61: 1-31. doi:10.1042/ ...
DNA crosslinking lesions can also be formed when under conditions of oxidative stress, in which free oxygen radicals generate ...
... regular exercise experience lower levels of oxidative stress. High levels of oxidative stress have been linked by some with the ... Individuals with low levels of physical activity are at risk for high levels of oxidative stress, as are individuals engaged in ... This would imply that oxidative stress, itself, provides an example of hormesis (see section on Mitochondrial hormesis), but ... Radak, Zsolt; Chung, Hae Y.; Koltai, Erika; Taylor, Albert W.; Goto, Sataro (2008). "Exercise, oxidative stress and hormesis". ...
Oxidative stress. London: Orlando. p. 405. ISBN 978-0-12-642760-8.. ... Cortisol and the stress response have known deleterious effects on the immune system. High levels of perceived stress and ... In the short term, activation of the HPA axis in response to stress is adaptive. However, long-term stress promoting chronic ... Sleep, stress, and mood[edit]. Diurnal cycles of cortisol levels are found in humans.[4] In humans, the amount of cortisol ...
The oxidative stress produced by these chemicals can damage cells and tissues, for example an overdose of the analgesic ... Han SG, Kim Y, Kashon ML, Pack DL, Castranova V, Vallyathan V (December 2005). "Correlates of oxidative stress and free-radical ... It may be that oxidative stress produced by such agents mimics a normal physiological signal for fibroblast conversion to ... Valko M, Morris H, Cronin MT (2005). "Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress". Curr. Med. Chem. 12 (10): 1161-208. doi:10.2174/ ...
"Oxidative Stress in Ageing of Hair". Int J Trichology. 1 (1): 6. doi:10.4103/0974-7753.51923. PMC 2929555 . PMID 20805969.. ... Stress[edit]. Anecdotes report that stress, both chronic and acute, may induce achromotrichia earlier in individuals than it ... Abnormally low levels of the enzyme catalase, which breaks down hydrogen peroxide and relieves oxidative stress in patients ... It is known that the stress hormone cortisol accumulates in human hair over time, but whether this has any effect on hair color ...
Oxidative stress, a known activator of HIV replication in vitro, has a potential role as a cofactor of HIV disease progression ... Oxidative stress and ageing: is ageing a cysteine deficiency syndrome? Dröge, Wulf. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. Vol. 360, pp 2355- ... Oxidative stress plays a role in the tumor-cytotoxic effect of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy and also in certain adverse ... Oxidative stress contributes to muscular fatigue. GSH is the major intracellular antioxidant, the biosynthesis of which is ...
Davies, KJ (1995). «Oxidative stress: The paradox of aerobic life». Biochemical Society Symposia. 61: 1-31. PMID 8660387. ... Christen Y (2000). «Oxidative stress and Alzheimer disease». Am J Clin Nutr. 71 (2): 621S-629S. PMID 10681270. ... Sohal R (2002). «Role of oxidative stress and protein oxidation in the aging process». Free Radic Biol Med. 33 (1): 37-44. PMID ... Sohal R, Mockett R, Orr W (2002). «Mechanisms of aging: an appraisal of the oxidative stress hypothesis». Free Radic Biol Med. ...
... oxidative stress, and diseases". JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR MEDICINE. 81 (12): 766-779. doi:10.1007/s00109-003-0481-4. PMID 14551701 ... "Oxidative inactivation of Paraoxonase 1 an antioxidant protein and its effect on antioxidant action." Free Radic Res, 37 (2003 ... Some of the observed roles have revealed activities of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, anti ... Paraoxonase 2 is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein that can protect cells against oxidative damage. While ...
Oxidative stress signaling in Alzheimer's disease. „Curr Alzheimer Res". 5 (6), s. 525-32, 12 2008. DOI: 10.2174/ ... Rammouz G, Lecanu L, Aisen P, Papadopoulos V. A lead study on oxidative stress-mediated dehydroepiandrosterone formation in ... Donaldson C, Tarrier N, Burns A. Determinants of carer stress in Alzheimer's disease. „Int J Geriatr Psychiatry". 13 (4), s. ...
Free hydrogen peroxide will damage any tissue it encounters via oxidative stress; a process which also has been proposed as a ... Halliwell, Barry (1 January 2007). "Oxidative stress and cancer: have we moved forward?". Biochemical Journal. 401 (1): 1-11. ... "Oxidative Stress-Induced Caspases are Regulated in Human Myeloid HL-60 Cells by Calcium Signal". Current Signal Transduction ... "Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Wound Healing in Mice in Relation to Oxidative Damage". PLoS ONE. 7 (11): e49215. Bibcode ...
Pasqualotto, FF.; Sharma, RK.; Potts, JM.; Nelson, DR.; Thomas, AJ.; Agarwal, A. (Jun 2000). "Seminal oxidative stress in ... Similar stress-induced genitourinary inflammation has been shown experimentally in other mammals. However, there is no ... Nov 2009). "Stress induced hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses and disturbances in psychological profiles in men with ... In support of this approach, a 2005 study showed that stress is correlated to Cat III prostatitis. Some researchers have ...
Mitochondrial DNA mutations as well as oxidative stress both contribute to aging.[4] Many of these diseases are late-onset, ... Over production of ROS (oxidative stress) is a central feature of all neurodegenerative disorders. In addition to the ... Lin MT, Beal MF (October 2006). "Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases". Nature. 443 ( ... There is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a causal role in neurodegenerative disease ...
Czerska M, Zieliński M, Gromadzińska J (2016). "Isoprostanes - A novel major group of oxidative stress markers". International ... they are studied as markers of oxidative stress. There are 256 potentially different furan ring-containing isomers that can be ... are non-enzymatically formed derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids studied as markers of oxidative stress; they include ...
"Oxidative stress and severe walking disability among older women". Am J Med. 120 (12): 1084-9. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.07.028 ... micronutrient deficiencies and oxidative stress[29] are each individually associated with a higher likelihood of frailty. ...
Miyazaki I, Asanuma M (June 2008). "Dopaminergic neuron-specific oxidative stress caused by dopamine itself". Acta Med. Okayama ... but stressed the need for longer term studies.[11] A review of a year long period of prescription stimulant use in those with ...
Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice. pp. 317-326. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-1935-2_17. ISBN ... This may also be because the native vitreous humour contains ascorbic acid which helps neutralize oxidative damage to the lens ...
... oxidative stress and dietary modifications" (PDF). Altern Med Rev. 6 (5): 450-9. PMID 11703165. Finally, recent evidence ... increased oxidative stress combined with decreased antioxidant response, and increased Interleukin 10, and TLR4, some of which ... This has led some to believe that stress-related visceral responses underlie CFS.[49][50] Pre-existing depressive and anxiety ... Psychological stress, childhood trauma, perfectionist personalities, old age, lower middle education, low physical fitness, ...
For the Oxidative Stress-Responsive 1 protein, see OXSR1.. OSR1. Identifiers. Aliases. OSR1, ODD, odd-skipped related ...
Lesser, MP (2006). "Oxidative stress in marine environments: Biochemistry and physiological ecology". Annual Review of ... doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(03)00042-X. Choo, Kyung-sil; Snoeijs, Pauli; Pedersén, Marianne (2004). "Oxidative stress tolerance in ... Martindale, JL; Holbrook, NJ (2002). "Cellular response to oxidative stress: Signaling for suicide and survival". Journal of ... Moller, IM (2001). "Plant Mitochondria and Oxidative Stress: Electron Transport, NADPH Turnover, and Metabolism of Reactive ...
Behl T, Kaur I, Kotwani A (Jun 2015). "Implication of oxidative stress in progression of diabetic retinopathy". Surv Ophthalmol ... "Oxidative stress as a major culprit in kidney disease in diabetes". Diabetes. 57 (6): 1446-1454. doi:10.2337/db08-0057. PMID ...
The oxidative stress hypothesis (proposed by Munzel et al. in 1995). The last hypothesis might represent a unifying hypothesis ...
... pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key ... The ability of S. pneumoniae to repair the oxidative DNA damages in its genome, caused by this host defense, likely contributes ... On the basis of these findings, they suggested that transformation is an adaptation for repairing oxidative DNA damages. S. ... Claverys JP, Prudhomme M, Martin B (2006). "Induction of competence regulons as a general response to stress in gram-positive ...
... Academic Article ... Oxidative stress was increased at both time points, indexed by tissue malondialdehyde, total glutathione, and free C6-C9 LP-DA ... Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LP-DA) can propagate oxidative injury and are detoxified by the aldose reductase (AR) ... LP-DA metabolism contributes importantly to LP-DA accumulation in the failing heart and thus may augment chronic oxidative ...
A powerful antioxidant that helps protect your cells from oxidative damage related to aging and environmental stress. ALA ...
... Tianying Wu, M.D., Ph.D.. University of Cincinnati. NIEHS Grant P30ES006096 ... Oxidative stress occurs when the body insufficiently responds to reactive oxygen species. Environmental factors such as ... Studies in people have suggested that oxidative stress might be a risk factor for osteoporosis, but its relationship with ... An NIEHS grantee and colleagues report that biomarkers of oxidative stress are associated with hip fracture in postmenopausal ...
Oxidative Stress in Aging: From Model Systems to Human Diseases discusses the role of free radicals in aging in different ... The Role of Oxidative Stress in Aging. * Different Model Systems. * Retrograde Response, Oxidative Stress, and Cellular ... Oxidative Stress in Human Aging and Diseases. * Deregulation of Mitochondrial Function: A Potential Common Theme for ... Oxidative Stress in Aging: From Model Systems to Human Diseases discusses the role of free radicals in aging in different ...
Gathering these data, it was clear that oxidative stress related responses are affected during Cd stress, but the apparent ... Toxic metals and oxidative stress part 1: mechanisms involved in metal induced oxidative damage. Curr Top Med Chem 1:529-539 ... Valko M, Morris H, Cronin MTD (2005) Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem 12:1161-1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Cadmium Glutathione Oxidative stress Signaling Thiol Antioxidative defense Reactive oxygen species This is a preview of ...
Oxidative stress research has largely focused on the role and effects of antioxidants in protecting these molecules from damage ... Oxidative stress is a pathological state that arises when free radicals (collectively known of as reactive oxygen species or ... Oxidative stress is a pathological state that arises when free radicals (collectively known of as reactive oxygen species or ... Oxidative stress research has largely focused on the role and effects of antioxidants in protecting these molecules from damage ...
Oxidative Stress News and Research. RSS Oxidative Stress is a condition in which antioxidant levels are lower than normal. ... Findings may open up new ways to treat dwarfism and other ER-stress-related conditions Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is a severe ...
... can have a significant effect on oxidative stress, improving human health, according to a systematic review... ... "Can sesame-based ingredients reduce oxidative stress?." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 18 May. 2016. Web.. 22 Sep. ... LIEBERT, M. (2016, May 18). "Can sesame-based ingredients reduce oxidative stress?." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https ... Effects of the Intake of Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) and Derivatives on Oxidative Stress. : A Systematic Review. Vittori ...
Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to ... that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in ... Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal ... Oxidative Stress in Retinal Diseases. Guest Editors: Yuhei Nishimura, Hideaki Hara, Mineo Kondo, Samin Hong, and Takeshi ...
Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to ... that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in ... Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal ... In recent years, it has been conceptualized that oxidative stress markers in sputum should be employed to monitor oxidative ...
Free radicals and oxidative stress have been recognized as important factors in the biology of aging and in many age-associated ... Chrononutrition against oxidative stress in aging.. Garrido M1, Terrón MP, Rodríguez AB. ... and other foodstuffs have been linked to reducing the risk of major oxidative stress-induced diseases. Some dietary components ... reduce the rate of aging and the risk of chronic disease is to avoid the formation of free radicals and reduce oxidative stress ...
Plant aging increases oxidative stress in chloroplasts.. Munné-Bosch S1, Alegre L. ... This study provides new insights into the relationship between oxidative stress and plant aging, and points out chloroplasts as ... The results indicate that the oxidative stress associated with the aging in plants accumulates progressively in chloroplasts, ... oxidative stress increases progressively in chloroplasts as plants age, whereas photosynthesis is reduced. ...
The long-lived naked mole-rat shows much higher levels of oxidative stress and damage and less robust repair mechanisms than ... The results fly in the face of the oxidative stress theory of aging, which holds that damage caused by oxidative stress is a ... the less oxidative stress has occurred. The oxidative stress theory predicts that in naked mole-rats this ratio will be higher ... Dont toss the oxidative stress theory of aging out the window just yet, but prepare to modify it, said Buffenstein, the senior ...
218 Knockout p47phox reduces angiotensin ii-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy Fangfei Liu, Junjie Du, Jian-Mei ... 164 Translational regulation of gene expression in cardiomyocytes following exposure to oxidative stress Bethany Wong, Thomais ... 232 Endothelial ship2 knockout causes nox2 nadph oxidase-dependent oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction Peysh Patel, ... 159 A Crucial Role of Nox2-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species in Ageing-Associated Metabolic Disorders and Brain Oxidative Damage ...
Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Response Related Genetic Variants, Pro-oxidants, Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer. Oxidative ... Melatonin is a hormone secreted from the pineal gland and has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxidative stress is ... Identification of Differential Patterns of Oxidative Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Progression. Oxidative stress has been found ... Oxidative stress and male reproductive health - Full Text Article One of the major causes of defective sperm function is ...
Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in carcinogenesis and is used strategically to treat ... Thus, it is essential to understand the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. In this review, we briefly summarize ... Genome stability is compromised when cells are exposed to oxidative stress. Increasing evidence suggests that BRCA1 regulates ... and discuss data supporting the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. Finally, we consider its significance in ...
1) Summary of Fluoride/Oxidative Stress Research:. "Oxidative stress is a recognized mode of action of fluoride exposure that ... 1) A recent, comprehensive review on fluoride and oxidative stress research,. 2) Studies finding increased oxidative stress ... Oxidative Stress: An Emerging Area of Concern. Evidence continues to come in demonstrating that fluoride may increase oxidative ... Fluoride & Oxidative Stress. F.A.N. , July 2012 , By Michael Connett A vast body of research demonstrates that fluoride ...
A physical model of axonal damage due to oxidative stress. Anne E. Counterman, Terrence G. DOnofrio, Anne Milasincic Andrews, ... A physical model of axonal damage due to oxidative stress. Anne E. Counterman, Terrence G. DOnofrio, Anne Milasincic Andrews, ... A physical model of axonal damage due to oxidative stress. Anne E. Counterman, Terrence G. DOnofrio, Anne Milasincic Andrews, ... Here, we model oxidative stress in neurons using photogenerated radicals in a simplified membrane-encapsulated microtubule ...
In this paper we review oxidative stress mechanisms involved in the disease and discuss the potential benefits of antioxidant ... Oxidative Stress as Host Defense Mechanism against Plasmodium Infection. It has been shown that oxidative stress is related to ... Oxidative Stress in Malaria. Sandro Percário 1,*, Danilo R. Moreira 1, Bruno A. Q. Gomes 1, Michelli E. S. Ferreira 1, Ana ... Furthermore, oxidative stress markers in infected humans and rats are found in high levels compared to uninfected controls [21, ...
An imbalance in the redox-system will induce oxidative stress, a condition characterized by a surplus of unrestrained oxidants ... obesity and kidney insufficiency and neurodegenerative diseases are associated with oxidative stress. Furthermore, hemolytic ... An imbalance in the redox-system will induce oxidative stress, a condition characterized by a surplus of unrestrained oxidants ... The intention of this research topic is to describe various biomarkers of oxidative stress and discuss their possible ...
... Thorsten Jabs thorsten.jabs at medew.fyto.wau.nl Sun Sep 24 11:44:10 EST 1995 *Previous ... oxidative burst; systemic acquired resistance; hypersensitive cell death: OML means Orchestral Manoeuvers in the Light * ... Previous message: Oxidative stress as a cause for ageing *Next message: Oxidative stress as a cause for ageing ...
Thus, accumulated oxidative damage of potassium channels contributes to reduced sensory perception associated with aging in ... Oxidative modification of a potassium channel in C. elegans mediates decreased chemotaxis in old worms. ... Oxidative modification of a potassium channel in C. elegans mediates decreased chemotaxis in old worms. ... Insights from aging in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans connect oxidative damage of potassium channels to this process. The ...
Paradoxically, researchers have suggested that small exposure to oxidative conditions may actually offer protection from acute ... Oxidative stress has been linked to aging, cancer and other diseases in humans. ... Oxidative stress has been linked to aging, cancer and other diseases in humans. Paradoxically, researchers have suggested that ... One major contributor to oxidative stress is hydrogen peroxide, converted from a type of free radical that leaks from the ...
oxidative stress [ Time Frame: Change in oxidative stress from baseline to the last day of a 14-day period of product intake ] ... Coffee, Exercise, and Oxidative Stress. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Have a regular consumption of medication (only those impacting oxidative stress biomarkers (eg. impacting the metabolism of ... coffee intake may be beneficial on biomarkers of oxidative damage measured in urine and plasma after an acute stress caused by ...
Epidemiology: Oxidative Stress and Early Atherosclerosis. Official Title Epidemiology: Oxidative Stress and Early ... Epidemiology: Oxidative Stress and Early Atherosclerosis. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... It continues to write reports about different feature of oxidative stress and related phenomena as the CARDIA subjects age. ... In subsequent renewals additional markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction have been measured in blood collected ...
  • Oxidative Stress is a condition in which antioxidant levels are lower than normal. (news-medical.net)
  • The antioxidant boosting properties of sesame, and especially sesame oil, can have a significant effect on oxidative stress , improving human health, according to a systematic review published in Journal of Medicinal Food , a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Measurement of oxidized guanine species and antioxidant enzymes in the sputum could be other approaches for assessing oxidative stress in pulmonary patients. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of in vitro supplementation with vitamin E in human spermatozoon incubated with an oxidative stress inducer. (urotoday.com)
  • Antioxidant treatment consistently protects cells from the lipid peroxidation caused by fluoride exposure, suggesting that oxidative/nitrosative damage is the major mode of action of fluoride. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with endemic fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • 2011). Evaluation of total oxidative status and total antioxidant capacity in patients with endemic fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In this paper we review oxidative stress mechanisms involved in the disease and discuss the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation as an adjuvant antimalarial strategy. (mdpi.com)
  • This paper shows that oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play a major role in heat-induced cell death in yeast. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, inhibition of nitrosative/oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant response is the primary effect of γ-TmT in early stages of E2-induced mammary hyperplasia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Oxidative stress is the state in which oxidants overwhelm the antioxidant defense. (autismone.org)
  • The Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 nutritional test utilizes a blood sample in order to evaluate the body's oxidative stress status and antioxidant reserve. (gdx.net)
  • Oxidative stress testing is used to assess equilibrium between oxidative damage and antioxidant reserve. (gdx.net)
  • Oxidative stress results when this delicate pro-oxidant/antioxidant equilibriumis disrupted in favor of the pro-oxidant (free radical) state. (gdx.net)
  • The objective was to study oxidative status, antioxidant activities, and reactive oxygen species byproducts in whole blood and mononuclear peripherals cells and their relationship with blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • In whole blood and in mononuclear cells from hypertensive subjects, there was an increase in oxidative stress and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant mechanisms that appeared to be independent of the blood pressure values. (ahajournals.org)
  • Oxidative stress, an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) outstripping antioxidant defense mechanisms, has been implicated in pathophysiological conditions that affect the cardiovascular system such cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, oxidative status, antioxidant activities, and ROS byproducts in whole blood and mononuclear peripherals cells was measured in a group of hypertensive subjects not in antihypertensive treatment in whom BP values were estimated using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. (ahajournals.org)
  • however, this discussion needs to be better elucidated and may be more discussed as there is interaction between the pyridostigmine bromide and an endogenous oxidative imbalance caused by it or even by the possible interaction of this with genetic variations present in the antioxidant metabolism. (intechopen.com)
  • The channel complements antioxidant production, a cell's primary defense against oxidative stress, to help increase cancer survival and progression. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chemically, oxidative stress is associated with increased production of oxidizing species or a significant decrease in the effectiveness of antioxidant defenses, such as glutathione. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their resistance to high temperature, oxidative stress, and antioxidant response were evaluated, along with the fatty acid composition of their cell membranes. (scielo.br)
  • It is concluded that the SLP1 yeast strain is a thermotolerant yeast with less oxidative stress and a greater antioxidant response. (scielo.br)
  • 1 The capacity to tolerate high temperatures is related to oxidative stress and the antioxidant response. (scielo.br)
  • High temperature increases oxidative stress and overexpression of antioxidant enzyme genes in S. cerevisiae . (scielo.br)
  • Little information is currently available regarding oxidative stress induction and the antioxidant response to increased temperatures in thermotolerant yeasts. (scielo.br)
  • The aim of this work was to select a thermotolerant yeast (yeasts that were isolated in regions of Mexico with high-temperature environments) and study its oxidative stress and antioxidant response. (scielo.br)
  • Oxidative stress, thus, refers to a serious imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defenses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An antioxidant was defined as 'any substance that delays, prevents or removes oxidative damage to a target molecule' [ 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In human disease, this 'oxidant-antioxidant' balance is tilted in favour of the reactive species, so that oxidative damage levels increase. (majortests.com)
  • Since this mutagenic response was inhibited in the presence of catalase as antioxidant, the authors concluded that oxidative stress in form of the generation and release of ROS and/or depletion of antioxidants may significantly contribute to this response. (ecetoc.org)
  • A good case can be made for the notion that health depends on a balance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses. (drweil.com)
  • Aging and age-related diseases reflect the inability of our antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative stress over time. (drweil.com)
  • An effort to decrease oxidative stressors is one of the reasons for the popularity of antioxidant-containing foods, beverages, skin care products and vitamins. (galveston.com)
  • While n-3 PUFAs have been suggested to limit adverse outcomes associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and disturbed antioxidant status, a deeper understanding of the therapeutic potential of these bioactive nutrients is required in patient populations with conditions characterised by inflammation and oxidative overload such as abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). (nature.com)
  • In this study, the increase in MDA levels of renal tissue and in urine NAG and also the decrease in renal SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanism induced by 900-MHz mobile phone exposure, and melatonin, via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorated oxidative tissue injury in rat kidney. (stopumts.nl)
  • The oxidative balance in both patients with chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) and healthy control patients was determined by measuring the oxidant status, using an identification of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test, while the antioxidant status in these patients was determined using a biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test. (medsci.org)
  • Oxidative stress is involved in the process of apoptotic occurrence, and can be triggered by promoting ROS production and reducing antioxidant function. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Distressed fetuses delivered by emergency cesarean exhibited increased malondialdehyde concentrations, an indicative parameter for oxidative damage, and enhanced GPX activity an antioxidant enzyme, in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood compared to non-distressed fetuses delivered by elective cesarean section. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Oxidative stress occurs naturally, but environmental factors such as natural and artificial radiation, toxins in air, food and water, and miscellaneous sources such as tobacco smoke can add to the overall burden and defeat the body's antioxidant defenses. (thirdage.com)
  • The aim of the present review was to provide an up-to-date overview of the biological and epidemiological evidence of the role of oxidative stress as a major underlying feature of the toxic effect of air pollutants, and the potential role of dietary supplementation in enhancing antioxidant defences. (ersjournals.com)
  • To provide an up-to-date overview on the biological and epidemiological evidence of the role of oxidative stress as a major underlying feature of the toxic effect of air pollutants and the potential role of dietary supplementation as an enhancer 11 of antioxidant defences, a bibliogaphic search was conducted through PubMed. (ersjournals.com)
  • Lycopene maintains oxidative balance in birds through various ways including serving as a free radical scavenger, inhibiting signalling pathways and activating host antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT). (cambridge.org)
  • The aims of this current review are to summarise mechanisms of action through which lycopene quench reactive species and maintain oxidative balance, highlight the potential role of lycopene as a natural antioxidant agent for poultry industry and examine the benefits to poultry producers when using this natural antioxidant on commercial basis in poultry diets to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress. (cambridge.org)
  • The transcription factor Nrf2 plays a critical role in the organism-wide regulation of the antioxidant stress response. (genetics.org)
  • Oxidative metabolism was suppressed as indicated by reduced ( C ) TCA cycle flux and ( D ) calculated oxygen consumption. (jci.org)
  • Cancer-derived loss-of-function mutations in the KEAP1 tumor suppressor gene stabilize the NRF2 transcription factor, resulting in a prosurvival gene expression program that alters cellular metabolism and neutralizes oxidative stress. (asm.org)
  • The new study by Mattson's team explores changes in ceramide/sphingomyelin and cholesterol metabolism in animal and human tissues with an eye toward correlating these processes with both oxidative stress and Aβ-induced cell death. (alzforum.org)
  • Glutamate analogs regulate inositol-1,4,5 triphosphate mass accumulation in accordance with their ability to protect cells from oxidative glutamate toxicity, and protection appears to take place at the level of glutathione metabolism. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using brain tissue specimens from control and AD patients, we provided evidence that DHEA is formed in the AD brain by the oxidative stress-mediated metabolism of an unidentified precursor, thus depleting levels of the precursor in the blood stream. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of insulin on neuronal glucose uptake and metabolism after oxidative stress in rat primary cortical neurons. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • On oxidative stress, insulin stimulates neuronal glucose uptake and subsequent metabolism into pyruvate, restoring intracellular ATP and phosphocreatine. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Under such conditions, brain metabolism is affected ( 17 ), leading to lactate accumulation and tissue acidosis ( 18 ), as well as mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent decrease in high-energy phosphates, ultimately resulting in oxidative stress and neuronal death ( 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron oxide nanoparticles cause oxidative stress and dermal toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy can cause oxidative stress in both the mother and offspring, that increase the risk of developing diabetes or heart disease later in life, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's journal Endocrinology. (medindia.net)
  • High-polyphenol chocolate protected against acute hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Stress is defined as a physiological reaction to undesired emotional or physical situations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When stress becomes chronic and lasts for a long time, the stressed organism reacts with physiological alterations to adapt to the unfavorable conditions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For this book we would like to recruit the experts in the field of redox chemistry, bioinformatics and proteomics, redox signaling and oxidative stress biology to discuss how organisms achieve the appropriate redox balance, the mechanisms that lead to oxidative stress conditions and the physiological consequences that contribute to aging and disease. (bokus.com)
  • Heat stress is one of the most important physiological factors challenging poultry production throughout the world especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. (cambridge.org)
  • Add a new strand to the growing web of relationships among production of the Aβ peptide, regulation of cholesterol and other lipids, oxidative stress, and the death of neurons in Alzheimer's. (alzforum.org)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that BRCA1 regulates oxidative stress and this may be another mechanism in preventing carcinogenesis in normal cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Based on this research, it is believed that fluoride-induced oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying the various toxic effects associated with fluoride exposure. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Mechanism of oxidative stress-induced ASK1-catalyzed MKK6 phosphorylation. (uniprot.org)
  • The cytotoxic mechanism of glyoxal involves oxidative stress. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Glyoxal cytotoxicity was prevented by the glyoxal traps d-penicillamine or aminoguanidine or ROS scavengers were also cytoprotective even when added some time after glyoxal suggesting that oxidative stress contributed to the glyoxal cytotoxic mechanism. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In response to stress, an intricate molecular mechanism facilitated by sensor cysteines within KEAP1 allows NRF2 to escape. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest the mechanism by which oxidative stress accelerates telomere shortening is by damaging the DNA precursor molecules, not the telomere itself. (skininc.com)
  • Over the years we have reported that, unlike other neurosteroids, DHEA biosynthesis in rat, bovine, and human brain is mediated by an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism, independent of the cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) enzyme activity found in the periphery. (frontiersin.org)
  • Oxidative stress has been identified as one unifying mechanism in the pathogenesis of CKD and CVD [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • First, the relevance of oxidative stress as a common mechanism for effects of ambient air pollutants will be summarised. (ersjournals.com)
  • Our results indicate that n-3 PUFA treatment in macrophages mediated polymerization of the autophagy receptor SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1) and recruitment of KEAP1 (kelch-like ECH associated protein 1), which is the repressor of NFE2L2, as a fast mechanism to activate the anti-oxidative response. (bibsys.no)
  • On the other hand, damaged antioxidative defense mechanisms, altered homeostasis of the airway surface liquid (ASL), and acute or chronic airway infections (bacterial colonization) could also contribute to enhanced oxidative stress in these diseases [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Phytochemicals present in fruits, vegetables, grains, and other foodstuffs have been linked to reducing the risk of major oxidative stress-induced diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, hemolytic diseases involving destruction of erythrocytes in an uncontrolled manner, leads to high levels of cell-free Hb which can induce oxidative stress through its reactive heme-chelated iron. (frontiersin.org)
  • Oxidative stress has been linked to aging, cancer and other diseases in humans. (ucsd.edu)
  • Since oxidative stress has been suggested as a causative factor in many diseases, its prevention is vital, and there is an urgent need for oxidative stress monitoring using in vitro and in vivo models. (springer.com)
  • As such, the book is a valuable resource for students, researchers and clinicians interested in the fundamental as well as applied aspects of oxidative stress associated diseases. (springer.com)
  • It has been accepted that oxidative stress is involved in many acute and chronic diseases and even in normal aging. (scielo.br)
  • This review focuses on the evaluation of the influence of oxidative stress on eye diseases emphasizing its relation with the pathogenesis of dry eye disease. (scielo.br)
  • In humans, oxidative stress is involved in many diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and ischemic cascade due to oxygen reperfusion injury followed by hypoxia. (scielo.br)
  • Oxidative stress is implicated in a fast-growing list of human conditions, from the superficial (e.g., wrinkled skin) to the deadly: diseases such as cancer, heart disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Lou Gehrig s disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS). (innovations-report.com)
  • However, oxidative stress has been identified as a possible cause of several later-onset neurodegenerative diseases, and there are also indications that the diseased neurons of Alzheimer s patients have duplicated their DNA prior to dying. (innovations-report.com)
  • Chapter 13 Oxidative Stress in Infectious Diseases. (bokus.com)
  • In humans, oxidative stress is involved in many diseases. (wikipathways.org)
  • In this review, we present the cumulative evidence for oxidative stress as a natural regulator of DHEA formation and the use of this concept to develop a blood-based diagnostic tool for neurodegenerative diseases linked to oxidative stress, such as AD. (frontiersin.org)
  • We previously demonstrated that insulin has a neuroprotective role against oxidative stress, a deleterious condition associated with diabetes, ischemia, and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, one can infer from these findings that through proper endodontic therapy, a good oxidative balance can be restored, thereby avoiding the risk of contracting the abovementioned diseases. (medsci.org)
  • 8-Isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in the serum, was also reduced by γ-TmT. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Some bacteria, like Bacillus subtilis utilize a nitric oxide (NO) mediated system to rapidly respond to oxidative stress and minimize its effects. (asknature.org)
  • Toward this aim, we have developed a minimal physical system with which to investigate the effects of oxidative stress on the cytoskeleton. (pnas.org)
  • The effects of oxidative stress depend upon the size of these changes, with a cell being able to overcome small perturbations and regain its original state. (wikipedia.org)
  • This direct genetic approach will enable the identification of genes whose products are crucial for the global regulation of oxidative stress defence systems. (europa.eu)
  • Here, we investigated the regulation of oxidative stress-induced ASK1-catalyzed phosphorylation of MKK6. (uniprot.org)
  • It is possible that this is a recognition site for a DNA binding protein involved in the regulation of oxidative stress genes in this organism. (asm.org)
  • The results of our study demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the endemic fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • This study provides new insights into the relationship between oxidative stress and plant aging, and points out chloroplasts as one of the target organelles of age-associated oxidative stress in plants. (nih.gov)
  • Structural characterization of the cross-links and other products accumulating in collagen in diabetes is needed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between oxidative stress and the development of complications in diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The current review gives an overview on Cd-induced ROS production and anti-oxidative defense in organisms under different Cd regimes. (springer.com)
  • ROS represent an important part of defense, while the NFE2L2 -KEAP1 system regulates oxidative stress and limits ROS production. (bibsys.no)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that oxidative stress rapidly increases ASK1 catalytic efficiency for MKK6 phosphorylation by increasing MKK6 binding affinity within the ASK1 signalosome prior to induction of inactivation and degradation of the complex. (uniprot.org)
  • Short-term oxidative stress may also be important in prevention of aging by induction of a process named mitohormesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples include Sickle Cell Disease, atherosclerosis, Parkinson's disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorder, fragile X syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome, but short-term oxidative stress may also be important in prevention of aging by induction of a process named mitohormesis. (wikipathways.org)
  • This ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione is thus an indicator of oxidative stress: the greater the ratio, the less oxidative stress has occurred. (newswise.com)
  • In the neurodevelopmental period prior to diagnosis of autism, greater oxidative stress is suggested by greater maternal emotional stress during gestation, more numerous gestational and perinatal somatic problems, and elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at birth and later. (autismone.org)
  • Fourthly, the relevance of factors that may interact with a subjects' response to exogenous oxidative stress will be discussed. (ersjournals.com)
  • Her team suspects that the naked mole-rat's longevity stems from its ability to defend against acute bouts of oxidative stress. (newswise.com)
  • Paradoxically, researchers have suggested that small exposure to oxidative conditions may actually offer protection from acute doses. (ucsd.edu)
  • This was a surprise, because Mga2 is found at the control point of a completely different pathway than those which respond to acute exposure of oxidative agents," said Ideker. (ucsd.edu)
  • Initially, stress induces an acute response (fight or flight) that is mediated by catecholamines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There is substantial evidence that air pollution exposure results in increased oxidative stress and that dietary supplementation may play a modulating role on the acute effect of air pollutants. (ersjournals.com)
  • 2009). Oxidative stress in cases of chronic fluoride intoxication. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In this review, we present recent insights on chronic heart failure (CHF) and the potential role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukins, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitrosative stress in the progression of this disease process. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence that chronic alcohol exposure promotes intestinal oxidative stress, intestinal hyperpermeability and endotoxemia prior to development of alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats. (ei-resource.org)
  • This study has demonstrated a positive association between chronic apical periodontitis and oxidative stress. (medsci.org)
  • Subjects affected by chronic apical periodontitis are exposed to a condition of oxidative stress, which is extremely dangerous to general health. (medsci.org)
  • Oxidative stress, chronic apical periodontitis, endodontic treatment. (medsci.org)
  • Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease are unified by oxidative stress. (intechopen.com)
  • This study provides the first evidence that BPA exposure during pregnancy can induce a specific type of oxidative stress known as nitrosative stress in both the mother and offspring," said the senior author, Vasantha Padmanabhan, MS, PhD, of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, MI. (eurekalert.org)
  • This hypothesis is supported by epidemiological studies, which suggest that oxidative injury from O 3 exposure can induce bronchospasm, decrease lung function, increase medication use, and increase hospitalization in patients with asthma ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Oxidative injury from O 3 exposure has been shown to induce recruitment of neutrophils and decrement in lung function in patients with asthma ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The work described in this manuscript extends the role of mGluRs to include protection from oxidative stress-induced programmed cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • In multicellular organisms, Nrf2 activation can confer organism-wide protection from oxidative stress by regulating stress responses in distal tissues through intertissue signaling. (genetics.org)