Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Electron Transport Complex II: A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Oxidative Phosphorylation Coupling FactorsCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.PhosphoproteinsProtein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Diuron: A pre-emergent herbicide.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.MalatesSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Hydroxyquinolines: The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Plastoquinone: Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mycobacterium phlei: A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Tetramethylphenylenediamine: Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mitochondrial Myopathies: A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.PhosphopeptidesATP Synthetase Complexes: Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Dicumarol: An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Photosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Cytochrome b6f Complex: A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.PyruvatesSodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Adenine NucleotidesLactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
"Oxidative phosphorylation". W H Freeman, 2002. Retrieved 4 April 2013.. *^ Medh, J. D. "Electron Transport Chain (Overview)" ( ... Oxidative phosphorylation[edit]. Main article: oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation produces 26 of the 30 ... energy coupling and phosphorylation of ADP to ATP that gives the electron transport chain the name oxidative phosphorylation. ... The biosynthesis of ATP is achieved throughout processes such as substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, ...
Oxidative Phosphorylation[edit]. Detailed diagram of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. ... Utilizing one full oxygen in oxidative phosphorylation requires the transfer of four electrons. The oxygen will then consume ... The total equation for the electron transport chain is: N. A. D. H. +. 11. H. +. (. m. a. t. r. i. x. ). +. 1. /. 2. O. 2. ⟶. N ... In the electron transport chain, Complex I (CI) catalyzes the reduction of ubiquinone (UQ) to ubiquinol (UQH2) by the transfer ...
Oxidative phosphorylation Electron transport chain Metabolism PDB: 1SUW​; Liu J, Lou Y, Yokota H, Adams PD, Kim R, Kim SH (Nov ... Thus, NADK can modulate responses to oxidative stress by controlling NADP synthesis. Bacterial NADK is shown to be inhibited ... "Evidence that feedback inhibition of NAD kinase controls responses to oxidative stress". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... and the yeast mitochondrial isoform accepts both NAD+ and NADH as substrates for phosphorylation. ATP + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
The citric acid cycle occurs in between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (i.e. electron transport chain). In addition, ... Also deficiency in the TPP cofactor was found to induce oxidative stress due to electron transport from E3 subunit of α-KGDHC ... The α-KGDHC is found in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), which situated between glycolysis and the electron transport chain ... Oxidative Stress[edit]. Oxidative stress is a process characterized by a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that are ...
Verseveld, H. W. Van; Stouthamer, A. H. (1978-07-01). "Electron-transport chain and coupled oxidative phosphorylation in ... Electrons from methanol oxidation are passed to a membrane-associated quinone of the electron transport chain to produce ATP {\ ... which provides electrons directly to a membrane associated quinone of the electron transport chain, usually cytochrome b or c. ... Methylotrophs use the electron transport chain to conserve energy produced from the oxidation of C 1 {\displaystyle {{\ce {C1 ...
Electron transfer from electron carriers to the electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation. Free fatty acids cannot ... which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain. It is named as such because the beta carbon of the fatty acid ... It uses FAD as an electron acceptor and it is reduced to FADH2. Trans-delta2-enoyl CoA is hydrated at the double bond to ... This enzyme uses NAD as an electron acceptor. Thiolysis occurs between C2 and C3 (alpha and beta carbons) of 3-ketoacyl CoA. ...
It works as a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler, disrupting the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This ...
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation are specifically acting toxicants. Oxidative phosphorylation is a coupling reaction in ... Respiratory blockers are known to affect the electron transport chain in the mitochondria of cells. Central Nervous System ... Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation disrupt the production of ATP. They do so by binding to the protons in the inner ... Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation*AChE inhibitors Irritants CNS seizure agents Respiratory blockers*Dioxins A toxicant ...
Ubiquinone (CoQ) accepts two electrons to be reduced to ubiquinol (CoQH2). The proposed pathway for electron transport prior to ... It is one of the "entry enzymes" of cellular respiration or oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Complex I is the ... 2010) used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra and double electron-electron resonance (DEER) to determine the path of ... of electrons being diverted to superoxide formation. Reverse electron transfer, the process by which electrons from the reduced ...
The last process in aerobic respiration is oxidative phosphorylation, also known as the electron transport chain. Here NADH and ... deliver their electrons to the inner membranes of the mitochondrion to power the production of ATP. Oxidative phosphorylation ... Along the electron transport chain, there are separate compartments, each with their own concentration gradient of H + ions, ... NAD+ and FAD possess a high energy potential to drive the production of ATP in the electron transport chain. ATP production ...
The NADH generated by the citric acid cycle is fed into the oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport) pathway. The net ... an enzyme which functions both in the CAC and the mitochondrial electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation. FADH2, ... Most of the energy made available by the oxidative steps of the cycle is transferred as energy-rich electrons to NAD+, forming ... Furthermore, inefficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation due to leakage of protons across the mitochondrial membrane and ...
Complex IV is the third and final enzyme of the electron transport chain of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Cytochrome ... Chen J, Strous M (February 2013). "Denitrification and aerobic respiration, hybrid electron transport chains and co-evolution ... One suggestion is that deficiency of MT-COI in a mitochondrion leads to lower reactive oxygen production (and less oxidative ...
... is thus able to obstruct oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain in mitochondrial membranes. In ...
NADH dehydrogenase is involved in the first step of the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Any ... change in the electron transport component caused by a mutation might effect the normal electron flow. This might be leading " ... In the electron transport chain NADH is mainly used to create a concentration gradient of hydrogen in order to make ATP. Since ... "Electron-Transport Chains and Their Proton Pumps". Koli AK, Yearby C, Scott W, Donaldson KO (1969). "Purification and ...
The acetyl group is used in the Krebs cycle and the phase ends with the electron transport chain. Oxidative decarboxylation ... Citric acid Oxidative phosphorylation Reverse (reductive) Krebs cycle Metabolism portal. ...
Both Complex I and Complex II of oxidative phosphorylation have multiple Fe-S clusters. They have many other functions ... Iron-sulfur clusters are best known for their role in the oxidation-reduction reactions of mitochondrial electron transport. ... The [Fe4S4] electron-transfer proteins ([Fe4S4] ferredoxins) may be further subdivided into low-potential (bacterial-type) and ... These organisms also possess a set of proteins involved in the Fe/S clusters transport and incorporation processes that are not ...
Oxidative phosphorylation Microbial metabolism García-Horsman JA, Barquera B, Rumbley J, Ma J, Gennis RB (1994). "The ... These enzymes are one set of the many alternative terminal oxidases in the branched prokaryotic electron transport chain. The ... Ubiquinol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.11) are enzymes in the bacterial electron transport chain that oxidise ubiquinol into ubiquinone ...
The inhibition of ATP synthesis by oligomycin A will significantly reduce electron flow through the electron transport chain; ... In oxidative phosphorylation research, it is used to prevent state 3 (phosphorylating) respiration. Oligomycin A inhibits ATP ... which is necessary for oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP (energy production). ... however, electron flow is not stopped completely due to a process known as proton leak or mitochondrial uncoupling. This ...
NADH can be used by the electron transport chain to create further ATP as part of oxidative phosphorylation. To fully oxidize ... In eukaryotes, oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondrial cristae. It comprises the electron transport chain that ... is assumed that all the reduced coenzymes are oxidized by the electron transport chain and used for oxidative phosphorylation. ... "terminal electron acceptor". Most of the ATP produced by aerobic cellular respiration is made by oxidative phosphorylation. ...
... supply the electrons that run through the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation. Increased Oxoglutarate ... reduction in activity of the enzyme under times of oxidative stress also serves to slow the flux through the electron transport ... When mitochondria are treated with excess hydrogen peroxide, flux through the electron transport chain is reduced, and NADH ... High NADH concentrations stimulate an increase in flux through oxidative phosphorylation. While an increase in flux through ...
In vitro, IPAM reduces reactive oxygen species by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation in complex I of the electron transport ...
For instance, the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation all take place in the ... most organisms can perform more efficient aerobic respiration through the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. ... An example of a coupled reaction is the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to form the intermediate fructose-1,6- ... The energy is utilized to conduct biosynthesis, facilitate movement, and regulate active transport inside of the cell. Examples ...
... during oxidative phosphorylation. Conventional cellular respiration requires a final electron acceptor to receive these ... Electrons exocytosed in this fashion are produced following ATP production using an electron transport chain (ETC) ... Aside from releasing electrons to an exogenous final electron acceptor, external electron transfer may serve other purposes. ... Certain exoelectrogens have shown capability of using such compounds for electron transport by solubilizing iron ...
FADH2 then reverts to FAD, sending its two high-energy electrons through the electron transport chain; the energy in FADH2 is ... enough to produce 1.5 equivalents of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. There are also redox flavoproteins that non-covalently ... FAD-dependent proteins function in a large variety of metabolic pathways including electron transport, DNA repair, nucleotide ... complex II in the electron transport chain) requires covalently bound FAD to catalyze the oxidation of succinate to fumarate by ...
Cytochrome c reductase is a central enzyme in the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation.ref name="KimEsser1999 ... Because Antimycin A binds to a specific protein in the electron transport chain, its toxicity can be highly species dependent ... Although cyanide acts to block the electron transport chain, Antimycin A and cyanide act in different mechanisms. Cyanide binds ... Antimycin A is an inhibitor of cellular respiration, specifically oxidative phosphorylation. Antimycin A binds to the Qi site ...
4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... Scientists have attempted to observe chloroplast replication via electron microscopy since the 1970s.[17][18] The results of ... The highly oxidative environment inside chloroplasts increases the rate of mutation so post-transcription repairs are needed to ... Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transportEdit. After a chloroplast polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome in the cytosol, ...
Complexes I through IV, which constitute the electron transport chain, move the electrons down the assembly line. Complex V ... During oxidative phosphorylation, the protein complexes carry out chemical reactions that drive the production of ATP. An ... It is a component of the electron transport chain that uses oxygen to create ATP (Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA), 2009b ... The mtDNA deletions involved in Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome impair oxidative phosphorylation and decrease the energy ...
This free synopsis covers all the crucial plot points of Oxidative Phosphorylation and Electron Transport. ... Home → SparkNotes → Biology Study Guides → Oxidative Phosphorylation and Electron Transport → Introduction. Oxidative ... Next, we will discuss electron flow through the electron transport chain and ATP synthesis through oxidative phosphorylation. ... we are ready to explore the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, the last step in cellular respiration. The ...
Home → SparkNotes → Biology Study Guides → Oxidative Phosphorylation and Electron Transport → Problems. Oxidative ... the inner mitochondrial membrane enter the matrix space to participate in the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation? ... Electron transport chain. Oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis Problem : Label the indicated structures on the following ...
The electron carriers are at successively lower energy levels hence, as the electron moves on from one carrier to the next some ... Each hydrogen atom is split into its constituent H+ (hydrogen ion) and electron. The electron is the part that actually gets ... Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in the chain, so the oxygen, electrons and hydrogen ions together form water. ... Electron Transport Chain / Oxidative Phosphorylation. Production of ATP using NADH and FADH. ...
Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mitochondria. Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which NADH and FADH 2 are oxidized and ... Oxidative Phosphorylation. The cheetah, whose capacity for aerobic metabolism makes it one of the fastest animals. ... Cofactors in Electron Transport Phosphorylation *NADH donates electrons two at a time to complex I of the electron transport ... Electron Flow in Oxidative Phosphorylation Phosphorylation *Five oligomeric assemblies of proteins associated with oxidative ...
Chapter 18: Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Matching Choose the correct answer from the list. Not all the ... Chapter 18: Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Matching Choose the correct answer from the list. Not all the ... Electron Transport 8. Bacteria carry out electron transport in the _____ membrane Ans: G Section: 18.3.A Level of Difficulty: ... ch18 - Chapter 18 Electron Transport and Oxidative.... This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full ...
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN. An electron transport chain consists of a properly arranged & oriented set of electron carriers ... Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis ... OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION. *It is the main source of energy of our cell. ... The sequence of reactions whereby the reduced forms of the coenzymes are reoxidized by molecular O2 known as electron transport ...
... oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial transport systems JAN ILLNER Respiratory chain & oxidative phosphorylation ... Electron Transport and Oxidative. Phosphorylation Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron-transport chain ... Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative phosphorylation Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative phosphorylation So far we have ... Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 20-1 Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 20-1 ...
... a stage of the actual ATP production driven by the electron transport and the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of ADP. ... oxidative phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by chemiosmosis.. Electron transport chain. The reduced coenzymes ... The oxidation and reduction of the electron carriers in the electron transport chain complexes releases small amounts of energy ... This allows additional electrons to enter the electron transfer chain and release the energy needed to pump more hydrogen ions ...
23.6 The Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 23.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Hydrogen Cyanide. Chapter 24 ... 25.3 The Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide. 25.4 Buffers in the Body. 25.5 The Blood-Brain Barrier. 25.6 The Role of the ... 2.7 Valence Electrons 2.8 Periodic Trends. Chapter 3: Ionic Compounds 3.1 Introduction to Bonding 3.2 Ions 3.3 Ionic Compounds ...
Often the term oxidative phosphorylation is used interchangeably with the electron transport chain; however, oxidative ... Electron Transport Chain / Oxidative Phosphorylation. The third and final step of cellular respiration takes place in the inner ... initiate the electron transport chain. Both NADH and FADH2 transport electrons down a chain of reactions. NADH or FADH2, ... Depending on how many NADH molecules are available, the electron transport chain makes a total of 32 or 34 ATP. These 32-34 ATP ...
Photosynthetic electron transport chains. In oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are transferred from a high-energy electron ... Electron transport chains are redox reactions that transfer electrons from an electron donor to an electron acceptor. The ... The electron transport chain in the mitochondrion is the site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. The NADH and ... Glycolysis → Pyruvate Decarboxylation → Citric Acid Cycle → Oxidative Phosphorylation (Electron Transport Chain + ATP synthase) ...
Citric acid cycle regulation and metabolite transport. *Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation ...
Final step: Electron Transport System ,ul,,li,Chemiosmotic theory / oxidative phosphorylation ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,Transfers ... Starts with phosphorylation of Glucose to Glucose 6-P ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,("Before doubling your money you first have to ... through transport system is stored temporarily in H + gradient ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,NADH produces a maximum of 2.5 ATP FADH 2 ... Transport vesicles to cell membrane ,/li,,/ul,For "export proteins": Signal sequence leads growing polypeptide chain across ER ...
"Oxidative phosphorylation". W H Freeman, 2002. Retrieved 4 April 2013.. *^ Medh, J. D. "Electron Transport Chain (Overview)" ( ... Oxidative phosphorylation[edit]. Main article: oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation produces 26 of the 30 ... energy coupling and phosphorylation of ADP to ATP that gives the electron transport chain the name oxidative phosphorylation. ... The biosynthesis of ATP is achieved throughout processes such as substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, ...
The mechanisms that regulate oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian cells are largely unknown. To address this issue, cybrids ... Electron Transport * Electron Transport Complex IV / chemistry* * Electron Transport Complex IV / genetics ... In vivo regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in cells harboring a stop-codon mutation in mitochondrial DNA-encoded ... The mechanisms that regulate oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian cells are largely unknown. To address this issue, cybrids ...
Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation In Vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative stress in ... Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation In Vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative stress in ... Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation In Vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative stress in ... title = "Reduced coupling of oxidative phosphorylation In Vivo precedes electron transport chain defects due to mild oxidative ...
... mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinol to cytochrome c; oxidative phosphorylation; and cytochrome c oxidase activity. ... Abbreviations: ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; ETC, electron transport chain; GO, Gene Ontology; OE, ontoexpress; mrca, most ... in particular electron transport chain (ETC) functioning genes (Tables 3, 4, 6, and 7). The striking pattern of up-regulated ... mitochondrial electron transport, NADH to ubiquinone; NADH dehydrogenase activity; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity; ...
Oxidative Phosphorylation[edit]. Detailed diagram of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. ... Utilizing one full oxygen in oxidative phosphorylation requires the transfer of four electrons. The oxygen will then consume ... The total equation for the electron transport chain is: N. A. D. H. +. 11. H. +. (. m. a. t. r. i. x. ). +. 1. /. 2. O. 2. ⟶. N ... In the electron transport chain, Complex I (CI) catalyzes the reduction of ubiquinone (UQ) to ubiquinol (UQH2) by the transfer ...
5.3.2 Inhibition of Oxidative Phosphorylation, 187. 5.3.3 Uncoupling of Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation, 188 ... 5.2.1 Electron Transport System, 184. 5.2.2 Mechanisms of Oxidative Phosphorylation, 185 ...
Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. 5.Cellular metabolism. - Utilisation of polysaccharides. - Glycogenesis and ...
Metabolic pathways of ubiquinone biosynthesis; electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation; purine metabolism; pyrimidine ... MFS transporters transport uni-, sym-, and antiporters of sugars, peptides, drugs, and organic and inorganic ions with 12 or 14 ... proportion of ESTs expressing a homology to MFS monosaccharide transporters implies that they may be responsible for transport ... Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. 34. 6. 00220. Urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups. 10. 0. ...
14.8 Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 562. HealthLink Brown Fat 566 ...
23.6 The Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 23.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Hydrogen Cyanide Chapter 24 ... 23.6 The Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 23.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Hydrogen Cyanide Chapter 24 ... 25.3 The Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 25.4 Buffers in the Body 25.5 The Blood-Brain Barrier 25.6 The Role of the ... 25.3 The Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 25.4 Buffers in the Body 25.5 The Blood-Brain Barrier 25.6 The Role of the ...
... oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport mechanisms; photosynthesis. Prerequisites: CHEM 2325 and CHEM 2325 (Organic ... General membrane functions, such as compartmentalization and membrane transport, are analyzed in view of the principles of ... Topics include classical and statistical thermodynamics, biochemical kinetics, transport processes (e.g., diffusion, ... membranes and transport; cellular replication; examples of cell specialization such as blood (immunoglobulins) and muscle cells ...
  • It is concluded that this technique can be used to study the functional organization of the anaerobic proton-translocating electron-transport chains that use nitrate or fumarate as terminal electron acceptor. (portlandpress.com)
  • Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function are at the core of many degenerative conditions. (uthscsa.edu)
  • However, the interaction between oxidative stress and in vivo mitochondrial function is unclear. (uthscsa.edu)
  • We used both pharmacological (2 week paraquat (PQ) treatment of wild type mice) and transgenic (mice lacking Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 -/- )) models to test the effect of oxidative stress on in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. (uthscsa.edu)
  • In both models of oxidative stress, coupling of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly lower (lower P/O) at rest in vivo in skeletal muscle and was dose-dependent in the PQ model. (uthscsa.edu)
  • It has been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that increased oxidative stress contributes to diabetic nephropathy development ( 2 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, studies of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) transgenic db/db diabetic mice provided in vivo support for the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The first project focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress and ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. (upenn.edu)
  • We have established that fetal growth retardation induces progressive mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, mtDNA mutations, and electron transport defects. (upenn.edu)
  • We have determined that oxidative stress induced by uteroplacental insufficiency in IUGR fetal pancreas induces aberrant methylation and chromatin remodeling at the Pdx-1 promoter, which in turn induces transcription silencing. (upenn.edu)
  • We observed that IPNv displayed high tropism to headkidney, which directly correlates with a rise in oxidative stress and antiviral responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • A high fat diet containing cholesterol (a so-called Western diet (WD)) led to hepatic oxidative stress, steatosis, inflammation and mild fibrosis, all markers of NAFLD, in low density cholesterol (LDL) receptor deficient (LDLR −/− ) mice. (mcponline.org)
  • Thionicotinamide and other nicotinamide analogs are potential inhibitors of NADK, and studies show that treatment of colon cancer cells with thionicotinamide suppresses the cytosolic NADPH pool to increase oxidative stress and synergizes with chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Ubiquinone (Q)Q is a lipid soluble molecule that diffuses within the lipid bilayer, accepting electrons from Complex I and Complex II and passing them to Complex III. (slideserve.com)