Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
Antibodies directed against immunogen-coupled phosphorylated PEPTIDES corresponding to amino acids surrounding the PHOSPHORYLATION site. They are used to study proteins involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways. (From Methods Mol Biol 2000; 99:177-89)
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

Cyanide poisoning: pathophysiology and treatment recommendations. (1/2221)

This paper aims to assess and compare currently available antidotes for cyanide poisoning. Such evaluation, however, is difficult. Thus, extrapolation from the results of animal studies has potential pitfalls, as significant inter-species differences in response may exist, and these experiments often involve administration of toxin and antidote almost simultaneously, rather than incorporating a more realistic time delay before initiation of treatment. Direct inference from human case reports is also problematic; either because of uncertainties over the exposure levels involved (and hence the likely outcome without treatment), or because of difficulties in identifying the specific contribution of a particular antidote within the overall treatment regimen. Certainly an effort to compare the relative efficacy of cyanide antidotes produces equivocal findings, with no single regimen clearly standing out. Indeed, factors such as the risks of antidote toxicity to various individuals and other practical issues, may be more important considerations. There is therefore no single treatment regimen which is best for all situations. Besides individual risk factors for antidote toxicity, the nature of the exposure and hence its likely severity, the evolving clinical features and the number of persons involved and their proximity to hospital facilities, all need to be considered. Clinically mild poisoning may be treated by rest, oxygen and amyl nitrite. Intravenous antidotes are indicated for moderate poisoning. Where the diagnosis is uncertain, sodium thiosulphate may be the first choice. With severe poisoning, an additional agent is required. Given the various risks with methaemoglobin formers or with unselective use of kelocyanor, hydroxocobalamin may be preferred from a purely risk-benefit perspective. However the former alternatives will likely remain important.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (2/2221)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

Bcl-xL prevents cell death following growth factor withdrawal by facilitating mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchange. (3/2221)

Growth factor withdrawal is associated with a metabolic arrest that can result in apoptosis. Cell death is preceded by loss of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity and cytochrome c release. These mitochondrial events appear to follow a relative increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. This change in membrane potential results from the failure of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT)/voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) complex to maintain ATP/ADP exchange. Bcl-xL expression allows growth factor-deprived cells to maintain sufficient mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchange to sustain coupled respiration. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial adenylate transport is under active regulation. Efficient exchange of ADP for ATP is promoted by Bcl-xL expression permitting oxidative phosphorylation to be regulated by cellular ATP/ADP levels and allowing mitochondria to adapt to changes in metabolic demand.  (+info)

Nitric-oxide-induced apoptosis in human leukemic lines requires mitochondrial lipid degradation and cytochrome C release. (4/2221)

We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) stimulates apoptosis in different human neoplastic lymphoid cell lines through activation of caspases not only via CD95/CD95L interaction, but also independently of such death receptors. Here we investigated mitochondria-dependent mechanisms of NO-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemic cells. NO donor glycerol trinitrate (at the concentration, which induces apoptotic cell death) caused (1) a significant decrease in the concentration of cardiolipin, a major mitochondrial lipid; (2) a downregulation in respiratory chain complex activities; (3) a release of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c into the cytosol; and (4) an activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the number of cells with low mitochondrial transmembrane potential and with a high level of reactive oxygen species production. Higher resistance of the CD95-resistant Jurkat subclone (APO-R) cells to NO-mediated apoptosis correlated with the absence of cytochrome c release and with less alterations in other mitochondrial parameters. An inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, trolox, significantly suppressed NO-mediated apoptosis in APO-S Jurkat cells, whereas bongkrekic acid (BA), which blocks mitochondrial permeability transition, provided only a moderate antiapoptotic effect. Transfection of Jurkat cells with bcl-2 led to a complete block of apoptosis due to the prevention of changes in mitochondrial functions. We suggest that the mitochondrial damage (in particular, cardiolipin degradation and cytochrome c release) induced by NO in human leukemia cells plays a crucial role in the subsequent activation of caspase and apoptosis.  (+info)

Changes in mitochondrial phosphorylative activity and adenylate energy charge of regenerating rabbit liver. (5/2221)

The changes in the cellular concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP and in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria were investigated in the remaining liver of partially hepatectomized rabbits. The energy charge (defined as half of the average number of anhydride-bonded phosphate groups per adenosine moiety) of the liver remnant decreased from 0.866 to 0.767 (p less than 0.01) within 24 hr after hepatectomy, and then increased to a substantially higher level than normal within 7 days. On the other hand, the mitochondrial phosphyorylative activity increased rapidly to 170 per cent of the control within 12 hr and then retruned to normal within 7 days. The mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was inversely correlated with energy charge of the liver remnant (r = -0.75, p less less than 0.01). The maximal enhancement of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was found in mitochondria obtained from the liver remnant with the lowest level of energy charge, suggesting a response of mitochondria in vivo involving enhanced biosynthetic ATP-utilizing reactions at an early stage of the regenerating process. The enhancement of phosphorylative activity was accompanied by a rise in the respiratory control ratio, P/O ratio and state 3 respiration. The adenylate kinase [EC] activity in the liver remnant increased to more than 160% of the control within 2 days after partial hepatectomy, while the pyruvate kinase [EC] activity decreased remarkably. However, the changes in the two enzyme activities did not correlate with those of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity or the energy charge of the liver remnant.  (+info)

Efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and energy dissipation by H+ ion recycling in rat-liver mitochondrial metabolizing pyruvate. (6/2221)

A method was developed for the calculation of metabolic fluxes through individual enzymatic reactions of pyruvate metabolism including the citric acid cycle in rat liver mitochondrial incubated at metabolic states between state 4 and state 3. This method is based on the measurement of the specific radioactivities of the products formed from [2-14C]pyruvate. With this procedure the energy balance of mitochondria incubated in the presence of [2-14C]pyruvate, ATP, bicarbonate and phosphate at different ATP/ADP ratios in the medium was calculated. The ATP/ADP ratios were maintained at a steady state with creatine kinase plus creatine as a phosphoryl acceptor. The calculations revealed that by adding increasing concentrations of creatine up to 20 mM the energy dissipated by the mitochondria decreased but showed a local maximum at 13mM creatine. Omission of bicarbonate from the medium led to a shift of this maximum. When energy dissipation was minimal the overall P/O ratio was maximal. The amount of energy dissipated was paralleled by the magnitude of the pH gradient across the inner membrane. From these results it was concluded that the recycling of H+ ions which consists of a passive leakage of H+ ions into the matrix and an active extrusion of these ions out of this compartment, is an important energy dissipating process. The H+ ion recycling is thus one of the processes which give rise to the state 4 respiration in mitochondria.  (+info)

Influence of bioenergetic stress on heat shock protein gene expression in nucleated red blood cells of fish. (7/2221)

The physiological and biochemical signals that induce stress protein (HSP) synthesis remain conjectural. In this study, we used the nucleated red blood cells from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to address the interaction between energy status and HSP gene expression. Heat shock (25 degrees C) did not significantly affect ATP levels but resulted in an increase in HSP70 mRNA. Hypoxia alone did not induce HSP transcription in these cells despite a significant depression in ATP. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation with azide, in the absence of thermal stress, decreased ATP by 56% and increased lactate production by 62% but did not induce HSP gene transcription. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis with azide and iodoacetic acid respectively, decreased ATP by 79% and prevented lactate production, but did not induce either HSP70 or HSP30 gene transcription in these cells. This study demonstrates that a reduction in the cellular energy status will not induce stress protein gene transcription in rainbow trout red blood cells and may, in fact, limit induction during extreme metabolic inhibition.  (+info)

Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation can enhance a Fas death signal. (8/2221)

Recent work suggests a participation of mitochondria in apoptotic cell death. This role includes the release of apoptogenic molecules into the cytosol preceding or after a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential DeltaPsim. The two uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP) reduce DeltaPsim by direct attack of the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Here we show that both compounds enhance the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Fas/APO-1/CD95 signaling in Jurkat and CEM cells without causing apoptotic changes on their own account. This amplification occurred upstream or at the level of caspases and was not inhibited by Bcl-2. The effect could be blocked by the cowpox protein CrmA and is thus likely to require caspase 8 activity. Apoptosis induction by staurosporine in Jurkat cells as well as by Fas in SKW6 cells was unaffected by CCCP and DNP. The role of cytochrome c during Fas-DNP signaling was investigated. No early cytochrome c release from mitochondria was detected by Western blotting. Functional assays with cytoplasmic preparations from Fas-DNP-treated cells also indicated that there was no major contribution by cytochrome c or caspase 9 to the activation of effector caspases. Furthermore, an increase of rhodamine-123 uptake into intact cells, which has been explained by mitochondrial swelling, occurred considerably later than the caspase activation and was blocked by Z-VAD-fmk. These data show that uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation can presensitize some but not all cells for a Fas death signal and provide information about the existence of separate pathways in the induction of apoptosis.  (+info)

What is the difference between Substrate Level Phosphorylation and Oxidative Phosphorylation? Substrate level phosphorylation produces 4 ATPs; Oxidative...
Transmembrane channel-forming polypeptides can function as uncouplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The observed effects are dependent on the phosphate ion (Pi) concentration in the medium. At low Pi (2.5 mM) the order of uncoupling efficiencies is gramicidin A much greater than alamethicin greater than tetraacetyl melittin greater than melittin. The remarkably high activity of gramicidin A suggests insertion of preformed channel dimers into the membrane. It is also suggested that lipid phase association of peptides is necessary in the other cases. At Pi = 100 mM inhibitory effects are observed for alamethicin and tetraacetyl melittin. Less pronounced inhibition is seen for melittin, while no such effect is noted for gramicidin A. The site of inhibition is shown to be complex IV, and the differences in the behavior of the peptides are rationalized in terms of channel structures.. ...
The free OXPHOS capacity, ≈P, is the OXPHOS capacity corrected for LEAK respiration, ≈P = P-L. ≈P is the scope for ADP stimulation, the respiratory capacity potentially available for phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. Oxygen consumption in the OXPHOS state, therefore, is partitioned into the free OXPHOS capacity, ≈P, strictly coupled to phosphorylation, ~P, and nonphosphorylating LEAK respiration, LP, compensating for proton leaks, slip and cation cycling: P = ≈P+LP. It is frequently assumed that LEAK respiration, L, as measured in the LEAK state, overestimates the LEAK component of respiration, LP, as measured in the OXPHOS state, particularly if the protonmotive force is not adjusted to equivalent levels in L and LP. However, if the LEAK component increases with enzyme turnover during P, the low enzyme turnover during L may counteract the effect of the higher Δpmt. Abbreviation: ≈P Reference: Gnaiger 2020 MitoPathways ...
Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are major activators of human fat cell lipolysis and have recently been shown to control brown fat thermogenesis. Here, we investigated the physiological role of NP on the oxidative metabolism of human skeletal muscle. NP receptor type A (NPRA) gene expression was positively correlated to mRNA levels of PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC1A) and several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes in human skeletal muscle. Further, the expression of NPRA, PGC1A, and OXPHOS genes was coordinately upregulated in response to aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle. In human myotubes, NP induced PGC-1α and mitochondrial OXPHOS gene expression in a cyclic GMP-dependent manner. NP treatment increased OXPHOS protein expression, fat oxidation, and maximal respiration independent of substantial changes in mitochondrial proliferation and mass. Treatment of myotubes with NP recapitulated the effect of exercise training on muscle fat oxidative capacity in vivo. ...
There are four PDH kinase isoforms (PDK1-4) that regulate the activity of PDH by modulating the phosphorylation state of E1. The process and where does glycolysis take place ? How is the TCA cycle linked to oxidative phosphorylation? In oxidative phosphorylation, which occurs in the mitochondria, ... From this perspective, normal cells are characterized by the oxidative phosphorylation mode of metabolic regulation, and cancer cells are described by the glycolytic mode of energy processing. Krebs / citric acid cycle. this toxic compound found in 1080 pest control inhibits part of the TCA cycle and therefore oxidative phosphorylation, no ATP and death occur. Phosphorylation: A biochemical process that involves the addition of phosphate to an organic compound. *oxidative phosphorylation produces free radicals Coenzyme Q (CoQ)/Cytochrome C In respiration, electron acceptors that transport electrons in the electron transport chain and move protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane ...
Starvation is particularly challenging for endotherms that remain active in cold environments or during winter. The aim of this study was to determine whether fasting-induced mitochondrial coupling flexibility depends upon the phenotype of skeletal muscles. The rates of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial efficiency were measured in pectoralis (glycolytic) and gastrocnemius (oxidative) muscles from cold-acclimated ducklings (Cairina moschata). Pyruvate and palmitoyl-L-carnitine were used in the presence of malate as respiratory substrates. Plasma metabolites, skeletal muscle concentrations of triglycerides, glycogen and total protein and mitochondrial levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes were also quantified. Results from ad libitum fed ducklings were compared with those from ducklings that were fasted for 4 days. During the 4 days of nutritional treatment, birds remained in the cold, at 4°C. The 4 days of starvation preferentially affected the pectoralis muscles, inducing an up
The modelling of OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation) in order to integrate all kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of chemiosmotic theory has a long history. We briefly review this history and show how new ways of modelling are required to integrate a local model of the individual respiratory complexes into a global model of OXPHOS and, beyond that, into a reliable overall model of central metabolism. ...
1. A study has been made of the oxygen consumption of kidney homogenates in relation to the ADP concentration as regulated by the cell-membrane adenosine triphosphatase. Stimulation of this enzymic activity by Na(+) and K(+) caused parallel increases in oxygen consumption and ADP concentration. Similarly, inhibition with ouabain caused a parallel fall. The membrane adenosine triphosphatase concerned in active transport therefore appears to regulate respiration through its control of ADP concentration. 2. The respiration of homogenates and mitochondria was also stimulated by K(+) in a way independent of adenosine-triphosphatase activity. It was shown that K(+) facilitates oxidative phosphorylation and the respiratory response to ADP. A K(+) concentration of 25-50mm was needed for maximum oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of physiological concentration of Na(+). Na(+) counteracted K(+) in the effects on mitochondria. It is concluded that K(+) regulates cellular respiration at two ...
1. Mitchell P. Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemiosmotic type of mechanism. Nature. 1961;191:144-8 2. Brand MD. The stoichiometry of proton pumping and ATP synthesis in mitochondria. The Biochemist. 1994;16:20-4 3. Chance B, Williams GR. The Respiratory Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation. Adv Enzymol Relat Subj Biochem. 1956;17:65-134 4. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. The rate of oxidative phosphorylation is determined by the need for ATP. Biochemistry, 5thEdition. New York, USA: Freeman WH & Co. 2002:552 5. Boyer PD, Cross RL, Momsen W. A new concept for energy coupling in oxidative phosphorylation based on a molecular explanation of the oxygen exchange reactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1973;70:2837-39 6. Kayalar C, Rosing J, Boyer PD. An alternating site sequence for oxidative phosphorylation suggested by measurement of substrate binding patterns and exchange reaction inhibitions. J Biol Chem. 1977;252:2486-91 7. Milgrom YM, Cross RL. ...
Assessment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in patient muscle biopsies, lymphoblasts, and transmitochondrial cell lines
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with variable manifestations resulting from a defect in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Onset occurs at or soon after birth, and features can include growth retardation, microcephaly, hypertonicity, axial hypotonia, encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy, and liver dysfunction. Death usually occurs in the first weeks or years of life (summary by Smits et al., 2011). (609060) ...
Chapter 14 - Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation. The cheetah, whose capacity for aerobic metabolism makes it one of the fastest animals. Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mitochondria. Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which NADH and FADH 2 are oxidized and ATP is formed Slideshow 4502016 by langer
A new method was developed to analyse the dynamic properties of oxidative phosphorylation, in particular the sensitivity of the phosphate potential with respect to fluctuating cellular ATP utilization. This treatment is based on the eigenvalue sensitivity analysis of an experimentally supported non-equilibrium thermodynamic model of oxidative phosphorylation. Such an analysis allows direct access to the kinetic information, while circumventing the awkward conventional numerical integration of a set of nonlinear differential equations. This procedure revealed, for the parameters characteristic for liver of starved rats in vivo, that the sensitivity of oxidative phosphorylation to a fluctuating ATP utilization is minimal at a degree of coupling q = 0.95. This means that the phosphate potential is highly buffered with respect to fluctuating energy demands at that degree of coupling. This value of q agrees well with the degree of coupling qecf, at which net ATP production of oxidative ...
Questions to be completed by January 8th 1. Describe the purpose of the following organelles or structures within a cell. Include in your discussion whether...
PMID: 28588260 Sci Rep Open Access Lemieux H, Blier PU, Gnaiger E (2017) Sci Rep Abstract: Fuel substrate supply and oxidative phosphorylation are key determinants of muscle performance. Numerous studies of mammalian mitochondria are carried out (i) with substrate supply that limits electron flow, and (ii) far below physiological temperature. To analyze potentially implicated biases, we studied mitochondrial respiratory control in permeabilized mouse myocardial fibers using high-resolution respirometry. The capacity of oxidative phosphorylation at 37 °C was nearly two-fold higher when fueled by physiological substrate combinations reconstituting tricarboxylic acid cycle function, compared with electron flow measured separately through NADH to Complex I or succinate to Complex II. The relative contribution of the NADH pathway to physiological respiratory capacity increased with a decrease in temperature from 37 to 25 ºC. The apparent excess capacity of cytochrome c oxidase above physiological ...
DNA microarrays can be used to identify gene expression changes characteristic of human disease. This is challenging, however, when relevant differences are subtle at the level of individual genes. We introduce an analytical strategy, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, designed to detect modest but coord …
The oxidative phosphorylation cycle is the process by which cells within the human body produce adenosine triphosphate, ATP, via the electron transport chain, an aerobic energy system that follows the Krebs cycle in the bodys never-ending production of energy. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place within the matrix and inter-membrane space of the mitochondria within each cell.…
Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in and around the membranes of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. Oxidative phosphorylation is the process of generating adenosine triphosphate, the main energy...
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is composed of five intramitochondrial enzyme complexes (complexes I to V) that are responsible for producing the majority of the ATP required for normal cellular function. Assembly and maintenance of OXPHOS requires the coordinate regulation of nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes. The mtDNA encodes 12 OXPHOS subunits, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs, which provide the core elements for OXPHOS function and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The nuclear DNA is responsible for synthesizing approximately 70 OXPHOS subunits, transporting them to the mitochondria via chaperone proteins, ensuring their passage across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and coordinating their proper processing and assembly. OXPHOS is regulated by a wide variety of factors and processes that include hormone levels, oxygen supply, ion gradients, membrane transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocase that supplies ADP for conversion to ATP, transcription factors that alter the ...
Cancer cells have upregulated glycolysis compared with normal cells, which has led many to the assumption that oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is downregulated in all cancers. However, recent studies have shown that OXPHOS can be also upregulated in certain cancers, including leukemias, lymphomas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, high OXPHOS subtype melanoma, and endometrial carcinoma, and that this can occur even in the face of active glycolysis. OXPHOS inhibitors could therefore be used to target cancer subtypes in which OXPHOS is upregulated and to alleviate therapeutically adverse tumor hypoxia. Several drugs including metformin, atovaquone, and arsenic trioxide are used clinically for non-oncologic indications, but emerging data demonstrate their potential use as OXPHOS inhibitors. We highlight novel applications of OXPHOS inhibitors with a suitable therapeutic index to target cancer cell metabolism. Clin Cancer Res; 24(11); 2482-90. ©2018 AACR.
I am really only certain about the substrate level phosphorylation and the oxidative phosphorylation. Substrate Level phosphorlation takes place in the Cell Cytoplasm. Oxidative Phos is when Hydrogen ions are pumped from the INTRAMEMBRANE of the Mirochondria into the Michondrial Matrix. Hydrogen ions go two at a time through an enzyme known as ATP Synthase. The process of 2 Hydrogen ions going through the ATP Synthase into the Mitochondrial Matrix is called Oxidative Phosphorlation ...
Nakajima T, Yokota T, Shingu Y, Yamada A, Iba Y, Ujihira K, Wakasa S, Ooka T, Takada S, Shirakawa R, Katayama T, Furihata T, Fukushima A, Matsuoka R, Nishihara H, Dela F, Nakanishi K, Matsui Y, Kinugawa S (2019) Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in epicardial adipose tissue is associated with decreased concentration of adiponectin and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Sci Rep 9:3535 ...
One distortion forces the ADP and Pi together in one wedge, while the ATP that just had been formed on another wedge is distorted in the opposite way to release the ATP. The sequence of these 3 events is thus 1) the binding of ADP and Pi (L), 2) a kind of mechanical force pushing them together (T), followed by 3) a quick release of the ATP (O). The formation of these 3 conformations is driven by protons binding to specific amino acids in the Fo channel. Thus as the protons flow back into the mitochondrion, the Fo shaft with its cam is spinning. See a pretty animation of ATP synthesis from the Website of W. Junge.. To review the action of ATP synthetase see problem 5-13.. (oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation). From glucose, at least . .. But we do not live from cake alone .. How about a carbon and energy source OTHER THAN GLUCOSE? ------------------------------------------------------. Not in live lecture - not responsible for italicized text: Where do we get this ...
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) represents the gold standard method of cardioprotection, but it is triggered by repetitive episodes of ischemia/reperfusion (IR), which limits its clinical application, reflecting the need of alternative approaches to activate the mechanisms of IPC. H11 Kinase/Hsp 22 (H11K) is a small heat shock protein up-regulated by IR, which provides cardioprotection equal to IPC through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. A main target of NO-mediated IPC is the mitochondria (M), where NO reduces oxygen consumption (VO2) and radical oxygen species (ROS) production during ischemia. We tested the hypothesis that H11K over-expression modulates M function through NO similarly to IPC. Fresh M were isolated from hearts of transgenic mice (TG) with cardiac-specific over-expression (5-fold) of H11K and compared to wild type mice (WT). Upon equal loading (normalized by PGC1 α abundance and citrate synthase activity) and in presence of either glucose or lipids, M from TG compared ...
We contend that the lack of appreciation for the variability in mitochondrial efficiency could lead to misleading interpretations of the relationships between oxygen consumption and animal performance, since the amount of ATP generated per molecule of oxygen consumed can vary significantly both among and within individuals. Combining sub-cellular and whole-organism measurements of metabolism will provide a more robust framework for understanding organismal energy metabolism. For example, a high P/O ratio does not necessarily result in high ATP production since this ratio can also be offset by a decrease in oxygen consumption rate (e.g. [36]); nor is it the case that individuals with a relatively low P/O ratio are necessarily producing less ATP than those with a higher P/O ratio, since this will depend on the rate of work of their mitochondria. Therefore, measuring both levels of energetic processes may give a better insight into the energy metabolism, since the rate of ATP generation is ...
Yield of ATP We have seen that during the electron transport chain, most ATP is made (by substrate level phosphorylation) Together with the ATP made during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, the total yield of ATP molecules, per molecule of glucose respired, should be 30 However, this is only a theoretical yield, in real situations the maximum yield (amount made) of ATP is not always possible Look at the diagram showing the Electron Transport chain- try to think of reasons why the maximum yield of ATP is rarely achieved
The origins of mitochondria are unknown, but the likely explanation, called the endosymbiont hypothesis, holds that they arose as free-living bacteria that colonized proto-eukaryotic cells, thereby establishing a symbiotic relationship. Primitive eukaryotic cells with intracellular mitochondria capable of metabolizing oxygen would have had an advantage in an oxygen-rich environment. The electron transport chain produces far more energy for each molecule of glucose consumed than is produced by anaerobic respiration. The oxidative phosphorylation process conducted by the mitochondria produces thirty-eight molecules of ATP, compared to two molecules of ATP produced by anaerobic glycolysis. Oxidative phosphorylation allows the conversion of toxic oxygen to water, a protective biological advantage.. A disadvantage of oxidative phosphorylation, however, is the formation of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals, which damage such cellular components as lipids, proteins, ...
View Notes - ch18 from CHEM 3633 at Texas Womans University. Chapter 18: Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Matching Choose the correct answer from the list. Not all the answers will
Problem : How do molecules that cannot freely cross the inner mitochondrial membrane enter the matrix space to participate in the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation? They are transported across by specific transporter proteins ...
What is Oxidative Phosphorylation?everybody are selfish..... :(. The words themselves help. Phosphorylation is adding a phosphate group to some molec...
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 3 is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the gene TSFM. While most reported patients have been of various ethnicities, there may be an increased incidence in the Finnish population. Loss of function of the protein encoded by TSFM results in impaired ability of the mitochondria to produce energy for the cell. This disease presents with lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy, encephalomyopathy, and/or hypotonia, and it is fatal in early infancy. To date, three pathogenic variants have been reported to cause this disease. While too few patients have been reported to determine a genotype-phenotype correlation, it appears that the inheritance of two null alleles may be lethal in early embryonic development.. For information about carrier frequency and residual risk, please see the Expanded Carrier Screen brochure.. ...
[The intensity of oxidative phosphorylation and the function of the adenylate system in the liver mitochondria of active and hibernating susliks Citellus undula
3. A repetition of step 2, NAD is reduced to NADH and CO2 is removed due to decarboxylation, a C4 molecule remains. 4. Two oxidation reactions, NAD -> NADH and FAD -> FADH in addition to substrate level phosphorylation ADP+Pi -> ATP. CoA is released. ...
Last weeks molecule was citrate synthase, one of many enzymes that show considerable amounts of structural change during binding. It looks like the induced fit mechanism is a general feature of substrate binding and not something that is limited to just a few examples. That part of the question was easy but the second part was hard. Jean-Marc Neuhaus is this weeks winner because he has a copy of my book and was able to look up the explanation. The important point to keep in mind when you are thinking about the thermodynamics of biochemical reactions is that most reactions are near-equilibrium reactions where ΔG = 0. In the case of the citrate synthase reaction, ΔG°′ = -31.5 kJ mol-1, in the direction of citrate formation. What this means is that the equilibrium concentrations of the products are very much higher than the concentrations of the substrates. These concentrations would be closer to being equal if the reaction was coupled to substrate level phosphorylation (e.g. ATP ...
Last weeks molecule was citrate synthase, one of many enzymes that show considerable amounts of structural change during binding. It looks like the induced fit mechanism is a general feature of substrate binding and not something that is limited to just a few examples. That part of the question was easy but the second part was hard. Jean-Marc Neuhaus is this weeks winner because he has a copy of my book and was able to look up the explanation. The important point to keep in mind when you are thinking about the thermodynamics of biochemical reactions is that most reactions are near-equilibrium reactions where ΔG = 0. In the case of the citrate synthase reaction, ΔG°′ = -31.5 kJ mol-1, in the direction of citrate formation. What this means is that the equilibrium concentrations of the products are very much higher than the concentrations of the substrates. These concentrations would be closer to being equal if the reaction was coupled to substrate level phosphorylation (e.g. ATP ...
Last weeks molecule was citrate synthase, one of many enzymes that show considerable amounts of structural change during binding. It looks like the induced fit mechanism is a general feature of substrate binding and not something that is limited to just a few examples. That part of the question was easy but the second part was hard. Jean-Marc Neuhaus is this weeks winner because he has a copy of my book and was able to look up the explanation. The important point to keep in mind when you are thinking about the thermodynamics of biochemical reactions is that most reactions are near-equilibrium reactions where ΔG = 0. In the case of the citrate synthase reaction, ΔG°′ = -31.5 kJ mol-1, in the direction of citrate formation. What this means is that the equilibrium concentrations of the products are very much higher than the concentrations of the substrates. These concentrations would be closer to being equal if the reaction was coupled to substrate level phosphorylation (e.g. ATP ...
For the fist time the mitochondrial process of oxidative phosphorylation has been studied by determining the extent and initial rates of electron flow, H+ translocation, O2 uptake and ATP ...
This clip explains that oxygen accepts electrons that are extracted from food to form water in the process which is called Oxidative Phosphorylation.
Read Stress CSP310 Protein Uncouples Oxidative Phosphorylation Otherwise than Other Plant Uncoupling Proteins Do, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Under normal circumstances, the body requires ATP energy from stored muscle glycogen to perform work. This fuel is taken from dietary carbohydrate - i.e, that cereal you had for breakfast and that sandwich you had for lunch. Those carbohydrates are then broken down into molecules and stored within the muscles. When needed, this muscle glycogen is utilized to perform work.. So what happens when theres no muscle glycogen to support this work? The body goes to its next available energy source: fat. Especially since fat is normally recruited for aerobic exercise. This is due to the bodys reliance on oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation produces the most amount of energy per capita - 36ATP, to be exact - and is the most reliant energy source.. So the bodys dependency on fat not only produces the most energy, but also takes stored body fat. So its basically a win-win. (source linked here.) ...
The high metabolic rate of cardiac tissue necessitates close agreement between the rates of energy production and consumption. About 2 percent of cellular ATP is consumed per heartbeat, and under normal conditions, almost all of this energy is provided by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Although the chemiosmotic theory of energy transduction was developed by Michell in 1961, remarkably little has since been elucidated about the mechanisms underlying the control of mitochondrial metabolism. The thermokinetic model describes the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial Ca2+ dynamics (see the figure below). The kinetic portion of the model includes effectors of the TCA cycle enzymes regulating production of NADH and FADH2. In turn, these are used by the electron transport chain to establish a proton motive force driving the F1F0-ATPase. In addition, mitochondrial matrix Ca2+, determined by Ca2+ uniporter and Ca2+/Na+ exchanger activities, controls the ...
The Krebs cycle may be a great advantage over glycolysis in terms of efficiency of ATP production, but the electron transport chain (ETC), where oxidative phosphorylation takes place, has them both beat hollow.[ref]When I first read about it, I was giggling with joy.[/ref] Oxidative phosphorylation takes the electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 produced in the Krebs cycle and uses them to produce more ATP - much more.. Recall that NAD and FAD are electron carriers, picking up electrons as they are reduced to NADH and FADH2 as follows:. NAD+ + 2e- + 2H+ → NADH + H+. and. FAD + 2e- + 2H+ →FADH2. and leaving them off as they are oxidized to NAD+ and FAD in the opposite reactions (just invert the arrow).. In the process of oxidative phosphorylation, the NADH and FADH2 produced in the Krebs cycle, with the help of two coenzymes, transport electrons to the first of a series of four enzyme complexes in the inner mitochondrion membrane. Each complex is reduced as it receives an electron and oxidized ...
Figure 7: Schematic representation of the proposed role of mitochondrial OxPhos in the development of psoriasis. Naïve T-lymphocyte is shown to form a synaptic interaction with an (auto)-antigen presenting cell. Following the interaction and chemokynes-mediated activation, the expression of GRIM-19 is up-regulated leading to enhanced assembly of the mitochondrial complex I. This process possibly requires mitochondria-localized STAT3. The in-this-study-observed shift in the relative expression of the α and β STAT3 splisoforms is also shown. The ensued increase of the respiratory chain activity and of the linked membrane potential (ΔΨm) provides the driving force for the synthesis of ATP and for the uptake of Ca2+ within the mitochondria. This latter process promotes T-cell activation. An additional effect of the enhanced respiratory activity might be an over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which by redox signalling fosters the differentiation of specific T-helper subsets. These ...
Aspirin is an analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory drug contained in a large number of preparations. Aspirin is rapidly hydrolysed by hepatic and blood esterases to the pharmacologically-active intermediate, salicylic acid, which has a dose-dependent serum half-life ranging from 3-20 hours. Stimulation of the respiratory centre in the central nervous system and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation are direct effects of salicylate that lead to many of the toxic symptoms observed in overdose situations.. ...
For all those datasets cell doublets were excluded (i.e., cells which were designated to confirmed cell alpha or typebeta cell, yet express an assortment of cell type-specific markerssuch as both Glucagon and Insulin) (Fig S1, S2, S11). cells, two sub-populations of cells had been determined which diverged in mtDNA gene manifestation, however these mobile populations didnt diverge in nDNA OXPHOS genes manifestation regularly, nor do they correlate using the manifestation of glucagon, the sign of alpha cells. Therefore, pancreatic beta cells in a specific are split into specific groups with original metabolic-mitochondrial personal. with parameter (BWA-backtrack algorithm)57; this allowed following analysis for many mtDNA encoded-genes. Manifestation degrees of all genes had been counted using HTSeq-count v0.11.258, using default guidelines and employing the [-f bam] guidelines. For quality control filtering, gene count number values as described by HTSeq-count had been concatenated right into a ...
Measurement of the ET-excess capacity, ExP=E-P, provides a tool for the diagnosis of a specific impairment of the phosphorylation system in toxicological or pathological states. ExP increases if OXPHOS is diminished relative to ET capacity, which leads to the unequivocal distinction between defects of the electron transfer versus phorphorylation system. Both can potentially limit ≈P, the vital free OXPHOS capacity [5]. The P»/O2 ratio is a biochemical expression of efficiency measured as the stoichiometric yield of ATP (P») per consumed O2 (4 e) or O (2 e). The P»/O2 ratio depends on the coupling state of mitochondria. P»/O2 is zero at opposite limits of (i) maximal noncoupled respiration at low Δpmt in State E, (ii) minimum respiration at maximum Δpmt in State L, and (iii) at full inhibition of electron transfer when O2 flux is limited to residual oxygen consumption (ROX). ROX is subtracted from total oxygen flux in the various coupling states. Flux ratios derived from different ...
When electrons are transferred from NADH to O2, a large release of redox energy enables ATP formation in complex V of the respiratory chain (ATP synthase in Figure 2.24).
Competing models of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the heart are highly disputed. In addition, the mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging are not well understood. To deepen our understanding of these processes, a computer model was developed to integrate the biophysical processes of oxidative phosphorylation and ROS generation. The model was calibrated with experimental data obtained from isolated rat heart mitochondria subjected to physiological conditions and workloads. Model simulations show that changes in the quinone pool redox state are responsible for the apparent inorganic phosphate activation of complex III. Model simulations predict that complex III is responsible for more ROS production during physiological working conditions relative to complex I. However, this relationship is reversed under pathological conditions. Finally, model analysis reveals how a highly reduced quinone pool caused by elevated levels of succinate is likely responsible for the ...
Mitochondrial dysfunctions activate retrograde signaling from mitochondria to the nucleus. To identify transcription factors and their associated pathways that underlie mitochondrial retrograde signaling, we performed gene expression profiling of the cells engineered to have varying amounts of mitochondrial DNA with an A3243G mutation (mt3243) in the leucine transfer RNA (tRNALeu), which reduces the abundance of proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation that are encoded by the mitochondrial genome. The cells with the mutation exhibited reduced mitochondrial function, including compromised oxidative phosphorylation, which would activate diverse mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathways. By analyzing the gene expression profiles in cells with the mutant tRNALeu and the transcription factors that recognize the differentially regulated genes, we identified 72 transcription factors that were potentially involved in mitochondrial retrograde signaling. We experimentally validated that the mt3243 ...
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This potential energy is used for the synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation or photophosphorylation, respectively.[2] ... Utilizing one full oxygen in oxidative phosphorylation requires the transfer of four electrons. The oxygen will then consume ... Electrochemical gradients also play a role in establishing proton gradients in oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The ... "Oxidative phosphorylation revisited". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 112 (3): 429-437. doi:10.1002/bit.25492. ISSN 1097-0290 ...
Oxidative phosphorylation[edit]. Main article: oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation produces 26 of the 30 ... The biosynthesis of ATP is achieved throughout processes such as substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, ... "Oxidative phosphorylation". W H Freeman, 2002. Retrieved 4 April 2013.. *^ Medh, J. D. "Electron Transport Chain (Overview)" ( ... energy coupling and phosphorylation of ADP to ATP that gives the electron transport chain the name oxidative phosphorylation. ...
Oxidative phosphorylation. Main articles: Oxidative phosphorylation, Electron transport chain, Electrochemical gradient, and ... Substrate-level phosphorylation 2 NADH 3 or 5 Oxidative phosphorylation : Each NADH produces net 1.5 ATP (instead of usual 2.5 ... Oxidative phosphorylation Total yield 30 or 32 ATP From the complete oxidation of one glucose molecule to carbon dioxide and ... ATP : NADH+H+ coming from glycolysis ratio during the oxidative phosphorylation is *1.5, as for FADH2, if hydrogen atoms (2H++ ...
Berg, Jeremy M.; Tymoczko, J. L.; Stryer, L. (2006). "Oxidative phosphorylation". Biochemistry (5 ed.). pp. 491-526. ISBN ...
Stryer, Lubert (1995). "Oxidative phosphorylation.". In: Biochemistry (Fourth ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. pp. 537 ... But the speed at which ATP is produced in this manner is about 100 times that of oxidative phosphorylation. The pH in the ... H+ oxidized in a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The pyruvate produced by glycolysis is an important intermediary in ... Furthermore, the second phosphorylation event is necessary to allow the formation of two charged groups (rather than only one) ...
The dissertation was entitled "The influence of thyroidhormones in vivo on oxidative phosphorylation and enzyme activities in ... 1800, 205-212 (2010). B. Kadenbach (ed.): Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation. Nuclear-Encodes Genes, Enzyme Regulation, ... New extension of the Mitchell Theory for oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of living organisms, Biochim. Biophys. Acta ... A hypothesis on the cause of oxidative stress, aging and disease was published by Kadenbach in 2013. Member of the Gesellschaft ...
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. „Meth. Enzymol.". 55, s. 462-42, 1979. DOI: 10.1016/0076-6879(79)55060-5. PMID: 156853 ... Boyer PD, Cross RL, Momsen W. A new concept for energy coupling in oxidative phosphorylation based on a molecular explanation ... Schägger H, Pfeiffer K. The ratio of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I-V in bovine heart mitochondria and the composition ... Origins of the concept oxidative phosphorylation. „Mol. Cell. Biochem.". 5 (1-2), s. 55-63, 1974. DOI: 10.1007/BF01874172. PMID ...
This enzyme participates in oxidative phosphorylation. It has four cofactors: cytochrome c1, cytochrome b-562, cytochrome b-566 ... oxidative phosphorylation). Complex III is a multisubunit transmembrane protein encoded by both the mitochondrial (cytochrome b ... Muller, F. L.; Lustgarten, M. S.; Jang, Y.; Richardson, A. & Van Remmen, H. (2007). "Trends in oxidative aging theories". Free ...
Kalckar HM (November 1974). "Origins of the concept oxidative phosphorylation". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 5 (1-2): ... such as phosphorylation, methylation, or glycosylation in that the amino acids typically acquire new functions. This increases ... "Microbial ubiquinones: multiple roles in respiration, gene regulation and oxidative stress management" (PDF). Microbiology ...
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation are specifically acting toxicants. Oxidative phosphorylation is a coupling reaction in ... Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation disrupt the production of ATP. They do so by binding to the protons in the inner ... Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation*AChE inhibitors Irritants CNS seizure agents Respiratory blockers*Dioxins A toxicant ... Terada H (July 1990). "Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation". Environ. Health Perspect. 87: 213-8. doi:10.1289/ehp.9087213. ...
Oxidative phosphorylation. References[edit]. *^ Peter Mitchell (1961). "Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen ... This process is called oxidative phosphorylation because it uses energy released by the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to ... is also called phosphorylation potential. The equilibrium concentration ratio [. H. +. ]. /. [. A. T. P. ]. {\displaystyle [\ ... Chemiosmotic phosphorylation is the third pathway that produces ATP from inorganic phosphate and an ADP molecule. This process ...
The electron transport chain and enzymes in the matrix play a large role in the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation ... The citric acid cycle produces NADH and FADH2 through oxidation that will be reduced in oxidative phosphorylation to produce ... The inner membrane is a phospholipid bilayer that contains the complexes of oxidative phosphorylation. which contains the ... ISBN 978-0-7167-4684-3. Mitchell, Peter; Moyle, Jennifer (1967-01-14). "Chemiosmotic Hypothesis of Oxidative Phosphorylation". ...
A variety of disorders can be caused by nuclear mutations of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes, such as coenzyme Q10 deficiency ... The majority of ATP in tumor cells is generated via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OxPhos). Interference with OxPhos ... Eugene Kennedy and Albert Lehninger discovered in 1948 that mitochondria are the site of oxidative phosphorylation in ... Mitchell P, Moyle J (January 1967). "Chemiosmotic hypothesis of oxidative phosphorylation". Nature. 213 (5072): 137-139. ...
These mutations impair oxidative phosphorylation. As a result, muscle cells cannot produce enough energy, leading to the muscle ... The tRNAGlu molecule is localized to the mitochondria, and is involved in the assembly of oxidative phosphorylation proteins. ...
This is called oxidative phosphorylation. This generates much more ATP than glycolysis alone. It releases the chemical energy ...
Moyle conducted a lot of research regarding cellular respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and properties of purified ... The chemiosmotic theory explained the mechanism for oxidative phosphorylation, stating that ATP synthesis requires chemiosmosis ... Jennifer Moyle; Mitchell, Peter (January 1967). "Chemiosmotic Hypothesis of Oxidative Phosphorylation". Nature. 213 (5072): 137 ...
Salts of tetraphenylborate uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Sodium tetraphenylborate Potassium tetraphenylborate ...
Kalckar referred to this process as "aerobic phosphorylation" (now called oxidative phosphorylation, a biochemical process ... The Coris had unsuccessfully attempted to reproduce Kalckar's oxidative phosphorylation work, and Kalckar was able to point out ... Kalckar HM (1974). "Origins of the concept oxidative phosphorylation". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 5 (1-2): 55-63. doi:10.1007/ ... "oxidative phosphorylation". During this period, Lundsgaard was preoccupied as physiology department chair, consequently Fritz ...
IL2RG Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1; 609060; GFM1 Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 2; 610498; ... MRPS16 Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 3; 610505; TSFM Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 4; 610678; ... TUFM Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 5; 611719; MRPS22 Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 6; 300816; ...
This is important in driving oxidative phosphorylation. ATP is dephosphorylated to ADP and inorganic phosphate. On the cellular ... "Energy for the Body: Oxidative Phosphorylation". Retrieved 5 April 2013. Casiday, Rachel. "Oxidation-Reduction Reactions ... Oxidative Phosphorylation. Department of Chemistry, Washington University. Retrieved 24 April 2013. Yamauchi, Yasuo (29 July ... Phosphorylation of a protein produces many biochemical effects, such as changing its conformation to alter its binding to a ...
... oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis. Inhibitor and Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation". Retrieved 2020-02-02. ... In the process of oxidative phosphorylation, a globular cytochrome cc protein is involved in the electron transfer from the ...
This enzyme participates in oxidative phosphorylation. It has four cofactors: cytochrome c1, cytochrome b-562, cytochrome b-566 ...
Roles of photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation". Planta. 161 (2): 129-136. doi:10.1007/bf00395472. ISSN 0032-0935 ...
Kalckar HM (November 1974). "Origins of the concept oxidative phosphorylation". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 5 (1-2): ... Søballe B, Poole RK (August 1999). "Microbial ubiquinones: multiple roles in respiration, gene regulation and oxidative stress ... These alterations are distinct from other post-translation protein modifications, such as phosphorylation, methylation, or ...
NADH can be used by the electron transport chain to create further ATP as part of oxidative phosphorylation. To fully oxidize ... In eukaryotes, oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondrial cristae. It comprises the electron transport chain that ... PMID 20847295.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) P.Hinkle (2005). "P/O ratios of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation ... from Krebs cycle Oxidative phosphorylation 2 NADH+H+ from glycolysis: 2 × 1.5 ATP (if glycerol phosphate shuttle transfers ...
This structure traps one proton, which is quite helpful for oxidative phosphorylation. As the head group forms such compact ... Complex V of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery also displays high binding affinity for CL, binding four molecules of CL ... Thomas H. Haines; Norbert A. Dencher (2002). "Cardiolipin: a proton trap for oxidative phosphorylation". FEBS Lett. 528 (1-3): ... During the oxidative phosphorylation process catalyzed by Complex IV, large quantities of protons are transferred from one side ...
This process is called oxidative phosphorylation because it uses energy released by the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to ... This process is part of oxidative phosphorylation. Bacteriorhodopsin Cellular respiration Citric acid cycle Electrochemical ... gradient Glycolysis Oxidative phosphorylation Peter Mitchell (1961). "Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen ... Chemiosmotic phosphorylation is the third pathway that produces ATP from inorganic phosphate and an ADP molecule. ...
... is an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. It is a weak acid that can pass through lipid membranes when it's in the ... Dinoseb interferes with the oxidative phosphorylation by acting as an uncoupler, which is the production of ATP in the ...
4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... The highly oxidative environment inside chloroplasts increases the rate of mutation so post-transcription repairs are needed to ... Phosphorylation changes the polypeptide's shape,[45] making it easier for 14-3-3 proteins to attach to the polypeptide.[38][46] ... Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transportEdit. After a chloroplast polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome in the cytosol, ...
response to oxidative stress. • cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription. • heart ... "Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.". Nat. Biotechnol. 23 (1): 94-101. PMID 15592455. doi: ... "Robust phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity ...
Hatefi, Y. (1985): "The mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation system". Ann Rev Biochem, 54:1015-1069. ...
regulation of phosphorylation. • cellular calcium ion homeostasis. • epithelial cell proliferation. • neuron migration. • ... response to oxidative stress. • autophagosome assembly. • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • heart ... positive regulation of phosphorylation. • astrocyte activation. • synapse organization. • modulation of age-related behavioral ... negative regulation of protein phosphorylation. • myeloid leukocyte differentiation. • neuron apoptotic process. • single ...
The electron transport chain in the mitochondrion is the site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. The NADH and ...
oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase. *Cytochrome c. *NADH dehydrogenase. *Succinate dehydrogenase ...
Because the clinical presentation of this disorder overlaps heavily with deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation, it is ... 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks". Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/ ... The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is responsible for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, with the final product being ... The activity of the PDH complex in mammalian tissues is largely determined by the phosphorylation of certain subunits within ...
Hence the direct gain is 4-2=2ATP Oxidative phosphorylation - Two NADH molecules. oneNADH = 3 molecules of ATP.Hence the ... share the initial pathway of glycolysis but aerobic metabolism continues with the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. ... One carbon dioxide molecule and one hydrogen molecule are removed from the pyruvate (called oxidative decarboxylation) to ...
In idiopathic Parkinson's disease, the disease is commonly caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, cellular oxidative stress, ... with a knock-in mutation of BCL2 phosphorylation sites to produce progeny that showed normal levels of basal autophagy yet were ... These two kinases regulate autophagy through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2 (mammalian ... "Autophagy, mitochondria and oxidative stress: cross-talk and redox signalling". Biochem. J. 441 (2): 523-40. doi:10.1042/ ...
The process of oxidative phosphorylation, by which the NADH and succinate generated by the citric acid cycle are oxidized and ...
Dietary SAM supplementation has also been shown to reduce oxidative stress and delay buildup of neurological hallmarks of AD ... Nicolia V, Fuso A, Cavallaro RA, Di Luzio A, Scarpa S (2010). "B vitamin deficiency promotes tau phosphorylation through ...
regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • positive ... response to oxidative stress. • negative regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. • negative ... Heavy metal binding at PrP has been linked to resistance to oxidative stress arising from heavy metal toxicity.[17][18] ... negative regulation of protein phosphorylation. • negative regulation of interferon-gamma production. • response to cadmium ion ...
Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain + ATP synthase) ... "O-mannosyl phosphorylation of alpha-dystroglycan is required for laminin binding". Science. 327 (5961): 88-92. doi:10.1126/ ...
... is then reloaded into its 11-cis configuration by ATP phosphorylation and the cycle begins again. ... Woggon, Wolf-D. (2002). "Oxidative cleavage of carotenoids catalyzed by enzyme models and beta-carotene 15,15´-monooxygenase". ... Living organisms produce retinal (RAL) by irreversible oxidative cleavage of carotenoids.[6] For example, ...
Additionally, oxidative stress may be responsible for loss of striatal dopamine which may contribute to pathophysiology of the ... Ren, X.; Mody, I. (2003). "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate reduces mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation via GABAB receptor ... Succinate semialdehyde is considered a reactive carbonyl and may lead to increased oxidative stress. This stress is believed to ... a lot of the research that was published in 2007 examined the pathogenesis for the disorder by examining the role of oxidative ...
These modifications include acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, ribosylation and ... "Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on markers of oxidative stress in men and women". Cancer Lett. 172 (1): 1-6. PMID ... serine and threonine phosphorylation, and lysine ubiquitination and sumoylation) play central roles in many types of epigenetic ... some through the activation of oxidative stress pathways.[35] ...
Arif A, Jia J, Moodt RA, DiCorleto PE, Fox PL (January 2011). "Phosphorylation of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase by cyclin- ... induces oxidative stress, which triggers a build up of mitochondrial tRNA mutations. It has also been discovered that tRNA ...
... oxidative phosphorylation). Halimbawa[baguhin , baguhin ang batayan]. Ang pampaalsa (lebadura) ay isang halimbawa ng anaerobe ...
Disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which cells produce their main energy source of adenosine triphosphate ( ... Four out of the five protein complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation are most commonly disrupted in Leigh syndrome, ... a gene that codes for a protein in the last complex of the oxidative phosphorylation chain, ATP synthase, an enzyme that ... it results in an inability of the complexes affected by the mutation to perform their role in oxidative phosphorylation. In the ...
Oxidative addition and reductive elimination. *Oxidative phosphorylation. *Partial oxidation. *Pro-oxidant. *Reduced gas ... Substances that have the ability to oxidize other substances (cause them to lose electrons) are said to be oxidative or ...
ACTH also enhances transcription of mitochondrial genes that encode for subunits of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation ... which undergoes a series of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylation before it is ...
... cells where it is utilized as a terminal electron acceptor in the production of ATP by the process of oxidative phosphorylation ... "Oxidative metabolism in muscle". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 352 (1354): 677-83. ... neurons may be at particular risk since in addition to their high mitochondrial activity they are under intense oxidative ...
"In vitro nonenzymatic glycation enhances the role of myoglobin as a source of oxidative stress". Free Radic. Res. 38 (2): 139- ... autoxidation rate and a potential phosphorylation site of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) myoglobin". Comp. Biochem. ...
JUN phosphorylation. • negative regulation of JUN kinase activity. • vesicle-mediated transport. • signal transduction. • ... 2002). "alpha-Synuclein protects against oxidative stress via inactivation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase stress-signaling ... 2002). "Phosphorylation of Pax2 by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and enhanced Pax2-dependent transcription activation". J. Biol. ... "Phosphorylation of Pax2 by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and enhanced Pax2-dependent transcription activation". J. Biol. Chem. ...
oxidative phosphorylation. Primary. *Complex I/NADH dehydrogenase. *Complex II/Succinate dehydrogenase. *Coenzyme Q ... "Tyrosine phosphorylation turns alkaline transition into a biologically relevant process and makes human cytochrome c behave as ... Another way that cells can control apoptosis is by phosphorylation of Tyr48 which would turn cytochrome c into an anti- ...
Oxygen is used in mitochondria to generate ATP during oxidative phosphorylation. The reaction for aerobic respiration is ... "Chapter 8: Oxidation-Phosphorylation, the Chemistry of Di-Oxygen". Biochemistry Online. Saint John's University. Retrieved ...
... is used in mitochondria to generate ATP during oxidative phosphorylation. The reaction for aerobic respiration is ... "Chapter 8: Oxidation-Phosphorylation, the Chemistry of Di-Oxygen". Biochemistry Online. Saint John's University. Retrieved ...
... but the cells are unable to use the oxygen effectively as a result of disabled oxidative phosphorylation enzymes. This may ...
Gottfried Schatz: Mitochondria: beyond oxidative phosphorylation; in: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Band 1271 (1995), S. 123- ...
In oxidative phosphorylation the oxidation of catabolic intermediates by molecular oxygen occurs via a highly ordered series of ... phosphorylation. * In phosphorylation. …to the cell is called oxidative phosphorylation (see cellular respiration). The process ... In metabolism: Oxidative, or respiratory-chain, phosphorylation. In oxidative phosphorylation the oxidation of catabolic ... In cellular respiration: Oxidative phosphorylation. In the oxidative phosphorylation stage, each pair of hydrogen atoms removed ...
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 is a severe condition that primarily impairs neurological and liver function. ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/combined-oxidative-phosphorylation-deficiency-1/ Combined oxidative phosphorylation ... fewer mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation are produced. (The process of oxidative phosphorylation ... Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 is caused by mutations in the GFM1 gene. This gene provides instructions for ...
A brief review is given of the history of the experimental demonstration of oxidative phosphorylation. The properties of the ... W.N. Aldridge, "Oxidative phosphorylation", Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, vol.11, br. 1, str. 61-73, 1960. [Online]. ... Aldridge, W.N. (1960). Oxidative phosphorylation, Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 11(1), str. 61-73. Preuzeto s: ... Oxidative phosphorylation. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. [Internet]. 1960 [pristupljeno 18.07.2019.];11(1):61-73. Dostupno na: https ...
Synonyms: OXPHOS disease due to nuclear DNA anomalies Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorder due to nDNA anomalies ... Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorder due to nuclear DNA anomalies includes diseases classified according to defects ... commonly defined by lack of cellular energy due to defects of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), resulting from pathogenic ... Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation disorder due to nuclear DNA anomalies. Go to external page http://www.orpha.net/ORDO/ ...
... s Oxidative Phosphorylation and Electron Transport. This free synopsis covers all the crucial plot points of Oxidative ... Home → SparkNotes → Biology Study Guides → Oxidative Phosphorylation and Electron Transport → Introduction. Oxidative ... Oxidative phosphorylation marks the final stage of aerobic cell respiration. We have traced metabolism from food to glucose, ... The energy produced from the flow of electrons drives oxidative phosphorylation in which ATP is synthesized via the addition of ...
Home → SparkNotes → Biology Study Guides → Oxidative Phosphorylation and Electron Transport → Problems. Oxidative ... the inner mitochondrial membrane enter the matrix space to participate in the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation? ...
Oxidative phosphorylation is the process of generating adenosine triphosphate, the main energy... ... Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in and around the membranes of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. ... Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in and around the membranes of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. Oxidative ... Oxidative phosphorylation is the main method whereby eukaryotic cells produce ATP aerobically. The step before oxidative ...
Prenatal Diagnostics in Oxidative Phosphorylation Disorders Antoon J. M. Janssen, Letitia E. M. Niers, Lambert P. van den ... Clinical Diagnosis of Oxidative Phosphorylation Disorders Robert McFarland, Patrick F. Chinnery, Robert W. Taylor, Andrew M. ...
Oxidative phosphorylation (UK /ɒkˈsɪd.ə.tɪv/, US /ˈɑːk.sɪˌdeɪ.tɪv/ [1] or electron transport-linked phosphorylation) is the ... Effect on oxidative phosphorylation Cyanide. Carbon monoxide. Azide. Hydrogen sulfide Poisons Complex IV Inhibit the electron ... In the bacteria, oxidative phosphorylation in Escherichia coli is understood in most detail, while archaeal systems are at ... Animated diagrams illustrating oxidative phosphorylation Wiley and Co Concepts in Biochemistry. *On-line biophysics lectures ...
Pink1 regulates the oxidative phosphorylation machinery via mitochondrial fission. Wencheng Liu, Rebeca Acín-Peréz, Kindiya D. ... Pink1 regulates the oxidative phosphorylation machinery via mitochondrial fission. Wencheng Liu, Rebeca Acín-Peréz, Kindiya D. ... Pink1 regulates the oxidative phosphorylation machinery via mitochondrial fission Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Pink1 regulates the oxidative phosphorylation machinery via mitochondrial fission. Wencheng Liu, Rebeca Acín-Peréz, Kindiya D. ...
... indicative of concurrent oxidative phosphorylation (32). The ATP contribution from oxidative phosphorylation accounts for 70-90 ... Bioavailable copper modulates oxidative phosphorylation and growth of tumors Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Oxidative phosphorylation is essential for all cells in our body, and, as such, systemic inhibition of this pathway would be ... Bioavailable copper modulates oxidative phosphorylation and growth of tumors. Seiko Ishida, Pénélope Andreux, Carole Poitry- ...
An 18-month-old girl with an oxidative phosphorylation defect had neonatal onset of chronic lactic acidosis, lipid storage ... Oxidative phosphorylation defect associated with primary adrenal insufficiency J Pediatr. 1996 May;128(5 Pt 1):688-92. doi: ... This case demonstrates a new clinical phenotype associated with a defect in oxidative phosphorylation and the need to consider ... An 18-month-old girl with an oxidative phosphorylation defect had neonatal onset of chronic lactic acidosis, lipid storage ...
Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to ... Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and ... review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ ... "Oxidative Phosphorylation System in Gastric Carcinomas and Gastritis," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2017, ...
Summary: In Dugesia tigrina, complex I and the ADP phosphorylation system are involved in the loss of oxidative phosphorylation ... Summary: Noteworthy increases in cardiac ventricle mass and in skeletal and cardiac muscle oxidative phosphorylation capacity ...
Proton Gradient as Means of Coupling Oxidative and Phosphorylation Components of Oxidative Phosphorylation ... The individual reactions of interest for oxidative phosphorylation are: phosphorylation ADP3- + HPO42-+ H+ --,. ATP4- + H2O ΔGo ... Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondria, and the two reactions (oxidation of NADH or FADH2 and phosphorylation to ... This oxidative-phosphorylation process consists of two steps: the oxidation of NADH (or FADH2) and the phosphorylation reaction ...
... is a metabolic pathway that uses energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to produce adenosine ... In the bacteria, oxidative phosphorylation in Escherichia coli is understood in most detail, while archaeal systems are at ... Effect on oxidative phosphorylation Cyanide. Carbon monoxide Poisons Inhibit the electron transport chain by binding more ... The field of oxidative phosphorylation began with the report in 1906 by Arthur Harden of a vital role for phosphate in cellular ...
If youre seeing this message, it means were having trouble loading external resources on our website.. If youre behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. ...
Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase: a ubiquitous regulator of oxidative phosphorylation?. Bates TE1, Loesch A, Burnstock G, ... that mitochondrially located nitric oxide synthase is a ubiquitous regulator of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in ...
Mitochondria produce most of the energy in animal cells by a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Electrons are passed ... This occurs primarily through oxidative phosphorylation, a process in which electrons are passed along a series of carrier ... Our understanding of the basic principles of oxidative phosphorylation was greatly influenced by several landmark discoveries ... Traditional research on intact mitochondria, which established the basic principles of oxidative phosphorylation, can now be ...
Myocardial ischemia decreases oxidative phosphorylation through cytochrome oxidase in subsarcolemmal mitochondria.. Lesnefsky ... 0.156 +/- 0.007 nmol/mg protein, P , 0.05). Thus ischemia decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation through cytochrome ... After 45 min of global ischemia, oxidative phosphorylation was decreased only in the subsarcolemmal population of mitochondria ... The effect of myocardial ischemia on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was investigated using isolated, buffer-perfused ...
Here, we investigated the regulation of oxidative stress-induced ASK1-catalyzed phosphorylation of MKK6. MKK6 phosphorylation ... Mechanism of oxidative stress-induced ASK1-catalyzed MKK6 phosphorylation.. Sturchler E., Feurstein D., McDonald P., Duckett D. ... Taken together, these data suggest that oxidative stress rapidly increases ASK1 catalytic efficiency for MKK6 phosphorylation ... In response to oxidative stress, ASK1 activates the cell death-associated p38 MAPK pathway by phosphorylating MKK6. ...
Metabolic activities in normal cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to generate ATP for ... Energy metabolism of cancer: Glycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation (Review) Oncol Lett. 2012 Dec;4(6):1151-1157. doi: ... Metabolic activities in normal cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to generate ATP for ...
Oxidative phosphorylation (UK /ɒkˈsɪd.ə.tɪv/, US /ˈɑːk.sɪˌdeɪ.tɪv/ or electron transport-linked phosphorylation or terminal ... The field of oxidative phosphorylation began with the report in 1906 by Arthur Harden of a vital role for phosphate in cellular ... Oxidative phosphorylation uses these molecules to produce ATP, which is used throughout the cell when ever energy is needed. ... The term oxidative phosphorylation was coined by Volodymyr Belitser [uk] in 1939. For another twenty years, the mechanism by ...
View source for Oxidative phosphorylation/Definition. ← Oxidative phosphorylation/Definition. Jump to: navigation, search ...
Does oxidative phosphorylation release CO2? I did not know it had to do anything with CO2 but a source is saying that CO2 is ... not oxidative RESPIRATION but PHOSPHORYLATION? WHen they say oxidative phosphorylation, dont they mean the electron transport ... Does oxidative phosphorylation release CO2?. I did not know it had to do anything with CO2 but a source is saying that CO2 is ... 2) Oxidative phosphorylation (the thing in question here). This is how ATP is produced in the Electron Trans chain. It has to ...
The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and it is the major ... The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and it is the major ... Oxidative Phosphorylation System: Nuclear Genes and Genetic Disease. Laura Sánchez‐Caballero, Radboud University Medical Center ... Figure 1. Scheme of the OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation) system in mammalian mitochondria. Electrons (e−) from carbon ...
5. Oxidative Phosphorylation. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that ... Its about Oxidative Phosphorylation. Im just showing you the same slide repeatedly. Step number one of glucose degradation is ... We have to produce huge amounts of ATP molecules, and this oxidative phosphorylation pathway, indeed, can give us almost 26 ATP ... This is a final big cartoon showing that how oxidative phosphorylation, OXPHOS system is all interrelated. Again, throughout ...
Seed Dormancy: Breaking by Uncouplers and Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... a similar effect was produced by other uncouplers or inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. ...
5. Oxidative Phosphorylation. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that ...
... R.A. Cavalheiro, F. Fortes, J. Borecký, V.C ... Dy), and oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria in situ were determined in spheroplasts obtained from Candida albicans ... Figure 4. Effect of linoleic acid (LA) on oxidative phosphorylation. Candida albicans mitochondria (1 mg/ml) were added (as ... Mitochondria are the major source of cellular aerobic energy generated by oxidative phosphorylation. C. parapsilosis ...
  • A group of clinically heterogeneous diseases, commonly defined by lack of cellular energy due to defects of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), resulting from pathogenic mutations in the nuclear DNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Metabolic activities in normal cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to generate ATP for energy. (nih.gov)
  • The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and it is the major energy provider of the cell. (els.net)
  • Mitochondrial diseases are caused by a deficient pyruvate oxidation that involves the Krebs cycle and the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. (els.net)
  • Scheme of the OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation) system in mammalian mitochondria. (els.net)
  • so called oxidative phosphorylation, OXPHOS pathway. (coursera.org)
  • There is also evidence of ovarian cancer stem cells privileging oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for their metabolic needs. (mdpi.com)
  • Although glucose breakdown through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) yields maximum number of ATP, curtailing the metabolism to glycolysis provides the necessary biomolecule precursors needed by the tumors to maintain a high level of proliferation [ 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • A rapidly growing body of evidence is demonstrating that an adaptation to aerobic glycolysis does not entail a complete shutdown of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in tumors. (mdpi.com)
  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays a pivotal role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), as it distributes electrons among the various dehydrogenases and the cytochrome segments of the respiratory chain. (jci.org)
  • The maintenance of energy metabolism, through the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) apparatus, is essential for brain health. (broadinstitute.org)
  • However, recent evidence suggests that oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) plays a crucial role during cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we compared the contribution of glycolysis, glutaminolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in rat and human HSC activation. (rug.nl)
  • We investigated whether variants within a larger set of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes encoded by both autosomal and mitochondrial DNA were associated with risk of IS and, based on our results, extended our investigation to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). (ovid.com)
  • The activity of complex I of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system was severely deficient in skeletal muscle. (ugent.be)
  • The ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1) is an inhibitor of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase that regulates the activity of both oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and cell death. (csic.es)
  • We aimed to investigate the function of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the GM cells in case of chronic gastritis, AG and GC and to find alterations, pointing to early pre-cancerous changes. (morebooks.de)
  • 2. In the atrophic corpus GM and in the GC cells oxidative capaciry is reduced and remodelling of the OXPHOS occurs, manifesting as deficiency of the complex I and improved function of the complex II. (morebooks.de)
  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with variable manifestations resulting from a defect in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. (malacards.org)
  • Five complexes embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane, together constituting the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, comprise the final steps in cellular energy production. (springer.com)
  • The primary energy-producing pathway in eukaryotic cells, the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, comprises proteins encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0.05) of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) /respiratory electron transport among genes up-regulated in the airways of subjects with PMLs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • [1] or electron transport-linked phosphorylation ) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients , thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation is a metabolic pathway that uses energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (bionity.com)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation (UK /ɒkˈsɪd.ə.tɪv/, US /ˈɑːk.sɪˌdeɪ.tɪv/ or electron transport-linked phosphorylation or terminal oxidation) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing the chemical energy stored within the nutrients in order to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to oxidative stress, ASK1 activates the cell death-associated p38 MAPK pathway by phosphorylating MKK6. (uniprot.org)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation is the mitochondrial pathway for obtaining biological energy in the form of ATP. (hstalks.com)
  • There is growing evidence that oxidative phosphorylation is also an active metabolic pathway in many tumors, including in high grade serous ovarian cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we review the literature that supports this hypothesis and describe potential agents and critical control points in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway that can be targeted using small molecule agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Mitochondria, through the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, are the major cellular source of ROS ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Reproductive period and epigenetic modifications of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway in the human prefrontal cortex. (broadinstitute.org)
  • We show that LPS challenge led to increased expression of T-fam and COX subunits I and IV in a time-dependent manner through early phosphorylation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • Gene ontology and pathway analyses revealed a remarkable and almost unique over-representation of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation in the down-regulated group and of genes encoding signaling molecules, in particular of the ubiquitination pathway, in the up-regulated group. (arvojournals.org)
  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 is a severe condition that primarily impairs neurological and liver function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Liver disease is common in people with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1, with individuals quickly developing liver failure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individuals with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 usually do not survive past early childhood, although some people live longer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 is likely a rare disorder, although its prevalence is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 is caused by mutations in the GFM1 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The condition is called combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 because it impairs the function of more than one of these complexes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A shortage of energy in these tissues leads to cell death, causing the neurological and liver problems in people with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency 1 is a rare genetic disorder characterized by deficits in more than one of the mitochondrial protein complexes involved in oxidative phosporylation. (cags.org.ae)
  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 16 , also know as infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy , is characterized by decreased levels of mitochondrial complexes . (nih.gov)
  • Markers of mitophagy were increased, but proteasomal degradation activity were reduced in NAFLD mice liver, suggesting that ATP deficiency because of reduced stability of oxidative phosphorylation complex subunits contributed to inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome and activation of mitophagy. (mcponline.org)
  • 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060). (malacards.org)
  • Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency 14, also known as coxpd14 , is related to fars2 deficiency and mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome 4a , and has symptoms including myoclonus An important gene associated with Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency 14 is FARS2 (Phenylalanyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial). (malacards.org)
  • 76 Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 14: A severe multisystemic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal onset of global developmental delay, refractory seizures, and lactic acidosis. (malacards.org)
  • Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency 1, also known as coxpd1 , is related to combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 28 and combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 14 , and has symptoms including nystagmus , hyperreflexia and spasticity . (malacards.org)
  • An important gene associated with Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency 1 is GFM1 (G Elongation Factor Mitochondrial 1). (malacards.org)
  • 71 Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1: A mitochondrial disease resulting in early rapidly progressive hepatoencephalopathy. (malacards.org)
  • Coenen MJ, Antonicka H, Ugalde C, et al (2004) Mutant mitochondrial elongation factor G1 and combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency. (springer.com)
  • The temporary uncoupling between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation led to the proposal of an astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle whereby during stimulation, lactate produced by increased glycolysis in astrocytes is taken up by neurons as their primary energy source. (rupress.org)
  • in the breakdown of sugars, oxidative phosphorylation , the high-energy hydrogen atoms are first separated into protons and high-energy electrons. (britannica.com)
  • In the oxidative phosphorylation stage, each pair of hydrogen atoms removed from NADH and FADH 2 provides a pair of electrons that-through the action of a series of iron-containing hemoproteins, the cytochromes-eventually reduces one atom of oxygen to form water. (britannica.com)
  • The energy produced from the flow of electrons drives oxidative phosphorylation in which ATP is synthesized via the addition of phosphor (phosphorylation) to ADP. (sparknotes.com)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation starts by using electron transport to move electrons between various molecules in mitochondria. (reference.com)
  • During oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are transferred from electron donors to electron acceptors such as oxygen , in redox reactions . (wikipedia.org)
  • During oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are transferred from the electron donors to a series of electron acceptors in a series of redox reactions ending in oxygen as the last acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs primarily through oxidative phosphorylation, a process in which electrons are passed along a series of carrier molecules called the electron transport chain. (sciencemag.org)
  • The authors reported that the C. albicans ability to regulate the expression of individual complexes and the partitioning of electrons between both respiratory chains may be the reason why the cells can survive under conditions of oxidative stress. (scielo.br)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation is the process in which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH2 to O2 by a series of electron carriers. (wikipathways.org)
  • Although oxidative phosphorylation is a vital part of metabolism, it produces reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide , which lead to propagation of free radicals , damaging cells and contributing to disease and, possibly, aging ( senescence ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the many forms of life on earth use a range of different nutrients, almost all carry out oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP, the molecule that supplies energy to metabolism . (bionity.com)
  • oxidative suggests that this occurs only in the presence of oxygen, therefore as a result of aerobic metabolism. (openstudy.com)
  • In oxidative metabolism, the electron pairs liberated through the oxidation of glucose do not pass directly to O 2 . (wikipremed.com)
  • Understand how the structure of a mitochondrion supports its role in oxidative metabolism. (wikipremed.com)
  • The question server contains a large, general section that covers a number of topics from metabolism including glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. (wikipremed.com)
  • Metabolism of glucose to pyruvate yields two net phosphorylations of ADP to ATP and two 2 e - (two-electron) reductions of NAD + to NADH. (rupress.org)
  • The metabolism of pyruvate or other oxidative fuels through the mitochondrial TCA cycle, which leads to ATP resynthesis through the action of the electron transport chain (ETC) and ATP synthase. (rupress.org)
  • We found that, in addition to glycolytic and oxidative metabolism in normal cells, cancer cells have a new hybrid phenotype in which both metabolic modes coexist. (aacrjournals.org)
  • the primary regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 and their downstream target genes for oxidative metabolism were decreased in skeletal muscle from adults with diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Isaya G, Miklos D, Rollins RA (1994) MIP1, a new yeast gene homologous to the rat mitochondrial intermediate peptidase gene, is required for oxidative metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (springer.com)
  • Genes on mtDNA provide instructions for proteins that are primarily involved in the process of converting the energy from food into a form cells can use ( oxidative phosphorylation ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • While earlier studies have suggested that oxidative stress is a key determinant of rod dysfunction with aging, we show for the first time altered expression of genes encoding components of oxidative phosphorylation and signaling pathways that help cellular adaptation during aging-associated stress. (arvojournals.org)
  • Noteworthy increases in cardiac ventricle mass and in skeletal and cardiac muscle oxidative phosphorylation capacity arise when Pekin ducks hatch and attain an endothermic metabolic phenotype. (biologists.org)
  • Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity plays a critical role in human health and disease. (umass.edu)
  • Although current models of oxidative phosphorylation sufficiently describe skeletal muscle energetics during moderate-intensity contractions, much is still unknown about the mechanisms that control and limit oxidative phosphorylation during high-intensity contractions. (umass.edu)
  • Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and Caucasians in the arctic winter. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • to the cell is called oxidative phosphorylation ( see cellular respiration). (britannica.com)
  • Now that we have discussed the events of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle , we are ready to explore the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, the last step in cellular respiration. (sparknotes.com)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation marks the final stage of aerobic cell respiration. (sparknotes.com)
  • And perhaps most importantly, in 1961, Peter Mitchell proposed the general mechanistic principle of oxidative and photosynthetic phosphorylation (the chemiosmotic theory), which explains the coupling between respiration and ATP synthesis in mitochondria. (sciencemag.org)
  • The uncoupling between respiration and oxidative phosphorylation should explain - at least, in part -these results. (osti.gov)
  • The effects of temperature on the control of respiration rate, phosphorylation rate, proton leakage rate, the protonmotive force and the effective ATP/O ratio were determined in isolated rat liver mitochondria over a range of respiratory conditions by applying top-down elasticity and control analyses. (portlandpress.com)
  • Temperature dependence of rat liver mitochondrial respiration with uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by fatty acids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Eukaryotic aerobic respiration produces approximately 34 additional molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule, however most of these are produced by a mechanism vastly different than the substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In oxidative phosphorylation the oxidation of catabolic intermediates by molecular oxygen occurs via a highly ordered series of substances that act as hydrogen and electron carriers. (britannica.com)
  • Simultaneous measurements of membrane potential, oxidation and phosphorylation rates were performed under various ATP turnover rates, ranging from state 4 to state 3. (portlandpress.com)
  • Surprisingly, control by the proton leakage subsystem was almost unchanged, although both control patterns by substrate oxidation and phosphorylation subsystems were affected at 4 °C. In comparison with results for 25 and 37 °C, at 4 °C there was evidence for increased control by the phosphorylation subsystem over both fluxes of oxidation and phosphorylation as well as on the ATP/O ratio when the system is close to state 3. (portlandpress.com)
  • This conclusion was based exclusively on the comparison of the measured ∆G values of the driving reaction (oxidation) and the driven reaction (phosphorylation) with their known equilibrium values. (springer.com)
  • Voinikov, V. 2004-10-17 00:00:00 The addition of cold shock CSP310 protein to mitochondria isolated from both monocotyledonous (rye, wheat, and maize) and dicotyledonous (pea) plants uncoupled oxidation from phosphorylation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Almost all aerobic organisms carry out oxidative phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of oxidative phosphorylation involves five groups of proteins, or complexes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For the fist time the mitochondrial process of oxidative phosphorylation has been studied by determining the extent and initial rates of electron flow, H + translocation, O 2 uptake and ATP synthesis under close to in vivo concentrations of oxygen. (medsci.org)
  • Conversely, the transfection of synthetic anti-miR oligonucleotides that inhibit miR-338 increases COXIV levels, and results in a significant increase in oxidative phosphorylation and also norepinephrine uptake in the axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • As a result, fewer mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation are produced. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In contrast, we found increased turnover rates for mitochondrial proteins of the oxidative phosphorylation chain in the aged mice as compared to young mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • We applied the 2 H 2 O-metabolic labeling approach to test the hypothesis that the reduced stability of oxidative phosphorylation proteins contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in a diet-induced mouse model of NAFLD. (mcponline.org)
  • Glycolysis produces only 2 ATP molecules, but 26 ATPs are produced by the oxidative phosphorylation of the 10 NADH and 2 succinate molecules made by converting one molecule of glucose to carbon dioxide and water. (bionity.com)
  • More direct evidence supporting the above hypothesis comes from studies that found increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant enzyme responses to high glucose in cultured skin fibroblasts from type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy ( 9 , 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose removal and the inhibition of glycolysis or oxidative phospholylation impaired the odor response. (jneurosci.org)
  • We support that odor transduction relies on ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation in the dendrite and glycolytically in the cilia using glucose internalized from the mucus. (jneurosci.org)
  • How do molecules that cannot freely cross the inner mitochondrial membrane enter the matrix space to participate in the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation? (sparknotes.com)
  • 87. (This is a combined treatment of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation). (wikipremed.com)
  • Terminology for glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. (wikipremed.com)
  • Organs that have high energy demands, such as the brain and liver, are particularly affected by the resulting impairment of oxidative phosphorylation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In conclusion, the 2 H 2 O-metabolic labeling approach shows that increased degradation of hepatic oxidative phosphorylation subunits contributed to mitochondrial impairment in NAFLD mice. (mcponline.org)
  • Blockage of these respiratory pathways together with inhibition of the uncoupling protein (another potential target for drug design) could lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species, dysfunction of Candida mitochondria, and possibly to oxidative cell death. (scielo.br)
  • Oxidative stress represents overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) relative to antioxidant defenses ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cardiac H11 kinase/Hsp22 stimulates oxidative phosphorylation and modulates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production: Involvement of a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. (inserm.fr)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that Hsp22 overexpression increases the capacity of mitochondria to produce NO, which stimulates oxidative phosphorylation in normoxia and decreases oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species production after anoxia. (inserm.fr)
  • Partial and complete inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin resulted in a positive relationship to partial and complete inhibition of 2-deoxyglucose-induced ultrastructural transformation in the mitochondria in these cells. (rupress.org)
  • In Dugesia tigrina , complex I and the ADP phosphorylation system are involved in the loss of oxidative phosphorylation capacity when temperature decreases. (biologists.org)
  • Myocardial ischemia decreases oxidative phosphorylation through cytochrome oxidase in subsarcolemmal mitochondria. (nih.gov)
  • Presently, it is unclear whether this augmentation in muscle oxygen consumption is driven by increased rates of oxidative ATP synthesis (ATP OX ) or by decreases in the efficiency of ATP OX due to mitochondrial uncoupling. (umass.edu)
  • These findings suggest that the switch from oxidative phosphorylation, over to glycolysis that occurs during capacitation may come about through sialylation of ACO2. (mcponline.org)
  • This value of q agrees well with the degree of coupling q ec f , at which net ATP production of oxidative phosphorylation - at optimal efficiency - occurs in the most economic way. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in. (coursehero.com)
  • Ans1- oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondrial membrane. (coursehero.com)
  • Thus ischemia decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation through cytochrome oxidase selectively in intact subsarcolemmal mitochondria. (nih.gov)
  • It is concluded that severe heart failure is characterized by defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and that techniques of isolation or assay or both are probably not causing the abnormalities. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mitochondrial myopathies: disorders of the respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • It has been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that increased oxidative stress contributes to diabetic nephropathy development ( 2 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The enzymes of the mitochondrial inner membrane involved in oxidative phosphorylation. (sciencemag.org)
  • E3 Subunit will be used by all enzymes that catalyze oxidative decarboxylation reactions. (brainscape.com)
  • Melatonin increases the activity of the oxidative phosphorylation enzymes and the production of ATP in rat brain and liver mitochondria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we investigated the regulation of oxidative stress-induced ASK1-catalyzed phosphorylation of MKK6. (uniprot.org)
  • 31P NMR studies of the kinetics and regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in the intact myocardium. (harvard.edu)
  • Mitochondria are the major source of cellular aerobic energy generated by oxidative phosphorylation. (scielo.br)
  • Neither oxidative phosphorylation nor ultrastructural transformation could be initiated in mitochondria in intact cells by the intracellular generation of adenosine diphosphate in the presence of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, studies of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) transgenic db/db diabetic mice provided in vivo support for the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that oxygen availability is rate limiting for in vivo mitochondrial oxidative exercise recovery measured with 31 P-MRS in individuals with uncomplicated diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In individuals with diabetes, exercise training improved in vivo mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation flux to levels similar to those of untrained control subjects without diabetes in addition to improving insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility ( 12 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This procedure revealed, for the parameters characteristic for liver of starved rats in vivo , that the sensitivity of oxidative phosphorylation to a fluctuating ATP utilization is minimal at a degree of coupling q = 0.95. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in and around the membranes of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. (reference.com)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation is the main method whereby eukaryotic cells produce ATP aerobically. (reference.com)
  • a similar effect was produced by other uncouplers or inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this review, we also discuss potential barriers that can reduce the efficacy of the inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. (mdpi.com)
  • The molecular basis for tissue specificity of the oxidative phosphorylation deficiencies in patients with mutations in the mitochondrial translation factor EFG1. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mitochondrial substrate level phosphorylation is essential for growth of procyclic Trypanosoma brucei. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The ATP synthase uses the energy to transform adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine triphosphate, in a phosphorylation reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase: a ubiquitous regulator of oxidative phosphorylation? (nih.gov)
  • The possibility that mitochondrially located nitric oxide synthase is a ubiquitous regulator of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian cells is discussed. (nih.gov)
  • Important new mechanistic insights into oxidative phosphorylation have emerged from recent three-dimensional structural analyses of ATP synthase and two of the respiratory enzyme complexes, cytochrome bc 1 and cytochrome c oxidase. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because NADH enters the oxidative phosphorylation at Complex I, three steps of proton translocation result from electron transport, leading to three equivalents of ATP made by ATP synthase. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Next, we will study the mechanisms that control oxidative phosphorylation at the level of the ATP synthase in cancer. (hstalks.com)
  • Another protein also placed in the inner mitochondrial membrane, that is called the ATP synthase, is going to utilize the proton gradient to generate the ATP that is used by the cell, by the phosphorylation of the ADP and inorganic phosphate that is made available to the matrix of the organelle by specific transporters. (hstalks.com)
  • This enzyme uses this energy to generate ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP), in a phosphorylation reaction. (bionity.com)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation was induced in ultrastructurally intact Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by rapidly generating intracellular adenosine diphosphate from endogenous adenosine triphosphate by the addition of 2-deoxyglucose. (rupress.org)
  • Microsamples of cells rapidly fixed for electron microscopy revealed that, in addition to oxidative phosphorylation, an orthodox → condensed ultrastructural transformation occurred in the mitochondria of all cells in less than 6 sec after the generation of adenosine diphosphate by 2-deoxyglucose. (rupress.org)
  • These results suggest that passive membrane permeability to protons is not involved in the effect of temperature on the control of oxidative phosphorylation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Cav1 was located mainly in the plasma membrane of untreated cells and translocated to the cytoplasm with oxidative stress in both cell lines, more so in MDCKs. (ovid.com)
  • Next, we will discuss electron flow through the electron transport chain and ATP synthesis through oxidative phosphorylation . (sparknotes.com)
  • These results establish copper as a tumor promoter and reveal that varying levels of copper serves to regulate oxidative phosphorylation in rapidly proliferating cancer cells inside solid tumors. (pnas.org)
  • These observations suggest that strategies to interfere with oxidative phosphorylation should be considered for the treatment of ovarian tumors. (mdpi.com)
  • Defective mitochondrial ATP synthesis has been reported in thyroid oncocytomas, suggesting that an impaired oxidative phosphorylation might induce mitochondrial hyperplasia and proliferation in these tumors as a compensatory mechanism ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results support the concept that oxidative phosphorylation and related upstream pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • the Krebs cycle and in oxidative phosphorylation . (britannica.com)
  • The release of CO2 happens during the Krebs Cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is the term used to define the energy released from the cascading reactions that drives the highly efficient producation of APTs at the ETC. The only molecules associated with oxidative phosphorylation are the high energy molecules and oxygen to form water at the end. (studentdoctor.net)
  • An 18-month-old girl with an oxidative phosphorylation defect had neonatal onset of chronic lactic acidosis, lipid storage myopathy, bilateral cataracts, and primary adrenal insufficiency. (nih.gov)
  • In many experimental studies with incubated mitochondria it appeared that atstate 4, i.e., in the presence of oxygen and oxidizable substrates but in the absence of added ADP, oxidative phosphorylation behaved almost like a system at thermodynamic equilibrium. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, it was tacitly assumed that this thermodynamic treatment of oxidative phosphorylation can be extended to mitochondria incubated in the presence of ADP, i.e., under state 3 conditions. (springer.com)
  • This treatment is based on the eigenvalue sensitivity analysis of an experimentally supported non-equilibrium thermodynamic model of oxidative phosphorylation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)