Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Electron Transport Complex I
Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases
Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases
Electron Transport Complex IV
Protein Kinase C
Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
Reactive Oxygen Species
Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1
Citric Acid Cycle
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins
ATP Synthetase Complexes
Casein Kinase II
Gene Expression Regulation
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Electron Transport Complex III
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
MAP Kinase Signaling System
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
RNA, Small Interfering
Cell Cycle Proteins
Electron Transport Complex II
Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
Myosin Light Chains
CDC2 Protein Kinase
Amino Acid Substitution
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Protein Phosphatase 2
Cyanide poisoning: pathophysiology and treatment recommendations. (1/2221)This paper aims to assess and compare currently available antidotes for cyanide poisoning. Such evaluation, however, is difficult. Thus, extrapolation from the results of animal studies has potential pitfalls, as significant inter-species differences in response may exist, and these experiments often involve administration of toxin and antidote almost simultaneously, rather than incorporating a more realistic time delay before initiation of treatment. Direct inference from human case reports is also problematic; either because of uncertainties over the exposure levels involved (and hence the likely outcome without treatment), or because of difficulties in identifying the specific contribution of a particular antidote within the overall treatment regimen. Certainly an effort to compare the relative efficacy of cyanide antidotes produces equivocal findings, with no single regimen clearly standing out. Indeed, factors such as the risks of antidote toxicity to various individuals and other practical issues, may be more important considerations. There is therefore no single treatment regimen which is best for all situations. Besides individual risk factors for antidote toxicity, the nature of the exposure and hence its likely severity, the evolving clinical features and the number of persons involved and their proximity to hospital facilities, all need to be considered. Clinically mild poisoning may be treated by rest, oxygen and amyl nitrite. Intravenous antidotes are indicated for moderate poisoning. Where the diagnosis is uncertain, sodium thiosulphate may be the first choice. With severe poisoning, an additional agent is required. Given the various risks with methaemoglobin formers or with unselective use of kelocyanor, hydroxocobalamin may be preferred from a purely risk-benefit perspective. However the former alternatives will likely remain important. (+info)
Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (2/2221)Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations. (+info)
Bcl-xL prevents cell death following growth factor withdrawal by facilitating mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchange. (3/2221)Growth factor withdrawal is associated with a metabolic arrest that can result in apoptosis. Cell death is preceded by loss of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity and cytochrome c release. These mitochondrial events appear to follow a relative increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. This change in membrane potential results from the failure of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT)/voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) complex to maintain ATP/ADP exchange. Bcl-xL expression allows growth factor-deprived cells to maintain sufficient mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchange to sustain coupled respiration. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial adenylate transport is under active regulation. Efficient exchange of ADP for ATP is promoted by Bcl-xL expression permitting oxidative phosphorylation to be regulated by cellular ATP/ADP levels and allowing mitochondria to adapt to changes in metabolic demand. (+info)
Nitric-oxide-induced apoptosis in human leukemic lines requires mitochondrial lipid degradation and cytochrome C release. (4/2221)We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) stimulates apoptosis in different human neoplastic lymphoid cell lines through activation of caspases not only via CD95/CD95L interaction, but also independently of such death receptors. Here we investigated mitochondria-dependent mechanisms of NO-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemic cells. NO donor glycerol trinitrate (at the concentration, which induces apoptotic cell death) caused (1) a significant decrease in the concentration of cardiolipin, a major mitochondrial lipid; (2) a downregulation in respiratory chain complex activities; (3) a release of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c into the cytosol; and (4) an activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the number of cells with low mitochondrial transmembrane potential and with a high level of reactive oxygen species production. Higher resistance of the CD95-resistant Jurkat subclone (APO-R) cells to NO-mediated apoptosis correlated with the absence of cytochrome c release and with less alterations in other mitochondrial parameters. An inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, trolox, significantly suppressed NO-mediated apoptosis in APO-S Jurkat cells, whereas bongkrekic acid (BA), which blocks mitochondrial permeability transition, provided only a moderate antiapoptotic effect. Transfection of Jurkat cells with bcl-2 led to a complete block of apoptosis due to the prevention of changes in mitochondrial functions. We suggest that the mitochondrial damage (in particular, cardiolipin degradation and cytochrome c release) induced by NO in human leukemia cells plays a crucial role in the subsequent activation of caspase and apoptosis. (+info)
Changes in mitochondrial phosphorylative activity and adenylate energy charge of regenerating rabbit liver. (5/2221)The changes in the cellular concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP and in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria were investigated in the remaining liver of partially hepatectomized rabbits. The energy charge (defined as half of the average number of anhydride-bonded phosphate groups per adenosine moiety) of the liver remnant decreased from 0.866 to 0.767 (p less than 0.01) within 24 hr after hepatectomy, and then increased to a substantially higher level than normal within 7 days. On the other hand, the mitochondrial phosphyorylative activity increased rapidly to 170 per cent of the control within 12 hr and then retruned to normal within 7 days. The mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was inversely correlated with energy charge of the liver remnant (r = -0.75, p less less than 0.01). The maximal enhancement of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was found in mitochondria obtained from the liver remnant with the lowest level of energy charge, suggesting a response of mitochondria in vivo involving enhanced biosynthetic ATP-utilizing reactions at an early stage of the regenerating process. The enhancement of phosphorylative activity was accompanied by a rise in the respiratory control ratio, P/O ratio and state 3 respiration. The adenylate kinase [EC 18.104.22.168] activity in the liver remnant increased to more than 160% of the control within 2 days after partial hepatectomy, while the pyruvate kinase [EC 22.214.171.124] activity decreased remarkably. However, the changes in the two enzyme activities did not correlate with those of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity or the energy charge of the liver remnant. (+info)
Efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and energy dissipation by H+ ion recycling in rat-liver mitochondrial metabolizing pyruvate. (6/2221)A method was developed for the calculation of metabolic fluxes through individual enzymatic reactions of pyruvate metabolism including the citric acid cycle in rat liver mitochondrial incubated at metabolic states between state 4 and state 3. This method is based on the measurement of the specific radioactivities of the products formed from [2-14C]pyruvate. With this procedure the energy balance of mitochondria incubated in the presence of [2-14C]pyruvate, ATP, bicarbonate and phosphate at different ATP/ADP ratios in the medium was calculated. The ATP/ADP ratios were maintained at a steady state with creatine kinase plus creatine as a phosphoryl acceptor. The calculations revealed that by adding increasing concentrations of creatine up to 20 mM the energy dissipated by the mitochondria decreased but showed a local maximum at 13mM creatine. Omission of bicarbonate from the medium led to a shift of this maximum. When energy dissipation was minimal the overall P/O ratio was maximal. The amount of energy dissipated was paralleled by the magnitude of the pH gradient across the inner membrane. From these results it was concluded that the recycling of H+ ions which consists of a passive leakage of H+ ions into the matrix and an active extrusion of these ions out of this compartment, is an important energy dissipating process. The H+ ion recycling is thus one of the processes which give rise to the state 4 respiration in mitochondria. (+info)
Influence of bioenergetic stress on heat shock protein gene expression in nucleated red blood cells of fish. (7/2221)The physiological and biochemical signals that induce stress protein (HSP) synthesis remain conjectural. In this study, we used the nucleated red blood cells from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to address the interaction between energy status and HSP gene expression. Heat shock (25 degrees C) did not significantly affect ATP levels but resulted in an increase in HSP70 mRNA. Hypoxia alone did not induce HSP transcription in these cells despite a significant depression in ATP. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation with azide, in the absence of thermal stress, decreased ATP by 56% and increased lactate production by 62% but did not induce HSP gene transcription. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis with azide and iodoacetic acid respectively, decreased ATP by 79% and prevented lactate production, but did not induce either HSP70 or HSP30 gene transcription in these cells. This study demonstrates that a reduction in the cellular energy status will not induce stress protein gene transcription in rainbow trout red blood cells and may, in fact, limit induction during extreme metabolic inhibition. (+info)
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation can enhance a Fas death signal. (8/2221)Recent work suggests a participation of mitochondria in apoptotic cell death. This role includes the release of apoptogenic molecules into the cytosol preceding or after a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential DeltaPsim. The two uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP) reduce DeltaPsim by direct attack of the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Here we show that both compounds enhance the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Fas/APO-1/CD95 signaling in Jurkat and CEM cells without causing apoptotic changes on their own account. This amplification occurred upstream or at the level of caspases and was not inhibited by Bcl-2. The effect could be blocked by the cowpox protein CrmA and is thus likely to require caspase 8 activity. Apoptosis induction by staurosporine in Jurkat cells as well as by Fas in SKW6 cells was unaffected by CCCP and DNP. The role of cytochrome c during Fas-DNP signaling was investigated. No early cytochrome c release from mitochondria was detected by Western blotting. Functional assays with cytoplasmic preparations from Fas-DNP-treated cells also indicated that there was no major contribution by cytochrome c or caspase 9 to the activation of effector caspases. Furthermore, an increase of rhodamine-123 uptake into intact cells, which has been explained by mitochondrial swelling, occurred considerably later than the caspase activation and was blocked by Z-VAD-fmk. These data show that uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation can presensitize some but not all cells for a Fas death signal and provide information about the existence of separate pathways in the induction of apoptosis. (+info)
Mitochondrial diseases can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender, and they can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or the nuclear DNA (nDNA). These mutations can be inherited from one's parents or acquired during embryonic development.
Some of the most common symptoms of mitochondrial diseases include:
1. Muscle weakness and wasting
3. Cognitive impairment
4. Vision loss
5. Hearing loss
6. Heart problems
7. Neurological disorders
8. Gastrointestinal issues
9. Liver and kidney dysfunction
Some examples of mitochondrial diseases include:
1. MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes)
2. Kearns-Sayre syndrome (a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs)
3. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), which is characterized by weakness of the extraocular muscles and vision loss
4. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
5. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
6. Leigh syndrome, which is a rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord.
7. LHON (Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy), which is a rare form of vision loss that can lead to blindness in one or both eyes.
8. Mitochondrial DNA mutation, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
9. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
10. Kearns-Sayre syndrome, which is a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs.
It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there are many more mitochondrial diseases and disorders that can affect individuals. Additionally, while these diseases are rare, they can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected and their families.
There are several types of mitochondrial myopathies, each with different clinical features and inheritance patterns. Some of the most common forms include:
1. Kearns-Sayre syndrome: This is a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system, muscles, and other organs. It is characterized by weakness and paralysis, seizures, and vision loss.
2. MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes): This condition is characterized by recurring stroke-like episodes, seizures, muscle weakness, and cognitive decline.
3. MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers): This disorder is characterized by myoclonus (muscle jerks), seizures, and progressive muscle weakness.
4. LHON (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy): This condition affects the optic nerve and can lead to sudden vision loss.
The symptoms of mitochondrial myopathies can vary widely, depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the mutation. They may include muscle weakness, muscle cramps, muscle wasting, seizures, vision loss, and cognitive decline.
There is no cure for mitochondrial myopathies, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include physical therapy, medications to control seizures or muscle spasms, and nutritional supplements to support energy production. In some cases, a lung or heart-lung transplant may be necessary.
The diagnosis of a mitochondrial myopathy is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to measure the levels of certain enzymes and other molecules in the body, as well as muscle biopsy to examine the muscle tissue under a microscope. Genetic testing can help identify the specific mutation responsible for the condition.
The prognosis for mitochondrial myopathies varies depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the symptoms. Some forms of the disease are slowly progressive, while others may be more rapidly debilitating. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome.
There is currently no cure for mitochondrial myopathies, but research is ongoing to develop new treatments and therapies. In addition, there are several organizations and support groups that provide information and resources for individuals with these conditions and their families.
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies can be classified into several types based on the specific symptoms and the location of the mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Some of the most common forms of these disorders include:
1. MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes): This is a rare condition that affects the brain, muscles, and other organs. It is characterized by recurrent stroke-like episodes, seizures, and muscle weakness.
2. Kearns-Sayre syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the nervous system and the muscles. It is characterized by progressive weakness and paralysis of the muscles, as well as vision loss and cognitive impairment.
3. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO): This is a rare disorder that affects the muscles of the eyes and the extraocular system. It is characterized by progressive weakness of the eye muscles, which can lead to droopy eyelids, double vision, and other vision problems.
4. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome: This is a group of disorders that are caused by a decrease in the amount of mitochondrial DNA. These disorders can affect various parts of the body, including the brain, muscles, and other organs. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, seizures, and vision loss.
5. Myoclonic dystonia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the muscles and the nervous system. It is characterized by muscle stiffness, spasms, and myoclonus (involuntary jerky movements).
6. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL): These are a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the brain and the nervous system. They can cause progressive loss of cognitive and motor functions, as well as vision loss and seizures.
7. Spinocerebellar ataxia: This is a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the cerebellum and the spinal cord. They can cause progressive weakness, coordination problems, and other movement disorders.
8. Friedreich's ataxia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the nervous system and the muscles. It is characterized by progressive loss of coordination and balance, as well as muscle weakness and wasting.
9. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: This is a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the peripheral nerves. They can cause muscle weakness, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, and other problems with movement and sensation.
10. Progressive supranuclear palsy: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and the nervous system. It is characterized by progressive loss of movement control, as well as dementia and behavioral changes.
It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive and there may be other rare movement disorders that are not included here. If you suspect that you or a loved one may have a rare movement disorder, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The symptoms of Leigh disease usually become apparent during infancy or early childhood and may include:
* Delayed development
* Loss of motor skills
* Muscle weakness
* Vision loss
* Hearing loss
* Poor feeding and growth
Leigh disease is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluations, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. There is no cure for Leigh disease, but treatment may include supportive care, such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy, as well as medications to manage seizures and other symptoms. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
The progression of Leigh disease can vary widely, and the age of onset and rate of progression can vary depending on the specific type of mutation causing the disorder. Some forms of Leigh disease are more severe and progress rapidly, while others may be milder and progress more slowly. In general, however, the disease tends to progress over time, with worsening symptoms and declining function.
Leigh disease is a rare disorder, and there is no specific data on its prevalence. However, it is estimated that mitochondrial disorders, of which Leigh disease is one type, affect approximately 1 in 4,000 people in the United States.
There are different types of anoxia, including:
1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.
Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.
Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.
In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.
Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.
In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.
It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.
See also: Cancer, Tumor
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The symptoms of optic atrophy, autosomal dominant typically begin in adulthood and may include:
* Gradual loss of vision in one or both eyes
* Blurred vision
* Difficulty with peripheral vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Eye pain
* Abnormal eye movements
The condition is caused by mutations in several genes that are responsible for the structure and function of the optic nerve. The exact cause of the condition can be determined through genetic testing.
There is no cure for optic atrophy, autosomal dominant, but treatment may include:
* Glasses or contact lenses to correct refractive errors
* Prism glasses to improve vision
* Low vision aids such as telescopes or magnifying glasses
* Counseling and support to help cope with the visual loss.
The progression of the condition can vary widely, and some people may experience a rapid decline in vision while others may remain stable for many years. Regular monitoring by an eye care professional is important to monitor for any changes in vision and to adjust treatment as needed.
Examples of inborn errors of metabolism include:
1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, leading to a buildup of this substance in the blood and brain.
2. Hypothyroidism: A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to developmental delays, intellectual disability, and other health problems.
3. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down certain amino acids, leading to a buildup of these substances in the blood and urine.
4. Glycogen storage diseases: A group of disorders that affect the body's ability to store and use glycogen, a form of carbohydrate energy.
5. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): A group of disorders that affect the body's ability to produce and break down certain sugars, leading to a buildup of these substances in the body.
6. Citrullinemia: A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down the amino acid citrulline, leading to a buildup of this substance in the blood and urine.
7. Homocystinuria: A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down certain amino acids, leading to a buildup of these substances in the blood and urine.
8. Tyrosinemia: A disorder that affects the body's ability to break down the amino acid tyrosine, leading to a buildup of this substance in the blood and liver.
Inborn errors of metabolism can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood and urine tests. Treatment for these disorders varies depending on the specific condition and may include dietary changes, medication, and other therapies. Early detection and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications.
COX deficiency can present in various forms, including:
1. Leigh syndrome: A severe form of COX deficiency that typically becomes apparent during infancy or early childhood and is characterized by progressive loss of motor function, intellectual disability, seizures, and death in the first few years of life.
2. Late-onset COX deficiency: A milder form of the condition that may not become apparent until adulthood and can present with a range of symptoms such as muscle weakness, ataxia, and neuropathy.
3. COX deficiency with cognitive impairment: A rare form of the condition that is characterized by cognitive impairment, seizures, and other neurological symptoms.
Symptoms of COX deficiency can vary in severity and may include:
1. Muscle weakness
2. Muscle wasting
3. Ataxia (loss of coordination)
4. Neuropathy (nerve damage)
6. Intellectual disability
7. Developmental delays
8. Vision and hearing loss
9. Optic atrophy (degeneration of the optic nerve)
10. Retinal degeneration
The diagnosis of COX deficiency is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for the condition typically involves managing symptoms and addressing any underlying complications. This may include:
1. Medications to control seizures and other neurological symptoms
2. Physical therapy to improve muscle strength and coordination
3. Occupational therapy to assist with daily activities
4. Speech therapy to address communication and swallowing difficulties
5. Vision and hearing aids as needed
6. Dietary supplements to manage any nutritional deficiencies
7. Other supportive measures as needed, such as respiratory support or feeding tubes.
It is important for individuals with COX deficiency to receive early and ongoing medical care from a team of healthcare professionals, including specialists in neurology, ophthalmology, and genetics. With appropriate management, many individuals with COX deficiency can lead active and fulfilling lives despite the challenges posed by the condition.
The term "lipodystrophy" refers to a group of conditions in which there is a loss or abnormal distribution of fat cells. Congenital generalized lipodystrophy is the most severe form of lipodystrophy and is usually diagnosed at birth or soon after.
The symptoms of CGL can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Poor muscle tone (hypotonia)
2. Delayed development of motor skills
3. Fatigue and weakness
4. Poor appetite and growth delay
5. Abnormal fat distribution in the body
6. Metabolic problems, such as high blood sugar and insulin resistance
7. Increased risk of infections and other complications.
CGL is caused by mutations in genes that are important for adipose tissue development and function. There is currently no cure for CGL, but treatment may involve a combination of medication, nutritional support, and lifestyle modifications to manage the associated symptoms and complications.
The prognosis for individuals with CGL can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any additional health problems. However, with appropriate medical care and support, many individuals with CGL are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:
1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.
There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:
1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.
There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:
1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.
Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:
1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.
It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
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Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency7
- Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 is a severe condition that primarily impairs neurological and liver function. (medlineplus.gov)
- Liver disease is common in people with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1, with individuals quickly developing liver failure. (medlineplus.gov)
- Individuals with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 usually do not survive past early childhood, although some people live longer. (medlineplus.gov)
- Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 is likely a rare disorder, although its prevalence is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
- Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 is caused by mutations in the GFM1 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
- The condition is called combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1 because it impairs the function of more than one of these complexes. (medlineplus.gov)
- A shortage of energy in these tissues leads to cell death, causing the neurological and liver problems in people with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 1. (medlineplus.gov)
- Knock-down of circPUM1 would result in lower intracellular oxygen concentration, downregulated oxidative phosphorylation, decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, increase of ROS generation and shrinking of mitochondria, respectively. (nih.gov)
- The reducing equivalents mainly generated in the mitochondria by the final common oxidative pathway, the citric acid cycle. (biochemden.com)
- Oxidative phosphorylation is a metabolic pathway in which the energy produced by the oxidation of nutrients is stored in the mitochondria in the form of ATP. (assignmentexpert.com)
- As a result, fewer mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation are produced. (medlineplus.gov)
- The molecular basis for tissue specificity of the oxidative phosphorylation deficiencies in patients with mutations in the mitochondrial translation factor EFG1. (medlineplus.gov)
- Therefore, we conclude that circPUM1 plays a critical role in maintaining the stability of mitochondrial complex III to enhance oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production of ESCC cells and moreover propose that ESCC cells exploit circPUM1 during cell adaptation. (nih.gov)
- It backs oxidative phosphorylation by compelling with ATP & ADP for a site on the ADP-ATP antiport of the mitochondrial membranes. (biochemden.com)
- In turn, muscle accumulation of acetyl‐CoA leads to acetylation‐dependent inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complex II enhancing oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction which results in augmented ROS production. (bioinfor.com)
- Genes on mtDNA provide instructions for proteins that are primarily involved in the process of converting the energy from food into a form cells can use ( oxidative phosphorylation ). (medlineplus.gov)
- The process of oxidative phosphorylation involves five groups of proteins, or complexes. (medlineplus.gov)
- The mtDNA deletions involved in Pearson syndrome result in the loss of genes that provide instructions for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. (medlineplus.gov)
- The most overrepresented pathways included ribosomal protein, translation, oxidative phosphorylation and cytochrome-C oxidase activity. (usda.gov)
- Magnesium is required for energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis. (nih.gov)
- What is the significance of oxidative phosphorylation?Illustrate your answer with an example for each. (assignmentexpert.com)
- Oxidative phosphorylation is associated with the transfer of electrons from donor compounds to acceptor compounds during redox reactions. (assignmentexpert.com)
- These deletions impair oxidative phosphorylation and decrease the energy available to cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Remarkably, most of oxylipins linked to inflammation and oxidative stress derived from arachidonic acid (AA), like prostaglandins and mono-hydroxides, were increased in ALS 120d rats. (bvsalud.org)
- The oxidative phosphorylation is a crucial metabolic process that results in the formation of ATP. (assignmentexpert.com)
- Consequently, melatonin has beneficial effects including stimulation of antioxidant enzymes, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and so it contributes to protection from oxidative damages. (intechopen.com)
- Treatment of cells with UV radiation or H2O2 also markedly activated Erks, JNKs, p38 kinase and led to increases in phosphorylation of Akt and p70(S6k) in mouse epidermal JB6 cells. (cdc.gov)
- The oxidative phosphorylation also results in the release of heat in adipocytes involved in the thermoregulatory processes. (assignmentexpert.com)
- The following compounds inhibit both electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. (biochemden.com)
- They inhibit the transfer of high-energy phosphate to ADP and also inhibit electron transfers coupled to phosphorylation. (biochemden.com)
- There are several well-known biologically active substances and toxins that inhibit oxidative phosphorylation and lead to death. (assignmentexpert.com)
- The process results in the accumulation of the potential energy composed of a proton gradient and an electric potential that are used by ATP synthase to synthesize ATP from ADP during the phosphorylation reaction. (assignmentexpert.com)
- These include modes that are predominately genotoxic (i.e., chromosomal abnormalities, oxidative stress, and gene amplification) vs. more nongenotoxic (i.e., altered growth factors, enhanced cell proliferation and promotion of carcinogenesis, and altered DNA repair). (cdc.gov)
- This process is called oxidative phosphorylation . (medlineplus.gov)
- Blood agents include cyanide, which works by blocking oxidative phosphorylation in the body. (scienceblog.com)
- MCQ on ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION class 11 Biology with answers were prepared based on the latest pattern.We have provided class 11 Biology MCQs question with Answers to help students understand the concept very well. (biologysir.com)