NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase: An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.4.3.13.Aldehyde Oxidase: An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.D-Amino-Acid OxidaseMonoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Ascorbate Oxidase: An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC 1.10.3.3.Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.Urate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.Pyruvate OxidaseCatechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase: A membrane-bound flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent aromatization of protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen) to protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX). It is the last enzyme of the common branch of the HEME and CHLOROPHYLL pathways in plants, and is the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides. VARIEGATE PORPHYRIA is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Sarcosine Oxidase: A FLAVOPROTEIN, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of SARCOSINE to GLYCINE; FORMALDEHYDE; and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (H2O2).Sulfite Oxidase: A MOLYBDENUM requiring enzyme that catalyzes the terminal reaction in the oxidative degradation of SULFUR AMINO ACIDS with the formation of a sulfate. A deficiency of sulfite oxidase results in sulfocysteinuria.Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.D-Aspartate Oxidase: An FAD-dependent peroxisomal flavoenzyme, this catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-ASPARTATE to OXALOACETATE and AMMONIA using oxygen as electron acceptor.Benzylamine Oxidase: An aspect of monoamine oxidase, EC 1.4.3.4. Catalyzes the oxidation of benzylamine to form benzaldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.Pyridoxaminephosphate Oxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the deamination of pyridoxaminephosphate to pyridoxal phosphate. It is a flavoprotein that also oxidizes pyridoxine-5-phosphate and pyridoxine. EC 1.4.3.5.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Cytochrome-c Oxidase Deficiency: A disease that results from a congenital defect in ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV. Defects in ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.AcetophenonesCopper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Onium Compounds: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+Cytochrome a Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) in which the heme prosthetic group is heme a, i.e., the iron chelate of cytoporphyrin IX. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)L-Gulonolactone Oxidase: An enzyme involved in the metabolism of ASCORBIC ACID and aldarate. It catalyzes the oxidation of L-gulono-1,4-lactone to L-xylo-hex-3-ulonolactone.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tetramethylphenylenediamine: Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Proline Oxidase: The first enzyme of the proline degradative pathway. It catalyzes the oxidation of proline to pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid in the presence of oxygen and water. The action is not reversible. The specific activity of proline oxidase increases with age. EC 1.5.3.-.Paracoccus denitrificans: A species of bacteria isolated from soil.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Clorgyline: An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors: Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)FlavoproteinsNeutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Proton Pumps: Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.Aminopropionitrile: Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Oxypurinol: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.SemicarbazidesPotassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Dithionite: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.PhosphoproteinsSelegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cytochrome d Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron as a prosthetic group in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)CeruloplasminNAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Phenelzine: One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cytochromes a: A subclass of heme a containing cytochromes that have two imidazole nitrogens as axial ligands and an alpha-band absorption of 605 nm. They are found in a variety of microorganisms and in eucaryotes as a low-spin cytochrome component of MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Rhodotorula: A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Imidazolines: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLES containing a single double bond.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.BenzaldehydesPteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.PeroxidasesSpectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.2,6-Dichloroindophenol: A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.IndophenolHypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Thermus thermophilus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Mice, Inbred C57BLNialamide: An MAO inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Apoenzymes: The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.Coproporphyrinogens: Porphyrinogens which are intermediates in the heme biosynthesis. They have four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Coproporphyrinogens I and III are formed in the presence of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from the corresponding uroporphyrinogen. They can yield coproporphyrins by autooxidation or protoporphyrin by oxidative decarboxylation.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
"Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency". Genetics Home Reference.. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the ... also known as the cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency is a rare genetic condition that can affect ... "Focal cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in the brain and dorsal root ganglia in a case with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (tRNA ...
... s, which belong to the oxidoreductase family, are found in archaea, bacteria, fungi, and plants.[5] They are grouped as either assimilatory or dissimilatory sulfite reductases depending on their function, their spectroscopic properties, and their catalytic properties. This enzyme participates in selenoamino acid metabolism and sulfur assimilation. It employs two covalently coupled cofactors - an iron sulfur cluster and a siroheme - which deliver electrons to the substrate via this coupling.[6]. The systematic name of this enzyme class is hydrogen-sulfide:acceptor oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include assimilatory sulfite reductase, assimilatory-type sulfite reductase, and hydrogen-sulfide:(acceptor) oxidoreductase.. ...
Aldehyde oxidase. 1.2.4: disulfide. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase. *Branched-chain alpha-keto ...
Proline oxidase. *Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. *1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase/ALDH4A1 ...
... and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV).[1] Complex I is the largest and most complicated enzyme of the electron transport chain. ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are glutathione and protein disulfide, whereas its two products are glutathione disulfide and protein dithiol. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on a sulfur group of donors with a disulfide as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is glutathione:protein-disulfide oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include glutathione-insulin transhydrogenase, insulin reductase, reductase, protein disulfide (glutathione), protein disulfide transhydrogenase, glutathione-protein disulfide oxidoreductase, protein disulfide reductase (glutathione), GSH-insulin transhydrogenase, protein-disulfide interchange enzyme, protein-disulfide isomerase/oxidoreductase, thiol:protein-disulfide oxidoreductase, and thiol-protein disulphide oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in glutathione metabolism. ...
... and the reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme xanthine oxidase:[39] ...
Proline oxidase. *Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase. *1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase/ALDH4A1 ...
Allopurinol inhibits xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that breaks down mercaptopurine. Those taking allopurinol (often used to ...
The ribosome has three binding sites for tRNA molecules that span the space between the two ribosomal subunits: the A (aminoacyl),[19] P (peptidyl), and E (exit) sites. In addition, the ribosome has two other sites for tRNA binding that are used during mRNA decoding or during the initiation of protein synthesis. These are the T site (named elongation factor Tu) and I site (initiation).[20][21] By convention, the tRNA binding sites are denoted with the site on the small ribosomal subunit listed first and the site on the large ribosomal subunit listed second. For example, the A site is often written A/A, the P site, P/P, and the E site, E/E.[20] The binding proteins like L27, L2, L14, L15, L16 at the A- and P- sites have been determined by affinity labeling by A.P. Czernilofsky et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA, pp. 230-34, 1974). Once translation initiation is complete, the first aminoacyl tRNA is located in the P/P site, ready for the elongation cycle described below. During translation ...
Cytochrome c oxidase, also known as complex IV, is the final protein complex in the electron transport chain.[39] The mammalian ... Another example of a divergent electron transport chain is the alternative oxidase, which is found in plants, as well as some ... Vanlerberghe GC, McIntosh L (1997). "ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE: From Gene to Function". Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 48 ... Alternative reductases and oxidasesEdit. Many eukaryotic organisms have electron transport chains that differ from the much- ...
A single 300 mg dose of moclobemide inhibits 80% of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and 30% of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), ... Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix,[7] Clobemix , Depnil and Manerix[8]) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A ( ... reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA),[9] a type of monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), and increases levels of ... Cesura AM, Pletscher A (1992). The new generation of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Prog Drug Res. 38. pp. 171-297. doi:10.1007/ ...
... an isozyme of monoamine oxidase (MAO) which is mainly concentrated in neurological disorders and diseases.[14] Later, it was ... "Inhibition of the bioactivation of the neurotoxin MPTP by antioxidants, redox agents and monoamine oxidase inhibitors". Food ...
It transfers electrons between Complexes III (Coenzyme Q - Cyt C reductase) and IV (Cyt C oxidase). In humans, cytochrome c is ... Garber EA, Margoliash E (Feb 1990). "Interaction of cytochrome c with cytochrome c oxidase: an understanding of the high- to ... Sadacharan SK, Singh B, Bowes T, Gupta RS (Nov 2005). "Localization of mitochondrial DNA encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits ... Michel B, Bosshard HR (Aug 1984). "Spectroscopic analysis of the interaction between cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase". ...
For this reason, this class of drugs became known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or MAOIs. During this time development of ... They should never be taken within 24-hours of any other antidepressant, especially with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), ... and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), as the drugs of choice for the treatment of MDD due to their improved tolerability ... in contrast to monoamine oxidase inhibition.[45] Pharmaceutical tests have determined that use of both SNRIs or SSRIs can ...
Main article: Cytochrome c oxidase. Complex IV (EC 1.9.3.1) (also referred to as cytochrome c oxidase), is a proton pump driven ... For example, the translocation of protons by cytochrome c oxidase is powered by reducing equivalents provided by reduced ...
... , also known as NLX-101, is a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist.[1][2] It displays functional selectivity (also known as "biased agonism") by strongly activating 5-HT1A receptors in the postsynaptic prefrontal cortex while having little effect on somatodendritic autoreceptors in the raphe nucleus.[1][2] As a result, it has been touted as a preferential postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonist and has been investigated as a novel potential antidepressant.[1][2][3] In cognitive tests in rodent, F-15,599 attenuates memory deficits elicited by the NMDA receptor antagonist PCP, suggesting that it may improve cognitive function in disorders such as schizophrenia.[4] A subsequent study showed that F-15,599 reduces breathing irregularity and apneas observed in mice with mutations of the MeCP2 gene.[5] Dysruption of MeCP2 gene expression underlies Rett syndrome, a debilitating neurodevelopmental orphan disease. F-15,599 was discovered and initially developed by Pierre Fabre ...
... was discovered by scientists at Angelini, who also discovered trazodone.[15] Its development names have included ST-1191 and McN-A-2673-11.[16][1] The INN etoperidone was proposed in 1976 and recommended in 1977.[17][18] The drug was given brand names in Spain (Centren (Esteve) and Depraser (Lepori)) and Italy (Staff (Sigma Tau))[1] and was also given the brand names Axiomin and Etonin,[16] but it is not entirely clear if it was actually marketed; the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Encyclopedia provides no dates for commercial introduction.[19] According to Micromedex's Index Nominum: International Drug Directory, etoperidone was indeed previously marketed in Spain and Italy.[1] ...
A. Glucose oxidase G. l. u. c. o. s. e. +. O. 2. →. O. x. i. d. a. t. i. o. n. g. l. u. c. o. s. e. o. x. i. d. a. s. e. D- ... The two most common employed enzymes are glucose oxidase and hexokinase.[28] Average blood glucose concentrations can also be ... More specific than glucose oxidase method due to G-6PO4, which inhibits interfering substances except when sample is hemolyzed ... displaystyle \mathrm {Glucose} +\mathrm {O} _{2}{\xrightarrow[{\mathrm {Oxidation} }]{\mathrm {glucose\ oxidase} }}{\textrm {D- ...
1.4 Monoamine oxidase. *1.5 Dihydrofolate reductase. *1.13 Lipoxygenase. *1.14 Aromatase. *COX-2 ...
This protein, a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, ...
Treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) 14 days or less prior to treatment with tianeptine. Due to the potential ...
Dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase. *Sarcosine oxidase. *Proline oxidase. 1.5.5: quinone acceptor. *Electron-transferring- ...
use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Drug Interactions[edit]. *Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. *Propranolol[2] ...
... is a high affinity and selective 5-HT6 receptor full agonist.[1][2] It induces robust increases in extracellular GABA levels in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala of rats without affecting concentrations in the nucleus accumbens or thalamus, and has modest to no effects on norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, or glutamate levels in these areas.[1][3] WAY-181187 has demonstrated preclinical efficacy in rodent models of depression, anxiety, and notably obsessive-compulsive disorder,[1][4] though it has also been shown to impair cognition and memory.[3][5] ...
... (DOV-220,075) is a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI) discovered at American Cyanamid as an analgesic drug candidate, and licensed to DOV Pharmaceutical in 1998 after American Cyanamid was acquired by Wyeth.[1][2][3] In January 2007, Dov licensed the rights to bicifadine to XTL Biopharmaceuticals after bicifadine failed in a Phase III clinical trial for chronic lower back pain.[4][5][6] XTL ran a PhaseIIb clinical trial for pain caused by diabetic neuropathy, which failed in 2008;[7] XTL terminated the agreement in 2010.[8] In 2010 Dov was acquired by Euthymics Bioscience which intended to continue development of other candidates from Dov's portfolio.[9] Bicifadine has a non-opioid, non-NSAID mechanism for the treatment of pain, which should have less abuse potential than opioid drugs and less propensity to cause gastric ulcers than NSAID drugs.[10] While the drug is purported to be a serotonin (SERT) and noradrenaline transporter (NET) inhibitor, it also has ...
Other names in common use include pyruvic oxidase, and phosphate-dependent pyruvate oxidase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, a pyruvate oxidase (EC 1.2.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction pyruvate + phosphate + O2 ⇌ {\ ... Williams FR, Hager LP (1966). "Crystalline flavin pyruvate oxidase from Escherichia coli. I Isolation and properties of the ... and FAD-dependent pyruvate oxidase from Lactobacillus plantarum Kinetic coupling of intercofactor electron transfer with ...
The present invention relates to a novel lysyl oxidase genes, termed EER-7. The invention relates to the protein and nucleic ... EER-7, like other members of the lysyl oxidase enzymes class of copper amino oxidases, initiates cross-linking between and ... The nucleic acid sequence of EER-7 shows homology to known lysyl oxidase genes. All previously identified lysyl oxidase ... Tropoelastin is a substrate for lysyl oxidase and increased EER-7 lysyl oxidase activity increases elastin cross-linking. ...
The salivary catechol oxidase/peroxidase activities of the mosquito Anopheles albimanus Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ...
... Khun, Kimleang Linköping ... The IRAS study provided evidence for the interaction of galactose oxidase with the surface of ZnO nanorods. The electromotive ... The galactose biosensor based on galactose oxidase immobilized ZnO nanorods has a shelf life more than four weeks. ... The galactose biosensor was developed by immobilizing galactose oxidase on ZnO nanorods in conjunction with glutaraldehyde as a ...
L-amino acid oxidases and others (Rodrigues et al., 2009). L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO, EC 1.4.3.2) are enantioselective ... For example, L-amino acid oxidases from Bothrops spp were responsible for in vitro killing of Plasmodium falciparum (Zieler et ... L-amino acid oxidase activity of an antineoplastic factor of a marine mollusk and its relantionship to cytotoxicity. Dev Comp ... Antibacterial action of L-amino acid oxidase from the skin mucus of rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B ...
Recombinant Protein and Galactose oxidase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Galactose oxidase. Galactose oxidase ELISA Kit. Galactose oxidase Recombinant. Galactose oxidase Antibody. Also known as ... Below are the list of possible Galactose oxidase products. If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our ... Galactose oxidase (GAO) (GO) (GOase).. Catalyzes the sterospecific oxidation of primary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes ...
D-Amino-acid oxidase cDNA was able to be amplified by PCR in all the mice of 15 strains examined. There was a single-base pair ... D-Amino-acid oxidase is present in the proximal tubules of the kidneys of higher animals. It catalyzes oxidative deamination of ... The mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase were found to excrete a large amounts of D-alanine and D-serine into their urine. ... Publications] R.Konno,M.Sasaki,J.Enami and A.Niwa: Loss of HindIII cleavage sites in the D-amino-acid oxidase gene in some ...
title = "Human liver xanthine oxidase: Nature and extent of individual variation",. abstract = "Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the ... Human liver xanthine oxidase: Nature and extent of individual variation. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 1991 Dec;50(6): ... Human liver xanthine oxidase: Nature and extent of individual variation. Roberto Guerciolini, Carol Szumlanski, Richard M. ... Average xanthine oxidase activity in these 79 samples remained approximately 20% higher for men than for women (1.35 ± 0.38 ...
Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Plasmodium falciparum; Heme. Department/Centre:. Division of Biological Sciences , Biochemistry ... In this study, a recombinant P. falciparum coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (rPfCPO) was produced in E. coli and confirmed to be ... Characterization of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase in Plasmodium falciparum cytosol. In: Parasitology International, 59 (2). pp ...
HONG, TAN NGET (2009) Snake venom L-amino acid oxidase. In: CRC Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles. Taylor and Francis ...
... protoporphyrinogen oxidase, rice, transgenic plants. Abstract:. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) in the porphyrin pathway is ... Expression of a Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene in rice plants reduces sensitivity to peroxidizing herbicides ...
D-Aspartate oxidase (EC 1.4.3.1), which is highly specific to D-aspartate, ... Purification and properties of D-aspartate oxidase from Cryptococcus humicolus UJ1.: ... D-Aspartate oxidase (EC 1.4.3.1), which is highly specific to D-aspartate, was inducibly produced by a yeast strain which was ... Purification and properties of D-aspartate oxidase from Cryptococcus humicolus UJ1.. Authors * Yamada, R ...
Xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolizes purines to uric acid and its inhibition has been shown to improve clinical outcome in ... The xanthine oxidase inhibitor oxypurinol reduces cancer cachexia-induced cardiomyopathy. International Journal of Cardiology, ...
Liver Microsome Tertiary Amine Amine Oxidase Microsomal Protein Terminal Oxidase These keywords were added by machine and not ... Ziegler D.M. (1978) Microsomal Oxidases. In: Fleischer S., Hatefi Y., MacLennan D.H., Tzagoloff A. (eds) The Molecular Biology ...
Because xanthine oxidase is a metabolic pathway for uric acid formation, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol is used in ... explaining why xanthine oxidase is being researched for links to cardiovascular health. Both xanthine oxidase and xanthine ... Xanthine oxidase is defined as an enzyme activity (EC 1.17.3.2). The same protein, which in humans has the HGNC approved gene ... Bovine xanthine oxidase (from milk) was originally thought to have a binding site to reduce cytochrome c with, but it has been ...
Purchase Monoamine Oxidases and their Inhibitors, Volume 100 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123864673, ... Monoamine Oxidases and their Inhibitors, Volume 100 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... TYPE A MONOAMINE OXIDASE REGULATES LIFE AND DEATH OF NEURONS IN NEURODEGENERATION AND NEUROPROTECTION ... In this volume, invited experts provide authoritative reviews on various aspects of Monoamine Oxidase and its Inhibitors. ...
... such as alditol oxidase (AldO), aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO), hydroxymethyl furfuryl oxidase (HMFO), hexose oxidase (HOX, Dbv29 ... l-lactate oxidase (LLO) or long-chain 2-hydroxyacid oxidase (LHAO), which belongs to the group of (S)-2-hydroxy acid oxidases ( ... flavoprotein cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) [EC 1.1.3.6], aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO) [EC 1.1.3.7] and hydroxymethylfurfural oxidase ... which can be oxidised by glucose oxidase (GOX), hexose oxidase (HOX) and oligosaccharide oxidases forming the corresponding ...
monoamine oxidase inhibitors are a very powerful class of antidepressants. they prevent the breakdown of serotonin, dopamine, ... What are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)?. ANSWER Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are a very powerful class of ...
Ubiquinol_oxidase_III (cd02863). Accession cd02863 Integration. Ubiquinol oxidase subunit III domain (IPR033946) Member ...
Aldehyde oxidase genes in vertebrates. The figure contains a schematic representation of the aldehyde oxidase genes in selected ... Aldehyde oxidases (EC 1.2.3.1) are a small group of structurally conserved cytosolic proteins represented in both the animal ... Phylogeny of eukaryotic aldehyde oxidases. A rooted dendrogram was obtained by the Phylip method after CLUSTAL-W computer-aided ... The mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family.. Garattini E1, Fratelli M, Terao M. ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). MAOIs were the first type of antidepressant developed. Learn about the benefits, side ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were the first type of antidepressant developed. Theyre effective, but theyve generally ... A reassessment of the safety profile of monoamine oxidase inhibitors: Elucidating tired old tyramine myths. Journal of Neural ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: A clinical colloquy. Psychiatric Annals. 2014; doi:10.3928/00485713-20141208-07. ...
... bipin k. dalmia dalmiabk at phibred.com Mon Jul 14 14:58:21 EST 1997 *Previous message: Best ... hello: i am trying to find antibodies to galctose oxidase from dactylium species. couldnt find any in a few catalogs i looked ...
The oxidase is essential for microbial killing, since patients lacking a functional oxidase suffer from enhanced susceptibility ... When activated, both oxidases produce superoxide anions. Nox1 is localized to the plasma membrane of colon epithelial cells and ... Both oxidases are regulated by homologous organizer (Noxo1 or p47phox) and activator (Noxa1 or p67phox) proteins, and require ... Dual oxidases (Duox) are localized to the apical plasma membrane of airway epithelial cells, releasing hydrogen peroxide into ...
Cytochrome c oxidase, subunit Vb (IPR002124). Short name: Cyt_c_oxidase_su5b ... Cytochrome c oxidase (EC:1.9.3.1) is an oligomeric enzymatic complex which is a component of the respiratory chain complex and ... The whole structure of the 13-subunit oxidized cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 A.. Science 272 1136-44 1996 ... The most conserved nuclear-encoded polypeptide of cytochrome c oxidase is the putative zinc-binding subunit: primary structure ...
Structure of NADPH oxidase. Francesca Magnani, Simone Nenci, Elisa Millana Fananas, Marta Ceccon, Elvira Romero, Marco W. ... Structure of NADPH oxidase. Francesca Magnani, Simone Nenci, Elisa Millana Fananas, Marta Ceccon, Elvira Romero, Marco W. ... C) NADPH-oxidase activity of the isolated csDH. WT (●) exhibits kcat = 128.5 ± 9.0 min−1, Km = 58.6 ± 11.0 μM, whereas the C- ... 2010) NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major source of oxidative stress in the failing heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:15565-15570 ...
  • The Southern hybridization analyzes have shown that the 15 strains of mice carry the D-amino-acid oxidase gene similar in the whole structure but also shown that there are variations in its inside structure among the mouse strains. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The expression of the D-amino-acid oxidase gene in the mouse kidney was examined by in situ hybridization. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Loss of HindIII cleavuge sites in the D-amino-acid oxidase gene in some inbred strains of mice' Amino Acids. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In enzymology, a pyruvate oxidase (EC 1.2.3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction pyruvate + phosphate + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } acetyl phosphate + CO2 + H2O2 The 3 substrates of this enzyme are pyruvate, phosphate, and O2, whereas its 3 products are acetyl phosphate, CO2, and H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the biotransformation of many drugs, including the thiopurines and methylxanthines. (elsevier.com)
  • Origin of D-alanine present in urine of mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity' American Journal of Physiology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We used a sensitive radiochemical assay to determine optimal conditions for the assay of human liver xanthine oxidase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • We then used those assay conditions to study the nature and extent of individual variation of xanthine oxidase activity in 189 samples of hepatic tissue from patients undergoing clinically indicated partial hepatectomy or open liver biopsy. (elsevier.com)
  • Average xanthine oxidase activity in these 79 samples remained approximately 20% higher for men than for women (1.35 ± 0.38 versus 1.12 ± 0.33 U/gm tissue, respectively). (elsevier.com)
  • Probit analysis of the data for samples from patients with normal liver function studies and normal creatinine values suggested the presence of a subgroup of samples with relatively low xanthine oxidase activity in 21% (9 of 42) of male patients and 27% (10 of 37) of female patients. (elsevier.com)
  • In human brain the flavoprotein D-amino acid oxidase (hDAAO) is responsible for the degradation of the neuromodulator D-serine, an important effector of NMDA-receptor mediated neurotransmission. (unisi.it)
  • D-Amino-acid oxidase cDNA was able to be amplified by PCR in all the mice of 15 strains examined. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Its venom is rich in proteins such as phospholipases A 2 , desintegrins, metalloproteases, serinoproteases, L-amino acid oxidases and others (Rodrigues et al. (scielo.br)
  • Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) in the porphyrin pathway is the target site of the peroxidizing herbicides such as carfentrazone-ethyl and oxyfluorfen. (usda.gov)
  • BpirLAAO-I is an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Bothrops pirajai snake venom by molecular exclusion, affinity and hydrophobic chromatography (Izidoro et al. (scielo.br)
  • The effect of an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Bothrops pirajai snake venom (BpirLAAO-I) was investigated on infection of Toxoplasma gondii in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF). (scielo.br)
  • 2009). L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO, EC 1.4.3.2) are enantioselective flavoenzymes catalyzing the oxidative deamination of a wide range of L-amino acids (Stábeli et al. (scielo.br)
  • For example, L-amino acid oxidases from Bothrops spp were responsible for in vitro killing of Plasmodium falciparum (Zieler et al. (scielo.br)
  • D-Amino-acid oxidase is present in the proximal tubules of the kidneys of higher animals. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase were found to excrete a large amounts of D-alanine and D-serine into their urine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Since D-aminoaciduria is not seen in normal mice, the present study using D-amino-acid oxidase-deficient mice indicates one of the physiological roles of this enzyme is the metabolism of D-amino acids. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Nagata,Y.,Konno,R.,& Niwa,A.: 'Amino acid levels in D-alanine-administered mutant mice lacking-D-amino acid oxidase' Metabolism. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Localization of D-amino acid oxidase mRNA in the mouse kidney and the effect of testosterone treatment' Histochemistry and Cell Biology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The N-terminal amino-acid sequence of the enzyme showed a significant homology with those of D-aspartate oxidases from beef kidney and Octopus vulgaris and those of D-amino-acid oxidases from various sources. (mysciencework.com)
  • Effect of ligand binding on human D-amino acid oxidase: implications for the development of new drugs for schizophrenia treatment. (unisi.it)
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