Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
The sole species of the genus Oxalobacter consisting of straight or curved gram-negative rods with rounded ends. Cells are nonmotile, nonsporing, and use oxylates as the only source of CARBON and energy, with formate and CARBON DIOXIDE as end products. They are isolated from lake sediments and from the rumen or large bowel of humans and animals. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Glyoxylates are organic compounds that are intermediate products in the metabolic pathways responsible for the breakdown and synthesis of various molecules, including amino acids and carbohydrates, and are involved in several biochemical processes such as the glyoxylate cycle.
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)
A drug used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is claimed to enhance cellular oxidative capacity and to be a spasmolytic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1310) It may also be an antagonist at 5HT-2 serotonin receptors.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.

Methoxyflurane nephropathy. (1/625)

Investigations of methoxyflurane-induced nephrotoxicity in man have been extensively aided by the use of an animal model. To be of value the animal model must share similar metabolic pathways with man and have the same clinical manifestations of the diseases process. The Fischer 344 rat appears to meet these criteria. The predominant factors in the production of methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity appear to be high methoxyflurane dosage and serum inorganic fluoride concentration. It is likely that secondary factors include: (1) a high rate of methoxyflurane metabolism and sepsitivity of the kidney to inorganic fluoride toxicity: (2) concurrent treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs; (3) preexisting renal disease; (4) surgery of the urogenital tract, aorta, or renal vasculative; (5) repeat administration of methoxyflurane due to accumulation of inorganic fluoride and, perhaps, methoxyflurane induction of its own metabolism: and (6) concurrent treatment with enzyme-inducing drugs such as phenobarbital.  (+info)

Ca-releasing action of beta, gamma-methylene adenosine triphosphate on fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum. (2/625)

beta,gamma-Methylene adenosine triphosphate (AMPOPCP) has two effects on fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (FSR), i.e., inhibition of the rate of Ca uptake and the induction of Ca release from FSR filled with Ca. The Ca release brought about by AMPOPCP has many features in common with the mechanism of Ca-induced Ca release: i) it is inhibited by 10 mM procaine; ii) the amount of Ca release increases with increase in the extent of saturation of FSR with Ca; iii) increase of the Ca concentration in the extent of saturation of FSR with Ca; iii) increase of the Ca concentration in the medium facilitates the release of Ca. However, no facilitation of Ca release upon decrease of Mg concentration in the medium is observable. AMPOPCP and caffeine potentiate each other remarkably in their Ca-releasing action, irrespective of the kind of substrate. From the mode of action of AMPOPCP on the rate of Ca uptake, the amount of phosphorylated intermediate (EP), and the effect on Sr release, it is suggested that the state of the FSR-ATP complex is crucial for Ca-induced Ca release.  (+info)

Bound forms of Ca taken up by the synaptic plasma membrane. (3/625)

Temperature dependent Ca-binding by the synaptic plasma membrane was increased in the presence of ATP and Mg++. Apparent Km for ATP was about 2.8 X 10(-5) M and optimal concentration of Mg++ was 2 mM in the presence of 2 mM ATP. After preincubation with nonradioactive Ca++, ATP and Mg++ to attain a steady state, addition of 45Ca resulted in remarkable labelling of the membrane, indicating rapid turnover of most of the membrane bound Ca. The presence of oxalate (60 mM) greatly increased Ca up-take on prolonged incubation. The Ca uptake in presence and absence of oxalate had similar substrate specificity and was similarly influenced by various monovalent cations. Furthermore, activities for Ca-uptake in the presence and absence of oxalate could not be separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of the synaptic plasma membrane fraction. Accordingly, it was considered that Ca++ in the medium was taken up by surface of the membrane, ATP- and temperature-dependently and then transferred into a cavity where the Ca-oxalate complex is formed.  (+info)

Cyclosporin A treatment alters characteristics of Ca2+-release channel in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. (4/625)

Chronic treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA) has been reported (H. S. Banijamali, M. H. ter Keurs, L. C. Paul, and H. E. ter Keurs. Cardiovasc. Res. 27: 1845-1854, 1993; I. Kingma, E. Harmsen, H. E. ter Keurs, H. Benediktsson, and L. C. Paul. Int. J. Cardiol. 31: 15-22, 1991) to induce reversible alterations of contractile properties in rat hearts. To define the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological alterations, the Ca2+-release channel (CRC) and Ca2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum in rats were examined. Ryanodine binding to whole homogenates of rat hearts shows time- and dose-dependent alterations in CRC properties by CsA. On 3 wk of treatment with 15 mg CsA. kg body wt-1. day-1, 1) maximal ryanodine binding (Bmax) decreased, 2) the dissociation constant of ryanodine (Kd) increased, 3) caffeine sensitivity of CRC increased, and 4) ruthenium red sensitivity of CRC decreased. On the other hand, Bmax and Kd of ryanodine binding in rat skeletal muscles were not changed. Ryanodine-sensitive oxalate-supported Ca2+ uptake in whole homogenates was lower in CsA-treated rat hearts than in control hearts, whereas total Ca2+ uptake in the presence of 500 M ryanodine was not changed. Functional experiments with rapamycin and Western blot analysis suggest that the CsA-induced alteration of ryanodine binding is due at least in part to an upregulation of calcineurin. The heart muscle-specific alterations of CRC could be responsible for the previously reported contractile changes of CsA-treated rat hearts.  (+info)

Fomepizole for the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning. Methylpyrazole for Toxic Alcohols Study Group. (5/625)

BACKGROUND: Ethylene glycol poisoning causes metabolic acidosis and renal failure and may cause death. The standard treatment is inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol, given in intoxicating doses, and adjunctive hemodialysis. We studied the efficacy of fomepizole, a new inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, in the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning. METHODS: We administered intravenous fomepizole to 19 patients with ethylene glycol poisoning (plasma ethylene glycol concentration, > or =20 mg per deciliter [3.2 mmol per liter]). Patients who met specific criteria also underwent hemodialysis. Treatment was continued until plasma ethylene glycol concentrations were less than 20 mg per deciliter. Acid-base status, renal function, the kinetics of fomepizole, and ethylene glycol metabolism were assessed at predetermined intervals. RESULTS: Fifteen of the patients initially had acidosis (mean serum bicarbonate concentration, 12.9 mmol per liter). Acid-base status tended to normalize within hours after the initiation of treatment with fomepizole. One patient with extreme acidosis died. In nine patients, renal function decreased during therapy; at enrollment, all nine had high serum creatinine concentrations and markedly elevated plasma glycolate concentrations (> or =97.7 mg per deciliter [12.9 mmol per liter]). None of the 10 patients with normal serum creatinine concentrations at enrollment had renal injury during treatment; all 10 had plasma glycolate concentrations at or below 76.8 mg per deciliter (10.1 mmol per liter). Renal injury was independent of the initial plasma ethylene glycol concentration. The plasma concentration of glycolate and the urinary excretion of oxalate, the major metabolites of ethylene glycol, uniformly fell after the initiation of fomepizole therapy. Few adverse effects were attributable to fomepizole. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ethylene glycol poisoning, fomepizole administered early in the course of intoxication prevents renal injury by inhibiting the formation of toxic metabolites.  (+info)

Urinary outputs of oxalate, calcium, and magnesium in children with intestinal disorders. Potential cause of renal calculi. (6/625)

24-hour urinary outputs of oxalate, calcium, and magnesium have been determined in a total of 62 children aged 3 months to 17 years who fell into the following groups: (i) 16 normal controls, (ii) 3 with primary hyperoxaluria, (iii) 9 with small and/or large intestinal resections, (iv) 9 with untreated coeliac disease, (v) 5 with pancreatic dysfunction, and (vi) a miscellaneous group of 20 children with a variety of intestinal disorders. Taken as a whole, 58% of patients with intestinal disorders had hyperoxaluria, and of these 7% had urinary outputs of oxalate which fell within the range seen in primary hyperoxaluria. The proportion of children with hyperoxaluria in the different diagnostic groups was as follows: intestinal resections (78%), coeliac disease (67%), pancreatic dysfunction (80%), and miscellaneous (45%). 35% of the patients with hyperoxaluria had hypercalciuria, whereas magnesium excretion was normal in all subjects studied. In 2 patients treatment of the underlying condition was accompanied by a return of oxalate excretion to normal. These results indicate that hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria are common in children with a variety of intestinal disorders, and that such children may be at risk of developing renal calculi without early diagnosis and treatment.  (+info)

Intake of vitamins B6 and C and the risk of kidney stones in women. (7/625)

Urinary oxalate is an important determinant of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. High doses of vitamin B6 may decrease oxalate production, whereas vitamin C can be metabolized to oxalate. This study was conducted to examine the association between the intakes of vitamins B6 and C and risk of kidney stone formation in women. The relation between the intake of vitamins B6 and C and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones were prospectively studied in a cohort of 85,557 women with no history of kidney stones. Semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess vitamin consumption from both foods and supplements. A total of 1078 incident cases of kidney stones was documented during the 14-yr follow-up period. A high intake of vitamin B6 was inversely associated with risk of stone formation. After adjusting for other dietary factors, the relative risk of incident stone formation for women in the highest category of B6 intake (> or =40 mg/d) compared with the lowest category (<3 mg/d) was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.98). In contrast, vitamin C intake was not associated with risk. The multivariate relative risk for women in the highest category of vitamin C intake (> or =1500 mg/d) compared with the lowest category (<250 mg/d) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 1.64). Large doses of vitamin B6 may reduce the risk of kidney stone formation in women. Routine restriction of vitamin C to prevent stone formation appears unwarranted.  (+info)

Regulation of Ca2+ transport by sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase at limiting [Ca2+]. (8/625)

The factors regulating Ca2+ transport by isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles have been studied using the fluorescent indicator Fluo-3 to monitor extravesicular free [Ca2+]. ATP, in the presence of 5 mM oxalate, which clamps intravesicular [Ca2+] at approximately 10 microM, induced a rapid decline in Fluo-3 fluorescence to reach a limiting steady state level. This corresponds to a residual medium [Ca2+] of 100 to 200 nM, and has been defined as [Ca2+]lim, whilst thermodynamic considerations predict a level of less than 1 nM. This value is similar to that measured in intact muscle with Ca2+ fluophores, where it is presumed that sarcoplasmic free [Ca2+] is a balance between pump and leaks. Fluorescence of Fluo-3 at [Ca2+]lim was decreased 70% to 80% by histidine, imidazole and cysteine. The K0.5 value for histidine was 3 mM, suggesting that residual [Ca2+]lim fluorescence is due to Zn2+. The level of Zn2+ in preparations of SR vesicles, measured by atomic absorption, was 0.47+/-0.04 nmol/mg, corresponding to 0.1 mol per mol Ca-ATPase. This is in agreement with findings of Papp et al. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 243 (1985) 254-263). Histidine, 20 mM, included in the buffer, gave a corrected value for [Ca2+]lim of 49+/-1.8 nM, which is still higher than predicted on thermodynamic grounds. A possible 'pump/leak' mechanism was tested by the effects of varying active Ca2+ transport 1 to 2 orders with temperature and pH. [Ca2+]lim remained relatively constant under these conditions. Alternate substrates acetyl phosphate and p-NPP gave similar [Ca2+]lim levels even though the latter substrate supported transport 500-fold slower than with ATP. In fact, [Ca2+]lim was lower with 10 mM p-NPP than with 5 mM ATP. The magnitude of passive efflux from Ca-oxalate loaded SR during the steady state of [Ca2+]lim was estimated by the unidirectional flux of 45Ca2+, and directly, following depletion of ATP, by measuring release of 40Ca2+, and was 0.02% of Vmax. Constant infusion of CaCl2 at [Ca2+]lim resulted in a new steady state, in which active transport into SR vesicles balances the infusion rate. Varying infusion rates allows determination of [Ca2+]-dependence of transport in the absence of chelating agents. Parameters of non-linear regression were Vmax=853 nmol/min per mg, K0.5(Ca)=279 nM, and nH(Ca)=1.89. Since conditions employed in this study are similar to those in the sarcoplasm of relaxed muscle, it is suggested that histidine, added to media in studies of intracellular Ca2+ transients, and in the relaxed state, will minimise contribution of Zn2+ to fluophore fluorescence, since it occurs at levels predicted in this study to cause significant overestimation of cytoplasmic free [Ca2+] in the relaxed state. Similar precautions may apply to non-muscle cells as well. This study also suggests that [Ca2+]lim in the resting state is a characteristic feature of Ca2+ pump function, rather than a balance between active transport and passive leakage pathways.  (+info)

Oxalates, also known as oxalic acid or oxalate salts, are organic compounds that contain the functional group called oxalate. Oxalates are naturally occurring substances found in various foods such as spinach, rhubarb, nuts, and seeds. They can also be produced by the body as a result of metabolism.

In the body, oxalates can bind with calcium and other minerals to form crystals, which can accumulate in various tissues and organs, including the kidneys. This can lead to the formation of kidney stones, which are a common health problem associated with high oxalate intake or increased oxalate production in the body.

It is important for individuals with a history of kidney stones or other kidney problems to monitor their oxalate intake and limit consumption of high-oxalate foods. Additionally, certain medical conditions such as hyperoxaluria, a rare genetic disorder that causes increased oxalate production in the body, may require medical treatment to reduce oxalate levels and prevent complications.

Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound with the formula CaC2O4. It is the most common type of stone found in kidneys, also known as kidney stones. Calcium oxalate forms when there is too much calcium or oxalate in the urine. This can occur due to various reasons such as dietary habits, dehydration, medical conditions like hyperparathyroidism, or genetic factors.

Calcium oxalate stones are hard and crystalline and can cause severe pain during urination or while passing through the urinary tract. They may also lead to other symptoms like blood in the urine, nausea, vomiting, or fever. Prevention strategies for calcium oxalate stones include staying hydrated, following a balanced diet, and taking prescribed medications to control the levels of calcium and oxalate in the body.

Oxalic acid is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the formula HOOC-COOH. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Medically, oxalic acid is relevant due to its presence in certain foods and its potential to form calcium oxalate stones in the kidneys when excreted in urine.

Hyperoxaluria is a medical condition characterized by increased levels of oxalate in the urine, which can lead to the formation of kidney stones. This condition can be caused by genetic factors or excessive intake of oxalate-rich foods such as spinach, rhubarb, and certain nuts and beans. In severe cases, it may require medical treatment to reduce oxalate levels in the body.

Hyperoxaluria is a medical condition characterized by an excessive excretion of oxalate in the urine. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance found in some foods and can also be produced by the body. When oxalate combines with calcium in the urine, it can form kidney stones or calcium oxalate deposits in the kidneys and other tissues, leading to kidney damage or systemic oxalosis. There are three types of hyperoxaluria: primary, secondary, and enteric. Primary hyperoxaluria is caused by genetic defects that affect the body's ability to regulate oxalate production, while secondary hyperoxaluria results from increased dietary intake or absorption of oxalate, or from other medical conditions. Enteric hyperoxaluria occurs in individuals with malabsorption syndromes, such as inflammatory bowel disease or after gastric bypass surgery, where excessive amounts of oxalate are absorbed from the gut into the bloodstream and excreted in the urine.

Kidney calculi, also known as kidney stones, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. They can range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. When they're small enough, they can be passed through your urine without causing too much discomfort. However, larger stones may block the flow of urine, causing severe pain and potentially leading to serious complications such as urinary tract infections or kidney damage if left untreated.

The formation of kidney calculi is often associated with factors like dehydration, high levels of certain minerals in your urine, family history, obesity, and certain medical conditions such as gout or inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms of kidney stones typically include severe pain in the back, side, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; fever and chills if an infection is present; and blood in the urine. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the stone but may include medications to help pass the stone, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stone, or surgical removal of the stone in severe cases.

"Oxalobacter formigenes" is a type of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that resides in the human gastrointestinal tract. It is commonly found in the large intestine and plays a role in the metabolism of oxalate, a compound found in many foods that can contribute to kidney stone formation when present in high levels in the body.

"Oxalobacter formigenes" has the ability to break down and utilize oxalate as a source of energy, which can help to reduce the amount of oxalate that is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted by the kidneys. Some research suggests that the presence of "Oxalobacter formigenes" in the gut may be associated with a lower risk of kidney stone formation, although more studies are needed to confirm this association.

It's worth noting that while "Oxalobacter formigenes" is considered a beneficial bacteria, it is not currently used as a probiotic or therapeutic agent in clinical practice.

Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones or nephrolithiasis, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside the urinary system. These calculi can develop in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The formation of urinary calculi typically occurs when there is a concentration of certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, or struvite, in the urine. When these substances become highly concentrated, they can crystallize and form small seeds that gradually grow into larger stones over time.

The size of urinary calculi can vary from tiny, sand-like particles to large stones that can fill the entire renal pelvis. The symptoms associated with urinary calculi depend on the stone's size, location, and whether it is causing a blockage in the urinary tract. Common symptoms include severe pain in the flank, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; blood in the urine (hematuria); fever and chills; and frequent urge to urinate or painful urination.

Treatment for urinary calculi depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake and pain management. Larger stones may require medical intervention, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) to break up or remove the stone. Preventive measures include maintaining adequate hydration, modifying dietary habits, and taking medications to reduce the risk of stone formation.

Nephrolithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of stones or calculi in the kidney. These stones can form anywhere in the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Nephrolithiasis is also commonly known as kidney stones.

Kidney stones are hard deposits made up of minerals and salts that crystallize in the urine. They can vary in size from tiny sand-like particles to larger pebble or even golf ball-sized masses. Kidney stones can cause pain, bleeding, and infection if they block the flow of urine through the urinary tract.

The formation of kidney stones is often associated with a variety of factors such as dehydration, high levels of calcium, oxalate, or uric acid in the urine, family history, obesity, and certain medical conditions like gout or inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment for nephrolithiasis depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake, while larger stones may require medication, shock wave lithotripsy, or surgical removal.

Urolithiasis is the formation of stones (calculi) in the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. These stones can be composed of various substances such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, or struvite. The presence of urolithiasis can cause symptoms like severe pain in the back or side, nausea, vomiting, fever, and blood in the urine. The condition can be managed with medications, increased fluid intake, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be required to remove the stones.

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic disorder characterized by overproduction of oxalate in the body due to mutations in specific enzymes involved in oxalate metabolism. There are three types of primary hyperoxaluria (PH1, PH2, and PH3), with PH1 being the most common and severe form.

In primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), there is a deficiency or dysfunction in the enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which leads to an accumulation of glyoxylate. Glyoxylate is then converted to oxalate, resulting in increased oxalate production. Oxalate is a compound that naturally occurs in the body but is primarily excreted through the kidneys. When there is an overproduction of oxalate, it can lead to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in various tissues, including the kidneys. This can cause recurrent kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis (calcium deposits in the kidneys), and eventually chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal failure.

Primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2) is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction in the enzyme glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR), leading to an accumulation of glyoxylate, which is subsequently converted to oxalate. PH2 has a milder clinical presentation compared to PH1.

Primary hyperoxaluria type 3 (PH3) is a rare form caused by mutations in the gene HOGA1, which encodes for 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase. This enzyme deficiency results in an increase in glyoxylate and, subsequently, oxalate production.

Early diagnosis and management of primary hyperoxaluria are crucial to prevent or slow down the progression of kidney damage. Treatment options include increased fluid intake, medications to reduce stone formation (such as potassium citrate), and in some cases, liver-kidney transplantation.

Glycolates are a type of chemical compound that contain the group COOCH2, which is derived from glycolic acid. In a medical context, glycolates are often used in dental and medical materials as they can be biodegradable and biocompatible. For example, they may be used in controlled-release drug delivery systems or in bone cement. However, it's important to note that some glycolate compounds can also be toxic if ingested or otherwise introduced into the body in large amounts.

Crystallization is a process in which a substance transitions from a liquid or dissolved state to a solid state, forming a crystal lattice. In the medical context, crystallization can refer to the formation of crystals within the body, which can occur under certain conditions such as changes in pH, temperature, or concentration of solutes. These crystals can deposit in various tissues and organs, leading to the formation of crystal-induced diseases or disorders.

For example, in patients with gout, uric acid crystals can accumulate in joints, causing inflammation, pain, and swelling. Similarly, in nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), minerals in the urine can crystallize and form stones that can obstruct the urinary tract. Crystallization can also occur in other medical contexts, such as in the formation of dental calculus or plaque, and in the development of cataracts in the eye.

Glyoxylates are organic compounds that are intermediates in various metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle. The glyoxylate cycle is a modified version of the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle) and is found in plants, bacteria, and some fungi.

Glyoxylates are formed from the breakdown of certain amino acids or from the oxidation of one-carbon units. They can be converted into glycine, an important amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. In the glyoxylate cycle, glyoxylates are combined with acetyl-CoA to form malate and succinate, which can then be used to synthesize glucose or other organic compounds.

Abnormal accumulation of glyoxylates in the body can lead to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals, which can cause kidney stones and other health problems. Certain genetic disorders, such as primary hyperoxaluria, can result in overproduction of glyoxylates and increased risk of kidney stone formation.

Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid with a sweet taste, which makes it appealing to animals and children. It is commonly used in the manufacture of antifreeze, coolants, deicers, hydraulic brake fluids, solvents, and other industrial products. Ethylene glycol is also found in some household items such as certain types of wood stains, paints, and cosmetics.

Ingesting even small amounts of ethylene glycol can be harmful or fatal to humans and animals. It is metabolized by the body into toxic substances that can cause damage to the central nervous system, heart, kidneys, and other organs. Symptoms of ethylene glycol poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, decreased level of consciousness, seizures, coma, acidosis, increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and kidney failure.

If you suspect that someone has ingested ethylene glycol, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves administering a medication called fomepizole or ethanol to inhibit the metabolism of ethylene glycol, as well as providing supportive care such as fluid replacement and dialysis to remove the toxic substances from the body.

Polyporales is an order of class Agaricomycetes, division Basidiomycota, in the kingdom Fungi. This order consists of various wood-decay fungi, characterized by their typically annual growth rings and pores on the underside of the cap. The fruiting bodies or conks of these fungi can be either resupinate (crust-like) or pileate (cap-like). Polyporales includes several economically important species that cause decay in trees and timber, as well as some medicinal mushrooms. Examples of genera within this order include Polyporus, Trametes, Fomes, and Ganoderma.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nafronyl" does not appear to be a recognized term in medical terminology or pharmacology. It is possible that there may be a spelling error or typo in the term you are looking for. If you have more information or context about where this term was used, I'd be happy to help you try and find the correct definition.

Carboxy-lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the removal of a carboxyl group from a substrate, often releasing carbon dioxide in the process. These enzymes play important roles in various metabolic pathways, such as the biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids, sugars, and other organic compounds.

Carboxy-lyases are classified under EC number 4.2 in the Enzyme Commission (EC) system. They can be further divided into several subclasses based on their specific mechanisms and substrates. For example, some carboxy-lyases require a cofactor such as biotin or thiamine pyrophosphate to facilitate the decarboxylation reaction, while others do not.

Examples of carboxy-lyases include:

1. Pyruvate decarboxylase: This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during fermentation in yeast and other organisms.
2. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO): This enzyme is essential for photosynthesis in plants and some bacteria, as it catalyzes the fixation of carbon dioxide into an organic molecule during the Calvin cycle.
3. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: Found in plants, algae, and some bacteria, this enzyme plays a role in anaplerotic reactions that replenish intermediates in the citric acid cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate and inorganic phosphate.
4. Aspartate transcarbamylase: This enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, a class of nucleotides. It catalyzes the transfer of a carboxyl group from carbamoyl aspartate to carbamoyl phosphate, forming cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and fumarate.
5. Urocanase: Found in animals, this enzyme is involved in histidine catabolism. It catalyzes the conversion of urocanate to formiminoglutamate and ammonia.

Hypercalciuria is a medical condition characterized by an excessive amount of calcium in the urine. It can occur when the body absorbs too much calcium from food, or when the bones release more calcium than usual. In some cases, it may be caused by certain medications, kidney disorders, or genetic factors.

Hypercalciuria can increase the risk of developing kidney stones and other kidney problems. It is often diagnosed through a 24-hour urine collection test that measures the amount of calcium in the urine. Treatment may include changes in diet, increased fluid intake, and medications to help reduce the amount of calcium in the urine.

Magnesium compounds refer to substances that contain magnesium (an essential mineral) combined with other elements. These compounds are formed when magnesium atoms chemically bond with atoms of other elements. Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal and it readily forms stable compounds with various elements due to its electron configuration.

Examples of magnesium compounds include:

1. Magnesium oxide (MgO): Also known as magnesia, it is formed by combining magnesium with oxygen. It has a high melting point and is used in various applications such as refractory materials, chemical production, and agricultural purposes.
2. Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2): Often called milk of magnesia, it is a common antacid and laxative. It is formed by combining magnesium with hydroxide ions.
3. Magnesium chloride (MgCl2): This compound is formed when magnesium reacts with chlorine gas. It has various uses, including as a de-icing agent, a component in fertilizers, and a mineral supplement.
4. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4): Also known as Epsom salts, it is formed by combining magnesium with sulfur and oxygen. It is used as a bath salt, a laxative, and a fertilizer.
5. Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3): This compound is formed when magnesium reacts with carbon dioxide. It has various uses, including as a fire retardant, a food additive, and a dietary supplement.

These are just a few examples of the many different magnesium compounds that exist. Each compound has its unique properties and applications based on the elements it is combined with.

A jejunoileal bypass is a surgical procedure that was once used to treat morbid obesity, but it is now rarely performed due to the high risk of serious complications. This procedure involves dividing the small intestine into two parts: the proximal jejunum and the distal ileum. The proximal jejunum is then connected to the colon, bypassing a significant portion of the small intestine where nutrient absorption occurs.

The goal of this surgery was to reduce the amount of food and nutrients that could be absorbed, leading to weight loss. However, it was found that patients who underwent jejunoileal bypass were at risk for developing severe malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, bone disease, kidney stones, and liver problems. Additionally, many patients experienced unpleasant side effects such as diarrhea, bloating, and foul-smelling stools. Due to these significant risks and limited benefits, jejunoileal bypass has largely been replaced by other weight loss surgeries such as gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy.

Antiporters, also known as exchange transporters, are a type of membrane transport protein that facilitate the exchange of two or more ions or molecules across a biological membrane in opposite directions. They allow for the movement of one type of ion or molecule into a cell while simultaneously moving another type out of the cell. This process is driven by the concentration gradient of one or both of the substances being transported. Antiporters play important roles in various physiological processes, including maintaining electrochemical balance and regulating pH levels within cells.

Araceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the arum or aroid family. It includes a diverse range of species, such as calla lilies, peace lilies, and jack-in-the-pulpit. These plants are characterized by their unique inflorescence structure, which consists of a specialized leaf-like structure called a spathe that surrounds and protects a spike-like structure called a spadix, where the flowers are located.

The flowers of Araceae plants are often small and inconspicuous, and may be surrounded by showy bracts or modified leaves. Many species in this family produce attractive berries or fruits that contain seeds. Some members of Araceae contain calcium oxalate crystals, which can cause irritation to the skin and mucous membranes if handled improperly.

Araceae plants are found worldwide, with a majority of species occurring in tropical regions. They are grown for their ornamental value, as well as for their edible fruits and tubers. Some species have medicinal uses, while others are invasive and can cause ecological damage in certain areas.

Uromodulin, also known as Tamm-Horsfall protein, is a glycoprotein that is primarily produced in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney. It is the most abundant protein found in normal urine. Uromodulin plays a role in the protection of the urinary tract by preventing the formation of calcium oxalate and brushite crystals, which can lead to kidney stones. Additionally, it has been implicated in various renal diseases, including chronic kidney disease and kidney transplant rejection.

Vitamin B6 deficiency refers to the condition in which there is an insufficient amount of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) in the body. Vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including protein metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, hemoglobin production, and immune function.

A deficiency in vitamin B6 can lead to several health issues, such as:

1. Anemia: Vitamin B6 is essential for the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. A deficiency in this nutrient can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
2. Peripheral neuropathy: Vitamin B6 deficiency can cause nerve damage, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet.
3. Depression and cognitive impairment: Pyridoxine is necessary for the synthesis of neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine, which are involved in mood regulation. A deficiency in vitamin B6 can lead to depression, irritability, and cognitive decline.
4. Seizures: In severe cases, vitamin B6 deficiency can cause seizures due to the impaired synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate brain activity.
5. Skin changes: A deficiency in this nutrient can also lead to skin changes, such as dryness, scaling, and cracks around the mouth.

Vitamin B6 deficiency is relatively uncommon in developed countries but can occur in individuals with certain medical conditions, such as malabsorption syndromes, alcoholism, kidney disease, or those taking medications that interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism. Additionally, older adults, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers may have an increased need for this nutrient, making them more susceptible to deficiency.

Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are important components of bones and teeth. They are also found in some foods and are used in dietary supplements and medical applications. Chemically, calcium phosphates are salts of calcium and phosphoric acid, and they exist in various forms, including hydroxyapatite, which is the primary mineral component of bone tissue. Other forms of calcium phosphates include monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate, which are used as food additives and dietary supplements. Calcium phosphates are important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, and they also play a role in various physiological processes, such as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction.

Anion transport proteins are specialized membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions, known as anions, across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ionic balance and regulating various physiological processes within the body.

There are several types of anion transport proteins, including:

1. Cl-/HCO3- exchangers (also known as anion exchangers or band 3 proteins): These transporters facilitate the exchange of chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions across the membrane. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the red blood cells, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys, where they help regulate pH, fluid balance, and electrolyte homeostasis.
2. Sulfate permeases: These transporters facilitate the movement of sulfate ions (SO42-) across membranes. They are primarily found in the epithelial cells of the kidneys, intestines, and choroid plexus, where they play a role in sulfur metabolism and absorption.
3. Cl- channels: These proteins form ion channels that allow chloride ions to pass through the membrane. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as neuronal excitability, transepithelial fluid transport, and cell volume regulation.
4. Cation-chloride cotransporters: These transporters move both cations (positively charged ions) and chloride anions together across the membrane. They are involved in regulating neuronal excitability, cell volume, and ionic balance in various tissues.

Dysfunction of anion transport proteins has been implicated in several diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (due to mutations in the CFTR Cl- channel), distal renal tubular acidosis (due to defects in Cl-/HCO3- exchangers), and some forms of epilepsy (due to abnormalities in cation-chloride cotransporters).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Formates" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It is possible that you may be referring to "formic acid" or "formate," which are terms used in chemistry and biochemistry. Formic acid is a colorless, pungent, and corrosive liquid with the chemical formula HCOOH. Its salts are called formates.

Formate is the anion (negatively charged ion) of formic acid, with the chemical formula HCOO-. Formate can be found in various biological systems and is involved in several metabolic processes. If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further.

"oxalate(2−) (CHEBI:30623)". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2 January 2019. oxalate(2−) (CHEBI:30623) is conjugate base of oxalate(1 ... A salt with this anion is sometimes called an acid oxalate, monobasic oxalate, or hydrogen oxalate. The equilibrium constant ( ... An excess oxalate level in the blood is termed hyperoxalemia, and high levels of oxalate in the urine is termed hyperoxaluria. ... Oxalate.org - Oxalate content of 750+ foods from university and government sources (Articles with short description, Short ...
In enzymology, an oxalate oxidase (EC 1.2.3.4) is an oxalate degrading enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: oxalate + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalate:oxygen oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include aero-oxalo ... Kotsira VP, Clonis YD (1997). "Oxalate oxidase from barley roots: purification to homogeneity and study of some molecular, ... Requena L, Bornemann S (1999). "Barley (Hordeum vulgare) oxalate oxidase is a manganese-containing enzyme". Biochem. J. 343 (Pt ...
... s (EC 1.2.7.10) (OOR) are a relatively recently discovered group of enzymes that break down oxalate, a ... split oxalate, producing low-potential electrons and CO2. Daniel SL, Pilsl C, Drake HL (February 2004). "Oxalate metabolism by ... Oxalate+oxidoreductase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v t e ( ... Gibson MI, Chen PY, Johnson AC, Pierce E, Can M, Ragsdale SW, Drennan CL (January 2016). "One-carbon chemistry of oxalate ...
The solubility product (Ksp) of thorium oxalate is 5.01 × 10−25. Density of anhydrous thorium oxalate is 4.637 g/cm3. Enver ... 11, p. 1085-1090 Atomistry.com: Thorium oxalate info page International Bio-Analytical Industries: Thorium Oxalate Dihydrate v ... Thorium oxalate is the inorganic compound with the formula Th(C2O4)2(H2O)4. It is a white insoluble solid prepared by the ... Each Th(IV) center is bound to 10 oxygen centers: eight provided by the bridging oxalates and two by a pair of aquo ligands. ...
Some oxalate-phosphate minerals found in bat guano deposits are known. Oxalate phosphates can form metal organic framework ... The oxalate phosphates are chemical compounds containing oxalate and phosphate anions. They are also called oxalatophosphates ... Related compounds include the arsenate oxalates, and phosphite oxalates, oxalatomethylphosphonate, and potentially other ... "A zinc phosphate oxalate with phosphate layers pillared by the oxalate units". Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton ...
... is a colorless or white solid that is soluble in water. Dimethyl oxalate can be obtained by esterification of ... and X.B. Ma et al., Preparation of Diphenyl Oxalate from Transesterification of Dimethyl Oxalate with Phenol over TS-1 Catalyst ... Dimethyl oxalate (and the related diethyl ester) is used in diverse condensation reactions. For example, diethyl oxalate ... Dimethyl oxalate can also be used as a methylating agent. It is notably less toxic than other methylating agents such as methyl ...
... is an inorganic compound, a salt of lithium metal and oxalic acid with the chemical formula C 2Li 2O 4. Lithium ... "di-Lithium oxalate". Merck Millipore. Retrieved 15 June 2021. Beagley, B.; Small, R. W. H. (1964-06-10). "The structure of ... "Lithium Oxalate". Millipore-Sigma. Retrieved 10 Feb 2022. Koch, Ernst-Christian (2009). Is it possible to Obtain a Deep Red ... Solchenbach, Sophie; Wetjen, Morten; Pritzl, Daniel; Schwenke, K. Uta; Gasteiger, Hubert A. (2018). "Lithium Oxalate as ...
... can be produced by precipitation from a mixture of a copper (II) salt and a sodium oxalate solution or by ... The compound also forms complex salts with alkali metal oxalates and ammonium oxalate: C u C 2 O 4 + K 2 C 2 O 4 + 2 H 2 O → K ... Copper oxalate is an inorganic compound, a salt of copper metal and oxalic acid with the chemical formula CuC 2O 4. The ... "Copper oxalate - Substance Information - ECHA". European Chemical Agency. Retrieved 17 June 2021. Royappa, A. Timothy; Royappa ...
... , also known as iron(III) oxalate, is a inorganic compound composed of ferric ions and oxalate ligands. It is a ... Like many oxalates, ferric oxalate has been investigated as a short-term treatment for dentin hypersensitivity. It is used in ... A number of other iron oxalates are known:- Iron(II) oxalate Potassium ferrioxalate Sodium ferrioxalate Ahouari, Hania; Rousse ... The oxalate ligand]]s are bridging. Some through all four oxygen atoms, some with two oxygen atoms. Half of the water is ...
The borate oxalates are chemical compounds containing borate and oxalate anions. Where the oxalate group is bound to the borate ... These can be termed boro-oxalates, bis(oxalato)borates, or oxalatoborates or oxalate borates. The oxalatoborates are ... Oxalatoborates have been produced by heating boric acid, oxalic acid and one of a metal oxalate, a metal carbonate or an amine ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Borates, Oxalates). ...
"BERYLLIUM OXALATE". chemicalbook.com. Retrieved 15 June 2021. "beryllium,oxalate". chemsrc.com. Retrieved 15 June 2021. ... Beryllium oxalate is an inorganic compound, a salt of beryllium metal and oxalic acid with the chemical formula C 2BeO 4. It ... Dollimore, David; Konieczay, Julie L. (1998-09-07). "The thermal decomposition of beryllium oxalate and related materials". ...
... (trademark name Cyalume) is a solid whose oxidation products are responsible for the chemiluminescence in a ... Orosz, György (January 1989). "The role of diaryl oxalates in peroxioxalate chemiluminescence". Tetrahedron. 45 (11): 3493-3506 ... "Standard enthalpies of formation of diphenyl oxalate and benzoic anhydride and some related bond dissociation energies". ...
... is the oxalate salt of rubidium, with the chemical formula of Rb2C2O4. Rubidium carbonate and oxalic acid ... In addition to the neutral rubidium oxalate, there is also a hydrogen oxalate with the formula RbH(COO)2, which is isomorphic ... Rubidium oxalate reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form a complex compound: ( C O O ) 2 R b 2 + 2 H F ⟶ ( C O O ) 2 H R b ⋅ H F ... "Crystal and molecular structures of alkali oxalates: first proof of a staggered oxalate anion in the solid state". Inorganic ...
... , or disodium oxalate, is the sodium salt of oxalic acid with the formula Na2C2O4. It is a white, crystalline, ... Mean lethal dose by ingestion of oxalates is 10-15 grams/kilogram of body weight (per MSDS). Sodium oxalate, like citrates, can ... Note that by removing calcium ions from the blood, sodium oxalate can impair brain function, and deposit calcium oxalate in the ... 8 H2O Like several other oxalates, sodium oxalate is toxic to humans. It can cause burning pain in the mouth, throat and ...
According to OSHA, magnesium oxalate is considered to be hazardous. Calcium oxalate Oxalic acid "Oxalates-Compound Summary". ... Magnesium oxalate is an organic compound comprising a magnesium cation with a 2+ charge bonded to an oxalate anion. It has the ... Magnesium oxalate can by synthesized by combining a magnesium salt or ion with an oxalate. Mg2+ + C2O42− → MgC2O4 A specific ... Magnesium oxalate is a skin and eye irritant. If inhaled, it will irritate the lungs and mucous membranes. Magnesium oxalate ...
Donkova, B.; Mehandjiev, D. (2004). "Mechanism of decomposition of manganese(II) oxalate dihydrate and manganese(II) oxalate ... Manganese oxalate is used as an auxiliary siccative. Manganese oxalate precursor is used to synthesize single phase ... Exchange reaction between sodium oxalate and manganese chloride: M n C l 2 + N a 2 C 2 O 4 + 2 H 2 O → M n C 2 O 4 ⋅ 2 H 2 O ... Manganese oxalate is a chemical compound, a salt of manganese and oxalic acid with the chemical formula MnC 2O 4. The compound ...
Some carbonate oxalate compounds of variable composition are formed by heating oxalates. One method to form carbonate oxalates ... The carbonate oxalates are mixed anion compounds that contain both carbonate (CO3) and oxalate (C2O4) anions. Most compounds ... Oxalate-Carbonate and Oxalate-Formate: Synthesis and Structure of [Ce(H2O)]2(C2O4)2(CO3)·2.5 H2O and Ce(C2O4)(HCO2)". Journal ... When heated, oxalate carbonates decompose to carbon monoxide and carbonates, which form oxides at higher temperatures. Cindrić ...
Iron forms two stable oxalates: Ferrous oxalate, Fe(C2O4) Ferric oxalate, Fe2(C2O4)3 This set index article lists chemical ...
... (BaC2O4), a barium salt of oxalic acid, is a white odorless powder that is sometimes used as a green pyrotechnic ... The raw materials that are required to prepare barium oxalate are oxalic acid and barium hydroxide (or its octahydrate). It can ... Though largely stable, barium oxalate can be reactive with strong acids. A mild skin irritant, the substance is considered ... 2 HCl rec.pyrotechnics FAQ MSDS Barium Oxalate ChemSpider (Articles without EBI source, Articles without KEGG source, ECHA ...
... (standard IUPAC spelling) dicesium oxalate, or cesium oxalate (American spelling) is the oxalate of caesium. ... Caesium oxalate has the chemical formula of Cs2C2O4. Caesium oxalate can be prepared by passing carbon monoxide and carbon ... "Crystal and Molecular Structures of Alkali Oxalates: First Proof of a Staggered Oxalate Anion in the Solid State". Inorganic ... The oxalate may form a complex with a metal that can make a salt with caesium. Examples include: Mixed anion compounds ...
Related compounds include the nitrite oxalates, arsenite oxalates, phosphate oxalates and oxalatophosphonates. The oxalate ion ... The oxalate phosphites are chemical compounds containing oxalate and phosphite anions. They are also called oxalatophosphites ... Many oxalate phosphite compounds have microporous structures where amines direct the structure formation. "Crystal Structure of ... Liu, Lin; Luo, Daibing; Li, Defu; Lin, Zhien (2014). "Solvent-free synthesis of new metal phosphite-oxalates with open- ...
... , C2H8N2O4 - more commonly written as (NH4)2C2O4 or (COONH4)2 - is an oxalate salt with ammonium (sometimes as ... Ammonium oxalate is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent. It and other oxalates are used as anticoagulants ... to preserve blood outside the body.[citation needed] Acid ammonium oxalate (ammonium oxalate acidified to pH 3 with oxalic acid ... Oxammite is a natural, mineral form of ammonium oxalate. This mineral is extremely rare. ...
Niobium(V) oxalate is the hydrogen oxalate salt of niobium(V). The neutral salt has not been prepared. Niobium(V) can form ... Study on thermal decomposition process of niobium oxalate. Fenxi Yiqi, 2009. (5): 75-77. Bian, Yu-bo; Jiang, Heng; Su, Ting- ... Study on the synthesis mechanism of NaNbO3 powder from sodium citrate and niobium oxalate). Huaxue Gongchengshi (Chemical ...
In enzymology, an oxalate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.2) is an oxalate degrading enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is oxalate carboxy-lyase (formate-forming). This enzyme is also called oxalate carboxy ... Tanner A, Bornemann S (2000). "Bacillus subtilis YvrK is an acid-induced oxalate decarboxylase". J. Bacteriol. 182 (18): 5271-3 ... Tanner A, Bowater L, Fairhurst SA, Bornemann S (2001). "Oxalate decarboxylase requires manganese and dioxygen for activity ...
"Lanthanum(III) oxalate hydrate". Sigma Aldrich. Retrieved 17 March 2023. "Lanthanum Oxalate Hydrate". Retrieved 17 March 2023. ... Lanthanum oxalate is an inorganic compound, a salt of lanthanum metal and oxalic acid with the chemical formula La 2(C 2O 4) 3 ... "Lanthanum oxalate". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 17 March 2023. Kolthoff, I. M.; Elmquist, Ruth. ( ... April 1931). "THE SOLUBILITIES OF LANTHANUM OXALATE AND OF LANTHANUM HYDROXIDE IN WATER. THE MOBILITY OF THE LANTHANUM ION AT ...
... is used in the manufacture of ceramic glazes. Magnesium oxalate Oxalic acid Sodium oxalate S. Deganello (1981 ... Some of the oxalate in urine is produced by the body. Calcium and oxalate in the diet play a part but are not the only factors ... Calcium oxalate (in archaic terminology, oxalate of lime) is a calcium salt of oxalic acid with the chemical formula CaC2O4 or ... Calcium oxalate is a combination of calcium ions and the conjugate base of oxalic acid, the oxalate anion. Its aqueous ...
... at American Elements Silver Oxalate MSDS sheet Archived 2013-12-12 at the Wayback Machine at mpbio Synthesizing ... Silver oxalate (Ag 2C 2O 4) is commonly employed in experimental petrology to add carbon dioxide (CO 2) to experiments as it ... Silver oxalate is produced by the reaction between silver nitrate and oxalic acid. Dioxane tetraketone John Rumble (June 18, ... Silver Oxalate Chemical Entity Data Page (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles without EBI source, Articles without KEGG ...
... trihydrate can be produced by the reaction of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate with oxalic acid. Uranyl oxalate has ... Uranyl oxalate (UO2C2O4) is a pale yellow powdered uranyl compound. It is often encountered in industrial nuclear processes at ... Due to its hygroscopicity, uranyl oxalate rarely exists in the dehydrated state and is usually instead found in the trihydrate ... Tel, H; Bülbül, M; Eral, M; Altaş, Y (November 1999). "Preparation and characterization of uranyl oxalate powders". Journal of ...
... can exist either in a hydrated form (SrC2O4•nH2O) or as the acidic salt of strontium oxalate (SrC2O4•mH2C2O4• ... Since this reaction produces carbon monoxide, which can undergo a further reduction with magnesium oxide, strontium oxalate is ... Knaepen, E. "Preparation and Thermal Decomposition of Various Forms of Strontium Oxalate". Thermochimica Acta 284.1 (1996): 213 ... Strontium oxalate is a compound with the chemical formula SrC2O4. ...
Cerium(III) oxalate (cerous oxalate) is the inorganic cerium salt of oxalic acid. It is a white crystalline solid with the ... "Cerium(III) Oxalate, Anhydrous". American Elements. Retrieved 2019-03-26. "KEGG DRUG: Cerium oxalate". KEGG DRUG Database. ... Cerium(III) oxalate irritates skin and mucous membranes, and is a strong irritant to eyes. If it gets into the eyes, there is a ... Cerium(III) oxalate is used as an antiemetic. It has been identified as part of the invisible ink that was used by Stasi ...
"oxalate(2−) (CHEBI:30623)". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2 January 2019. oxalate(2−) (CHEBI:30623) is conjugate base of oxalate(1 ... A salt with this anion is sometimes called an acid oxalate, monobasic oxalate, or hydrogen oxalate. The equilibrium constant ( ... An excess oxalate level in the blood is termed hyperoxalemia, and high levels of oxalate in the urine is termed hyperoxaluria. ... Oxalate.org - Oxalate content of 750+ foods from university and government sources (Articles with short description, Short ...
Lebedev, B.V.; Kulagina, T.G.; Lyudvig, Ye.B.; Ovchinnikova, T.N., Calorimetric study of ethylene oxalate, polyethylene oxalate ... Lebedev, B.V.; Kulagina, T.G.; Kiparisova, E.G., Thermodynamics of dl-lactide, ethylene oxalate, and 2,5-dioxopiperazine in the ... Lebedev, B.V.; Kulagina, T.G.; Kiparisova, Y.G., Thermodynamics of dl-lactide, ethylene oxalate, and 2,5-dioxopiperazine in the ... and parameters of the polymerization of ethylene oxalate in the range 8-450 K, Vysokomol. Soedin., 1982, A24, 1490-1495. [all ...
Exposures to plants containing oxalate crystals, such as Philodendron and Dieffenbachia, are among the most common toxic plant ... encoded search term (Plant Poisoning from Oxalates) and Plant Poisoning from Oxalates What to Read Next on Medscape ... Most patients who have been exposed to plants containing oxalates completely recover. In most cases, nonsoluble oxalate plants ... Plant Poisoning from Oxalates. Updated: Jul 25, 2023 * Author: Jason F Kearney, MD, MBA; Chief Editor: Sage W Wiener, MD more ...
... Molecular Formula: C7H13NO4S3 ...
Escitalopram oxalate is designated S-(+)-1- [3-(dimethyl-amino)propyl]-1-(p-fluorophenyl)-5-phthalancarbonitrile oxalate with ... ESCITALOPRAM OXALATE tablet. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ... ESCITALOPRAM OXALATE tablet. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they will be ... Escitalopram oxalate, USP occurs as a fine, white to slightly-yellow powder and is freely soluble in methanol and dimethyl ...
Ferrous Oxalate FeC2O4 bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term ... Ferrous Oxalate Synonyms. Iron(II) oxalate; Iron protoxalate; Iron(2+) oxalate; Oxalic acid, iron(2+) salt (1:1) Ethanedioic ... About Ferrous Oxalate. Ferrous Oxalate is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and ... Related Applications, Forms & Industries for Ferrous Oxalate. Chemical Manufacturing. Oxalates. Research & Laboratory. ...
Hey Robert I was just wondering your opinion on oxalates from certain foods wrecking havoc on peoples bodies. I ve been ... Is there a risk of eating foods such as sweet potatoes and spinach due to their oxalate content, or is there something she is ... Hey Robert I was just wondering your opinion on oxalates from certain foods wrecking havoc on peoples bodies. I ve been ...
Moderate oxalate foods and drinks should be limited to a maximum of two o three servings per day, whereas low oxalate food and ... For a low oxalate diet, high content oxalate food should be avoided. ... Low oxalate content food has less than 2 mg per serving.. Low oxalate diet. For a low oxalate diet, high content oxalate food ... Low oxalate diet. Why to control oxalates in food?. Redcurrants contain a high amount of oxalates. People with a tendency to ...
Oxalate Content of Foods. The amount of oxalate in foods is hard to pin down. In a 2007 review of oxalate in the Journal of the ... the low-oxalate diet can be abandoned because dietary oxalate is not the cause. Very high-oxalate foods should still be avoided ... Each person took turns eating a low-oxalate omnivore diet, a low-oxalate (70 mg) vegetarian diet, and a high-oxalate (300 mg) ... Oxalate is also known for the part it plays in calcium-oxalate kidney stones, which is the most common form of kidney stone. ...
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Discover the potential of L alaninium oxalate (LAO) as an organic nonlinear optical crystal. Explore its growth process, ... A potential organic nonlinear optical (NLO) single crystal based on amino acid, L alaninium oxalate (LAO) is grown using the ... K. Arun and S. Jayalekshmi, "Growth and Characterisation of Nonlinear Optical Single Crystals of L-Alaninium Oxalate," Journal ... Growth and Characterisation of Nonlinear Optical Single Crystals of L-Alaninium Oxalate () ...
So, oxalate is able to inhibit crystallization but not by impacting on the ions in solution (chelation). Ultimately, oxalate ... In the case of calcium carbonate, oxalate forms a layer of a solid called calcium oxalate, and this stops more calcium ... Oxalate can bind barium ions in the solution, but is this how it impacts? So, we thought it would be a good idea to see what ... What we learned is that oxalate does not form a new, different layer on the barium sulfate surface, but it clearly does stick ...
Too much oxalate may cause kidney stones in some people. ... Foods High in Oxalate. Overview. Oxalate is a compound found in ...
A low-oxalate diet, such as in urinary tract or kidney health situations, can be difficult to maintain ... A low-oxalate diet, such as in urinary tract or kidney health situations, can be difficult to maintain, as the oxalate content ... Healthy INSIDER Podcast 82: Nephure Novel Oxalate-Degrading EnzymeHealthy INSIDER Podcast 82: Nephure Novel Oxalate-Degrading ... Nephure is the first oxalate-degrading enzyme product on the market and is designed to help food and beverage manufacturers to ...
oxalate Warning!! STTM is about bat-guano crazy conspiracy theorists…and more Thyroid Tidbits!. March 26, 2013. By Janie ... New discovery about low magnesium & oxalates, plus a GOOD UK article, and when your spouse is hypo and wants out of the ...
Sodium Oxalate Solution ► Flinn Scientific SDS Sheets ► Learn health and safety information about chemicals. ... Sodium Oxalate Solution. Flinn Scientific, Inc. P.O. Box 219, Batavia, IL 60510 (800) 452-1261. Chemtrec Emergency Phone Number ...
... o-Bromo-N-(5-chloropentyl)-N-ethylbenzylamine oxalate (2-bromophenyl) ... BENZYLAMINE, o-BROMO-N-(5-CHLOROPENTYL)-N-ETHYL-, OXALATE Molecular Formula: C16H23BrClNO4 ...
... several of which are substantial and can have a sizable impact on the construction of a low oxalate diet. As dietary counseling ... Wide variations exist in the reported oxalate content of foods across several Web-based sources and smartphone applications, ... Oxalate content was extremely variable between various sources. Fruits with the widest observed range of oxalate included ... Smartphone applications were identified by their ability to assess oxalate content. Oxalate contents were obtained, and common ...
... acetate and oxalate in black crusts on historic monuments C. Sabbioni*, N. Ghedini^, A. Bonazza\ G. Gobbi\ M.A. RaggiM. Gigli ... Formate, acetate and oxalate in black crusts on historic monuments C. Sabbioni*, N. Ghedini^, A. Bonazza\ G. Gobbi\ M.A. RaggiM ...
... oxalate CoA-transferase (Shigella flexneri). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against ...
But if you are having issues with oxalates, then those really high rapid oxalate intervention or oxalate foods like the celery ... you mentioned the oxalate dumping. So when you start limiting the intake of oxalates, there is this potential for oxalate ... If we suspect oxalates, it has to be a progression and not all at once. So with the diet, we slowly phase these oxalate foods ... I do see oxalates and high aluminum sometimes going together. But I see high oxalates for so many other reasons. So I think ...
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1 Serum oxalate is excreted in urine and excessive filtration can cause calcium oxalate stones or nephropathy. Oxalate ... Influence of a high-oxalate diet on intestinal oxalate absorption. World J Urol 2005;23:324-9.doi:10.1007/s00345-005-0028-0pmid ... Oxalate is an organic acid and end product of ascorbic acid metabolism in humans and plants. In humans, dietary free oxalate is ... Based on the high oxalate content of her urine collection and calcium oxalate deposition on kidney biopsy, she was counselled ...
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  • An excess oxalate level in the blood is termed hyperoxalemia, and high levels of oxalate in the urine is termed hyperoxaluria. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, our bodies do not use oxalate in any way, nor degrade it, and it must be excreted through the urine or feces. (veganhealth.org)
  • Even if oxalate intake is zero, oxalate will be excreted in the urine as a result of normal metabolism. (veganhealth.org)
  • When oxalate combines with calcium in urine, it becomes insoluble (i.e., a solid). (veganhealth.org)
  • Oxalate is a metabolite consumed in nuts, beans and leaves, and excreted in urine. (bmj.com)
  • Her 24-hour urine output revealed increased oxalate and low citrate. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Serum oxalate is excreted in urine and excessive filtration can cause calcium oxalate stones or nephropathy. (bmj.com)
  • Acidifying the body leads to an acid urine pH and more calcium loss into the urine, both factors in the development of a calcium oxalate stone. (vin.com)
  • Cats with calcium oxalate stones tend not to have bladder infections and to have acid urine pH on their urinalysis. (vin.com)
  • This stabilized his blood creatinine levels and his urine oxalate dropped by a third from 99 to 63mg per day. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Normal urine oxalate is under 40-45 mg/day. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Interestingly, this patient's urine oxalate levels, although lower, remained elevated (63mg/day) despite effective diet therapy. (sallyknorton.com)
  • This potential complication -the possibility of increased oxalate absorption leading to high urine oxalates and, eventually, kidney failure - is not typically discussed at the time of consent to surgery. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Most people eliminate oxalate compound easily in their urine or stool. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • Extremely high levels of oxalates in the urine are more consistent with genetic tendencies. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • Another study, from 2006, examined whether women experiencing vulvar pain, along with hyperoxaluria - a higher oxalate concentration in their urine - would benefit from a low-oxalate diet along with oral intake of calcium citrate, a supplement that helps reduce the level of oxalates in the urine. (heathercooan.com)
  • First, citrate complexes to calcium ions in the urine, reducing calcium ion activity, which results in lowering the urinary supersaturation of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate. (medscape.com)
  • Citrate also increases the calcium oxalate aggregation inhibitory activity of urine macromolecules (eg, Tamm-Horsfall protein) and may reduce the expression of urinary osteopontin, which is an important component of the protein matrix of urinary stones. (medscape.com)
  • Exposures to plants containing oxalate crystals, such as Philodendron and Dieffenbachia , are among the most common toxic plant exposures reported in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Nonsoluble calcium oxalate crystals are found in plant stems, roots, and leaves. (medscape.com)
  • If enough calcium-oxalate crystals form in the bladder, kidney stones can develop. (veganhealth.org)
  • K. Arun and S. Jayalekshmi, "Growth and Characterisation of Nonlinear Optical Single Crystals of L-Alaninium Oxalate," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering , Vol. 8 No. 8, 2009, pp. 635-646. (scirp.org)
  • The crystals were composed of calcium oxalate silicates as whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate) composites. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Canadian nephrologists reported a case of life-threatening kidney damage caused by kidney deposits of oxalate crystals. (sallyknorton.com)
  • The biopsy found oxalate crystals causing tubular damage and atrophy, fibrosis, and inflammation. (sallyknorton.com)
  • calcium oxalate and amorphous urate crystals were further reported in microscopic examinations. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors also show directly that the light scattered by the calcium oxalate crystals is utilized for photosynthesis, and that the ultraviolet component of light passing through silica bodies, is absorbed. (lu.se)
  • If you have a history of calcium-oxalate kidney stones or suspect you have hyperoxaluria, there are a few more things you can do such as limit oxalate as much as possible, add citrate to your diet (through orange or lemon juice, or calcium citrate), minimize added fructose and sodium, or try a probiotic supplement as described below. (veganhealth.org)
  • These included one patient with proven primary hyperoxaluria, one suspected of having this disease and 11 patients in whom no information was available as to their oxalate metabolism. (portlandpress.com)
  • 3. The patient with primary hyperoxaluria had a plasma oxalate concentration before dialysis above 100 μmol/l and after dialysis above 25 μmol/l, while the oxalate concentration in haemodialysate at the start of dialysis was above 25 μmol/l and at the end above 10 μmol/l. (portlandpress.com)
  • Of the remaining 11 patients, one was shown to exhibit a transient hyperoxaluria, but the others showed a normal oxalate metabolism. (portlandpress.com)
  • 4. A plasma oxalate/creatinine concentration ratio exceeding 0.1, and the calculated total quantity of oxalate removed by dialysis exceeding 2 mmol, also enabled a diagnosis of hyperoxaluria to be made. (portlandpress.com)
  • Measurements of oxalate in haemodialysate and plasma are valuable in cases where kidney transplantations are considered, especially when the particular patient exhibits hyperoxaluria. (portlandpress.com)
  • The authors' want practicing clinicians to be aware of the increased risk of excessive absorption of oxalates from food following weight-loss surgery ("secondary enteric hyperoxaluria") which can lead to kidney stones and life-threatening renal failure due to oxalate-induced kidney damage. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Out of 40 women with confirmed vulvar pain, just seven of them were found to have hyperoxaluria and only one of these seven experienced benefits from going on a low-oxalate diet and calcium citrate study. (heathercooan.com)
  • Because of this low incidence, of both hyperoxaluria and any achieved benefits resulting from the dietary change, researchers concluded that there was no clinical benefit in performing testing and suggesting a low-oxalate diet for women experiencing vulvar pain. (heathercooan.com)
  • Here, women with vulvar pain syndrome and those without were examined for hyperoxaluria, and 59 patients were put on a low-oxalate diet and calcium citrate supplementation. (heathercooan.com)
  • Cutting down on the amount of oxalate in the diet is another strategy for reducing stone recurrence. (veganhealth.org)
  • However, many people have reported improved health on a low-oxalate diet and given the high amount of oxalate in some plant foods, it might be a good idea for vegans to be aware of this issue and not eat unusually high amounts of these foods. (veganhealth.org)
  • The amount of oxalate in coffee is becoming a major concern among coffee lovers who've been seen to have oxalate sensitivity issues. (painspy.com)
  • In studies with rats, calcium supplements given along with foods high in oxalic acid can cause calcium oxalate to precipitate in the gut and reduce the levels of oxalate absorbed by the body (by 97% in some cases). (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms a variety of salts, for example sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), and several esters such as dimethyl oxalate (C2O4(CH3)2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Minerals containing oxalate and salts of other organic acids. (chemeurope.com)
  • These surgeries can trigger an increase in the absorption of dietary oxalates (perhaps due to bile salts in the colon and fat malabsorption in the small intestine). (sallyknorton.com)
  • Some calcium-oxalate stone formers are prescribed potassium-citrate tablets which are also effective at reducing stones. (veganhealth.org)
  • calcium citrate if you have a history of calcium-oxalate stones. (veganhealth.org)
  • The patient was treated with a low-oxalate diet, calcium citrate (1,000 mg 3 times a day with meals), high water consumption, and the drug cholestyramine to help reduce oxalate absorption. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Anyone who is increasing their water intake or taking calcium citrate to reduce absorption of oxalates needs to be aware that timing is important. (sallyknorton.com)
  • The experiments undertaken in this study were aimed at determining whether the organic acids, citrate and oxalate, could enhance the uptake of P-33 from a calcareous soil with a high P fixation capacity (Typic rendoll). (lu.se)
  • While oxalate resulted in an approximately two-fold enhancement in shoot P-33 accumulation, citrate did not result in a significant enhancement of P-33 uptake above controls to which only distilled water were added. (lu.se)
  • No synergistic effect on shoot P-33 accumulation was observed when both oxalate and citrate were added to the soil simultaneously. (lu.se)
  • To demonstrate the suitability of Method 993.31 as an extraction procedure for K2O, as well as P2O5 in fertilizers, Method 993.31 extraction for K2O was compared with Method 983.02, the traditional ammonium oxalate extraction procedure for K2O. (jostchemical.com)
  • Ammonium Oxalate - 500GM / Laboratory is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. (ases.in)
  • A salt with this anion is sometimes called an acid oxalate, monobasic oxalate, or hydrogen oxalate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These values imply, in solutions with neutral pH, no oxalic acid and only trace amounts of hydrogen oxalate exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium oxalate monohydrate is the monohydrate form of potassium oxalate. (agscientific.com)
  • Potassium oxalate monohydrate is a strong dicarboxylic acid that forms naturally in many different types of plants and vegetables. (agscientific.com)
  • Once ingested, oxalates bind to minerals to form compounds, including calcium oxalate and iron oxalate. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • In most cases, nonsoluble oxalate plants produce self-limited symptoms and clinical manifestations. (medscape.com)
  • What are the symptoms and conditions associated with oxalates? (betterhealthguy.com)
  • Oxalate deposits in the body develop gradually and often without symptoms. (sallyknorton.com)
  • While it is common to have some oxalate in a normally-functioning system, too much can lead to several negative effects or health symptoms which will be discussed here. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • The highly insoluble iron(II) oxalate appears to play a major role in gout, in the nucleation and growth of the otherwise extremely soluble sodium urate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ozone treatment of a sodium humate solution decreased the amount of organic carbon, as humic acids, by as much as 33 pct, but did not oxidize oxalate. (cdc.gov)
  • Our bodies make oxalate as an end product of metabolism (primarily the metabolism of the protein amino acids glycine and serine, but also of vitamin C and possibly fructose). (veganhealth.org)
  • Oxalate is an organic acid and end product of ascorbic acid metabolism in humans and plants. (bmj.com)
  • Oxalosis is most commonly caused by fat malabsorption, but other factors include mineral deficiencies, fasting states, loss of oxalate, degrading microbes, genetic defects in metabolism and diet. (bmj.com)
  • Is there a risk of eating foods such as sweet potatoes and spinach due to their oxalate content, or is there something she is missing in her thesis? (startingstrength.com)
  • Oxalate is generally not found in animal products while many plant foods are moderate or high, and some are extremely high (such as spinach, beets, beet greens, sweet potatoes, peanuts, rhubarb, and swiss chard). (veganhealth.org)
  • Among vegetables, the oxalate contents of spinach (364.44-1145 mg/100 g), rhubarb (511-983.61 mg/100 g), and beets (36.9-794.12 mg/100 g) were most variable. (nih.gov)
  • At neutral pH in aqueous solution, oxalic acid converts completely to oxalate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxalic acid and oxalates can be oxidized by permanganate in an autocatalytic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the main applications of oxalic acid is rust-removal, which arises because oxalate forms water-soluble derivatives with the ferric ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • A potential organic nonlinear optical (NLO) single crystal based on amino acid, L alaninium oxalate (LAO) is grown using the simple chiral amino acid L alanine and oxalic acid by slow evaporation method. (scirp.org)
  • However, oxalic acid kidney stones are not uncommon, and are the result of the accumulation of oxalates in the kidneys. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • Bis(aripiprazolium) oxalate-oxalic acid (1/1). (bvsalud.org)
  • Foods high in oxalate are often avoided by people at risk of gout. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hey Robert I was just wondering your opinion on oxalates from certain foods wrecking havoc on peoples bodies. (startingstrength.com)
  • Moderate oxalate foods and drinks should be limited to a maximum of two o three servings per day, whereas low oxalate food and drink is not restricted at all in this type of diet. (botanical-online.com)
  • The following chart shows a classification of many different foods according to their oxalate content. (botanical-online.com)
  • Please see the Contents above for quick links to more details about all of these topics as well as tables of the oxalate content of foods and other helpful resources. (veganhealth.org)
  • Oxalate is a small molecule found in large amounts in many plants foods but not found in animal foods. (veganhealth.org)
  • Oxalate is a compound found in some foods, and it is also produced as a waste product by the body. (uofmhealth.org)
  • In this podcast, INSIDER's Steve Myers talks to Nephure CEO Helena Cowley about a new novel enzyme ingredient that helps remove oxalate from foods and beverages. (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • Oxalate contents were obtained, and common foods were selected for comparison. (nih.gov)
  • Wide variations exist in the reported oxalate content of foods across several Web-based sources and smartphone applications, several of which are substantial and can have a sizable impact on the construction of a low oxalate diet. (nih.gov)
  • As dietary counseling has proven benefits, patients and caregivers should be aware of the heterogeneity that exists in the reported oxalate content of foods. (nih.gov)
  • We touched on oxalates in foods as a possible contributor to gut health deterioration and inflammatory illnesses. (sallyknorton.com)
  • 2 Nor are these patients typically told that they can minimize the risk by modifying their diet to avoid oxalates in foods. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Patients who have these stones may have a genetic disorder predisposing them to accumulate oxalates when foods high in oxalates are ingested. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • While there is some importance in determining if high oxalates are primary (genetic) or caused by other factors, such as foods, the main takeaway is that they be identified, and reduced in all cases. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • The biggest difference is that foods that are high in oxalates should be continually avoided in primary cases, whereas in those situations caused by fungal/yeast overgrowth, these particular food avoidances may be temporary. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • Oxalates are naturally occurring organic compounds that are found in a lot of different vegetables and whole foods, like leafy greens, nuts, and even dark chocolate. (heathercooan.com)
  • Using self-reported data, participants tracked their consumption of high-oxalate foods and their total weekly dietary intake of oxalates. (heathercooan.com)
  • Like we'd expect with most other cereal foods, is oatmeal high in oxalates? (painspy.com)
  • But basically, most nutritious foods contain more oxalates. (painspy.com)
  • And since your body REALLY needs certain nutrients to stay healthy, the way to lower oxalate content in foods is using an oxalate reducing enzyme in your meals. (painspy.com)
  • To account for variations in dietary oxalate content in resources available to hyperoxaluric patients. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike struvite stones, calcium oxalate stones will not dissolve with dietary manipulation, although an attempt can certainly be made at dietary dissolution. (vin.com)
  • One of the more recent studies examined the influence of dietary oxalates on the development of vulvodynia. (heathercooan.com)
  • Then using conditional logistic regression analyses, researchers determined that there was no increased risk of developing vulvodynia for those consuming an oxalate-rich diet, leading them to conclude that dietary oxalate consumption doesn't appear to be associated with a greater risk of developing vulvodynia later in life. (heathercooan.com)
  • However, here comes two important questions you may need to know their answers relating to popcorn and oxalate concentration. (painspy.com)
  • Currently, the best and most affordable test to do to determine if oxalates are a problem is the urinary organic acids tests. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • For this reason, oxalates and whether they play a role in vulvar pain, vulvodynia, and other conditions affecting the vulva, like lichen sclerosus, has become a much talked about topic. (heathercooan.com)
  • Even though there isn't much research looking into this topic, we're going to take a look at what is out there with respect to oxalate and vulvar pain. (heathercooan.com)
  • This study from 2008 was looking to see if there was any correlation between eating a diet high in oxalates and the likelihood of developing vulvar pain conditions in adulthood. (heathercooan.com)
  • And before those studies, the role that urinary oxalate excretion played in vulvar pain syndrome was investigated in a study in 1997. (heathercooan.com)
  • These results led the researchers to conclude that urinary oxalates may be an irritant that aggravates vulvodynia, but that oxalates being an instigator of vulvar pain was doubtful. (heathercooan.com)
  • Though this is certainly not exhaustive research, the research that has been done on the topic has demonstrated that the role oxalates play in vulvar pain is weak at best. (heathercooan.com)
  • High content oxalate food contains more than 10 mg of oxalate per serving. (botanical-online.com)
  • Low oxalate content food has less than 2 mg per serving. (botanical-online.com)
  • For a low oxalate diet, high content oxalate food should be avoided. (botanical-online.com)
  • A low-oxalate diet, such as in urinary tract or kidney health situations, can be difficult to maintain, as the oxalate content of food or beverage is not always apparent. (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • Our objective is to examine the heterogeneity of the oxalate content reported across various Web-based sources and smartphone applications. (nih.gov)
  • A search of "oxalate content of food" was performed using the Google search engine. (nih.gov)
  • Smartphone applications were identified by their ability to assess oxalate content. (nih.gov)
  • Oxalate content was extremely variable between various sources. (nih.gov)
  • Among nuts, the oxalate content of peanuts ranged from 64.57 to 348.58 mg/100 g, and pecans ranged from 4.08 to 404.08 mg/100 g. (nih.gov)
  • To really understand Ginger's oxalate content its important we first understand this root plant in a bit of depth. (painspy.com)
  • Basic calcium phosphate (apatite) and calcium oxalate crystal disorders tend to cause clinical manifestations similar to those of other crystal-induced arthritides. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many metal ions form insoluble precipitates with oxalate, a prominent example being calcium oxalate, the primary constituent of the most common kind of kidney stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • People suffering from a tendency to develop calcium -oxalate kidney stones, those suffering for arthritis or gout should avoid eating high oxalate food . (botanical-online.com)
  • Oxalate is also known for the part it plays in calcium-oxalate kidney stones, which is the most common form of kidney stone. (veganhealth.org)
  • The story regarding oxalate does not end with kidney stones. (veganhealth.org)
  • Too much oxalate may cause kidney stones in some people. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Why Do Cats Develop Calcium Oxalate Bladder Stones? (vin.com)
  • About 25 years or so ago, cats virtually never developed calcium oxalate bladder stones. (vin.com)
  • The trade-off was that calcium oxalate bladder stones began to develop. (vin.com)
  • Currently, most bladder stones formed by cats are calcium oxalate stones. (vin.com)
  • Burmese and Himalayan cats appear genetically predisposed to the development of calcium oxalate bladder stones. (vin.com)
  • Most calcium oxalate stones develop in cats between ages 5 and 14 years. (vin.com)
  • 35% of cats with calcium oxalate bladder stones have elevated blood calcium ( hypercalcemia ). (vin.com)
  • Oxalate stones can become very large and deeply imbedded in the kidney tissues, often referred to as staghorn kidney stones. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • Oxalate in Coffee and Kidney Stones: Do you Need to Worry? (painspy.com)
  • Stones were predominantly of mixed type: calcium oxalate was the commonest compound. (who.int)
  • Oxalate also forms coordination compounds where it is sometimes abbreviated as ox. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because, once they are consumed, they bind to minerals, like calcium and iron, forming oxalate compounds, rendering them no longer useful to the body in terms of nutrition. (heathercooan.com)
  • And, even more, the 24-hour excretion of oxalate was nearly identical between control participants and those with vulvodynia. (heathercooan.com)
  • High meat intake increases the urinary excretion of calcium, oxalate, and uric acid and decreases urinary pH and citric excretion. (medscape.com)
  • Renal biopsy showed glomerulosclerosis, fibrosis and calcium oxalate deposition. (bmj.com)
  • Oxalate nephropathy (ON), is a rare form of kidney injury from calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the kidney parenchyma. (bmj.com)
  • She underwent renal biopsy which showed diffuse global glomerulosclerosis with prominent subcapsular fibrosis, tubular atrophy, severe interstitial fibrosis involving 60% of the cortex ( figure 1 ) and calcium oxalate deposition ( figure 2 ) on light microscopy. (bmj.com)
  • New discovery about low magnesium & oxalates, plus a GOOD UK article, and when your spouse is hypo and wants out of the relationship! (stopthethyroidmadness.com)
  • oxalate bound to calcium, iron and magnesium is excreted in faeces. (bmj.com)
  • Clinical evaluation of ferric oxalate in relieving dentine hypersensitivity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Redcurrants contain a high amount of oxalates. (botanical-online.com)
  • Do not include large amounts of high-oxalate vegetables in your green smoothies. (veganhealth.org)
  • We describe a rare case of a high-oxalate diet intended for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) treatment causing oxalate nephropathy. (bmj.com)
  • 2 3 We describe a rare case of a high-oxalate diet, recommended for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) treatment, causing ON. (bmj.com)
  • Not much has been directly studied in regards to high oxalate levels and mold exposure , but there are significant testing correlations between mycotoxin accumulation in the body and oxalate issues. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • Thus, if high oxalates are found to be plaguing your health, one of the easiest next steps is to test your environment to see if the air you are breathing might be contributing to that issue. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • Is popcorn high in oxalates? (painspy.com)
  • Is Arugula High in Oxalate - are its supplements safe? (painspy.com)
  • Is arugula high in oxalate? (painspy.com)
  • Is Kale High in Oxalate? (painspy.com)
  • Now back to our question, "is kale high in oxalate? (painspy.com)
  • Is coffee high in oxalates? (painspy.com)
  • Question number one: Is ginger high in oxalate? (painspy.com)
  • Is Oatmeal High in Oxalates Like Other Processed Grains? (painspy.com)
  • It is likely that shrinking tissue oxalate deposits leave in their wake persistent renal scarring and tissue damage elsewhere. (sallyknorton.com)
  • The renal damage caused by oxalates may not be reversible so it is important to start the low oxalate diet as early as possible. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Oxalate is a molecule many in the vegan community are familiar with for preventing the absorption of calcium. (veganhealth.org)
  • In this paper, we are looking at how a molecule called oxalate interacts with barium sulfate crystallization. (databasefootball.com)
  • Oxalate can bind barium ions in the solution, but is this how it impacts? (databasefootball.com)
  • So, oxalate is able to inhibit crystallization but not by impacting on the ions in solution (chelation). (databasefootball.com)
  • These findings are described in the article entitled The impact of oxalate ions on barium sulfate crystallization , recently published in the Journal of Crystal Growth . (databasefootball.com)
  • An oxalate diet needs to limit the ingest of oxalates to 40 o 50 mg a day. (botanical-online.com)
  • She switched to a low-oxalate diet, with improvement in laboratory markers. (bmj.com)
  • A case of kidney failure after bariatric surgery is stopped with low-oxalate diet. (sallyknorton.com)
  • and 3) this process may be arrested by limiting oxalate absorption with a low-oxalate diet and supportive therapies. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Discharge and follow-up counseling and education should include instructions for the low-oxalate diet. (sallyknorton.com)
  • 3 Although rarely prescribed by clinicians, a low oxalate diet can help avert the risk of too much oxalate and may be especially important for people with intestinal and digestive problems, including, but not limited to weight-loss surgery. (sallyknorton.com)
  • On the low oxalate or low histamine diet but still have constipation? (betterbellytherapies.com)
  • 4 Other surgical procedures (intestinal resection, ileostomy, bladder diversion surgery) and GI conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease, Crohn's disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), pancreatic insufficiency, or poor fat digestion (steatorrhea) can also contribute to excessive absorption of oxalates in the digestive tract. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Treatment of bauxite with mNO2 and of oxalate in solution with oxygen in the presence of ultraviolet light produced marginal decreases in oxalate. (cdc.gov)
  • Water with meals can increase oxalate absorption, so drink fluids between meals. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Calcium oxalate and silica minerals are common components of a variety of plant leaves. (lu.se)
  • Here tools are used from the fields of biology, optics, and imaging to investigate the distributions of calcium oxalate, silica minerals, and chloroplasts in okra leaves, in relation to their functions. (lu.se)
  • A correlative approach is developed to simultaneously visualize calcium oxalates, silica minerals, chloroplasts, and leaf soft tissue in 3D without affecting the minerals or the organic components. (lu.se)
  • This distribution points to a significant role of oxalate and silica minerals to synergistically optimize the light regime in the leaf. (lu.se)
  • In this episode, you will learn about the impact of oxalates on health and how oxalates may be a secondary mycotoxin. (betterhealthguy.com)
  • How might oxalates be considered a secondary mycotoxin? (betterhealthguy.com)
  • Nephure is the first oxalate-degrading enzyme product on the market and is designed to help food and beverage manufacturers to remove oxalate. (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • Calcium oxalate is the main toxic component in clinical presentations of alocasis macrorrhiza (L) Schott and Endl poisonings. (medscape.com)
  • What is its position in the oxalate acid chart. (painspy.com)
  • They also say that you cannot rely on getting a kidney stone as a warning sign before oxalate accumulates in other tissues. (veganhealth.org)
  • Consistent with reports from cases of genetic oxalosis, this may indicate that the patient's tissues are shedding existing oxalate deposits in the kidney and elsewhere in the body. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Oxalates are so acidic, that they are capable of impacting many soft tissues resulting in chronic and debilitating pain. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • Oxalates can accumulate in these tissues, as well as in nerve tissue, leading to chronic pain and mobility issues. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • Most frequently, this particular condition results from oxalate accumulation from chronic yeast or mold exposure. (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • If you have had any kind of oxalate-based kidney stone, it's smart to reduce it! (lowoxcoach.com)
  • I was recently interviewed about Oxalates and Health by Sunny Gardener on Lightly On The Ground Radio on 97.3 WRIR, in Richmond VA. This show aired on Aug. 12, 2015. (sallyknorton.com)
  • Are Oxalates Messing With Your Health? (sinusitiswellness.com)
  • You'll learn much more as Cynthia and I have a lively discussion about oxalate and all things health. (lowoxcoach.com)
  • I've done a lot of research on oxalate and pain health. (painspy.com)