Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Methicillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Dicloxacillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Parkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Ralstonia: A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Staphylococcus haemolyticus: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS found on the skin of humans (and non-human primates), often causing hospital-acquired infections (CROSS INFECTION).Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Lysostaphin: A 25-kDa peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans which cleaves a glycine-glcyine bond unique to an inter-peptide cross-bridge of the STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS cell wall. EC Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Staphylococcus saprophyticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It commonly causes urinary tract infections in humans.Daptomycin: A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Sulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Myelitis, Transverse: Inflammation of a transverse portion of the spinal cord characterized by acute or subacute segmental demyelination or necrosis. The condition may occur sporadically, follow an infection or vaccination, or present as a paraneoplastic syndrome (see also ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED). Clinical manifestations include motor weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1242-6)Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Teicoplanin: Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Pneumonia, Staphylococcal: Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Propyl Gallate: Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Fusidic Acid: An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.Cefamandole: Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Virginiamycin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Gray Platelet Syndrome: A rare, inherited platelet disorder characterized by a selective deficiency in the number and contents of platelet alpha-granules. It is associated with THROMBOCYTOPENIA, enlarged platelets, and prolonged bleeding time.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Auditory Diseases, Central: Disorders of hearing or auditory perception due to pathological processes of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. These include CENTRAL HEARING LOSS and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.PeptidoglycanTransplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Micrococcal Nuclease: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.OsteomyelitisTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.BrazilCyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

Evaluation of MRSA-Screen, a simple anti-PBP 2a slide latex agglutination kit, for rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. (1/449)

The MRSA-Screen test (Denka Seiken Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), consisting of a slide latex agglutination kit that detects PBP 2a with a monoclonal antibody, was blindly compared to the oxacillin disk diffusion test, the oxacillin-salt agar screen, and PCR of the mecA gene for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 120 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 80 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, defined by the absence or presence of the mecA gene, respectively, were tested. The MRSA-Screen test, the oxacillin disk diffusion test, and the oxacillin-salt agar screening test showed sensitivities of 100, 61.3, and 82.5% and specificities of 99.2, 96.7, and 98.3%, respectively. We conclude that the MRSA-Screen is a very accurate, reliable, and fast test (15 min) for differentiation of MRSA from MSSA colonies on agar plates.  (+info)

Misclassification of susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus as methicillin-resistant S. aureus By a rapid automated susceptibility testing system. (2/449)

Eight Staphylococcus aureus strains initially identified by Vitek GPS-BS or GPS-SA cards as resistant to oxacillin, but susceptible to most non-beta-lactam antibiotics, were found on further testing to be susceptible to oxacillin and ceftizoxime by disk diffusion tests. For all these strains, the MICs of oxacillin were +info)

Oxacillin susceptibility testing of staphylococci directly from Bactec Plus blood cultures by the BBL Crystal MRSA ID system. (3/449)

The BBL Crystal MRSA ID test (Becton Dickinson) was applied directly to blood culture vials containing clusters of gram-positive cocci. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 84 and 100% and 54 and 100% for vials containing Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, respectively. This test is a reliable method for direct detection of methicillin resistance in positive blood culture vials when S. aureus is identified in parallel by rapid identification procedures.  (+info)

Disk with high oxacillin content discriminates between methicillin-resistant and borderline methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains in disk diffusion assays using a low salt concentration. (4/449)

A separation between mecA+ strains of Staphylococcus aureus and strains lacking mecA was achieved by the disk diffusion assay and the agar dilution method, utilizing disks containing 5 microg of oxacillin and inocula of approximately 5 x 10(5) CFU/spot, respectively, provided that agar with 0 to 0.5% NaCl and incubation at 30 degrees C were employed. The 5-microg oxacillin disks clearly discriminated between borderline methicillin-susceptible and mecA+ strains. The oxacillin MICs were more affected by the inoculum density and salt concentration than were the methicillin MICs, and oxacillin MICs of 4 to 16 microg/ml were obtained for strains lacking mecA. Significantly higher levels of beta-lactamase production and reduced oxacillin susceptibilities were recorded for strains lacking mecA, in particular strains of phage group V, when agar with >/=2% NaCl was used than when agar with 0 to 0.5% NaCl was employed. The results indicate that the borderline methicillin-susceptible phenotype is a salt-dependent in vitro phenomenon of questionable clinical relevance.  (+info)

Evaluation of a new 3-h hybridization method for detecting the mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus and comparison with existing genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility testing methods. (5/449)

A new 3-h hybridization assay for detection of the staphylococcal mecA gene and the Staphylococcus aureus nuclease gene was evaluated by comparing the assay with existing genotypic and phenotypic methods. A total of 275 S. aureus strains were tested, including 257 epidemiologically unrelated strains (135 mecA-positive and 122 mecA-negative; collection I), and 18 strains with known borderline resistance to methicillin (collection II). Complete agreement was obtained for both collections when comparing the new assay with genotypic methods. We further evaluated a range of phenotypic susceptibility methods recommended in Europe and/or USA using the presence of the mecA gene as the defining standard. For collection I a high degree of agreement was found for both Etests (256 strains) and the oxacillin screen plate test (255 strains); the degree of agreement was lower for agar dilution methicillin (250 strains) and oxacillin 1 microg discs (239 strains). For the borderline strains a high degree of agreement was only obtained by the oxacillin screen plate test (17 of 18 strains). The other tests were less accurate, in the following order: agar dilution methicillin, Etest methicillin, Etest oxacillin and oxacillin discs with disagreement for four, five, nine and 13 strains, respectively. In conclusion, the new hybridization assay is a rapid and exact method for detecting the mecA gene and the S. aureus nuclease gene. This study confirms that phenotypic tests for methicillin resistance in S. aureus strains creates both false-susceptible and false-resistant results, especially for borderline resistant strains.  (+info)

Topoisomerase sequences of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin or trovafloxacin. (6/449)

Coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates (n = 188) were screened for susceptibility to oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, and trovafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone. At an oxacillin concentration of >/=4 microg/ml, 43% were methicillin resistant; of these, 70% were ciprofloxacin resistant (MIC, >/=4 microg/ml). Of the methicillin-resistant, ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, 46% were susceptible to /=8 microg/ml) and increased trovafloxacin MICs (0.25 to 2 microg/ml) could be conferred by the combined presence of single mutations in each gyrA and grlA gene. Trovafloxacin MICs of >/=8 microg/ml also occurred, but these required an additional mutation in grlA.  (+info)

Comparative efficacies of liposomal amikacin (MiKasome) plus oxacillin versus conventional amikacin plus oxacillin in experimental endocarditis induced by Staphylococcus aureus: microbiological and echocardiographic analyses. (7/449)

Optimal treatment strategies for serious infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus have not been fully characterized. The combination of a beta-lactam plus an aminoglycoside can act synergistically against S. aureus in vitro and in vivo. MiKasome, a new liposome-encapsulated formulation of conventional amikacin, significantly prolongs serum half-life (t1/2) and increases the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) compared to free amikacin. Microbiologic efficacy and left ventricular function, as assessed by echocardiography, were compared in animals administered either oxacillin alone or oxacillin in combination with conventional amikacin or MiKasome in a rabbit model of experimental endocarditis due to S. aureus. In vitro, oxacillin, combined with either free amikacin or MiKasome, prevented the bacterial regrowth observed with aminoglycosides alone at 24 h of incubation. Rabbits with S. aureus endocarditis were treated with either oxacillin alone (50 mg/kg, given intramuscularly three times daily), oxacillin plus daily amikacin (27 mg/kg, given intravenously twice daily), or oxacillin plus intermittent MiKasome (160 mg/kg, given intravenously, a single dose on days 1 and 4). The oxacillin-alone dosage represents a subtherapeutic regimen against the infecting strain in the endocarditis model (L. Hirano and A. S. Bayer, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:685-690, 1991), thus allowing recognition of any enhanced bactericidal effects between oxacillin and either aminoglycoside formulation. Treatment was administered for either 3 or 6 days, and animals were sacrificed after each of these time points or at 5 days after a 6-day treatment course (to evaluate for posttherapy relapse). Left ventricular function was analyzed by utilizing serial transthoracic echocardiography during treatment and posttherapy by measurement of left ventricular fractional shortening. At all sacrifice times, both combination regimens significantly reduced S. aureus vegetation counts versus control counts (P < 0.05). In contrast, oxacillin alone did not significantly reduce S. aureus vegetation counts after 3 days of therapy. Furthermore, at this time point, the two combinations were significantly more effective than oxacillin alone (P < 0.05). All three regimens were effective in significantly decreasing bacterial counts in the myocardium during and after therapy compared to controls (P < 0.05). In kidney and spleen abscesses, all regimens significantly reduced bacterial counts during therapy (P < 0.0001); however, only the combination regimens prevented bacteriologic relapse in these organs posttherapy. By echocardiographic analysis, both combination regimens yielded a significant physiological benefit by maintaining normal left ventricular function during treatment and posttherapy compared with oxacillin alone (P < 0.001). These results suggest that the use of intermittent MiKasome (similar to daily conventional amikacin) enhances the in vivo bactericidal effects of oxacillin in a severe S. aureus infection model and preserves selected physiological functions in target end organs.  (+info)

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal types in the Czech Republic. (8/449)

Molecular surveillance studies have documented the extensive spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones. Studies carried out by Centro de Epidemiologia Molecular-Network for Tracking Gram-Positive Pathogenic Bacteria (CEM/NET) led to the identification of two international multidrug-resistant strains, which were designated as the Iberian and Brazilian MRSA clones and which were defined by multiple genomic typing methods; these included ClaI restriction digests hybridized with mecA- and Tn554-specific DNA probes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The genotypic characteristics of these clones are distinct: the Iberian clone is defined as mecA type I, Tn554 type E (or its variants), and PFGE pattern A (I:E:A), whereas the Brazilian clone is defined as mecA type XI (or its variants), Tn554 type B, and PFGE pattern B (XI:B:B). In this study, we characterized 59 single-patient isolates of MRSA collected during 1996 and 1997 at seven hospitals located in Prague and five other cities in the Czech Republic by using the methodologies mentioned above and by using ribotyping of EcoRI and HindIII digests hybridized with a 16S-23S DNA probe. The Brazilian MRSA clone (XI:B:B) was the major clone (80%) spread in two hospitals located in Prague and one located in Brno; the Iberian MRSA clone (I:E:A or its variant I:DD:A), although less representative (12%), was detected in two hospitals, one in Prague and the other in Plzen. Almost all the strains belonging to clone XI:B:B (45 of 47) corresponded to a unique ribotype, E1H1, whereas most strains of the I:E:A and I:DD:A clonal types (6 of 7) corresponded to ribotype E2H2.  (+info)

  • Cells expressing heteroresistance grow more slowly than the oxacillin-susceptible population and may be missed at temperatures above 35°C. This is why CLSI recommends incubating isolates being tested against oxacillin, methicillin, or nafcillin at 33-35° C (maximum of 35°C) for a full 24 hours before reading (1). (
  • The Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion tests and oxacillin screen ager method were performed on all isolates using the presence of penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) as the reference standard. (
  • Twenty of 30 isolates were positive to PBP2a and concomitant manifest resistance to (oxacillin) was confirmed using Kirby-Bauer diffusion test. (
  • If overall MRSA rates continue to decline and clindamycin resistance among MSSA continues to increase, we may see a return to antistaphylococcal beta-lactam antimicrobial agents such as oxacillin or first-generation cephalosporins as preferred empirical therapy for presumed S. (
  • We have examined the expression of RNAIII and agrA mRNA as biomarkers for agr expression in the presence and absence of oxacillin subMICs in 10 MSSA and 4 MRSA clinical strains belonging to 5 clonal complexes (CC45- agrI , CC8- agrI , CC5- agrII , CC15- agrII and CC30- agrIII ) causing endovascular complications. (
  • MDC study showed that pterostilbene-oxacillin combination exhibited lowest FIC value (0.56) against both MRSA strains which indicated partial synergistic interaction. (
  • In this report, we present comparative results for several daptomycin-β-lactam combinations by the screening method and confirmative time-kill studies using combinations of daptomycin and oxacillin or ampicillin-sulbactam for 18 strains of MRSA. (
  • All were identified by MicroScan as MRSA strains, and oxacillin resistance was confirmed by growth on agar containing 6 μg of oxacillin/ml (Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, Md.). By Etest, the oxacillin MICs for all strains were ≥96 μg/ml (for 16 of the 18 strains, they were ≥256 μg/ml). (
  • To investigate phenotypic differences other than oxacillin resistance level in responses to oxacillin between MSSA and MRSA, we compared alterations of viability and ultrastructure of MSSA by oxacillin treatment with those of MRSA. (
  • When MSSA and MRSA strains were exposed to oxacillin of their respective MICs, and then were assayed for viability and observed by transmission electron microscope, increase in thickness of cell wall was more prominent in MRSA strains than in MSSA strains, while decrease in number of surviving cells was more evident and change in morphology of growing cross wall was greater in MSSA strains than in MRSA strains. (
  • It is assumed that these different responses to oxacillin between MSSA and MRSA strains may be due to activation of some PBP2a unbound to oxacillin. (
  • In conclusion, MSSA and MRSA showed different functional and morphological responses to oxacillin, although they were treated with oxacillin of concentrations that respectively inhibit their proliferation. (
  • Molecular modeling results suggested the allosteric mechanism of action of the imidazolones, which improved binding of oxacillin in the PBP2a active site in MRSA. (
  • Because of their susceptibility to oxacillin and cefoxitin, it is very difficult to detect them by using routine phenotypic methods. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability among commercial disks of oxacillin (1 μg) and cefoxitin (30 μg) widely used in clinical laboratories of microbiology, compared with mecA gene and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin. (
  • The use of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks simultaneously allowed the detection of important differences, particularly, in less frequent species such as S. cohnii, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, and S. sciuri. (
  • Disks of cefoxitin of the brand 2 displayed good correlation with the mecA gene (98.7%) and oxacillin MIC (97.8%), while major discrepancies were observed using disks of brand 1. (
  • A subpopulation of methicillin-susceptible staphylococci identified as borderline-susceptible S. aureus typeable with group 5 staphylococcal phages (BSSA-5) and characterized by the production of large amounts of type A staphylococcal β-lactamase and borderline susceptibility to oxacillin were found to be widely disseminated among U.S. hospitals and disproportionately isolated from wound infections of patients who had been given cefazolin prophylaxis. (
  • Treatment with Oxacillin was started improving fever and white blood cell count. (
  • Oxacillin has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. (
  • You may need to keep using oxacillin for up to 48 hours after lab tests show that your infection has cleared. (
  • Oxacillin will not treat a viral infection such as the flu or a common cold. (
  • Changes in agr expression induced by exposure to oxacillin subMICs should be considered because they could lead to changes in the virulence modulation and have an adverse effect on the course of infection, especially in certain clonal complexes. (
  • Risk factors for infection based on coagulase status and for S schleiferi oxacillin resistance were investigated. (
  • 2020. (
  • Common to all members of the penicillin class of drugs, oxacillin may cause acute or delayed hypersensitivity reactions. (
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with oxacillin. (
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take oxacillin with all of your drugs and health problems. (
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