Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
A potent synthetic agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with 3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine substitution at residue 6. Nafarelin has been used in the treatments of central PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY and ENDOMETRIOSIS.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A protein extract of human menopausal urine in which LUTEINIZING HORMONE has been partially or completely removed. Urofollitropin represents FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE from the urine.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The induction of local hyperthermia by either short radio waves or high-frequency sound waves.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

Differential transcriptional activity associated with chromatin configuration in fully grown mouse germinal vesicle oocytes. (1/1572)

It was previously shown that fully grown ovarian germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes of adult mice exhibit several nuclear configurations that differ essentially by the presence or absence of a ring of condensed chromatin around the nucleolus. These configurations have been termed, respectively, SN (surrounded nucleolus) and NSN (nonsurrounded nucleolus). Work from our and other laboratories has revealed ultrastructural and functional differences between these two configurations. The aims of the present study were 1) to analyze the equilibrium between the SN and the NSN population as a function of the age of the mice and the time after hCG-induced ovulation and 2) to study the polymerase I (pol I)- and polymerase II (pol II)-dependent transcription in both types of oocytes through the detection of bromouridine incorporated into nascent RNA. We show 1) that ovarian GV oocytes exhibiting the SN-type configuration can be found as soon as 17 days after birth in the C57/CBA mouse strain and 2) that the SN:NSN ratio of ovarian GV oocytes is very low just after hCG-induced ovulation and then increases progressively with the time after ovulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SN configuration correlates strictly with the arrest of both pol I- and pol II-dependent transcription in mice at any age. Finally, we show that ribosomal genes are located at the outer periphery of the nucleolus in the NSN configuration and that pol I-dependent perinucleolar transcription sites correspond to specific ultrastructural features of the nucleolus. Altogether, these results provide clear-cut criteria delineating transcriptionally active GV oocytes from those that are inactive, and confirm that the SN-type configuration is mostly present in preovulatory oocytes.  (+info)

Ovarian follicular responses in dairy cows treated with GnRH and cloprostenol. (2/1572)

Lactating, nonpregnant (with a corpus luteum) Holsteins were given 100 ug GnRH (n = 12) or saline (n = 12) and 500 ug cloprostenol 6 d later. Following luteolysis, ovulation occurred 10.1 +/- 0.2 d (range, 9-12 d) after GnRH and 8.6 +/- 1.0 d (range, 3-12 d) after saline (differences between groups: means, P > 0.05; variability, P < 0.001). Treatment with GnRH and cloprostenol resulted in a relatively synchronous ovulation.  (+info)

Effect of exogenous gonadotropins on gonadotrophs of the rat pituitary gland. (3/1572)

In the human in vitro fertilization (IVF) program a variety of superovulation regimens have been employed to promote follicular stimulation and the recruitment of supernumerary oocytes. This therapy, however, disturbs serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone and may disrupt the normal feedback systems of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. This study examines the effects of hyperstimulation on the pituitary gonadotrophs and circulating gonadotrophins. FSH and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were administered to normal cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) in phase with their estrous cycle. Control rats (n = 12) were injected with saline. In both the experimental and control groups, six rats were mated on the evening of proestrus and killed 12 hr later, while six animals were killed prior to mating. Blood was collected at the time of sacrifice for radioimmunoassay. The pituitary glands were removed, processed for light microscopy and serially sectioned. Immunocytochemistry for LH and FSH was carried out to determine the area occupied by these cell types. Data were statistically analyzed. Findings were correlated with circulating levels of LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone. RIA revealed that the concentration of LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone were significantly different with respect to hyperstimulation and mating. In addition the area occupied by LH and FSH cells was significantly different with respect to both hyperstimulation and mating. Hyperstimulation affects gonadotroph content, as well as gonadotropin and sex steroid hormone concentrations and together with other factors, may disrupt the ideal environment required for implantation.  (+info)

Is there a difference in the function of granulosa-luteal cells in patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization either with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist or gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist? (4/1572)

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulates gonadotrophin release. It has been shown that GnRH may have a direct effect on the ovary, as the addition of GnRH to granulosa cell cultures inhibits the production of progesterone and oestradiol. Specific GnRH receptors have been found to be present in rat and human granulosa cells. Desensitization of the pituitary by GnRH agonist has become common in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, usually by a long protocol of 2-3 weeks. With the introduction of GnRH antagonists, which produce an immediate blockage of the GnRH receptors, a much shorter exposure is needed of 3-6 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a GnRH agonist (buserelin) and a GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix) on the function of granulosa cells cultured in vitro from IVF patients. Women were treated by IVF randomized either to have buserelin nasal spray from the luteal phase in the previous cycle or cetrorelix from day 6 of the cycle. Both groups had ovarian stimulation with human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) 150 IU daily, i.e. HCG was administered when the follicles were larger than 17 mm, and aspirated 36 h later. Granulosa cells, separated and washed from large follicles containing ova, were pooled. After 48 h of pre-incubation, the granulosa cells were cultured for 4 days in medium with either added testosterone or cAMP with or without HCG, with change of medium after 2 days. The progesterone and oestradiol concentrations in the culture medium were measured by immunological assay, and cellular protein was measured by microprotein assay. The results showed that granulosa cells from women treated with GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix) responded earlier to the in-vitro hormone stimulation in terms of progesterone accumulation than women treated with the GnRH agonist (buserelin). This may have been due to difference in time of exposure to the analogue. The results may indicate that the luteal function is less impaired in GnRH antagonist treatment than in GnRH agonist treatment.  (+info)

Pharmaco-economic aspects of in-vitro fertilization in Italy. (5/1572)

Given the higher efficacy of follitropin-beta, a new recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (r-FSH), versus urinary-FSH (u-FSH), the present study was carried out to evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) of follitropin-beta in comparison with u-FSH in women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Italy. Clinical decision analysis techniques were used to retrospectively model the direct medical costs of women undergoing IVF treatment. Seven Italian experts were interviewed, using a semi-structured questionnaire, in order to adapt the results of all clinical trials to the Italian patterns of care. Three analyses were conducted considering the public, the private sectors and a mixture of them (currently representing the Italian situation). The estimated total cost of IVF treatments varies from 106.9 and 211.7 billion Lire (63.2 and 125.2 million US$) depending on setting and type of treatment. The average CER varies from 21.5 and 37.7 million Lire (12, 700 and 22,300 $US) in the different hypotheses considered. The incremental CER varies from 19.2 and 26.0 million Lire (11,300 and 15,400 $US) depending on setting and type of treatment.  (+info)

Poor responders to ovulation induction: is proceeding to in-vitro fertilization worthwhile? (6/1572)

A 'poor response' in the context of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) can be defined as failure to produce an adequate number of mature follicles, and/or a peak oestradiol concentration less than a defined minimum. The cut-off points implied in this definition vary between different centres. Many opt to cancel the IVF cycle when their defined minimum concentrations are not reached despite the lack of evidence of improved outcome in subsequent cycles. Patients attending the Oxford Fertility Unit who are 'poor responders' have always been given the option of continuing with treatment. The first cycles of IVF in 124 patients, with normal day 3 follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), who produced less than five follicles within a 2 year period were studied. The patients were divided into three groups according to the number of follicles produced: A (one or two follicles; n = 33), B (three follicles; n = 33) and C (four follicles; n = 58). The three groups were similar in age, day 3 FSH, total gonadotrophin dose, duration of stimulation, peak oestradiol concentration, oocyte yield, fertilization rate and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, group A had a significantly higher oestradiol concentration per follicle (P < 0.001). The clinical pregnancy rate/cycle in the three groups was comparable to our overall rate in the study period (25.5%). This paper suggests that poor responders with a normal day 3 FSH may still achieve a pregnancy rate similar to that of normal responders.  (+info)

A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial to study the efficacy and efficiency of a fixed dose of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (Puregon) in women undergoing ovarian stimulation. (7/1572)

A prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicentre (n = 5) study was conducted to compare the influence of either a 100 or 200 IU daily fixed-dose regimen of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on the number of oocytes retrieved and the total dose used in down-regulated women undergoing ovarian stimulation. Fertilization was done by intracytoplasmic sperm injection or conventional in-vitro fertilization. A total of 199 women were treated with FSH, 101 subjects with 100 IU and 98 subjects with 200 IU. In subjects of the 200 IU treatment group, significantly more oocytes were retrieved compared to the 100 IU group (10.6 versus 6.2 oocytes, P < 0.001). The total dose needed to develop at least three follicles with a diameter of > or = 17 mm was significantly lower in the 100 IU treatment group (1114 IU versus 1931 IU, P < 0.001). In the low-dose group, significantly lower serum concentrations of oestradiol, progesterone and FSH were observed at the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration. Although more cycle cancellations due to low response were seen in the 100 IU group (n = 24 versus n = 3), the clinical pregnancy rate per started cycle was similar (24.7% in the 100 IU group versus 23.3% in the 200 IU group). In the high-dose group, more side-effects, in particular more cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, were noted. It is concluded that compared to 200 IU, the use of a 100 IU fixed dose is less efficacious in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved, but more efficient as indicated by a lower total dose.  (+info)

Sperm treatment with extracellular ATP increases fertilization rates in in-vitro fertilization for male factor infertility. (8/1572)

Previous work from our laboratory has revealed that extracellular ATP is a rapid and potent activator of human sperm acrosome reaction and fertilizing ability. In the present study, we assessed the effects of in-vitro sperm incubation with ATP on fertilization and embryo development in couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) for male factor infertility. Oocytes from 22 women undergoing ovulation induction were divided in two groups and inseminated in vitro either with selected spermatozoa from the corresponding partner suffering from male factor infertility pre-incubated with ATP (2.5 mM) for 1 h, or with spermatozoa incubated with 0.9% NaCl solution (control group). After insemination, fertilization was assessed by the presence of pronuclei and then by embryo cleavage. The fertilization rate in the group of oocytes inseminated with ATP-treated spermatozoa improved significantly with respect to the control group (65.7 versus 42.5%, P < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in embryo cleavage and embryo quality. Embryos from both treated and control groups were transferred together in 20 transfer procedures, and in two couples fertilization was not obtained. Nine pregnancies occurred: one biochemical, one miscarriage, and seven patients delivered 9 healthy babies. Two pregnancies were twin with an overall pregnancy rate of 40.9% per cycle and of 45% per transfer. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that, in humans, extracellular ATP induces a significant increase of sperm fertilizing potential, as these findings are a rationale for the use of ATP for in-vitro treatment of human spermatozoa during IVF.  (+info)

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Clomiphene is a medication that is primarily used to treat infertility in women. It is an ovulatory stimulant, which means that it works by stimulating the development and release of mature eggs from the ovaries (a process known as ovulation). Clomiphene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), which means that it binds to estrogen receptors in the body and blocks the effects of estrogen in certain tissues, while enhancing the effects of estrogen in others.

In the ovary, clomiphene works by blocking the negative feedback effect of estrogen on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which results in an increase in the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These hormones stimulate the growth and development of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. As the follicles grow and mature, they produce increasing amounts of estrogen, which eventually triggers a surge in LH that leads to ovulation.

Clomiphene is typically taken orally for 5 days, starting on the 3rd, 4th, or 5th day of the menstrual cycle. The dosage may be adjusted based on the patient's response to treatment. Common side effects of clomiphene include hot flashes, mood changes, breast tenderness, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which is a potentially serious complication characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.

It's important to note that clomiphene may not be suitable for everyone, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider. Women with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, thyroid disorders, or uterine fibroids, may not be able to take clomiphene. Additionally, women who become pregnant while taking clomiphene have an increased risk of multiple pregnancies (e.g., twins or triplets), which can pose additional risks to both the mother and the fetuses.

Anovulation is a medical condition in which there is a failure to ovulate, or release a mature egg from the ovaries, during a menstrual cycle. This can occur due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, excessive exercise, stress, low body weight, or certain medications. Anovulation is common in women with irregular menstrual cycles and can cause infertility if left untreated. In some cases, anovulation may be treated with medication to stimulate ovulation.

Female fertility agents are medications or treatments that are used to enhance or restore female fertility. They can work in various ways such as stimulating ovulation, improving the quality of eggs, facilitating the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus, or addressing issues related to the reproductive system.

Some examples of female fertility agents include:

1. Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene): This medication stimulates ovulation by causing the pituitary gland to release more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
2. Gonadotropins: These are hormonal medications that contain FSH and LH, which stimulate the ovaries to produce mature eggs. Examples include human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
3. Letrozole (Femara): This medication is an aromatase inhibitor that can be used off-label to stimulate ovulation in women who do not respond to clomiphene citrate.
4. Metformin (Glucophage): This medication is primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes, but it can also improve fertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by regulating insulin levels and promoting ovulation.
5. Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This medication is used to treat infertility caused by hyperprolactinemia, a condition characterized by high levels of prolactin in the blood.
6. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): These include procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). They involve manipulating eggs and sperm outside the body to facilitate fertilization and implantation.

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider or reproductive endocrinologist to determine the most appropriate fertility agent for individual needs, as these medications can have side effects and potential risks.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Menotropins are a preparation of natural follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) derived from the urine of postmenopausal women. They are used in infertility treatment to stimulate the development of multiple follicles in the ovaries, leading to an increased chance of pregnancy through assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Menotropins contain a mixture of FSH and LH in a ratio that is similar to the natural hormone levels found in the human body. The FSH component stimulates the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries, while the LH component triggers ovulation when the follicles have matured.

Menotropins are typically administered by subcutaneous injection and are available under various brand names, such as Menopur and Repronex. The use of menotropins requires careful medical supervision to monitor the response of the ovaries and to minimize the risk of complications such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).

Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperandrogenism (excess male hormones), ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The Rotterdam criteria are commonly used for diagnosis, which require at least two of the following three features:

1. Oligo- or anovulation (irregular menstrual cycles)
2. Clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (e.g., hirsutism, acne, or high levels of androgens in the blood)
3. Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination (presence of 12 or more follicles measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, or increased ovarian volume >10 mL)

The exact cause of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Insulin resistance and obesity are common findings in women with PCOS, which can contribute to the development of metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.

Management of PCOS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss), medications to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce hyperandrogenism (e.g., oral contraceptives, metformin, anti-androgens), and fertility treatments if desired. Regular monitoring of metabolic parameters and long-term follow-up are essential for optimal management and prevention of complications.

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a medical condition characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, which can occur as a complication of fertility treatments that involve the use of medications to stimulate ovulation.

In OHSS, the ovaries become swollen and may contain multiple follicles (small sacs containing eggs) that have developed in response to the hormonal stimulation. This can lead to the release of large amounts of vasoactive substances, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can cause increased blood flow to the ovaries and fluid leakage from the blood vessels into the abdominal cavity.

Mild cases of OHSS may cause symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, and diarrhea. More severe cases can lead to more serious complications, including blood clots, kidney failure, and respiratory distress. In extreme cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage the symptoms of OHSS and prevent further complications.

OHSS is typically managed by monitoring the patient's symptoms and providing supportive care, such as fluid replacement and pain management. In severe cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to drain excess fluid from the abdominal cavity. Preventive measures, such as adjusting the dosage of fertility medications or canceling treatment cycles, may also be taken to reduce the risk of OHSS in high-risk patients.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. In humans, FSH plays a crucial role in the reproductive system. Specifically, in females, it stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in the ovary and the production of estrogen. In males, FSH promotes the formation of sperm within the testes' seminiferous tubules. The human FSH is a heterodimer, consisting of two noncovalently associated subunits: α (alpha) and β (beta). The alpha subunit is common to several pituitary hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In contrast, the beta subunit is unique to FSH and determines its biological specificity. The regulation of FSH secretion is primarily controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, involving complex feedback mechanisms with gonadal steroid hormones and inhibins.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Artificial insemination (AI) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterus for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This procedure can be performed using sperm from a partner or a donor. It is often used when there are issues with male fertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or in cases where natural conception is not possible due to various medical reasons.

There are two types of artificial insemination: intracervical insemination (ICI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). ICI involves placing the sperm directly into the cervix, while IUI involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, including the cause of infertility and the preferences of the individuals involved.

Artificial insemination is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that can be performed in a doctor's office or clinic. It may be combined with fertility drugs to increase the chances of pregnancy. The success rate of artificial insemination varies depending on several factors, including the age and fertility of the individuals involved, the cause of infertility, and the type of procedure used.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

A live birth is the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, that, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life - such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles - whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached.

This definition is used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and most national statistical agencies to distinguish live births from stillbirths. It's important to note that in some medical contexts, a different definition of live birth may be used.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Artificial insemination, homologous is a medical procedure where sperm from a woman's partner (the husband or male partner in a heterosexual relationship) is collected, processed and then inserted into the woman's reproductive tract through various methods to achieve fertilization and pregnancy. This method is often used when the male partner has issues with infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or when there are physical barriers that prevent natural conception from occurring. It is a type of artificial insemination that utilizes sperm from a genetically related source, as opposed to artificial insemination with donor (AID) sperm, which uses sperm from an anonymous or known donor.

Reproductive techniques refer to various methods and procedures used to assist individuals or couples in achieving pregnancy, carrying a pregnancy to term, or preserving fertility. These techniques can be broadly categorized into assisted reproductive technology (ART) and fertility preservation.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes procedures such as:

1. In vitro fertilization (IVF): A process where an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish, and then the resulting embryo is transferred to a woman's uterus.
2. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A procedure where a single sperm is directly injected into an egg to facilitate fertilization.
3. Embryo culture and cryopreservation: The process of growing embryos in a laboratory for a few days before freezing them for later use.
4. Donor gametes: Using eggs, sperm, or embryos from a known or anonymous donor to achieve pregnancy.
5. Gestational surrogacy: A method where a woman carries and gives birth to a baby for another individual or couple who cannot carry a pregnancy themselves.

Fertility preservation techniques include:

1. Sperm banking: The process of freezing and storing sperm for future use in artificial reproduction.
2. Egg (oocyte) freezing: A procedure where a woman's eggs are extracted, frozen, and stored for later use in fertility treatments.
3. Embryo freezing: The cryopreservation of embryos created through IVF for future use.
4. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: The freezing and storage of ovarian tissue to restore fertility after cancer treatment or other conditions that may affect fertility.
5. Testicular tissue cryopreservation: The collection and storage of testicular tissue in prepubertal boys undergoing cancer treatment to preserve their future fertility potential.

Electrocoagulation is a medical procedure that uses heat generated from an electrical current to cause coagulation (clotting) of tissue. This procedure is often used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as:

* Gastrointestinal bleeding: Electrocoagulation can be used to control bleeding in the stomach or intestines by applying an electrical current to the affected blood vessels, causing them to shrink and clot.
* Skin lesions: Electrocoagulation can be used to remove benign or malignant skin lesions, such as warts, moles, or skin tags, by applying an electrical current to the growth, which causes it to dehydrate and eventually fall off.
* Vascular malformations: Electrocoagulation can be used to treat vascular malformations (abnormal blood vessels) by applying an electrical current to the affected area, causing the abnormal vessels to shrink and clot.

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized device that delivers an electrical current through a needle or probe. The intensity and duration of the electrical current can be adjusted to achieve the desired effect. Electrocoagulation may be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or medication.

It's important to note that electrocoagulation is not without risks, including burns, infection, and scarring. It should only be performed by a qualified medical professional who has experience with the procedure.

Multiple pregnancy is a type of gestation where more than one fetus is carried simultaneously in the uterus. The most common forms of multiple pregnancies are twins (two fetuses), triplets (three fetuses), and quadruplets (four fetuses). Multiple pregnancies can occur when a single fertilized egg splits into two or more embryos (monozygotic) or when more than one egg is released and gets fertilized during ovulation (dizygotic). The risk of multiple pregnancies increases with the use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Multiple pregnancies are associated with higher risks for both the mother and the fetuses, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and other complications.

Nafarelin is a synthetic decapeptide analog of the natural gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). It is primarily used as a nasal spray for the treatment of central precocious puberty in children and endometriosis in adults.

In medical terms, Nafarelin is defined as:

A synthetic decapeptide analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) used in the treatment of central precocious puberty and endometriosis. It acts as a potent agonist of GnRH receptors, leading to an initial increase in the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), followed by downregulation of these receptors and a decrease in FSH and LH secretion. This results in decreased gonadal steroid production, including estrogen and testosterone, which helps to control the symptoms of central precocious puberty and endometriosis.

Nafarelin is available under the brand name Synarel and is administered as a nasal spray. It is important to note that Nafarelin can cause side effects such as hot flashes, headaches, and mood changes, and it may also affect bone growth in children with central precocious puberty. Therefore, it should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Superovulation, also known as controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), refers to the process of inducing the development and release of multiple mature ova (eggs) from the ovaries during a single reproductive cycle. This is achieved through the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or other fertility medications, which stimulate the ovarian follicles to grow and mature beyond the normal number. Superovulation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of successful conception by obtaining a larger number of ova for fertilization and embryo transfer.

Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are medical procedures that involve the handling of human sperm and ova to establish a pregnancy. These techniques are used when other methods of achieving pregnancy have failed or are not available. Examples of ART include in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). These procedures may be used to treat infertility, prevent genetic disorders, or to help same-sex couples or single people have children. It is important to note that the use of ART can involve significant physical, emotional, and financial costs, and it may not always result in a successful pregnancy.

Infertility is a reproductive health disorder defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person's capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with their partner. It can be caused by various factors in both men and women, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, genetic issues, infections, age, lifestyle factors, and others. Infertility can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on individuals and couples experiencing it, and medical intervention may be necessary to help them conceive.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Metformin is a type of biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used primarily in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It works by decreasing glucose production in the liver, reducing glucose absorption in the gut, and increasing insulin sensitivity in muscle and fat tissue. By lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose levels, metformin helps to control blood sugar levels and improve glycemic control. It is also used off-label for various other indications such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes. Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious side effect that requires immediate medical attention.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Urofollitropin is a purified form of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) that is derived from the urine of postmenopausal women. It is used in fertility treatments to stimulate the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in women who have difficulty conceiving due to problems with ovulation.

Follicle-stimulating hormone is a gonadotropin that plays an essential role in the reproductive system. In women, FSH stimulates the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries, which contain eggs. Urofollitropin contains a higher concentration of FSH than what is found naturally in the body, which allows for more effective stimulation of follicle growth and maturation.

Urofollitropin is typically administered via injection and is often used in conjunction with other fertility medications as part of an assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycle, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). It is important to note that the use of urofollitropin and other fertility treatments should be under the close supervision of a healthcare provider to minimize the risk of complications.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Diathermy is a medical term that refers to the use of high-frequency electrical currents to heat body tissues. The term "diathermy" comes from the Greek words "dia," meaning "through," and "therme," meaning "heat." There are several types of diathermy, including shortwave, microwave, and ultrasound diathermy.

Shortwave diathermy uses electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 10 MHz and 27 MHz to generate heat in deep tissues. This type of diathermy is often used to treat muscle or joint pain, increase blood flow, or promote healing after surgery or injury.

Microwave diathermy uses high-frequency electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 915 MHz and 2450 MHz to generate heat in superficial tissues. This type of diathermy is often used to treat skin conditions such as dermatitis or psoriasis.

Ultrasound diathermy uses high-frequency sound waves with frequencies above 1 MHz to generate heat in soft tissues. This type of diathermy is often used to treat muscle or tendon injuries, promote healing, or relieve pain.

Diathermy should be administered by a trained healthcare professional, as there are potential risks and complications associated with its use, including burns, discomfort, or damage to implanted medical devices such as pacemakers.

Buserelin is a synthetic analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH), which is a hormonal drug used in the treatment of various conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and central precocious puberty.

By mimicking the action of natural GnRH, buserelin stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates the production of sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.

However, prolonged use of buserelin leads to downregulation of GnRH receptors and a decrease in FSH and LH secretion, resulting in reduced levels of sex hormones. This property is exploited in the treatment of hormone-dependent cancers such as prostate cancer, where reducing testosterone levels can help slow tumor growth.

Buserelin is available in various forms, including nasal sprays, implants, and injectable solutions, and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring of hormone levels during treatment.

Equine Gonadotropins are glycoprotein hormones derived from the pituitary gland of horses. They consist of two subunits: a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit that determines the biological activity of each hormone. There are two main types of equine gonadotropins: Equine Follicle Stimulating Hormone (eFSH) and Equine Luteinizing Hormone (eLH).

eFSH plays a crucial role in the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females, while eLH stimulates ovulation and the production of sex steroids in both males and females. These hormones are often used in veterinary medicine to induce ovulation and improve fertility in horses, as well as in research to study the physiology and biochemistry of gonadotropins and reproduction. It's important to note that equine gonadotropins have limited application in human reproductive medicine due to potential immunogenic reactions and other safety concerns.

Enzyme induction is a process by which the activity or expression of an enzyme is increased in response to some stimulus, such as a drug, hormone, or other environmental factor. This can occur through several mechanisms, including increasing the transcription of the enzyme's gene, stabilizing the mRNA that encodes the enzyme, or increasing the translation of the mRNA into protein.

In some cases, enzyme induction can be a beneficial process, such as when it helps the body to metabolize and clear drugs more quickly. However, in other cases, enzyme induction can have negative consequences, such as when it leads to the increased metabolism of important endogenous compounds or the activation of harmful procarcinogens.

Enzyme induction is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology, as it can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs and other xenobiotics. It is also relevant to the study of drug interactions, as the induction of one enzyme by a drug can lead to altered metabolism and effects of another drug that is metabolized by the same enzyme.

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

The luteal phase is the second half of the menstrual cycle, starting from ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries) and lasting until the start of the next menstruation. This phase typically lasts around 12-14 days in a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. During this phase, the remains of the dominant follicle that released the egg transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some estrogen to support the implantation of a fertilized egg and maintain the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, leading to a drop in hormone levels and the start of a new menstrual cycle.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Oocyte retrieval is a medical procedure that is performed to obtain mature eggs (oocytes) from the ovaries of a female patient, typically for the purpose of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

During the procedure, which is usually done under sedation or anesthesia, a thin needle is inserted through the vaginal wall and guided into the ovarian follicles using ultrasound imaging. The mature eggs are then gently aspirated from the follicles and collected in a test tube.

Oocyte retrieval is typically performed after several days of hormonal stimulation, which helps to promote the development and maturation of multiple eggs within the ovaries. After the procedure, the eggs are examined for maturity and quality before being fertilized with sperm in the laboratory. The resulting embryos are then transferred to the uterus or frozen for future use.

It's important to note that oocyte retrieval carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. However, these complications are generally rare and can be minimized with careful monitoring and skilled medical care.

Follicular fluid is the fluid that accumulates within the follicle (a small sac or cyst) in the ovary where an egg matures. This fluid contains various chemicals, hormones, and proteins that support the growth and development of the egg cell. It also contains metabolic waste products and other substances from the granulosa cells (the cells that surround the egg cell within the follicle). Follicular fluid is often analyzed in fertility treatments and studies as it can provide valuable information about the health and viability of the egg cell.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Leuprolide is a synthetic hormonal analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH). It acts as a potent agonist of GnRH receptors, leading to the suppression of pituitary gland's secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). This, in turn, results in decreased levels of sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

Leuprolide is used clinically for the treatment of various conditions related to hormonal imbalances, including:
- Prostate cancer: Leuprolide can help slow down the growth of prostate cancer cells by reducing testosterone levels in the body.
- Endometriosis: By lowering estrogen levels, leuprolide can alleviate symptoms associated with endometriosis such as pelvic pain and menstrual irregularities.
- Central precocious puberty: Leuprolide is used to delay the onset of puberty in children who experience it prematurely by inhibiting the release of gonadotropins.
- Uterine fibroids: Lowering estrogen levels with leuprolide can help shrink uterine fibroids and reduce symptoms like heavy menstrual bleeding and pelvic pain.

Leuprolide is available in various formulations, such as injectable depots or implants, for long-term hormonal suppression. Common side effects include hot flashes, mood changes, and potential loss of bone density due to prolonged hormone suppression.

Ovulation inhibition is a term used in reproductive medicine to describe the prevention or delay of ovulation, which is the release of a mature egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. This can be achieved through various means, such as hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings), injectable hormones, or intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones.

Hormonal contraceptives typically contain synthetic versions of the hormones estrogen and progestin, which work together to inhibit the natural hormonal signals that trigger ovulation. By suppressing the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), these methods prevent the development and release of a mature egg from the ovaries.

In addition to preventing ovulation, hormonal contraceptives can also thicken cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus, reducing the likelihood of implantation in case fertilization does occur. It is important to note that while ovulation inhibition is a reliable method of birth control, it may not provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a specialized form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically used in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It involves the direct injection of a single sperm into the cytoplasm of a mature egg (oocyte) to facilitate fertilization. This technique is often used when there are issues with male infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, to increase the chances of successful fertilization. The resulting embryos can then be transferred to the uterus in hopes of achieving a pregnancy.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

Litter size is a term used in veterinary medicine, particularly in relation to breeding of animals. It refers to the number of offspring that are born to an animal during one pregnancy. For example, in the case of dogs or cats, it would be the number of kittens or puppies born in a single litter. The size of the litter can vary widely depending on the species, breed, age, and health status of the parent animals.

Embryo implantation is the process by which a fertilized egg, or embryo, becomes attached to the wall of the uterus (endometrium) and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's blood supply. This process typically occurs about 6-10 days after fertilization and is a critical step in the establishment of a successful pregnancy.

During implantation, the embryo secretes enzymes that help it to burrow into the endometrium, while the endometrium responds by producing receptors for the embryo's enzymes and increasing blood flow to the area. The embryo then begins to grow and develop, eventually forming the placenta, which will provide nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus throughout pregnancy.

Implantation is a complex process that requires precise timing and coordination between the embryo and the mother's body. Factors such as age, hormonal imbalances, and uterine abnormalities can affect implantation and increase the risk of miscarriage or difficulty becoming pregnant.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that are primarily used in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. They work by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting androgens into estrogens. By blocking this conversion, AIs decrease the amount of estrogen in the body, thereby depriving hormone-sensitive breast cancer cells of the estrogen they need to grow and multiply.

There are three main types of aromatase inhibitors:

1. Letrozole (Femara) - a non-steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.
2. Anastrozole (Arimidex) - another non-steroidal AI that is also taken orally once a day.
3. Exemestane (Aromasin) - a steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.

In addition to their use in breast cancer treatment, AIs are also sometimes used off-label for the treatment of estrogen-dependent conditions such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids. However, it's important to note that the use of aromatase inhibitors can have significant side effects, including hot flashes, joint pain, and bone loss, so they should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Estrus synchronization is a veterinary medical procedure used in the management of domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep. It is a process of coordinating the estrous cycles of animals so that they can be bred at the same time or have their fertility treatments performed simultaneously. This is achieved through the use of various hormonal therapies, including progestins, prostaglandins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH).

The goal of estrus synchronization is to improve reproductive efficiency in animal production systems by ensuring that a larger number of animals become pregnant during a shorter breeding season. This can lead to more uniform calf or lamb crops, reduced labor and management costs, and increased profitability for farmers and ranchers.

Estrus synchronization is a complex process that requires careful planning and implementation, as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the animals' reproductive performance. It is typically performed under the guidance of a veterinarian or animal reproduction specialist.

The follicular phase is a term used in reproductive endocrinology, which refers to the first part of the menstrual cycle. This phase begins on the first day of menstruation and lasts until ovulation. During this phase, several follicles in the ovaries begin to mature under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the pituitary gland.

Typically, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to mature, while the others regress. The dominant follicle produces increasing amounts of estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a possible pregnancy. The follicular phase can vary in length, but on average it lasts about 14 days.

It's important to note that the length and characteristics of the follicular phase can provide valuable information in diagnosing various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid dysfunction.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Estrus detection in veterinary medicine refers to the process of identifying when a female animal is in heat or estrus, which is the period of time when she is fertile and receptive to mating. This is an important aspect of managing breeding programs for livestock and other animals.

Detection of estrus can be done through various methods, including:

1. Observing behavioral changes: Female animals in heat may show signs of increased interest in males, becoming more vocal or restless, and may adopt a mating stance.
2. Physical examination: A veterinarian may perform a physical exam to check for signs of estrus, such as swelling or reddening of the vulva.
3. Hormonal assays: Blood or vaginal fluid samples can be tested for hormone levels, such as estradiol and progesterone, to determine if an animal is in heat.
4. Use of teaser animals: Intact males can be used to stimulate a response in females, indicating that they are in estrus.

Accurate detection of estrus is critical for successful breeding and management of animal reproduction.

Granulosa cells are specialized cells that surround and enclose the developing egg cells (oocytes) in the ovaries. They play a crucial role in the growth, development, and maturation of the follicles (the fluid-filled sacs containing the oocytes) by providing essential nutrients and hormones.

Granulosa cells are responsible for producing estrogen, which supports the development of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle in preparation for a potential pregnancy. They also produce inhibin and activin, two hormones that regulate the function of the pituitary gland and its secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

These cells are critical for female reproductive health and fertility. Abnormalities in granulosa cell function can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and infertility.

Sexual maturation is the process of physical development during puberty that leads to the ability to reproduce. This process involves the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics, changes in hormone levels, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. In females, this includes the onset of menstruation and the development of breasts and hips. In males, this includes the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the production of sperm. Achieving sexual maturation is an important milestone in human development and typically occurs during adolescence.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Anestrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the period of sexual quiescence in female animals, during which they do not exhibit estrous cycles. This phase is characterized by low levels of reproductive hormones and is seen in some species as a part of their natural reproductive cycle, while in others it may indicate an abnormality or underlying health issue.

For example, in dogs, anestrus is the period between heat cycles when the reproductive system is relatively inactive. In contrast, in domestic cats, continuous estrous cycling is the norm, and they do not typically exhibit an anestrus phase.

In some cases, anestrus may be induced by factors such as poor nutrition, stress, or illness, and it can have negative consequences for an animal's reproductive health if it persists for too long. If an animal is experiencing prolonged anestrus or other reproductive issues, it is important to consult with a veterinarian for proper diagnosis and treatment.

In medical terms, "breeding" is not a term that is commonly used. It is more frequently used in the context of animal husbandry to refer to the process of mating animals in order to produce offspring with specific desired traits or characteristics. In human medicine, the term is not typically applied to people and instead, related concepts such as reproduction, conception, or pregnancy are used.

The estrous cycle is the reproductive cycle in certain mammals, characterized by regular changes in the reproductive tract and behavior, which are regulated by hormonal fluctuations. It is most commonly observed in non-primate mammals such as dogs, cats, cows, pigs, and horses.

The estrous cycle consists of several stages:

1. Proestrus: This stage lasts for a few days and is characterized by the development of follicles in the ovaries and an increase in estrogen levels. During this time, the female may show signs of sexual receptivity, but will not allow mating to occur.
2. Estrus: This is the period of sexual receptivity, during which the female allows mating to take place. It typically lasts for a few days and is marked by a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which triggers ovulation.
3. Metestrus: This stage follows ovulation and is characterized by the formation of a corpus luteum, a structure that produces progesterone to support pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will eventually regress, leading to the next phase.
4. Diestrus: This is the final stage of the estrous cycle and can last for several weeks or months. During this time, the female's reproductive tract returns to its resting state, and she is not sexually receptive. If pregnancy has occurred, the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over this function later in pregnancy.

It's important to note that the human menstrual cycle is different from the estrous cycle. While both cycles involve hormonal fluctuations and changes in the reproductive tract, the menstrual cycle includes a shedding of the uterine lining (menstruation) if fertilization does not occur, which is not a feature of the estrous cycle.

Pregnanediol is a steroid hormone that is produced as a metabolite of progesterone. It is primarily used as a biomarker to measure the exposure to progesterone, particularly in cases where progesterone levels need to be monitored, such as during pregnancy or in certain medical conditions. Pregnanediol can be measured in urine, blood, or other bodily fluids and is often used in clinical and research settings to assess hormonal status. It is important to note that pregnanediol itself does not have any known physiological effects on the body, but rather serves as an indicator of progesterone levels.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Dinoprost is a synthetic form of prostaglandin F2α, which is a naturally occurring hormone-like substance in the body. It is used in veterinary medicine as a uterotonic agent to induce labor and abortion in various animals such as cows and pigs. In human medicine, it may be used off-label for similar purposes, but its use must be under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks.

It is important to note that Dinoprost is not approved by the FDA for use in humans, and its availability may vary depending on the country or region. Always consult with a licensed healthcare professional before using any medication, including Dinoprost.

Proestrus is a stage in the estrous cycle of animals, specifically referring to the phase preceding estrus (heat) during which follicle development and estrogen production occur. It is characterized by the swelling of the vulva and the onset of behaviors indicating readiness to mate, although the animal is not yet receptive to males. This stage typically lasts around 2-13 days, depending on the species. In humans, this equivalent phase does not exist due to menstrual cycles rather than estrous cycles.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Fetal viability is the point in pregnancy at which a fetus is considered capable of surviving outside the uterus, given appropriate medical support. Although there is no precise gestational age that defines fetal viability, it is generally considered to occur between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. At this stage, the fetus has developed sufficient lung maturity and body weight, and the risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity significantly decreases. However, the exact definition of fetal viability may vary depending on regional standards, medical facilities, and individual clinical assessments.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Pituitary hormone-releasing hormones (PRHs), also known as hypothalamic releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, are small neuropeptides produced and released by the hypothalamus - a small region of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating the secretion and release of various pituitary hormones, which in turn control several essential bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and lactation.

There are several PRHs, each with a specific target pituitary hormone:

1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): Stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which then promotes the production and release of thyroid hormones.
2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): Regulates the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which are essential for reproductive functions.
3. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH): Stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which then promotes the production and release of cortisol and other glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands.
4. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH): Stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which is essential for growth, development, and metabolism regulation.
5. Somatostatin or growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH): Inhibits the release of GH from the anterior pituitary gland and also suppresses the secretion of thyroid hormones.
6. Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) or prolactin-releasing factor (PRF): Stimulates the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland, which is essential for lactation and reproductive functions.
7. Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) or dopamine: Inhibits the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland.

These releasing hormones and inhibitory hormones work together to maintain a delicate balance in various physiological processes, including growth, development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions. Dysregulation of these hormonal systems can lead to various endocrine disorders and diseases.

Theca cells are specialized cells that are part of the follicle where the egg matures in the ovary. They are located in the outer layer of the follicle and play an important role in producing hormones necessary for the growth and development of the follicle and the egg within it. Specifically, they produce androgens, such as testosterone, which are then converted into estrogens by another type of cells in the follicle called granulosa cells. These hormones help to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a possible pregnancy. In some cases, theca cells can become overactive and produce too much testosterone, leading to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Inhibins are a group of protein hormones that play a crucial role in regulating the function of the reproductive system, specifically by inhibiting the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland. They are produced and secreted primarily by the granulosa cells in the ovaries of females and Sertoli cells in the testes of males.

Inhibins consist of two subunits, an alpha subunit, and a beta subunit, which can be further divided into two types: inhibin A and inhibin B. Inhibin A is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovary, while inhibin B is mainly produced by the Sertoli cells in the testes.

By regulating FSH production, inhibins help control the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males. Abnormal levels of inhibins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and certain types of cancer.

Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin analog used primarily in veterinary medicine for the treatment and prevention of various conditions. The main therapeutic uses of Cloprostenol include:

1. Induction of parturition (labor) in cows, helping to synchronize calving in managed herds.
2. Termination of pregnancy in cattle, especially in cases where the fetus is nonviable or the pregnancy poses a risk to the animal's health.
3. Treatment of uterine and oviductal disorders, such as pyometra (infection of the uterus) and salpingitis (inflammation of the oviduct), in cattle and pigs.
4. Prevention of postpartum disorders, like endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus) and mastitis (inflammation of the mammary glands), by promoting uterine involution and improving overall reproductive performance in cattle.
5. Control of estrus (heat) in cattle, as an aid in estrous synchronization programs for artificial insemination.

Cloprostenol is available in various formulations, such as intramuscular or subcutaneous injectable solutions, and is typically administered by a veterinarian or trained personnel. It is important to note that the use of Cloprostenol and other prostaglandin analogs should be carried out under the guidance and supervision of a veterinary professional, as improper usage can lead to adverse effects or complications.

Embryonic induction is a process that occurs during the development of a multicellular organism, where one group of cells in the embryo signals and influences the developmental fate of another group of cells. This interaction leads to the formation of specific structures or organs in the developing embryo. The signaling cells that initiate the process are called organizers, and they release signaling molecules known as morphogens that bind to receptors on the target cells and trigger a cascade of intracellular signals that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cell fate. Embryonic induction is a crucial step in the development of complex organisms and plays a key role in establishing the body plan and organizing the different tissues and organs in the developing embryo.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Androstenols are a type of steroid compound that is found in both animals and humans. They are classified as pheromones, which are chemicals that can affect the behavior or physiology of other members of the same species. Androstenols are found in high concentrations in male sweat, and they have been suggested to play a role in human sexual attraction and communication.

In particular, androstenols are thought to have a positive and calming effect on people, and may help to reduce stress and anxiety. They have also been shown to increase feelings of approachability and friendliness between individuals. Some studies have suggested that androstenols may be particularly effective at enhancing social interactions in women.

Androstenols are often used in perfumes and colognes, as well as in aromatherapy products, because of their potential to promote positive social interactions and reduce stress. However, it is important to note that the effects of androstenols on human behavior and physiology are still not fully understood, and more research is needed to confirm their role in human communication and attraction.

Gonadotropins are hormones produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating reproduction and sexual development. There are two main types of gonadotropins:

1. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH is essential for the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries (in females) or sperm production in the testes (in males). In females, FSH stimulates the maturation of eggs within the follicles.
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the dominant follicle. In males, LH stimulates the production and secretion of testosterone in the testes.

Together, FSH and LH work synergistically to regulate various aspects of reproductive function and sexual development. Their secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus, which releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to stimulate the production and release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland.

Abnormal levels of gonadotropins can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as infertility or menstrual irregularities in females and issues related to sexual development or function in both sexes. In some cases, synthetic forms of gonadotropins may be used clinically to treat these conditions or for assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Follicular atresia is a physiological process that occurs in the ovary, where follicles (fluid-filled sacs containing immature eggs or oocytes) undergo degeneration and disappearance. This process begins after the primordial follicle stage and continues throughout a woman's reproductive years. At birth, a female has approximately 1 to 2 million primordial follicles, but only about 400 of these will mature and release an egg during her lifetime. The rest undergo atresia, which is a natural process that helps regulate the number of available eggs and maintain hormonal balance within the body.

The exact mechanisms that trigger follicular atresia are not fully understood, but it is believed to be influenced by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, oxidative stress, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). In some cases, accelerated or excessive follicular atresia can lead to infertility or early menopause.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Sperm transport refers to the series of events that occur from the production of sperm in the testes to their release into the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse. This process involves several stages:

1. Spermatogenesis: The production of sperm cells (spermatozoa) takes place in the seminiferous tubules within the testes.
2. Maturation: The newly produced sperm are immature and incapable of fertilization. They undergo a maturation process as they move through the epididymis, where they acquire motility and the ability to fertilize an egg.
3. Ejaculation: During sexual arousal, sperm are mixed with seminal fluid produced by the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands to form semen. This mixture is propelled through the urethra during orgasm (ejaculation) and released from the penis into the female reproductive tract.
4. Transport within the female reproductive tract: Once inside the female reproductive tract, sperm must travel through the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes to reach the site of fertilization, the ampullary-isthmic junction of the fallopian tube. This journey can take several hours to a few days.
5. Capacitation: During their transport within the female reproductive tract, sperm undergo further changes called capacitation, which prepares them for fertilization by increasing their motility and making them more responsive to the egg's chemical signals.
6. Acrosome reaction: The final step in sperm transport is the acrosome reaction, where the sperm releases enzymes from the acrosome (a cap-like structure on the head of the sperm) to penetrate and fertilize the egg.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

... is the stimulation of ovulation by medication. It is usually used in the sense of stimulation of the ... The term ovulation induction can potentially also be used for: Final maturation induction, in the sense of triggering oocyte ... Sexual intercourse or artificial insemination by the time of ovulation. During ovulation induction, it is recommended to start ... Ovulation induction with clomiphene (Beyond the Basics)". UpToDate. Topic last updated: Aug 01, 2017 Casper RF. "Ovulation ...
van Wely M, Yding Andersen C, Bayram N, van der Veen F (2005). "Urofollitropin and ovulation induction". Treatments in ... Given by subcutaneous injection, it is used in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to assist in ovulation and ...
Step by Step Ovulation Induction. Anshan Ltd, Kent, United Kingdom. ISBN 1-904798-96-9. Page 44. Follicle Stimulating Hormone ... antibodies generated in goats treated with eCG for the induction of ovulation modulate the luteinizing hormone and follicle- ... used therapeutically mainly as fertility medication for ovarian hyperstimulation and ovulation induction.[medical citation ... In Women: Used to induce final maturation of follicle and subsequent ovulation.[medical citation needed] Also used for luteal ...
Ghumman S (2006). Step by Step Ovulation Induction. Kent UK: Anshan. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-904798-96-5. Navot D, Rosenwaks Z, ... "Successful pregnancy in a 42-year-old woman with imminent ovarian failure following ovulation induction with ethinyl estradiol ... In the control group there were no ovulations. The patients ranged in age between 24 and 39 years with an average age of 32.7. ... Whereas nafarelin acetate in a nasal spray induces a short lived LH surge that is high enough to induce ovulation in large ...
23-. ISBN 978-1-351-78989-9. Deshpande H (12 February 2016). Practical Management of Ovulation Induction. JP Medical Ltd. pp. ... on induction of menstruation, inhibition of nidation, and termination of pregnancy in bonnet monkeys". Biology of Reproduction ...
For those women that after weight loss still are anovulatory or for anovulatory lean women, then ovulation induction using the ... Tanbo T, Mellembakken J, Bjercke S, Ring E, Åbyholm T, Fedorcsak P (October 2018). "Ovulation induction in polycystic ovary ... Efforts to improve fertility include weight loss, metformin, and ovulation induction using clomiphene or letrozole. In vitro ... Sharpe A, Morley LC, Tang T, Norman RJ, Balen AH (December 2019). "Metformin for ovulation induction (excluding gonadotrophins ...
ISBN 978-0-443-04514-1. Josef Blankstein; Shlomo Mashiach; Bruno Lunenfeld (1 July 1986). Ovulation Induction and in Vitro ... medication which is used as a gonadotropin stimulant or ovulation inducer and in menopausal hormone therapy in women. It is ... effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and hence can increase sex hormone production and stimulate ovulation. ...
Greenblatt, R., & Mahesh, V. (1965). Induction of Ovulation with Clomiphene Citrate. In T. Schwartz, Yearbook of Endocrinology ... Induction of Ovulation with MRL/41. JAMA, 178, 101. Greenblatt, R., Mahesh, V., & Jungck, E., Roy S. (1963). Clomiphene Citrate ... Further Observations on Its Use in Induction of Ovulation in the Human and Its Mode of Action. Fertility and Sterility, 14, 575 ... His group's discovery in 1961 that clomiphene citrate could induce ovulation was a breakthrough in reproductive biology, and ...
HCG Injection After Ovulation Induction With Clomiphene Citrate at Medscape. By Peter Kovacs. Posted: 04/23/2004 "Ovulation ... In the presence of one or more mature ovarian follicles, ovulation can be triggered by the administration of HCG. As ovulation ... Because of its similarity to LH, hCG can also be used clinically to induce ovulation in the ovaries as well as testosterone ... Also, patients that undergo IVF, in general, receive HCG to trigger the ovulation process, but have an oocyte retrieval ...
The NSAI, letrozole is also used for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Generally, clomiphene ... Holzer, Hananel; Casper, Robert; Tulandi, Togas (2006-02-01). "A new era in ovulation induction". Fertility and Sterility. 85 ( ... ISBN 3-7643-7199-4. Kar, Sujata (2013-04-01). "Current evidence supporting "letrozole" for ovulation induction". Journal of ... Letrozole seems to be just as effective as clomiphene citrate for ovulation and pregnancy rate as it has shown to be very ...
Kistner RW (December 1965). "Induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate (clomid)". Obstet Gynecol Surv. 20 (6): 873-900. ... "Induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate (clomid)" "Histological effects of progestins on hyperplasia and carcinoma in ...
1958, First report using pituitary FSH 1960, "An immunological pregnancy test" 1962, "Induction of ovulation with human ... Gemzell, C. A. (1962). "Induction of ovulation with human pituitary gonadotrophins". Fertility and Sterility. 13 (2): 153-68. ... Ovulation stimulation using FSH medication became the basis of modern infertility therapy such as IVF. First pregnancies were ... was the first to show that extracted gonadotropins containing FSH could be used as fertility medication to stimulate ovulation ...
Artificial induction of ovulation and in vitro fertilization-embryo replacement can also give rise to fraternal and identical ... "Increased Monozygotic Twinning Rate After Ovulation Induction". The Lancet. 329 (8544): 1236-1238. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(87) ...
Weiss NS, Kostova E, Nahuis M, Mol BW, van der Veen F, van Wely M (January 2019). "Gonadotrophins for ovulation induction in ... However, ovulation induction remains an off-label indication, which affects use. Gonadotropins are protein hormones that ... Final maturation induction of follicles, also triggering a predictable time of ovulation. Either gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... The main techniques involving fertility medication in females are: Ovulation induction, with the aim of producing one or two ...
Allahbadia G (29 February 2016). Manual of Ovulation Induction & Ovarian Stimulation Protocols. JP Medical Ltd. pp. 94-. ISBN ...
Kovacs, P (2004). "HCG injection after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate". Medscape. Retrieved 2011-08-01. Oyawoye OA ... Injection of hCG as a trigger for ovulation confers a risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, especially in women with ... When the ovarian follicles have reached a certain degree of development, induction of final oocyte maturation is performed, ...
Ovulation Induction: using substances known as ovulation inductors. Semen capacitation: wash and centrifugation, swim-up, or ... To increase the chance of success, the woman's menstrual cycle is closely observed, often using ovulation kits, ultrasounds or ... there is no control of how many oocytes are at the same time when stimulating ovulation. For that reason, it is necessary to ... and viability of the male's sperm and the success of the female's ovulation. From these tests, the doctor may or may not ...
Ovulation induction (in the sense of medical treatment aiming for the development of one or two ovulatory follicles) is an ... In women with anovulation, it may be an alternative after 7-12 attempted cycles of ovulation induction, since the latter is ... Kovacs P (23 April 2004). "HCG Injection After Ovulation Induction With Clomiphene Citrate]". Medscape. Humaidan P, Kol S, ... Progesterone elevation on the day of induction of final maturation is associated with lower pregnancy rates in IVF cycles in ...
"Studies on fixed-time ovulation induction in the pig". Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl. 66: 187-95. PMID 19848281. A. Labhart (6 ...
The Edinburgh unit was the second in the world to use human gonadotrophins for ovulation induction in humans but Brown, later ... Thornton, S.J., Pepperell, R.J., & Brown, J.B. (1990). Home monitoring of gonadotropin ovulation induction using the Ovarian ... Monitoring Induction of Ovulation by Rapid Radioimmunoassays of Oestrogen and Pregnanediol Glucuronides. Annals of Clinical ... contributions made by Brown in his early days in Edinburgh was the use of human gonadotrophin for the induction of ovulation. ...
"Induction of Ovulation in the Human with Human Gonadotropins: Preliminary Report." Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey Buxton, C ... "Timing of Ovulation." American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology Buxton, C. Lee. (1956). "Human Infertility." Gynecology & ...
February 1997). "Strategies for ovulation induction and oocyte retrieval in the lowland gorilla". Journal of Assisted ...
"Comparison of Success of Clomiphene citrate and Letrozole in Ovulation Induction". Mymensingh Medical Journal. 25 (1): 66-71. ...
IVF.com > Ovulation Induction Archived 2012-02-26 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 Bakker J, Baum MJ (July 2000 ... infrequent or irregular ovulation) and anovulation (absence of ovulation): Oligoovulation is infrequent or irregular ovulation ... Some sources include ovulation induction in the definition of ovarian stimulation. A low dose of human chorionic gonadotropin ( ... Ovulation induction is a promising assisted reproductive technology for patients with conditions such as polycystic ovary ...
... is used for ovulation induction to treat infertility in women with anovulatory disorders. It is given at days three ... Steiner AZ, Terplan M, Paulson RJ (June 2005). "Comparison of tamoxifen and clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction: a meta- ... This compound was originally created to work as an estrogen inhibitor, but instead was found to stimulate ovulation in ... September 2007). "Estrogen prevents bone loss via estrogen receptor alpha and induction of Fas ligand in osteoclasts". Cell. ...
Fowler and Edwards worked together on controlled ovulation induction in the mouse. In their first joint paper, published in ... Induction of superovulation and pregnancy in mature mice by gonadotrophins. J. Endocrinol. 15, 374-384. Gardner, Sir Richard ( ... FOWLER, R. E., & Edwards, R. G. (1957). Induction of superovulation and pregnancy in mature mice by gonadotrophins. Journal of ...
391-. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. Maia H, Barbosa I, Maia H, Nascimento AJ, Bonfim de Souza M (1980). "Induction of ovulation with ... It has been used as a component of ovulation induction in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone. List of estrogens G. ...
It can be combined with for example in vitro fertilization and ovulation induction. Progesterone appears to be the best method ... "Progesterone luteal support after ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination: an updated systematic review and meta- ...
"Premature ovarian failure-the prognostic application of autoimmunity on conception after ovulation induction". Fertility and ... sites are free and treatment with exogenous recombinant FSH activates the receptors and normal follicle growth and ovulation ...
For those who after weight loss still are anovulatory or for anovulatory lean women, ovulation induction to reverse the ... For patients who do not respond to diet, lifestyle modification and ovulation induction, in vitro fertilisation can be ... Methods that confirm ovulation may be used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments to stimulate ovulation.[citation needed ... for ovulation induction in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2022 ( ...
Ovulation induction is the stimulation of ovulation by medication. It is usually used in the sense of stimulation of the ... The term ovulation induction can potentially also be used for: Final maturation induction, in the sense of triggering oocyte ... Sexual intercourse or artificial insemination by the time of ovulation. During ovulation induction, it is recommended to start ... Ovulation induction with clomiphene (Beyond the Basics)". UpToDate. Topic last updated: Aug 01, 2017 Casper RF. "Ovulation ...
Ovulation induction is a process to help regulate the timing of ovulation and stimulate the development and release of mature ... Ovulation Induction #iw_comp1513602337962{}. In the ovulation induction process, medications are taken (oral or injectable) to ... Medications for ovulation induction help regulate the timing of ovulation and stimulate the development and release of mature ... When ovulation induction is successful, pregnancy rates per cycle are close to those of normally ovulating women in a ...
Hi wondering has anyone had ovulation induction canceled this is my 2nd round was on 75iu for 5 days then upped to 150iu ... Hi wondering has anyone had ovulation induction canceled this is my 2nd round was on 75iu for 5 days then upped to 150iu ...
Comparison of clomiphene citrate and letrozole for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective ... AdultClomipheneFemaleHormone AntagonistsHumansInfertility, FemaleLetrozoleNitrilesOvulation InductionPolycystic Ovary Syndrome ... First-line ovulation induction for polycystic ovary syndrome: an individual participant data meta-analysis. ... Optimal Ovulation Induction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Resistant to Clomiphene Citrate or Letrozole.] ...
FSHR, Ovulation induction, Polymorphism, Rs6166, WHO2 Persistent URL doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.01.002, hdl.handle.net/ ... Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor polymorphism affects the outcome of ovulation induction in normogonadotropic (World ...
Main article: Ovulation induction. Ovulation induction is usually used in the sense of stimulation of the development of ... Flinders reproductive medicine , Ovulation Induction Archived 2009-10-03 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 ... fertilityLifeLines , Ovulation Induction Archived 2013-03-10 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on Mars 7, 2010 ... Ovulation Problems and Infertility: Treatment of ovulation problems with Clomid and other fertility drugs. Advanced Fertility ...
Ovulation induction is a simple process designed to help the ovaries produce and release one or more ova so as to increase the ... The ovulation induction cycle. Day 1 (of the period): call the "GONIMOTIS" clinic to schedule an appointment for an ultrasound ... It is indicative in women who produce low levels of ovulation-causing hormones or who have no ovulation at all, such as women ... By inducing ovulation we will confirm when you are actually ovulating:. *By collecting blood samples to measure hormone levels ...
"Ovulation Induction" by people in this website by year, and whether "Ovulation Induction" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Ovulation Induction" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum. ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Ovulation Induction" by people in Profiles. ...
This blog will help you understand what is ovulation induction and in which cases we recommend it. ... This is where Ovulation Induction comes in. How does Ovulation Induction work? Ovulation Induction is carried out using a ... Ovulation Induction could be your treatment! Ovulation Induction not only tends to prevent abnormal ovulation but also works on ... Hence, Ovulation Induction, in general, is effective. Side effects Like any other treatment, Ovulation Induction has its side ...
... Femara (generic name is Letrazole) is an aromatase inhibitor. Aromatase is an enzyme that is ... These hormones, FSH and LH, can cause the development of ovulation in women who are anovulatory or increase the number of eggs ... For this reason, it is less likely to adversely affect the endometrium and cervical mucus than other ovulation medicines given ... This results in normal or enhanced egg recruitment with less risk of multiple ovulation and ovarian hyperstimulation. Letrozole ...
... you may be looking into ovulation induction medications to help. But is it safe to take them? And will they even work? Keep ... So ovulation induction is the process of helping your body release an egg in order to get pregnant. And ovulation induction ... Home > Learn > Fertility Treatments > >Risks of Ovulation Induction Medications Risks of Ovulation Induction Medications. Apr ... Ovulation induction medications have a high success rate in women who have PCOS. [19] One study found that ovulation induction ...
Letrozole has been used for over a decade as an alternative to clomiphene for ovulation induction agent. In spite of growing ... Letrozole has been used for over a decade as an alternative to clomiphene for ovulation induction agent. In spite of growing ... If letrozole is a better option for ovulation induction, is it superior for all infertility patients or just in selected types ... Does letrozol achieve successful ovulation more or less frequently than Clomid?. Are there long term risks to the mother or ...
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Ovulation Induction is the use of fertility medications to help stimulate the recruitment of egg(s) development and/or trigger ... Ovulation induction, also referred to as controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, is often one of the first treatments recommended ... Ovulation Induction. Ovulation induction, also referred to as controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, is often one of the first ... Ovulation Induction is the use of fertility medications to help stimulate the recruitment of egg(s) development and/or trigger ...
... to help women who do not ovulate or experience infrequent ovulation. ... We offer specialist ovulation induction treatment in London with female consultants, ... What is ovulation induction?. Ovulation problems or ovulation disorders can make it difficult to get pregnant. Ovulation ... Home › Fertility Services › Fertility Treatments › Ovulation Induction Treatment Ovulation Induction Treatment. There are many ...
... HomeFemale infertilityDoes ovulation induction increases your ... In 75 percent of cases, ovulation will occur as a result of ovarian stimulation, which can be accomplished through the use of ... It is only after a physiological chain of events, including hormonal triggers, the growth of the follicle, and ovulation, that ...
Ovulation Induction/IUI/Other Utah Fertility Center offers various fertility treatments in Murray, Pleasant Grove, Ogden, Park ... For many patients, treatment consists of taking fertility medication (ovulation induction) along with intrauterine ... Ovulation Induction/IUI/Other *Ovulation Induction (Timed Intercourse). *IUI (Intrauterine Insemination). *Fertility ... Ovulation Induction/IUI/Other *Ovulation Induction (Timed Intercourse). *IUI (Intrauterine Insemination). *Fertility ...
Maximize your fertility potential with ovulation induction at Reproductive Fertility Center in LA. 20+ yrs of experienced & ... Who Should Consider Ovulation Induction Therapy?. Ovulation Induction Therapy is most common with women who have absent of ... There are two types of ovulation induction medication:. Oral Ovulation Induction Medicine. Oral medication is generally the ... Ovulation Induction Medicine. For women who face issue with ovulation or have irregular menstrual cycles, medication is ...
Ovulation induction is done with oral drugs with or without injections (hormones) depending upon the womans ovulation status. ... Ovulation Induction - Intra Uterine Insemination Ovulation induction is done with oral drugs with or without injections ( ... hormones) depending upon the womans ovulation status.. IUI is planned after ovulation induction with HCG injection. Husbands ...
Ovulation induction will play an important role in increasing the chances of conceiving a child. we provide ovulation induction ... What Is Ovulation Induction?. Ovulation induction is the method of stimulating ovulation with drugs in women who have irregular ... Candidates For Ovulation Induction. Ovulation induction is a widely used procedure for women who have infrequent or absent ... Women who have irregular ovulation and menstruation can benefit from ovulation induction. Our reproductive specialists will ...
NSW offers fertility treatments such as ovulation induction, IVF, ovulation tracking, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and ... Egg freezing fertility preservation Ovulation induction In vitro fertilisation (IVF) Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) ...
... ovarian stimulation and ovulation induction work for treating infertility. ... Ovulation Induction. Fertility specialists use ovulation induction-also called controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) or ... Your doctor may also cancel an ovulation induction/IUI treatment cycle due to:. *Inadequate follicular development or hormonal ... We hope to obtain two to four eggs capable of ovulation per cycle. If more than four eggs develop, your doctor may recommend ...
Ovulation Induction The following articles look at different treatments and methods available for ovulation induction and ... pregnancy induction. Fertility Drugs In general, fertility drugs for women work to overcome… ...
Acupuncture for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. March 12, 2013. /in ...
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Medications for Ovulation Induction. Several medications are available to help induce ovulation in women who dont ovulate, or ... Several of these drugs are classified as ovulation-induction agents because they help to establish normal ovulation. ... Letrozole is a common treatment for ovulation induction in PCOS. Letrozole is administered orally and results in an increase in ... Ovulation cannot occur while taking these products unless hCG or LH is administered. Normally, a spike of LH causes ovulation ...
In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with ... In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with ... In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with ... In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with ...
Ovulation Induction (Off-label). 5-40 mg PO q12hr for 4 days ...
The induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla): in vitro and in vivo comparison of ... The induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla): in vitro and in vivo comparison of ... The induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla): in vitro and in vivo comparison of ... T1 - The induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla): in vitro and in vivo comparison ...
Ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010 May. 32(5):495-502. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Altering hirsutism through ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Jun. 119(6):1151-6 ... Badawy A, State O, Abdelgawad S. N-Acetyl cysteine and clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovary ... Farquhar C, Lilford RJ, Marjoribanks J, Vandekerckhove P. Laparoscopic drilling by diathermy or laser for ovulation induction ...
  • Ovulation induction helps reversing anovulation or oligoovulation, that is, helping women who do not ovulate on their own regularly, such as those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is indicative in women who produce low levels of ovulation-causing hormones or who have no ovulation at all, such as women with polycystic ovary. (gonimotis.gr)
  • 1] These medications are commonly prescribed to women who have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or other conditions that cause irregular ovulation. (natalist.com)
  • Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a rare but serious condition that can occur with ovulation induction medications, especially in women who are at a higher risk for OHSS, such as those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (natalist.com)
  • Additional large randomized controlled trials are needed before we should begin using letrozole as the first line medication for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. (louismanara.com)
  • Women with a lack of ovulation may be experiencing polycystic ovarian syndrome, a hormonal disorder common in women of reproductive age. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • Acupuncture for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. (acupuncturepregnancy.com.au)
  • Ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Ovulation induction with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a second-line treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who do not ovulate or conceive on clomiphene citrate. (cochrane.org)
  • To compare the effectiveness and safety of gonadotrophins as a second-line treatment for ovulation induction in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and women who do not ovulate or conceive after clomiphene citrate. (cochrane.org)
  • Objective: The article will review the associations between Prediabetes (PD) and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and present factors that decrease the progression of PD into type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Metformin will also be examined for its role in ovulation induction, pregnancy and ameliorating the metabolic syndrome. (scirp.org)
  • 2005) Prospective paralell randomized double blind, double-dummy controlled clinical trial comparing clomiphene citrate and metformin as the first line treatment for ovulation induction in non-obese anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (scirp.org)
  • Because it can stimulate ovulation in some cases, it has gained widespread off-label use as a treatment for infertility. (natalist.com)
  • If letrozole is a better option for ovulation induction, is it superior for all infertility patients or just in selected types of patients? (louismanara.com)
  • Success rates for ovulation induction vary depending on many factors, most notably a woman's diagnosed reason for infertility and her age. (ivfmatters.co.uk)
  • For women who face issue with ovulation or have irregular menstrual cycles, medication is generally the first attempt to treat infertility. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • Typically used for couples dealing with male fertility problems, AI also enhances the pregnancy rate in couples with unexplained infertility when combined with ovulation enhancement. (sutterhealth.org)
  • Laparoscopic ovarian surgery could be considered second-line therapy for ovulation induction for women with PCOS who are clomiphene citrate resistant with anovulatory infertility and no other infertility factors. (medscape.com)
  • Women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility could be offered in vitro fertilization as a third-line therapy when other induction therapies have been unsuccessful. (medscape.com)
  • Infertility due to ovulation disorders is the most common reason for women to seek counselling or treatment. (cochrane.org)
  • 4 If I take drugs to induce ovulation (ovulation induction) for my infertility, are there any risks? (2womenshealth.com)
  • 5 How is ovulation induction treatment for infertility monitored? (2womenshealth.com)
  • Patient(s): Couples with infertility undergoing ovulation induction with IUI between 2010 and 2014. (researchgate.net)
  • CC regimen was still recommended to be the first-line therapy of ovulation induction for PCOS. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This medication is primarily used to treat diabetes, but is also used off-label to help to improve ovulation in women with PCOS. (natalist.com)
  • Letrozole is a common treatment for ovulation induction in PCOS. (pacificfertility.ca)
  • Letrozole should be considered the first-line pharmacologic agent for ovulation induction in women with PCOS. (medscape.com)
  • Metformin could be used alone in women with PCOS for ovulation induction, but women should be informed of more effective agents. (medscape.com)
  • Gonadotropins could be used as second-line agents in women with PCOS who have failed first-line oral ovulation induction therapy. (medscape.com)
  • To compare the effectiveness and safety of gonadotrophins, hormones that regulate the reproductive system, as a second-line treatment to stimulate ovulation in women with PCOS who do not ovulate or conceive on clomiphene citrate. (cochrane.org)
  • Taking inositol by mouth seems to lower triglyceride levels , decrease blood pressure, and improve blood sugar , ovulation , and pregnancy rates in people with PCOS. (webmd.com)
  • 3-4] It is important to note that letrozole isn't FDA approved for ovulation induction, but is actually approved for the treatment of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal people. (natalist.com)
  • Letrozole has been used for over a decade as an alternative to clomiphene for ovulation induction agent. (louismanara.com)
  • In patients who achieve successful ovulation with letrozole, does it achieve successful pregnancy more frequently than the gold standard oral ovulation medication, clomiphene citrate (Clomid)? (louismanara.com)
  • It is also worth noting that a significant percentage of patients initially treated with letrozole failed to respond with successful ovulation. (louismanara.com)
  • The use of ovulation induction agents, including letrozole, metformin, and clomiphene citrate is off label in many countries. (medscape.com)
  • Most often fertility pills such as Clomiphene Citrate (Clomid) or Letrozole, are used for ovulation induction. (muhc.ca)
  • Letrozole is an estrogen-lowering compound that has recently been found to induce ovulation (its effect is similar to that of Clomiphene). (muhc.ca)
  • Ovulation Induction not only tends to prevent abnormal ovulation but also works on par with other treatments such as In-vitro Fertilization (IVF). (panamafertility.com)
  • Ovulation induction may be prescribed to women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). (reproductivefertility.com)
  • Ovulation induction can also be used in combination with in-vitro fertilization (IVF) to stimulate the release of several mature eggs for processing and use in lab fertilization. (orionivfpune.com)
  • Fertility specialists use ovulation induction-also called controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) or ovarian stimulation-to improve pregnancy chances by intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). (sutterhealth.org)
  • This increasing trend coincided with the introduction of fertility treatments such as ovulation induction, ovarian stimulation, and in vitro fertilization. (cdc.gov)
  • Irregular ovulation is known as 'anovulation. (panamafertility.com)
  • If you are currently suffering from anovulation, Ovulation Induction could be your treatment! (panamafertility.com)
  • Treatment of anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH or follitropin). (elsevierpure.com)
  • In the ovulation induction process, medications are taken (oral or injectable) to stimulate the ovaries to make eggs. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Medications for ovulation induction help regulate the timing of ovulation and stimulate the development and release of mature eggs. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • When follicles have reached an adequate size and the eggs are mature enough, an injection of the hormone hCG initiates the ovulation process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who do not have a regular cycle may need longer to produce eggs and ovulation may occur well after the 14th day. (gonimotis.gr)
  • These hormones, FSH and LH, can cause the development of ovulation in women who are anovulatory or increase the number of eggs developing in the ovaries of women who already ovulate. (nashvillefertility.com)
  • Ovulation induction involves taking fertility medications that are identical to a woman's reproductive hormones that regulate the production and growth of eggs. (ivfmatters.co.uk)
  • The medication for ovulation induction stimulates the ovaries to produce a single healthy egg or multiple eggs. (ivfmatters.co.uk)
  • Many women beginning their fertility journey turn to ovulation induction therapy, in which the ovaries are medically induced (with either oral or injectable medication) to help produce eggs and increase the chance of pregnancy. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • These ovulation medications stimulate the release of hormones to trigger the production of eggs. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • This condition prevents a woman from releasing eggs regularly or can even prevent ovulation altogether. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • Usually, only one egg is ovulated per period, but with the use of fertility medications, an individual with ovaries may be able to develop multiple eggs, which can then be extracted from the ovaries before ovulation. (orionivfpune.com)
  • While the eggs are almost matured, most women will be given an injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which simulates the normal luteinizing hormone (LH) spike the body experiences prior to ovulation. (orionivfpune.com)
  • Your doctor will determine a set sequence of medications, usually including Clomid (clomiphene citrate), follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) or human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG), to induce ovulation and development of multiple eggs. (sutterhealth.org)
  • We hope to obtain two to four eggs capable of ovulation per cycle. (sutterhealth.org)
  • Urofollitropin will help develop and release eggs in women who have not been able to become pregnant because of problems with ovulation, and have already received a medicine to control their pituitary gland. (drugs.com)
  • However, some of the treatments that we use involve stimulation of the ovaries to make multiple mature eggs - and multiple ovulations. (advancedfertility.com)
  • Specifically, a woman undergoing IVF typically receives an hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) trigger shot before retrieval to help her eggs mature and to put them into an important process called meiosis (when the egg releases half of its chromosomes before ovulation). (healthline.com)
  • In this case, ovarian stimulation is used to stimulate the ovaries to guarantee ovulation and to produce up to three eggs. (muhc.ca)
  • It is used in fertility treatment because it is known to bring about the final maturation and release or "ovulation" of mature egg(s). hCG is used to provoke ovulation only and does not cause more eggs to develop. (muhc.ca)
  • Non-ART fertility treatments include oral medications or injections used to boost ovulation among women who do not ovulate or to stimulate the development of multiple eggs among women who have trouble getting pregnant. (cdc.gov)
  • Several medications are available to help induce ovulation in women who don't ovulate, or stimulate more vigorous ovulation in those who do. (pacificfertility.ca)
  • In ovulation induction, hormone therapy is used to bring about or induce ovulation in women who are not ovulating normally (these are usually women with irregular or infrequent menstruations). (muhc.ca)
  • In this guide, we'll talk through some of the most common types of ovulation induction medications and what you need to know about the risks and benefits. (natalist.com)
  • and to ensure if LE can replace CC as the first-line therapy for ovulation induction in these women. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Ovulation induction, also referred to as controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, is often one of the first treatments recommended to patients and couples with fertility issues. (kentuckyfertility.com)
  • The following articles look at different treatments and methods available for ovulation induction and pregnancy induction. (conceivingconcepts.com)
  • Expression of genes involved in oocyte maturation and ovulation was similar in vitro for both DHP and P treatments. (wur.nl)
  • Non-ART fertility treatments of ovulation induction and ovarian stimulation contribute to a portion of the increasing number of multiple births. (cdc.gov)
  • In 75 percent of cases, ovulation will occur as a result of ovarian stimulation, which can be accomplished through the use of oral and/or injectable fertility medications. (kicbengaluru.com)
  • Injectable ovulation medication is generally recommended if oral medications are unsuccessful. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • Injectable ovulation treatment begins on day 3 of your menstrual cycle and monitored through ultrasound and bloodwork. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • If women do not react to this medication, the most common second-line treatment in these women is ovulation induction with gonadotrophins, which are injectable drugs. (cochrane.org)
  • These tablets will help induce ovulation and could be an essential part of your induction based on the results of your tests. (panamafertility.com)
  • The term ovulation induction can potentially also be used for: Final maturation induction, in the sense of triggering oocyte release from relatively mature ovarian follicles during late follicular phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ovulation in European eel is induced by injection of 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) as the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH). (wur.nl)
  • Ovulation induction is the stimulation of ovulation by medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ovulation induction is a type of fertility treatment that uses hormone medication to stimulate ovulation in women with irregular or absent periods. (ivfmatters.co.uk)
  • For many patients, treatment consists of taking fertility medication (ovulation induction) along with intrauterine inseminations (IUI). (utahfertility.com)
  • To choose the correct form of medication, Dr. Saadat will evaluate the patients ovulation history into consideration along with your age, weight, height, hormone levels and prior response to medications. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • Oral medication is generally the first option for females who are undergoing ovulation treatment. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • Oral ovulation induction medication begins with an ultrasound and bloodwork during the third day of your menstrual cycle, where the oral medication is taken. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • Hormonal medication such as clomiphene citrate (Clomid®) or human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) may be used to induce ovulation. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • It is only after a physiological chain of events, including hormonal triggers, the growth of the follicle, and ovulation , that a pregnancy is possible. (kicbengaluru.com)
  • Hormonal imbalances are one potential cause of irregular or absent ovulation. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • Hormonal Monitoring - Using blood samples, your doctor will assess your ovaries' hormonal response during induction. (sutterhealth.org)
  • The main alternatives for ovulation induction medications are: Antiestrogen, causing an inhibition of the negative feedback of estrogen on the pituitary gland, resulting in an increase in secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • This stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which stimulate follicle growth and ovulation . (rxlist.com)
  • Ovulation Induction Therapy is most common with women who have absent of infrequent ovulation. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • Ovulation induction is a widely used procedure for women who have infrequent or absent ovulation. (orionivfpune.com)
  • In addition to the scans, you may be asked to check your LH hormone level (the hormone that causes ovulation to occur) by using home fertility kits. (ivfmatters.co.uk)
  • Does the peak estrogen hormone level before ovulation matter? (advancedfertility.com)
  • If there is not exposure to a male for breeding attempts, the most consistent means to induce ovulation is by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, 200 IU) or gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH, 25-50 µg) when there is active estrous behavior. (msu.edu)
  • However, if the lack of ovulation is a symptom of another fertility problem, fixing the core problem will also return natural ovulation and fertility. (orionivfpune.com)
  • Ovulation induction is the method of stimulating ovulation with drugs in women who have irregular menstrual cycles. (orionivfpune.com)
  • Ovulation induction is done with oral drugs with or without injections (hormones) depending upon the woman's ovulation status. (best-hospital-infertility.com)
  • During a woman's menstrual cycle, normal ovulation happens once every 28 days. (orionivfpune.com)
  • The purpose of ovulation induction is to improve a woman's chances of getting pregnant, either through sexual intercourse or through the use of IUI or another fertility therapy. (orionivfpune.com)
  • When ovulation induction is successful, pregnancy rates per cycle are close to those of normally ovulating women in a comparable age group. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • their ovulation rates, pregnancy rates, and live birth rates were calculated and compared. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Context Women with hypopituitarism have lower pregnancy rates after ovulation induction. (medscape.com)
  • After ovulation induction treatment, you can either try to conceive by timing sexual intercourse or by undergoing intrauterine insemination treatment (IUI). (ivfmatters.co.uk)
  • Normal ovulation begins as the ovary produces a mature egg in preparation for fertilization. (orionivfpune.com)
  • Several of these drugs are classified as ovulation-induction agents because they help to establish normal ovulation. (pacificfertility.ca)
  • The use of metformin has shown mixed results in this patient population as a therapy to improve ovulation function and the metabolic syndrome and showed no definitive reduction in the rate of miscarriage. (scirp.org)
  • Women who ovulate irregularly or do not ovulate in any way gain the most from ovulation induction using various fertility medications - based on the diagnosis of their ovulation difficulties. (orionivfpune.com)
  • When used in women who do not ovulate naturally, Clomiphene is successful in inducing ovulation in approximately 60% of women. (muhc.ca)
  • How Does Ovulation Induction occur? (gonimotis.gr)
  • The blood tests and ultrasounds will help determine when ovulation is about to occur. (ivfmatters.co.uk)
  • Ovulation cannot occur while taking these products unless hCG or LH is administered. (pacificfertility.ca)
  • Does letrozol achieve successful ovulation more or less frequently than Clomid? (louismanara.com)
  • Ovulation problems or ovulation disorders can make it difficult to get pregnant. (ivfmatters.co.uk)
  • Disorders that can inhibit natural ovulation. (orionivfpune.com)
  • Thyroid disorders, eating disorders, and obesity are examples of disorders that can harm ovulation. (orionivfpune.com)
  • Dmowski WP, Radwanska E, Binor Z, Rana N. Mild endometriosis and ovulatory dysfunction: effect of danazol treatment on success of ovulation induction. (rush.edu)
  • Like any other treatment, Ovulation Induction has its side effects too. (panamafertility.com)
  • Ovulation Induction is a treatment that will help you out on your journey to eventual pregnancy. (panamafertility.com)
  • Ovulation induction is a fertility treatment that uses fertility medications to stimulate ovulation so that you can increase your chances of conceiving. (ivfmatters.co.uk)
  • If you would like to see if ovulation induction might be the right treatment for you, we offer free 15-minute consultations to anyone looking to learn more. (ivfmatters.co.uk)
  • Ovulation induction is a simple process designed to help the ovaries produce and release one or more ova so as to increase the chances of achieving conception through planned sexual intercourse or artificial insemination (IUI). (gonimotis.gr)
  • Ovulation Induction, in simple terms, are medications that increase fertility by aiding the stimulation of egg release from the ovary. (panamafertility.com)
  • Ovulation is the release of the egg from the ovary during your fertile window. (natalist.com)
  • hCG is also used to initiate ovulation in assisted reproductive technology cycles where GnRH agonists or antagonists are used. (pacificfertility.ca)
  • For the in vivo experiment, females were either injected with DHP or P at a dose of 2 mg kg−1 to assess their effects on ovulation and reproductive success. (wur.nl)
  • It essentially stimulates ovulation in cases where it is irregular or absent. (panamafertility.com)
  • During each menstrual cycle, a woman will typically produce one dominant follicle that will then release an egg, which is called ovulation. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • When trying to conceive while having issues with ovulation, many women find this frustrating and almost always requires assistance from a fertility specialist. (reproductivefertility.com)
  • If you are having trouble getting pregnant, you may be looking into ovulation induction medications to help. (natalist.com)
  • So ovulation induction is the process of helping your body release an egg in order to get pregnant. (natalist.com)
  • In a natural cycle, a woman typically releases one mature egg during ovulation. (healthline.com)
  • The goal in ovulation induction is the release of one mature egg. (muhc.ca)
  • If conventional ovulation induction stalls, patients are asked to undertake superovulation. (orionivfpune.com)
  • For this reason, it is less likely to adversely affect the endometrium and cervical mucus than other ovulation medicines given orally. (nashvillefertility.com)
  • A higher dose of up to 12.5 mg per day results in increased follicular growth and a higher number of predicted ovulations, without a detrimental effect on endometrial thickness, and is considered in those who do not respond adequately to a lower dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ovulation Induction is the use of fertility medications to help stimulate the recruitment of egg(s) development and/or trigger ovulation. (kentuckyfertility.com)
  • [ 3 ] In contrast, case reports and series reporting on the outcomes of ovulation induction in women with CPHD (involving HH) have shown a high number of cancelled cycles due to low or absent ovarian response to stimulation. (medscape.com)