The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A suborder of chewing lice, in the order PHTHIRAPTERA, that are ectoparasites of poultry and some mammals.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Sexual activities of animals.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE. This is the source of the familiar cashew nuts, which are heat treated to remove the irritant toxin. Cashew nut shell liquid (frequently abbreviated as CNSL) is a major source of alkenyl phenolic compounds, especially ANACARDIC ACIDS, cardol, and cardanol.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
A suborder of chewing lice, in the order PHTHIRAPTERA, that are parasites of birds and mammals.
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.
A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.
A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.
Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.

The crayfish plasma clotting protein: a vitellogenin-related protein responsible for clot formation in crustacean blood. (1/908)

Coagulation in crayfish blood is based on the transglutaminase-mediated crosslinking of a specific plasma clotting protein. Here we report the cloning of the subunit of this clotting protein from a crayfish hepatopancreas cDNA library. The ORF encodes a protein of 1,721 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 15 amino acids. Sequence analysis reveals that the clotting protein is homologous to vitellogenins, which are proteins found in vitellogenic females of egg-laying animals. The clotting protein and vitellogenins are all lipoproteins and share a limited sequence similarity to certain other lipoproteins (e.g., mammalian apolipoprotein B and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) and contain a stretch with similarity to the D domain of mammalian von Willebrand factor. The crayfish clotting protein is present in both sexes, unlike the female-specific vitellogenins. Electron microscopy was used to visualize individual clotting protein molecules and to study the transglutaminase-mediated clotting reaction. In the presence of an endogenous transglutaminase, the purified clotting protein molecules rapidly assemble into long, flexible chains that occasionally branch.  (+info)

Estrogen induction of VLDLy assembly in egg-laying hens. (2/908)

The yolk of a 60-g chicken egg contains 6 g of triacylglycerols transported to the oocyte from the liver of the laying hen in apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing particles. With the onset of egg production, estrogen shifts hepatocytic lipoprotein production from generic VLDL to VLDLy (yolk targeted). These VLDLy are triacylglycerol-rich particles; they are reduced in size by one half, are resistant to lipoprotein lipase and are taken up intact by oocyte receptors. The VLDLy pathway for apoB provides sufficient energy for the caloric requirements of chick development. VLDLy size reduction occurs in spite of surplus liver triacylglycerols and is necessary for VLDL particles to pass through the granulosa basal lamina and reach the receptors located on the oocyte surface. New ultrastructural data show that some proximal tubule cells of bird kidney secrete generic VLDL, perhaps providing energy and other VLDL-associated nutrients to tissues bypassed by VLDLy. Birds are an apoB100-only species, providing a natural in vivo model with which to investigate mechanisms of apoB100 VLDL assembly. Preliminary studies of liver lipoprotein assembly intermediates isolated from the biosynthetic membranes (endoplasmic reticulum) of the laying hen are consistent with the presence of both putative first- and second-step precursor particles of VLDLy. These findings suggest that the two-step mechanism of apoB core lipidation is an ancient development in apoB biology, handed down to mammals from oviparous ancestors.  (+info)

The effects of age and sex steroids on the macrophage population in the ovary of the chicken, Gallus domesticus. (3/908)

The role of macrophages in the function of the hen ovary has not yet been described, although these cells may be an important regulator of ovarian function in mammals. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the frequency of macrophages during ageing and follicular atresia, and the effects of sex steroids on the macrophage population in the hen ovary. Cryostat sections of ovarian tissues of immature, young laying and old laying hens and those of immature hens treated with or without diethylstilboestrol (DES) or progesterone were immunostained for macrophage cells using mouse anti-chicken macrophage monoclonal antibody. Macrophages were observed under a light microscope and counted using a computer assisted image analyser. The frequency of macrophages in both the stroma and theca of primary follicles was significantly greater in young laying hens than in immature and old laying hens and these cells were more frequent in old laying hens than in immature hens (P < 0.01). Macrophages were more frequent in atretic follicles than in normal follicles (P < 0.01). The number of macrophages in both the stroma and theca of primary follicles of DES-treated birds was significantly greater than in those of progesterone-treated and control birds (P < 0.01). Progesterone had no significant effect on the population of macrophages. These results suggest that macrophages in the ovary increase in association with sexual maturation of birds and atresia of follicles and decrease during ageing. Oestrogen may be one of the factors that affect the population of macrophages in the hen ovary.  (+info)

Effect of long-term food restriction on pituitary sensitivity to cLHRH-I in broiler breeder females. (4/908)

The effect of long-term food restriction on the sensitivity of the pituitary to exogenously administered chicken luteinizing hormone releasing hormone I (cLHRH-I) was investigated in three groups of broiler breeder females fed ad libitum, fed a restricted quantity of food or fed a restricted quantity of food to obtain an intermediate body weight between those of the first two groups. At 16 weeks of age, basal FSH release was higher in ad libitum fed birds, culminating in ovarian development and subsequent oestradiol production by the small follicles. At this age, LH secretion was independent of ovarian feedback factors. In all groups, cLHRH-I was most active in releasing LH in intact and ovariectomized animals and, to a lesser extent, in releasing FSH in ovariectomized birds. At 39 weeks of age, basal FSH concentrations were similar among intact animals of all groups, whereas LH concentrations differed among groups, with higher values in the restricted birds. This food effect was enhanced in ovariectomized birds. Furthermore, the high response to cLHRH-I in the ovariectomized, restricted birds compared with the ad libitum, ovariectomized group suggests an improved sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In conclusion, birds fed ad libitum showed the highest responsiveness to ovarian factors and to cLHRH-I in releasing FSH in the period before sexual maturity. No effect of amount of feeding could be observed for LH. However, during the egg laying period, LH release by cLHRH-I was highly dependent on amount of feeding and on ovarian feedback regulation. This finding indicates that the amount of feeding can modify the sensitivity of the pituitary to cLHRH-I, and possibly to gonadal hormones, during the laying period.  (+info)

Quantitative estimates of cytoplasmic and nuclear oestrogen receptors in chick oviduct. Effect of oestrogen on receptor concentration and subcellular distribution. (5/908)

(3H)Oestradiol exchange techniques were developed for the determination of specific oestrogen receptor site concentrations in the cytoplasm and nuclei of chick oviduct cells. Non-labelled, receptor-bound oestrogens were exchanged with (3H)oestradiol during a 24-h incubation at 20 degrees C, 2 h at 30 degrees C or 45 min at 3 degrees C. Both "soluble" and "insoluble" nuclear receptors were stable for at least 6 h at 30 degrees C and 3 degrees C but a proportion (approx. 30%) of cytoplasmic sites from withdrawn chickens were inactivated after 2 h at 20 degrees C. The magnum of 4-week-old immature chickens (weight = 15 mg) contained 0.20 pmol of oestrogen receptor which corresponds to 4275 receptor sites/cell, when it is assumed that all magnum cells have equal concentrations of receptor. In primarily stimulated chickens of similar age which had received 10x1 mg of oestradiol benzoate/day, the magnum weighed approximately 800 mg and contained 8.65 pmol of oestrogen receptor (4610 sites/cell). Withdrawal from primary oestrogenic stimulation for 3-6 weeks resulted in a 110 mg magnum which contained 1.20 pmol of receptor (2225 sites/cell). Oviducts from immature and withdrawn chickens had the majority (73-77%) of their oestrogen receptors sites in the receptor sites in the cytoplasmic fraction, while in primary stimulated chicken oviducts the majority (82%) of receptor sites were located in the nucleus. A single secondary injection of oestradiol, to oestrogen-withdrawn chickens, resulted in apparent translocation of cytoplasmic receptors to the nucleus during the first hour after injection. The magnitude of the decline in cytoplasmic receptor, and the concurrent increase in nuclear receptor concentration, was dose-dependent between 2 and 100 mug oestradiol/kg body weight. Larger doses of oestradiol up to 1 mg/kg did not increase the concentration of nuclear receptor above the maximum level seen at 100 mug oestradiol/kg. The initial rapid accumulation of nuclear receptor sites was followed by a period of progressive decline. The initial rapid accumulation of nuclear receptor sites was followed by a period of progressive decline. By 15 h after an injection of 100 mug oestradiol/kg, the concentration of nuclear sites had reached pre-injection levels. During the same time period, the depleted cytoplasmic receptor levels were replenished such that they reached control values by 12 h and were about 150% of the pre-injection level at 24 h.  (+info)

Control of oocyte maturation in sexually mature Drosophila females. (6/908)

In many sexually mature insects egg production and oviposition are tightly coupled to copulation. Sex-Peptide is a 36-amino-acid peptide synthesized in the accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster males and transferred to the female during copulation. Sex-Peptide stimulates vitellogenic oocyte progression through a putative control point at about stage 9 of oogenesis. Here we show that application of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene mimics the Sex-Peptide-mediated stimulation of vitellogenic oocyte progression in sexually mature virgin females. Apoptosis is induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in nurse cells of stage 9 egg chambers at physiological concentrations (10(-7) M). 20-Hydroxyecdysone thus acts as an antagonist of early vitellogenic oocyte development. Simultaneous application of juvenile hormone analogue, however, protects early vitellogenic oocytes from 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced resorption. These results suggest that the balance of these hormones in the hemolymph regulates whether oocytes will progress through the control point at stage 9 or undergo apoptosis. These data are further supported by a molecular analysis of the regulation of yolk protein synthesis and uptake into the ovary by the two hormones. We conclude that juvenile hormone is a downstream component in the Sex-Peptide response cascade and acts by stimulating vitellogenic oocyte progression and inhibiting apoptosis. Since juvenile hormone analogue does not elicit increased oviposition and reduced receptivity, Sex-Peptide must have an additional, separate effect on these two postmating responses.  (+info)

Egg laying is delayed but worm fecundity is normal in SCID mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni with or without recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment. (7/908)

Mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice) lack functional B and T cells. Egg laying by Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum was delayed in SCID mice, but in a matter of weeks worm fecundity was equivalent to that in intact mice. SCID mice formed smaller hepatic granulomas and showed less fibrosis than did intact mice. The reduction in egg-associated pathology in SCID mice correlated with marked reductions in interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and gamma interferon mRNA expression in the liver. S. mansoni infections were frequently lethal for SCID mice infected for more than 9 weeks, while S. japonicum-infected SCID mice died at the same rate as infected intact mice. We were unable to affect hepatic granuloma formation or egg laying by worms in SCID mice by administration of recombinant murine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In fact, SCID and BALB/c mice appeared to express nearly equivalent levels of TNF-alpha mRNA in their granulomatous tissues, suggesting that there is little or no deficit in TNF-alpha expression in infected SCID mice. The data indicate that TNF-alpha may be in large part derived from a non-T-cell source. Together, these findings provide little evidence that TNF-alpha alone can reconstitute early fecundity, granuloma formation, or hepatic fibrosis in schistosome-infected SCID mice.  (+info)

Experiments on blocking and unblocking of first meiotic metaphase in eggs of the parthenogenetic stick insect Carausius morosus Br. (Phasmida, Insecta). (8/908)

The eggs of the parthenogenetic stick insect Carausius morosus, which remain arrested in first meiotic metaphase until oviposition, must be activated in order to develop. The activating agent is oxygen from the air, which enters the egg cell through the micropyle. An exposure shorter than one minute is sufficient to release the blockage. In non-activated (micropyle-less) eggs the first metaphase chromsomes either degenerate or change into an interphase nucleus. This nucleus polyploidizes by endoreduplication, and then either degenerates or multiplies by amitosis. Similarly more generations of nuclei may arise resulting in a chaotic development. These nuclei survive better in the anterior region of the egg. The question of whether the cytoplasmic factors which control nuclear behaviour, also operate in eggs of C. morosus is discussed.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of adult experience on oviposition choice and short-distance attraction in Drosophila buzzatii. AU - Hedrick, Philip W.. AU - Barker, J. S F. AU - Armstrong, T.. PY - 1990/9. Y1 - 1990/9. N2 - In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensis and Clavispora opuntiae, on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatii was found. The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also found in one experiment in which the flies were starved and in another experiment in which choice was determined on 2 consecutive days.. AB - In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensis and Clavispora opuntiae, on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatii was found. The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also ...
Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum, is used successfully as a trap crop for lepidopterous stem borers in Africa. This paper reports on the evaluation of the suitability of Napier grass varieties as trap crops for Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). This was done through oviposition preference tests and evaluation of larval survival on different varieties. Napier grass varieties were collected from the wild, from research institutions and farmers growing them as forage crops. In multiple-choice tests with the different Napier grass varieties, differences in oviposition preference were observed. Results from two-choice tests with Napier grass and maize plants indicated B. fusca moths have no marked difference in oviposition preference. However, compared to maize, larval survival on Napier grasses was low and a rapid decline in larval numbers was observed over the first week after inoculation on the grasses. A scanning electron microscope study of trichomes on Napier grass and maize leaves was
Ovipositors of female leafminers were examined microscopically to locate and describe types of sensory receptors present. Two basic types were found: trichoid sensilla and basiconic sensilla. These receptors are believed to function as mechano- and chemoreceptors to evaluate the suitability of a host plant for feeding, oviposition, and subsequent larval development.. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of photoperiod and application of plant growth regulators on two factors: 1) feeding and oviposition site selection and 2) spatial distribution of feeding and oviposition sites on individual chrysanthemum plants. In the photoperiod experiment, leafminers fed and oviposited more intensely on chrysanthemums grown under short days (SD) than on plants grown under long days (LD). Densities of feeding punctures and larval mines on chrysanthemums grown under SD was positively related to leaf height on the plant, and negatively related to leaf trichome density. Spatial ...
Genes required for egg laying in response to nicotinic agonists: To identify genes required for nAChR function in egg-laying cells, we assayed egg-laying behavior in levamisole-resistant mutants, which were originally identified on the basis of their resistance to the effects of levamisole on body muscle. Mutations conferring resistance to high concentrations of levamisole (i.e., 1 mm) have been identified in several genes, including unc-29, unc-38, unc-50, unc-63, unc-74, and lev-1 (Lewiset al. 1980a). All of these strong levamisole resistance genes affect the assembly of functional levamisole-binding receptors as assayed in vitro (Lewiset al. 1987), and three of them, unc-38, unc-29, and lev-1, are known to encode nicotinic receptor subunits (Fleminget al. 1997). Mutations in three additional genes (lev-8, lev-9, and lev-10) confer only partial resistance to levamisole (i.e., to concentrations ≤100 μm) and have no detectable effect on the biochemical properties of the receptor as assayed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Host plant constituents as oviposition stimulants for a generalist herbivore. T2 - European corn borer. AU - Udayagiri, Sujaya. AU - Mason, Charles E.. PY - 1995/7. Y1 - 1995/7. N2 - Oviposition response of the polyphagous European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), to chemical constituents in host plants was investigated in the laboratory using two‐choice bioassays. Foliar extracts of corn (Zea mays L.), pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were prepared using the solvents pentane, acetone and methanol. In all three host plants, chemicals soluble in pentane stimulated oviposition. In potato, chemicals extractable in acetone also elicited a positive oviposition response. When presented with a choice between pentane extracts of corn and pepper, females preferred corn. No preferences were exhibited between pentane extracts of corn and potato or pepper and potato. Pentane extracts of corn husks, tassels, silk, and corn ...
In nature, parasitoid wasps encounter and sometimes show oviposition behavior to nonhost species. However, little is known about the effect of such negative incidences on their subsequent host-searching behavior. We tested this effect in a tritrophic system of maize plants (Zea mays), common armyworms (hosts), tobacco cutworms (nonhosts), and parasitoid wasps, Cotesia kariyai. We used oviposition inexperienced C. kariyai and negative-experienced individuals that had expressed oviposition behavior toward nonhosts on nonhost-infested maize leaves. We first observed the olfactory behavior of C. kariyai to volatiles from host-infested plants or nonhost-infested plants in a wind tunnel. Negative-experienced wasps showed significantly lower rates of taking-off behavior (Step-1), significantly longer duration until landing (Step-2), and lower rates of landing behavior (Step-3) toward nonhost-infested plants than inexperienced wasps. However, the negative-experience did not affect these three steps ...
Background Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide) were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized ...
The study of insect abundance and distribution.. I am an insect ecologist by bent and my students and I work on various applied and basic research areas. We generally take an individuals-process based approach to the study of insect abundance and distribution. We use various model systems to ask questions ranging from the effect of host chemistry on oviposition behaviour and early stage caterpillar survival, to the effects of learning on oviposition behaviour at a landscape level and the effects of climate on insect abundance. I prefer to work on Butterfly-plant interactions, particularly Monarchs and milkweeds.. A substantial amount of our applied research has been on the ecology and biology of Helicoverpa spp, the major pest of Australian field crops, and more recently Diamondback moth, a key pest of horticulture.. ...
We predicted that if maintenance of a large oviduct is energetically costly (Vézina and Williams, in press) then oviduct size should be tightly coupled to the functional demands placed on this organ (as reported for other organ systems, e.g. Diamond and Hammond, 1992; Hammond and Diamond, 1994; Hammond et al., 1996). This prediction was supported not just at the whole-organ level (e.g. rapid regression of the oviduct following last oviposition) but also at the intra-organ level, with rapid regression of the proximal sections of the oviduct even before the final oviposition. In the ∼24 h period after the last follicle was ovulated, but before this egg was laid, the proximal infundibulum/magnum and the isthmus regions decreased by 56% and 38%, respectively. Over the same period there was no change in shell gland/vagina mass, but these sections regressed by 34% in mass in the ∼24 h after the last oviposition. This maintenance of the functional capacity of the oviduct until last oviposition is ...
Today,&nbsp;Aedes aegypti&nbsp;(L.) represents the main urban insect responsible for the propagation of epidemics in Brazil, with 1,672,883 cases of d...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An innovative ovipositor for niche exploitation impacts genital coevolution between sexes in a fruit-damaging Drosophila. AU - Muto, Leona. AU - Kamimura, Yoshitaka. AU - Tanaka, Kentaro M.. AU - Takahashi, Aya. PY - 2018/9/26. Y1 - 2018/9/26. N2 - Limited attention has been given to ecological factors influencing the coevolution of male and female genitalia. The innovative ovipositor of Drosophila suzukii, an invading fruit pest, represents an appealing case to document this phenomenon. The serrated saw-like ovipositor is used to pierce the hard skin of ripening fruits that are not used by other fruit flies that prefer soft decaying fruits. Here, we highlight another function of the ovipositor related to its involvement in genital coupling during copulation. We compared the morphology and coupling of male and female genitalia in this species to its sibling species, Drosophila subpulchrella, and to an outgroup species, Drosophila biarmipes. These comparisons and a surgical ...
As discussed previously, Aedes mosquitoes do not lay eggs directly in the water. They prefer to oviposit on a moist surface near the water line. In some cases, this could be the wall of the trap itself. This is very inconvenient, as the trap wall is a large surface area that would be difficult to study (in surveillance scenarios) and sanitize (in all scenarios). Fay and Perry tested medical tongue depressors as an oviposition pad in their ovitraps. Both uncovered tongue depressors and ones covered in various materials were tested. The results showed a preference for tongue depressors covered in brown blotting paper were strongly favored.. Studies that are more recent have found that many porous materials in dark or natural colors are effective oviposition sites for ovitraps. An ovitrap can use seed germination paper, Pellon paper, brown blotting paper, cardboard or wood with much the same effect. While there is bound to be an ideal substrate for egg collection, current Zika efforts are largely ...
Contributors. Preface.. Part I: Current Issues in Behavioural Ecology of Insect Parasitoids:.. 1. Optimal Foraging Behaviour and Efficient Biological Control Methods: Nick J. Mills (University of California) and Éric Wajnberg (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique).. 2. Parasitoid Fitness: From a Simple Idea to an Intricate Concept: Minus van Baalen (Université Pierre et Marie Curie) and Lia Hemerik (Wageningen University).. 3. Parasitoid Foraging and Oviposition Behaviour in the Field: George E. Heimpel (University of Minnesota) and Jérôme Casas (University of Tours).. 4. Behaviour Influences Whether Intra-guild Predation Disrupts Herbivore Suppression by Parasitoids: William E. Snyder (Washington State University) and Anthony R. Ives (University of Wisconsin - Madison).. 5. Chemical and Behavioural Ecology in Insect Parasitoids: How to Behave Optimally in a Complex Odourous Environment?: Monika Hilker (Freie Universität Berlin) and Jeremy McNeil (University of Western ...
Background: Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods: Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high x 0.5m wide) were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized ...
The quantitative and qualitative parameters of eggs and day old chicks are determined by broiler breeders. Floor and nest eggs are used by commercial hatcheries for incubation. This study was carried out to evaluate the hatchability and chick quality parameters between floor and nest eggs in broiler breeders. The experiment was conducted at the hatchery in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with two treatments. Five replicates were maintained for each treatment and each replicate consisted of 90 eggs. Nine hundred eggs from MX male x Cobb 500 female (35-40 weeks of age) were collected from the breeder farm. Eggs were incubated at Petersime commercial multi-stage (MS) incubator. Egg quality parameters; initial egg weight and shape index were measured just before the setter period. Egg weight reduction was calculated during incubation period. Live chicks and hatch residues were collected separately at the end of incubation period. Chick quality parameters such as chick weight, chick length and ...
Vector control is facing a threat due to emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Compounds that mediate the oviposition of mosquitoes: a possible sustainable tool for the control and monitoring of Culicidae. The present study to evaluate o
were studied using larvitraps and ovitraps during a research carried out by the Public Health Ministry of Salta Province, in Tartagal, Aguaray and Salvador Mazza cities, in subtropical Argentina. The A. aegypti population was active in both dry and wet seasons with a peak in March, accordant with the heaviest rainfall. From May to November, the immature population level remained low, but increased in December. Ae. aegypti oviposition activity increased during the fall and summer, when the relative humidity was 60% or higher. Eggs were found in large numbers of ovitraps during all seasons but few eggs were observed in each one during winter. The occurrence and the number of eggs laid were variable when both seasons and cities were compared. The reduction of the population during the winter months was related to the low in the relative humidity of the atmosphere. Significant differences were detected between oviposition occurrences in Tartagal and Aguaray and Salvador Mazza cities, but no ...
ADVANCES IN THE NUTRITION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE MALE AND FEMALE BROILER BREEDER R M GOUS SUMMARY Poultry nutritionists have based the feed requirements of broiler breeder hens on the principles designed for the feeding of commercial laying pullets because of the lack of information specific to these birds. The practice of restricting the feed intake of broiler breeders during both the rearing and the laying periods differs from the that of feeding commercial pullets, and was introduced as a necessity because of the rapid growth rate of broilers, but there is still debate about the reason for the benefit derived from this practice. The extent to which feed should be restricted; the optimum time of release from the restriction programme; the basis on which the amino acid requirements for maintenance and for egg output are calculated; and the optimum intake of energy .. at various stages of the produ.ction period, arc all as pects 0 f broiler breeder nutr itron that require further defi nitive ...
A. Joshi, W. A. Oshiro, J. Shiotsugu and L. D. Mueller, Within- and among-population variation in oviposition preference for urea-supplemented food in Drosophila melanogaster, Journal of Biosciences 22, 325 - 338 (1997 ...
Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10-15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone ...
Effects of ammonium nitrate exposure and water acidification on the dwarf newt: The protective effect of oviposition behaviour on embryonic survival
Animals can gain protection against predators and parasites by living in groups. The encounter-dilution effect provides protection when the probability of detection of a group does not increase in proportion to group size (i.e. encounter effect), so that predators do not offset the encounter effect by attacking more members of the group (i.e. dilution effect). In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism by which prey insects could gain by producing decoys that act as multiple targets for predators or parasitoids if these decoys are recognised as preys or hosts and negatively affect the patch foraging strategy of these predators and parasitoids. Such a decoy mechanism could be present in aphid colonies in which aphid exuviae are recognised and attacked by Aphidiine wasps. We conducted a behavioural study to evaluate the effect of exuviae on parasitoid patch residence time and egg allocation in experimental aphid patches with or without exuviae. We showed that exuviae are recognised and attacked at the
Many reptiles such as certain snakes and lizards lay eggs. there are also some flightless birds for example the ostrich which lay eggs.
A study was conducted to determine the optimal methionine plus cysteine to lysine (Met+Cys/Lys) ratio in corn-soy diets of Hy-Line W-36 hens (wk 21-34) during Phase 1. Hens (n = 1,920; 21-wk old) were randomly divided into 12 groups of 160 hens per group (20 hens x 8 replicates for each treatment). Three levels of lysine (0.79, 0.87 and 0.97%) with four Met+Cys/Lys ratios (0.71, 0.75, 0.79 and 0.83) were used. Response criteria were egg production, feed consumption and egg weight. An interaction (P < 0.001) was observed between lysine (Lys) level and Met+Cys/Lys ratio on egg production, feed consumption and egg weight. Lowering the Met+Cys/Lys ratio in the lowest Lys diet (0.79%) had an adverse effect on egg production, feed consumption and egg weight, however there was little or no effect on these parameters in diets containing two higher Lys levels (0.87 and 0.97%). An economic analysis indicated that the optimal Met+Cys/Lys ratios for diets containing 0.97, 0.87 and 0.79% lysine were 0.71, ...
Soyasaponin Ba Ltd, Korea. was inoculated with bakers candida and lactic acidity bacterium. After 72 h of dried out fermentation with cereal broth, fermented dried out at low temperature and floor into powder after that. The chemical content material of CBT? examined by Korea Give food to Elements Association of company was as pursuing; crude proteins, 24.85%; crude dietary fiber, 5.36%; ether draw out, 2.42%; Ca, Soyasaponin Ba 0.20%; and P, 0.65%. Pets and experimental style A total of 1 hundred and eight 80-wk-old Hy-Line Dark brown laying hens had been found in this research. Four replicate sets of 9 hens each (3 adjacent cages including 3 hens/456266 cm cage) had been allotted to 3 diet treatments in a totally randomized design. Towards the experimental period Prior, the birds got a 1-wk version period. A corn-soybean meal-based diet plan (Desk 1) was developed to meet up or surpass the nutrient suggestions from the NRC (1994). The procedure diets were created by adding CBT? in the known ...
In a laboratory study of Q. mubata fertility, Robinson (191.20) found that three egg betelT_ee may be laid after one mating but that egg fertility is considerably increased if mating occurs before each oviposition. Fertility decreases when the interval between mating and oviposition is extended. Oviposition occurs almost without exception only after a blood meal. Eggs show no alteration in fertility when maintained between 22°C. and 32°C., but at 34°C. no larvae emerge. As already stated, I.ees and Bea.ment (191.8) have stated that 45 . is the critical temperature for normal eggs._,7 Robinson recommenced a temperature of 30C. and a relative humidity of 5% in the breeding chamber for safe and speedy production. He found that a female might deposit a few eggs without a blood meal and that large females produce more than do snnll ones. The range in number of eggs per female per batch in these experiments varied from fifty to 250, with an av. erage of 170. Many females died shortly after their ...
Ovipositing insects use odor cues to select suitable food substrates for their offspring in order to increase the survival rates of the larvae. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology demonstrated that not only may plant odors determine the best oviposition site, but also the frass of other larvae of the same species. They specified the repelling substance in the feces of tobacco hornworm larvae which signals the presence of competing conspecifics to the female moths.
become replete in from twenty to fifty minutes, usually in thirty to forty minutes. Males may emerge from the first nymphal molt, but usually nymphs, molt twice before becoming adults. Males and females may feed within seven days after molting. Duration of adult feeding is thirty or forty minutes. No female has oviposited within six months after the nymphal-adult molt, even though she has been with a male continuously and both have had two to six blood meals. The first egg batch follows a blood meal by about a week. The first oviposition appears to trigger a physiological release mechanism for, in several instances, three months afterwards females have deposited a fertile egg batch with or without a meal. We are at present attempting to ascertain whether the long interval between molting and oviposition is peculiar to these laboratory observations or whether it is a usual feature in our local populations.. ...
At one point during the afternoon we witnessed an interesting behavior of a male and female Comet Darner. The pair was coupled initially, then the female flew across the pond seeming to act like the other female hunting for food or an oviposition site. At the same time, the male flew several inches behind her at or just above her height of flight, which was several inches above the water. It was as if the male was guarding or protecting the female during her foray ...
The adult lifespan of a generalist secondary parasitoid at the top of an aphid-parasitoid food web tended to decrease when oviposition and larval development took place in hosts experiencing the endophyte environment. Female A. vulgaris improved their host choice with progressing age and oviposition experience through selection of more hosts from the endophyte-free environment compared with younger and less experienced females. Offspring performance in endophyte-free hosts was only improved in terms of lifespan and no effects on developmental time, sex ratio or weight were detected. Asaphes vulgaris parasitoids are long lived and synovigenic, maturing their eggs during adulthood. Under such conditions, a reduced lifespan will most likely result in a shorter reproductive time and thus reduced fitness. Similar fitness penalties of endophytes are known for predators and primary parasitoids (Bultman et al. 1997; de Sassi et al. 2006; Härri 2007). Ours is the first study showing experimentally that ...
Complete metamorphosis. Eggs are laid on the surface of water and hatch in 1 to 3 days. In temporary water environments, the Aedes female may lay eggs well in advance of the waters presence, and the eggs hatch once water occupies the cavity. Anopheles will lay eggs in larger bodies of water surrounded by vegetation, and their eggs will have floats on either side of it. Larvae are aquatic, filter feeders and develop in 7 to 10 days. Pupae float on the waters surface like a raft for 1 to 3 days then an adult emerges completing development from egg to adult in 10 to 16 days. This process begins to repeat within 28 hours after the adult emerges, but females will not lay eggs without taking a blood meal. Males need nectar and plant juices. The adult lives less than one month. Fertilized females will overwinter, emerging on warm days to feed, and lay eggs in the spring.. ...
We got our very first egg the other morning. Unfortunately, none of the ladies fessed up to it, so Im not sure who left me this present. I think they...
Turkeys lay eggs. After mating season, which can arrive anywhere between February and April, turkeys nest near the ground in well-vegetated areas. They lay 10 to 12 eggs during a laying period,...
After copulation without sperm transfer, the short-term responses are fully induced, but only for 1 day (19). Without SP transfer, oviposition is barely induced, and only on the first day (Fig. 4A). Because the expressions of ovulin and DUP99B are not affected in the SP null males (Fig. 3 C and D), these two peptides may be responsible for the weak increase in oviposition observed on the first day after a mating with SP null males. The increase in egg laying observed in females mated to these males after day 3 corresponds to the increase in egg laying also observed over the same time period in virgin females (Fig. 4A). However, in contrast to the eggs laid by virgin females, these eggs are fertilized and produce offspring (results not shown). Indeed, offspring are obtained from eggs laid many days after copulation, demonstrating that the stored sperm of the SP null males is viable and functional (Fig. 5). Receptivity is strongly reduced only in the first few hours after mating (Fig. 4B). The ...
March Egg Production Up 2 Percent - US - US egg production totaled 7.73 billion during March 2005, up 2 percent from last year, report the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) in their monthly Chickens and Eggs report. Production included 6.60 billion table eggs, and 1.13 billion hatching eggs, of which 1.07 billion were broiler-type and 63 million were egg-type. The total number of layers during March 2005 averaged 347 million, up 2 percent from a year earlier. March egg production per 100 layers was 2,225 eggs, up 1 percent from March 2004 ...
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A factor that significantly affects the percent hatch of fertile eggs and broiler performance in the field is positioning of the eggs during holding. Eggs must be incubated with the large end up; otherwise a dramatic reduction in percent hatch due to increased percent of mal-positions will occur. At the time of storage, if it is known that eggs are to be held for more than 7 days prior to setting, it is recommended to store eggs with the small end up. Then when placing them in the setter, reposition them with the large end up.. Two separate trials were conducted by the authors with more than 6,000 fertile eggs to determine the effect of egg storage position on percent of hatchability. Fertile eggs were kept for 7 days with Big End Up (BEU) or Small End Up (SEU). All eggs were obtained from the same flock, and were from the same days production. All eggs were handled, cleaned, and disinfected in an identical manner. The results are provided below (Table 3).. ...
Mating commences one to three days after moths emerge from the soil, and usually four to seven hours after sunset. Eggs are normally deposited within a four to five day period (range: one to 10 days). Females produces an average of 4.9 egg masses (range: one to 16 eggs). Reproductive capacity varies, with authors reporting mean egg production anywhere from 500 to 1500 per female. Feeding is necessary for normal oviposition. Mean longevity at warm temperatures is about nine days in males and 10 days in females (range: three to three to 25 days) whereas at cool temperatures mean longevity of males is 19 days and females 17 days. Eggs: Adult females deposit eggs in clusters consisting of two to five rows, in sheltered places on foliage, often between the leaf sheath and blade, especially on dry grass. Often females seem to deposit large numbers in the same vicinity, resulting in very high densities of larvae in relatively small areas of a field. Nevertheless, the eggs are very difficult to locate ...
I started my independent research group from August 2014 in the Department of Biology at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida. Our fundamental goal is to understand how neurons communicate in circuits to establish an appropriate level of activity that produces a robust, stable behavior. Our approach is to analyze in detail a model neural circuit that controls egg-laying behavior in C. elegans. We are taking advantage of the optical clarity and powerful genetics in this experimental system to literally watch the activity of every cell in the circuit in behaving animals using fluorescent Ca2+ reporters, and also to manipulate their activity using optogenetic tools. Using mutations and transgenes to discover and alter molecular signaling events between cells, we are determining how the complex pattern of activity in a circuit creates a coherent, regulated behavior. We expect these studies will reveal general principles of neurotransmitter signaling and neural circuit function with ...
LIFE CYCLE Female mosquitoes lay eggs every 3rd day during their lifespan, usually in clumps of 100-300 eggs. The eggs are deposited in standing water. Mosquitoes can lay eggs in as little as I inch of water. When the eggs hatch the larvae emerge. It takes about a week for them to develop into…
A hen is a female chicken, while a rooster is a male. The difference between the two is that a hen lays eggs, and roosters fertilize the eggs. Why hens are more popular is because they lay eggs, which we humans use to eat, and cook with. Most...
The female operates by flying from flower-head to flower-head, quickly testing each one with her antennae. If nothing is detected, she will quickly fly to a nearby flower-head and start to test again. The ovipositor is stored in a sheath that is held behind her, and if she detects a target, she will quickly unsheath the ovipositor and position herself so that she will insert it in the correct direction. This unsheathing and positioning takes less than a second. She then follows the unsheathing with a series of thrusts, each a little deeper, as she reaches the target larva. This thrusting might take two or three seconds: this is the opportunity for the shot. So we have to follow the female from flower to flower and take great care to observe when she appears to be taking a little longer than usual to inspect the flowerhead: this is a sign that she might be about to deploy. Thats the clue to get close and be ready to focus. A fast-focussing lens is essential at this point, and I have my focussing ...
We saw a peak in (numbers) June 20 and then another between Aug. 8 and 15, when they usually are finished for the year, she said. The hot weather started early and lasted longer. Producing an extra generation sometimes happens with other pests in unusually hot summers, but wed never seen it with squash vine borers before.
বোলতা হাইমেনোপ্টেরা বর্গের (অর্থাৎ যাদের দু জোড়া হাইমেন বা স্বচ্ছ পর্দার মত পাখা আছে) এক প্রকারের আক্রমণাত্মক হুল ফোটানো উড্ডয়নক্ষম পোকা (পতঙ্গ)। সবচেয়ে বড় প্রকারের বোলতাকে ভীমরুল নামেও ডাকা হয়। বোলতার উদরের পশ্চাতের ডিম পাড়ার অঙ্গটি (ovipositor) পরিবর্তিত হয়ে হুল তৈরি হয়েছে, যা দিয়ে এরা আক্রমণ করে থাকে, এবং যা অনেক সময় বিষাক্ত হতে পারে। এরা হাইমেনোপ্টেরা বর্গের অন্যান্য ...
Hi, I have a buff brahma bantam that last week layed two eggs and could not stand up after. I brought her in and she got better and could stand after...
You may hear them tapping inside (if they are ready to start hatching) if you hold the large end of the egg up to your ear. Ive found that if a chick dies a clear space develops under the air cell and the shadow of the chick looks blotchy and lumpy. So if they look very full then hopefully they are still alive ...
Rupert the rabbit is lonely in his burrow next to the farm. But when he burrows under the wall, and bursts out of the ground next to Dora the duck, nobody seems that impressed with his attempts to fit in. Hes not great at tidying or keeping the birds away from the seeds, or laying eggs. What can a rabbit do to be useful?. Fortunately, Ruperts burrowing skills come in particularly handy when it comes to bringing the other animals vegetables from the field next door. But…shhh! Nobody can tell Dora the duck that the vegetables arent so much laid as stolen.. A charming board book about recognising all of our individual talents. ...
The latest egg production articles and research on laying hens, feeding, housing, breeding and welfare to help egg producers improve their operations.
This leaflet provides a practical overview for producers and others involved in egg production and packaging, of what can be done at these steps to improve quality and safety of organically produced eggs, in addition to certification and general food safety require-ments. Other leaflets cover production of other commodities and separate leaflets aim at consumers and retailers. ...
Oviposition[edit]. In the spring, adult females lay eggs on various types of plants, on which the resulting larvae eventually ...
Oviposition[edit]. Hipparchia semele sometimes lay their eggs on the green leaves that the larvae later feed on. Because the ... Females choose a territorial male in order to gain the best oviposition site.[5] This allows for a higher survival rate of the ... and engage in flight performances to determine who settles in the best oviposition site.[5] Additionally, the grayling ...
... characterized by a hoop-like structure of the pupa and clumped oviposition, includes: A. auricoma, A. myricae, A. menthanthidis ...
Oviposition[edit]. The process of oviposition in gulf fritillaries begins with the female butterfly flying low and slightly ... The role of host plants is also integral to the oviposition of gulf fritillaries, as the female butterflies lay their eggs on ... the female then deposits an egg to complete the process of oviposition. The driving factor behind what causes the female to ...
Oviposition[edit]. Adult butterflies feed on flower nectar and aphid honeydew.[27] Females oviposit on plants with nectar ... indicates they do not take into account volatile chemicals released from potential host plants when searching for oviposition ...
Oviposition[edit]. Oviposition occurs at a location where an optimal climate and humidity for growth is met. It has been shown ... If the temperature is too low, oviposition is suspended. If the temperature is too high, the female may become sterile. Females ... that 75% humidity is optimal for oviposition, and females are more likely to oviposit in the presence of water, fresh fruits, ...
Such an oviposition site commonly is the wall of a cavity such as a hollow stump or a container such as a bucket or a discarded ... This is a common mode of oviposition, and most species of Culex are known for the habit, which also occurs in some other genera ... Mosquito habits of oviposition, the ways in which they lay their eggs, vary considerably between species, and the morphologies ... They are not resistant to desiccation straight after oviposition, but must develop to a suitable degree first. Once they have ...
Klowden MJ (2009). "Oviposition Behavior". In Resh VH, Carde RT (eds.). Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press. ISBN ...
Oviposition is slow; she takes a few minutes to lay each egg. The eggs are very difficult to find in the field because they are ...
Oviposition takes several minutes. The spot of oviposition darkens after one or two days; then, the egg cavity can be detected ... Copulation and oviposition occur in the morning or late afternoon and evening. The female searches for a suitable spot for ... However, the flies reinfest the same walnuts, and even the same oviposition sites, created by individuals of the same species. ... R. juglandis females drag their ovipositors on the husk of the walnut after oviposition, which suggests that they have released ...
Females show multiple oviposition. Each egg pod may contain 20-30 eggs and first instars are observed in late December or early ...
I: Oogenesis, oviposition and oosorption. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 297-355. Bluemink JG (1967). The subcellular structure of ... Besides, calcium is the main component of the eggshell of those snails with aerial oviposition. De Jong-Brink M, Boer HH, Joose ... August 2012). "First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition". Journal of ...
After oviposition, the females die, causing lumps of thousands of dead flies and their eggs. The larvae are predators. In fact ... Oviposition begins in early June. The females, after mating, aggregate in large clumps and lay egg masses on tree branches ... a few days after oviposition, the larvae hatch and at first feed on the dead parents. Later, they fall into the water and feed ...
The oviposition occurs in midsummer. Play media Ekkehard Wachmann, Albert Melber, Jürgen Deckert: Wanzen. Band 4: ...
In captivity, oviposition dates vary. Tulsa Zoo maintains a small herd of Aldabra tortoises and they have reproduced several ...
Oviposition takes place at night. The female uses her ovipositor to create a small hole in the sand where she deposits the eggs ... Northeastern Beach Tiger Beetle, Cicindela d. dorsalis Observations of Oviposition Behavior Among North American Tiger Beetle ( ...
Oviposition occurs in the summer. Larvae hatch from the eggs but do not begin growing immediately. Their growth begins the ...
Oviposition takes place in tandem. It lays elongated eggs in submerged and emergent plants which subsequently hatch after about ...
Cameron, A.E. (1930). Oviposition of Haematopota pluvialis Linne. Nature 126, 601-602. Grayson, A. (2001). Notes on the ...
P. jacobsoni wasps reproduce via oviposition. Egg laying is divided into three stages. First, the female produces a substance ... the substance secreted via the Dufour's gland is vital to brood rearing as well as oviposition and self-grooming. P. jacobsoni ...
In the conifer swift moth, courtship, mating, and egg laying occur during evening hours; only oviposition occurs in the morning ...
The time from oviposition to hatching is 20 days at 15°C and 10 days at 24°C. The developmental time of nymph-stages is about ... Females build egg cocoons during oviposition. The number of eggs laid is not affected by changes in temperature. The number of ...
oviposition the act of laying eggs. oviscape if part of the ovipositor is visible when not in action, then the basal visible ... koinobiont A form of parasitoidy where the parasitoid lives inside the host while allowing it to live after oviposition. labium ... idiobiont a form of parasitism where the parasitoid paralyzes or leaves the host unable to continue development at oviposition ...
Mating and oviposition lasts until July. The females drill their eggs individually on both sides of the leaves into the tissue ...
Oviposition by founding queens is large, however, only a small percentage reaches the adult stage of the F1 generation, partly ... while oviposition, brood care, and inactivity increase at night. Founding queens prefer sites close to bodies of water; however ... oviposition) is greater. The annual productivity for an established colony (60,000 to 85,000 workers) of L. apiculatum is about ...
They present an ovipositor during oviposition. The species is distributed in European countries such as Finland and Ukraine, to ...
The majority of oophagies are committed by the queen (87.5%). Oviposition is the laying of eggs. Queens lay 83.3% of the eggs ... in pre-emergence colonies, which is a significantly higher rate of oviposition than that of subordinates. Workers were never ...
Childers, C.C. (1997). Lewis, T. (ed.). Feeding and oviposition injuries to plants. Thrips as Crop Pests. CAB International. pp ...
This water-soluble pheromone may deter additional oviposition attempts by A. suspensa for at least 6 days. The plant compounds ... Lawrence, Pauline O.; Greany, P. D.; Nation, J. L.; Baranowski, R. M. (1978-03-15). "Oviposition Behavior of Biosteres ... Prokopy, Ronald J.; Greany, P. D.; Chambers, D. L. (1977-06-01). "Oviposition-Deterring Pheromone in Anastrepha suspensa". ... suspensa females have deposit pheromones from anal membranes that deter repeated attempts of oviposition in a fruit. ...
These were likely used to excise holes in plant matter for oviposition, similar to some modern Orthoptera. It is the type genus ... "Earliest Evidence of Insect Endophytic Oviposition". PALAIOS. 19 (4): 408-413. doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2004)019. 2.0.CO;2. ...
Psyche is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of basic entomology. Psyche is the official publication of the Cambridge Entomological Club, which founded the journal in 1874.
DescriptionEristalis pertinax oviposition - 2014-04-26.webm. English: Females of a European hoverfly Eristalis pertinax ... File:Eristalis pertinax oviposition - 2014-04-26.webm. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eristalis_pertinax_oviposition_-_2014-04-26.webm&oldid= ...
2002 Mass oviposition and egg development of the ocean-skater Halobates sobrinus (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Pac. Sci. 56, 441-447 ... Halobates sericeus is capable of oviposition on large items [6], but no eggs were found on large items in 2009-2010, suggesting ... Increased oceanic microplastic debris enhances oviposition in an endemic pelagic insect Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Increased oceanic microplastic debris enhances oviposition in an endemic pelagic insect. Miriam C. Goldstein, Marci Rosenberg, ...
"We knew already that moths select their oviposition sites carefully. So far we and others basically focused on the idea that ... Moths avoid caterpillar feces during oviposition. An olfactory co-receptor allows moths to avoid intraspecific competition ... demonstrated that not only may plant odors determine the best oviposition site, but also the frass of other larvae of the same ... is involved in the detection of the typical smell of larval frass and thereby governs competition avoidance during oviposition. ...
Researchers showed that isothiocyanates produced by cruciferous plants to fend off pests serve as oviposition cues for the ... Diamondback moth uses plant defense substances as oviposition cues A Chinese-German research team identifies the olfactory ... what are the molecular mechanisms on which female Plutella xylostella moths base their choice of the oviposition site? The ... showed that isothiocyanates produced by cruciferous plants to fend off pests serve as oviposition cues. The plant defense ...
These results suggest that both the P. samurai queen and dominant workers can inhibit host workers oviposition. A mesh ... Yousuke Tsuneoka "Regulation of Host Workers Oviposition by the Social Parasite Ant Polyergus samurai," Zoological Science 31( ... EFFECTS OF METHOPRENE ON OVIPOSITION BY AEDES JAPONICUS AND CULEX... Larvicidal Activity and Influence of Bacillus ... Yousuke Tsuneoka "Regulation of Host Workers Oviposition by the Social Parasite Ant Polyergus samurai," Zoological Science, 31 ...
As applied to oviposition behavior of the butterfly Euphydryas editha, the rank order of preference... ... As applied to oviposition behavior of the butterfly Euphydryas editha, the rank order of preference is the order in which ... Wiklund C (1974) Oviposition preferences of Papilio machaon in relation to the host plants of the larvae. Entomologia ... Wiklund C (1977) Oviposition, feeding and spatial separation of breeding and foraging habitats in a population of Leptidea ...
Oviposition time was similar for 8-h controls and bright/dim hens and delayed by 3 h for 16-h birds, but phase advanced by 2.4 ... Supplementary dim light differentially influences sexual maturity, oviposition time, and melatonin rhythms in pullets.. Lewis ...
Macrophytes Mosquitoes Wetland Habitat selection Oviposition This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access ... Wallis RC (1954) A study of the oviposition activity of mosquitoes. Am J Hygiene 60:135-168Google Scholar ... We hypothesized that both the abundance of immatureAnopheles and the recruitment ofAnopheles (from oviposition or larval ... Bentley MD, McDaniel IN, Yatagai M, Lee HP, Maynard KR (1981) Oviposition attractants and stimulants ofAedes triseriatus (Say ...
... pelagic insect Halobates sericeus from substrate limitation for oviposition. High concentrations of microplastic in the NPSG ...
Experiment 1: oviposition preference under controlled illumination. To check whether the females choose a site for oviposition ... The choice of oviposition habitat by flying insects has been demonstrated in the past to be dependent on the reflected ... Since the radiance of green light could be correlated with oviposition response, we can say that it is likely that at least the ... Reflected polarization guides chironomid females to oviposition sites Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, ... Oviposition attractancy of test materials in comparison with p-cresol - The oviposition attractancy of the test preparations ... For p-cresol, the optimum concentration was 10 ppm and the percentage oviposition was 33.8 (P = 0.032; t = 2.78). Oviposition ... Biocontrol agents and oviposition attractants are promising alternate tools/adjuncts for mosquito control. Using oviposition ...
Experiments and observations on time of oviposition gave conflicting results, but seem to indicate that oviposition may depend ... Oviposition Experiments with Anopheline Mosquitoes 1 * Marston Bates * Publisher: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and ... "oviposition dance." From field observation we are also convinced that the differences between the larval habitats of various ... species are largely the direct result of selection of oviposition site by the adult females. Anopheles atroparvus in laboratory ...
Regulation of the oviposition rhythm. Many factors may influence the oviposition rhythm in order that effective behaviour is ... The locust oviposition digging rhythm has been shown to be tri-phasic (Fig. 1A) (Thompson, 1986a), during which the ovipositor ... Vincent, J. F. V. and Wood, S. D. E. (1972). Mechanism of abdominal extension during oviposition in Locusta.Nature 235,167 -168 ... The oviposition digging rhythm. (A) Photographs showing the cyclical movements of the locust ovipositor valves. (i) The dorsal ...
A 90° bend or removal of an entry point to pipes of fixed length had no significant effect on oviposition. A maximum tested ... Association between Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera Culicidae) Oviposition and Structural... An Entomologist Guide to Demystify ... Effect of Conveyance Pipe Dimension and Orientation on Mosquito Oviposition in a Simulated Stormwater Management Device. ... "Effect of Conveyance Pipe Dimension and Orientation on Mosquito Oviposition in a Simulated Stormwater Management Device," ...
In oviposition behavioral assays, the oviposition activities induced by the mixtures of oviposition stimulants that elicited ... and triangles indicate oviposition spike 1 (os1), os2, and os3, respectively. C, Assay of oviposition behavior (oviposition ... Electrophysiological and oviposition responses to whole-leaf citrus extract and mixtures of oviposition stimulants. A, Typical ... 5B), induced oviposition behaviors comparable to the citrus extract (Fig. 5C; oviposition activities of the citrus extract, 1 ...
An oviposition ratio of 1 indicates that the treatment did not impact the oviposition of the tested female during the time ... Oviposition assays. Request a detailed protocol In order to ease the quantification of the laid eggs, a blue food dye (E133, Le ... Some pLB1 cells are neurons controlling oviposition via NF-κB.. (A) Egg-laying ratio of PGRP-LB mutant females in which the pan ... Providing an excess of TβH in pLB1, but neither in pLB2 nor in pLB3 cells, was sufficient to fully rescue PGRP-LB oviposition ...
females) when compared to females maintained with the oviposition pot (. oocytes/female, females, ) (Figure 2). It is unlikely ... have accepted to feed on a second blood meal in the absence of oviposition pot inside rearing cages, compared to % of females ... The oviposition in this species starts 3 days after the blood meal and in general lasts for 6 days [6, 7]. A second blood feed ... The number of oocytes retained in females kept in cages without an oviposition pot was significantly higher (. oocytes/sand fly ...
Three experiments were conducted to compare oviposition traits (pre-oviposition period, total oviposition-period, and egg mass ... Oviposition did not differ among the three light sources, but male and female half-life did. Based on the performance of the ... Oviposition Is the Subject Area "Oviposition" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Methyl-CpG-binding (SmMBD2/3) and chromobox (SmCBX) proteins are required for neoblast proliferation and oviposition in the ...
Guest Scientist Blog: Effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Botanicals in Repelling Mosquitoes from Container Oviposition Sites - GLOBE ... Guest Scientist Blog: Effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Botanicals in Repelling Mosquitoes from Container Oviposition Sites. ... some of them serving as oviposition sites multiple times after being dumped and reset. The most prevalent larvae seen ... I was interested in testing the effectiveness of eco-friendly botanicals as an oviposition deterrent against container breeders ...
A weak functional relationship was found between pre-oviposition time and total oviposition by females fed powdered eggs with 5 ... palmitic acid; pre-oviposition time decreased as oviposition increased. Food treatments had no significant differential effect ... Significantly more oviposition occurred when females were fed powdered eggs than whole eggs and powdered eggs with 5% palmitic ... increases oviposition in C. maculata. Supplementing powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid might accelerate oogenesis (egg ...
Oviposition deterring infochemicals Phylogeny Coccinellidae This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. ... Anderson P (2002) Oviposition pheromones in herbivorous and carnivorous insects. In: Hilker M, Meiners T (eds) Chemoecology of ... Hemptinne J-L, Lognay G, Doumbia M et al (2001) Chemical nature and persistence of the oviposition deterring pheromone in the ... Oliver TH, Timms JEL, Taylor A et al (2006) Oviposition responses to patch quality in the larch ladybird Aphidecta obliterata ( ...
... in oviposition in vitro. In order to search for Smp38 MAPK pathway regulated genes, we used an RNASeq approach and identified ... in oviposition in vitro. In order to search for Smp38 MAPK pathway regulated genes, we used an RNASeq approach and identified ... SMP38 MAP KINASE REGULATION IN SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI: ROLES IN SURVIVAL, OVIPOSITION AND PROTECTION AGAINST OXIDATIVE STRESS ... in oviposition in vitro. In order to search for Smp38 MAPK pathway regulated genes, we used an RNASeq approach and identified ...
Facultative oviposition of Eastern Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) in response to water reduction of aquatic habitats.(Report ... by The American Midland Naturalist; Biological sciences Earth sciences Eastern newt Research Oviposition Analysis ... Evolution of maternal plasticity in oviposition would allow mothers to achieve greater overall fitness. Timing of oviposition ... Oviposition preferences in newts: does temperature matter? Ethology, 115:533-539. Forchhammer, M. C., E. Post, and N. C. ...
Compounds that mediate the oviposition of mosquitoes: a possible sustainable tool for the control and monitoring of Culicidae. ... The oviposition active index (OAI) values of dodecanoic acid against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus at the concentration ... Oviposition attractancy of dodecanoic, hexadecanoic and tetradecanoic acids against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus ( ... Compounds that mediate the oviposition of mosquitoes: a possible sustainable tool for the control and monitoring of Culicidae. ...
... Becher, Paul LU ; Flick, ... 2.Here, we show that bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on its own is sufficient for fruit fly attraction, oviposition and ... 2.Here, we show that bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on its own is sufficient for fruit fly attraction, oviposition and ... 2.Here, we show that bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on its own is sufficient for fruit fly attraction, oviposition and ...
These results substantiate that one A. gambiae female uses multiple breeding sites for oviposition, and thus, average genetic ... f OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR OF FEMALE ANOPHELES GAMBIAE IN WESTERN KENYA INFERRED FROM MICROSATELLITE MARKERS * Authors: HONG CHEN1 ... Oviposition site preference and egg hatchability of Anopheles gambiae: Effects of land cover types. J Med Entomol 42 : 993-997. ... Oviposition by African malaria vector mosquitoes II. Effects of site tone, water type and conspecific immatures on target ...
naturally occurring hydroxycinnamic acids which protect against oviposition by adults, but these compounds are restricted. to ... Effects of hydroxycinnamic acid esters on sweetpotato weevil feeding and oviposition and interactions with Bacillus ... Effects of hydroxycinnamic acid esters on sweetpotato weevil feeding and oviposition and interactions with Bacillus ...
  • Chesson J (1984) Effect of notonectids (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae): predation or selective oviposition? (springer.com)
  • Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. (scielo.br)
  • Some of these metabolites are likely to act as oviposition attractant and/or stimulants for mosquitoes. (scielo.br)
  • Observation of the behavior of mosquitoes in the laboratory and of the distribution of eggs in nature has convinced us that the Albanian Anopheles , especially the species of the maculipennis group, normally oviposit while hovering over the water, performing a sort of "oviposition dance. (ajtmh.org)
  • Compounds that mediate the oviposition of mosquitoes: a possible sustainable tool for the control and monitoring of Culicidae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS: Significant level of concentration-dependent positive oviposition response of mosquitoes to dodecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and tetradecanoic acid were observed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Oviposition by African malaria vector mosquitoes I. Temporal activity pattern of caged, wild-caught, freshwater Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu lato. (ajtmh.org)
  • Oviposition by African malaria vector mosquitoes II. (ajtmh.org)
  • Background: Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. (diva-portal.org)
  • Conclusion: A square of four e-nets with yellow sticky boards as a collection device can be used for quantifying the numbers of mosquitoes approaching a small oviposition site. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this study, I addressed this question by testing the effect of dragonfly nymphs as larval predators, conspecifics, and their combination on the oviposition response of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. (uncg.edu)
  • oviposition response is encouraging in terms of its usage as a biocontrol agent for container breeding mosquitoes which in combination with low-intermediate levels of conspecifics could be attractive to gravid female mosquitoes. (uncg.edu)
  • Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. (escholarship.org)
  • Unfortunately, this does not mean that Aedes mosquitoes skip the oviposition portion of their gonotrophic cycle. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • While skip-oviposition behavior make it more difficult to control mosquitoes' potential breeding sites, it does provide an upside. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • By taking the time to seek out multiple oviposition sites, the mosquitoes extend the duration of each gonotrophic cycle. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • Even a small delay of a few hours may represent a 10% loss, but the study mentioned above found that the mosquitoes would continue skip-oviposition for up to 72 hours after first being introduced to potential breeding sites. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • When propagated through the many generations of mosquitoes that can develop in the course of a season, skip-oviposition behavior represents a large reduction in potential vectors for Zika and other infectious diseases. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • We know that Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes prefer not to share their oviposition sites with each other. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • This is such a small amount of pyriproxyfen that it could be transferred to an untreated or uncontrolled oviposition site on the legs of ovipositing mosquitoes. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • In a controlled experiment, 20 outdoor artificial ponds were left uncovered for 4 days to allow oviposition by wild mosquitoes, then covered with netting and first and second instar larvae sampled daily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Experiments conducted to determine the influence of Myriophyllum stem density on selection of oviposition sites by adult Anopheles females clearly indicate that oviposition rate (eggs m -2 d -1 ) increases as stem density increases from 0 to 1000 stems m -2 but decreases as stem density approaches 2000 stems m -2 . (springer.com)
  • It was recently discovered that chironomid females choose their oviposition site by a visual cue. (biologists.org)
  • We conclude that the percentage polarization of reflected light is the cue by which chironomid females choose their oviposition site. (biologists.org)
  • Using oviposition attractants, monitoring of vector populations, especially Aedes species, could be carried out so as to plan control measures, or to attract gravid females to lay eggs at chosen sites and kill the emerging larvae by combining a larvicide. (scielo.br)
  • Determination of optimum concentration of bacterial culture filtrates for oviposition attractancy test - Three-day-old Culex quinquefasciatus females, obtained from a colony maintained at VCRC, were fed on fowl blood and maintained for two days on raisins at 28 ± 2 o C and 70-80% RH. (scielo.br)
  • Gravid females were used for determination of oviposition attractancy of various compounds. (scielo.br)
  • From field observation we are also convinced that the differences between the larval habitats of various species are largely the direct result of selection of oviposition site by the adult females. (ajtmh.org)
  • The L1 was more abundant in females than in males and responded preferentially to oviposition stimulants. (jneurosci.org)
  • We demonstrate that bacterial infection of Drosophila females reduces oviposition and that peptidoglycan, the component that activates Drosophila antibacterial response, is also the elicitor of this behavioral change. (elifesciences.org)
  • Significantly more oviposition occurred when females were fed powdered eggs than whole eggs and powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid than whole eggs with or without 5% palmitic acid. (mdpi.com)
  • Although both conspecific and heterospecific larval tracks might deter females from oviposition, the response to the later is often less striking. (springer.com)
  • In this paper, we assessed the suitability of using the neonicotinoid imidacloprid with standard ovitraps by evaluating the ovicidal properties of imidacloprid and its influence on the oviposition response of gravid females of Aedes ( Stegomyia ) aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae). (scielo.br)
  • Finally, we investigated any potential repellent effect of the imidacloprid solution on the oviposition response of gravid Aedes females in field and laboratory conditions. (scielo.br)
  • The degree of specificity shown by individual females was surprisingly high, leading to a bimodal distribution of oviposition preference in some populations. (springer.com)
  • females to potential oviposition sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This finding indicates that sand fly-digested host food and feces is attractive to gravid females and suggests that the larvae and larval gut microbiome may be involved in conditioning the oviposition substrate and possibly the production of oviposition attractants and stimulants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. (escholarship.org)
  • Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. (escholarship.org)
  • This study examined the effectiveness of sodium chloride (NaCl) as an oviposition repellent for Aedes albopictus females. (allenpress.com)
  • females showed a reduction in oviposition at all NaCl concentrations. (allenpress.com)
  • We also show that NaCl is effective for oviposition control of gravid females when laying their overwintering eggs. (allenpress.com)
  • The two major postmating responses in Anopheles females, the stimulation of oviposition in blood-fed individuals and the induction of refractoriness to further insemination, are likely to be triggered by factors transferred by the male during sex: sperm, generated in the testes and stored by the female in a dedicated receptacle named spermatheca, and seminal secretions, produced by the male accessory glands (MAGs). (pnas.org)
  • A single female visiting a clean container reduced adult emergence by 4-30%, but it could reduce adult emergence by as much as 73% with five treated females visiting the clean oviposition site. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • COLONY R 2 = 0.476, p = 0.001), and suggested that around 50% of females spread larvae across multiple ponds (skip oviposition). (biomedcentral.com)
  • on oviposition of Boophilus microplus engorged females naturally infected in the Mexican tropics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Females of the Southern House mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, rely on environmental cues, also known as oviposition attractants (OAs), to locate suitable sites for laying eggs. (grantome.com)
  • Vector surveillance and monitoring of Culex populations are reliant on chemical cues to attract gravid females searching for oviposition sites, but current trapping technologies need improvements, particularly the development of better oviposition attractants (OAs). (grantome.com)
  • Multi-choice preference bioassays using individual females in revolving arenas were used to assess one of the potentially most significant non-genetic sources of variation: learned (or induced) oviposition preferences. (valpo.edu)
  • Each of these breeding units was placed in one cage and the choice of the oviposition sites was determined for individual females and three females per experimental unit at two humidity levels. (fiocruz.br)
  • Here, we demonstrate that females of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis prefer those hosts for oviposition that have been experimentally enriched in linoleic acid (LA). We show by 13 C-labelling that LA from the host diet is a precursor of the male sex pheromone. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Hence, females making the right oviposition decisions may increase both the fertility and the sexual attractiveness of their sons. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Hence, females are predicted by the preference-performance hypothesis [ 25 ] to choose oviposition sites according to the nutritional and environmental requirements of their offspring. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bentley MD, McDaniel IN, Yatagai M, Lee HP, Maynard KR (1981) Oviposition attractants and stimulants of Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). (springer.com)
  • Oviposition attractancy of dodecanoic, hexadecanoic and tetradecanoic acids against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present study to evaluate oviposition attractancy of dodecanoic, hexadecanoic and tetradecanoic acid (isolated from conspecific eggs) against gravid female Aedes (Ae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Collection of eggs in oviposition traps (ovitraps) is commonly used for monitoring and surveillance of container-inhabiting Aedes populations by public health agencies charged with managing mosquito-transmitted illness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An understanding of mosquito oviposition behavior is necessary for the development of surveillance and control programs directed against Aedes -specific disease vectors ( Day 2016 ). (allenpress.com)
  • The term actually describes a behavior where Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus skip from oviposition site to oviposition site to distribute their eggs. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • A 2013 study found that Aedes aegypti would deposit the majority of its eggs in one site and distribute the rest in groups of 1-30 among other oviposition sites. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramo´n de la Nueva Ora´n, northwestern Argentina. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • As applied to oviposition behavior of the butterfly Euphydryas editha , the rank order of preference is the order in which plants become acceptable as the insect searches, while specificity is quantified in terms of the rate at which searching insects become less discriminating. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying the regulation of oviposition behavior by multiple oviposition stimulants. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, it is important to elucidate how multiple oviposition stimulants regulate oviposition behavior to understand the mechanism of host plant selection in Papilionidae. (jneurosci.org)
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the oviposition behavior of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (eurekamag.com)
  • Neighboring resources can affect insect oviposition behavior when the complexity of sensory information obscures information about host resource availability in heterogeneous resource patches. (diva-portal.org)
  • Both mosquito species associated with Zika virus, dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya exhibit a behavior called skip-oviposition. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • In nature, parasitoid wasps encounter and sometimes show oviposition behavior to nonhost species. (qxmd.com)
  • We used oviposition inexperienced C. kariyai and negative-experienced individuals that had expressed oviposition behavior toward nonhosts on nonhost-infested maize leaves. (qxmd.com)
  • As part of a project aimed at developing oviposition attractants for the control and surveillance of Phlebotomus papatasi (a vector of Old-World cutaneous leishmaniasis), we tested the hypothesis that gravid sand flies are attracted to chemical cues emanating from the growth medium of conspecific larvae - predominantly larvae-conditioned host feces that represents a suitable oviposition site. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dugassa, S. and Lindh, J. M. and Torr, S. J. and Oyieke, F. and Lindsay, S. W. and Fillinger, U. (2012) 'Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors. (dur.ac.uk)
  • The butterfly detects oviposition stimulants in leaves through foreleg chemosensilla and requires a specific combination of multiple oviposition stimulants to lay eggs on the leaf of its host plants. (jneurosci.org)
  • We classified chemosensilla on the tarsomere of the foreleg into three types (L1, L2, and S) according to their size and response to oviposition stimulants and general tastants. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that five oviposition stimulants (synephrine, stachydrine, 5-hydroxy- N ω-methyltryptamine, narirutin, and chiro -inositol) elicited spikes from three specific gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) within L1 sensilla. (jneurosci.org)
  • These three GRNs responded to a mixture of the five stimulants at concentrations equivalent to those found in the whole-leaf extract of citrus, and the mixture induced oviposition at levels comparable to whole-leaf extract. (jneurosci.org)
  • We propose that oviposition is triggered by the firing of three specific GRNs in L1 sensilla that encode the chemical signatures of multiple oviposition stimulants. (jneurosci.org)
  • Oviposition stimulants are classified as taste stimuli because they are nonvolatile compounds. (jneurosci.org)
  • Udayagiri, S & Mason, CE 1995, ' Host plant constituents as oviposition stimulants for a generalist herbivore: European corn borer ', Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata , vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 59-65. (elsevier.com)
  • Biocontrol agents and oviposition attractants are promising alternate tools/adjuncts for mosquito control. (scielo.br)
  • Simulated stormwater management devices baited with alfalfa infusion were constructed to test conveyance pipe dimension and orientation as a potential deterrent to mosquito oviposition. (bioone.org)
  • Justin E. Harbison , Marco E. Metzger , Renjie Hu , Curtis L. Fritz , and Vicki L. Kramer "Effect of Conveyance Pipe Dimension and Orientation on Mosquito Oviposition in a Simulated Stormwater Management Device," Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 24(1), 98-104, (1 March 2008). (bioone.org)
  • This invasive mosquito, which serves as a vector for dengue and chikungunya, has been enormously successful in utilizing alternative breeding containers to supplement its natural oviposition sites. (globe.gov)
  • Accordingly, when it came time to design my field experiment, I was interested in testing the effectiveness of eco-friendly botanicals as an oviposition deterrent against container breeders in Texas, and with an eye towards how ordinary residents might use them to help reduce mosquito populations in their neighborhoods or backyards. (globe.gov)
  • Over the course of a month, all tires surrounded by mosquito repellent plants developed larvae, except for those placed near rosemary-- some of them serving as oviposition sites multiple times after being dumped and reset. (globe.gov)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oviposition attractancy was determined against two mosquito species to various concentrations viz. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii. (escholarship.org)
  • Does habitat modification affect oviposition by the salt marsh mosquito, Ochlerotatus vigilax (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicida)? (edu.au)
  • As mosquito populations are reduced from a variety of measures, the probability that any given uncontrolled oviposition site will continually be treated with pyriproxyfen falls proportionally. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • Without complete control of mosquito oviposition sites pyriproxyfen alone will not resolve the Zika crisis. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • The discrimination between the different oviposition substrates, hatching in water surface and its implication for mosquito control are discussed. (fiocruz.br)
  • The objectives of the present investigation were to study the oviposition behaviour of two mosquito populations in three different types of breeding sites, two of them commonly found in residences, at two different humidity levels, to determine the influence of female density on this behaviour and to evaluate the hatching response of eggs on the water surface. (fiocruz.br)
  • Given the consecutive cases of dengue in East Timor, from 2014, mainly in the municipality of Dili, it became essential to plan a vector monitoring program through oviposition traps (ovitraps) 7 7 Whelan P, Hapgoog GA. Mosquito Survey of Dili, East Timor, and Implications for Disease Control Department of Health and Community Services. (scielosp.org)
  • Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. (escholarship.org)
  • It is also reasonable to assume that we cannot control all potential oviposition sites in a real world scenario. (eaglemedicalservicesllc.com)
  • Oviposition preference for ureasupplemented food was assayed by simultaneous choice trials on five pairs of closely related laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster . (springer.com)
  • Overall, our results reveal a conserved mechanism of oviposition site choice in Drosophila, which is likely modulated in different species by the expression of species-specific receptors or binding proteins which we suggest are involved with adaptation to specific ecological niches. (fmach.it)
  • In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensis and Clavispora opuntiae, on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatii was found. (elsevier.com)
  • Experiments and observations on time of oviposition gave conflicting results, but seem to indicate that oviposition may depend on a combination of stimuli rather than on some single factor in the daily cycle of environmental changes. (ajtmh.org)
  • Eggs were gathered in a 28-day interval, every two days all produced eggs The time of oviposition was influenced by genotype. (vuzv.cz)
  • There were interactions between the time of oviposition and genotype in egg weight. (vuzv.cz)
  • The egg shape index was also affected by the genotype and time of oviposition. (vuzv.cz)
  • The Posterior Pituitary of fowl hens was removed 1-2 h before oviposition of the mid-clutch egg, but all hens so treated laid at the expected time of oviposition. (geoscience.net)
  • A 90° bend or removal of an entry point to pipes of fixed length had no significant effect on oviposition. (bioone.org)
  • The administration of AVT antiserum (1 ml/fowl hen or 0.3 ml/quail hen) had no effect on oviposition time. (geoscience.net)
  • The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also found in one experiment in which the flies were starved and in another experiment in which choice was determined on 2 consecutive days. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, by studying oviposition behaviour, I found that during these small-scale behavioural decisions, associational effects are mainly governed by gustatory mediated selection and less by olfactory mediated selection. (diva-portal.org)
  • The oviposition assay eliminated potential misinterpretations of resource quality along the different steps of search behaviour, hence the results suggested that associational effects rely on distinctive selection behaviour between resource types rather than on sensory constraints. (diva-portal.org)
  • Introduction: Proper selection of oviposition site is a fundamental animal behaviour that highly affects the survival of the progeny. (fmach.it)
  • Observations on the oviposition behaviour of Polemon liparae Girr. (knaw.nl)
  • Communal oviposition in the Afrotropical blackfly species complex Simulium damnosum Theobald (Diptera: Simuliidae) is mediated by a pheromone emitted by freshly laid eggs. (unl.edu)
  • Infusions produced from sterilized plants and water elicited significantly diminished oviposition responses [ 14 ], evidencing the essential role of microbes in the production of oviposition attractants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main scientific question was, what are the molecular mechanisms on which female Plutella xylostella moths base their choice of the oviposition site? (mpg.de)
  • To determine the size range of particles used by H. sericeus for oviposition, the two-dimensional surface area and maximum diameter of a subset of plastic particles with attached eggs ( n = 207) were measured using I mage J (NIH). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In insects, CPGs underlie a number of rhythmic movements including egg laying, or oviposition, in locusts ( Woodrow, 1965 ), in which specialized structures located at the distal-most segment of the abdomen, called the ovipositor valves, function to dig into the substrate to lay eggs. (biologists.org)
  • Does a Change from Whole to Powdered Food (Artemia franciscana eggs) Increase Oviposition in the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata? (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, a simple change in A . franciscana egg texture and particle size ( i.e ., blending whole eggs into a dust-like powder) increases oviposition in C . maculata . (mdpi.com)
  • However, prior surveys found fewer monarch eggs on common milkweed in grassland versus crop habitats, indicating potential preference for oviposition in row crop habitats, or alternately, greater egg loss to predation in grasslands. (datadryad.org)
  • The 20 day-old plants were preferred for oviposition, and the densities of 100 and 150 adults per plant ensured the number of eggs enough to discriminate cotton genotypes with different whitefly resistance degrees. (eurekamag.com)
  • Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae . (frontiersin.org)
  • 3.Despite a strong preference for fermented substrates, moderate attraction to and oviposition on unfermented fruit might be adaptive in view of the fly's capacity to vector yeast. (lu.se)
  • There does not seem to be a clear preference for oviposition substrates in Neotropical dobsonflies. (tolweb.org)
  • adults avoid salty water when selecting oviposition sites. (allenpress.com)
  • However, the data indicated that pairwise comparisons between randomly selected populations from the two larval selection regimes would lead to a range of possible outcomes, suggesting, in several cases, that selection for larval urea tolerance had led to significant differentiation of adult oviposition preference for urea in one or the other direction. (springer.com)
  • In potato, chemicals extractable in acetone also elicited a positive oviposition response. (elsevier.com)
  • Oviposition-deterring pheromone deposited on blue. (brillonline.com)
  • Marking fruit with this putative oviposition-deterring pheromone without associated egg laying was sufficient to induce the deterring effect, while oviposition alone without subsequent marking had no effect. (brillonline.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a hymenopteran oviposition-deterring pheromone that is deposited externally on the surface of the fruit skin rather than on the surface of the parasitized larva. (brillonline.com)
  • The length of activity of the oviposition-deterring pheromone described here should be sufficient to prevent multiple egg-laying into a host that cannot support more than one parasitoid larva, and thus reduce intraspecific competition. (brillonline.com)
  • Oviposition pheromone in the Simulium damnosum complex: biological act" by P. J. McCall, R. R. Heath et al. (unl.edu)
  • Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, demonstrated that not only may plant odors determine the best oviposition site, but also the frass of other larvae of the same species. (mpg.de)
  • The oviposition in this species starts 3 days after the blood meal and in general lasts for 6 days [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This study is being conducted over multiple years to examine both oviposition preference and larval survival on nine milkweed species endemic to Iowa. (iastate.edu)
  • Canterbury (1978) reports a general selection of vegetation hanging over the water for the oviposition of eastern North American sialids, however, some species preferred leaves, and other species oviposited on twigs or branches. (tolweb.org)
  • The mean height of flight was estimated, and seasonal changes in sex ratios were determined for each species;Corn rootworm adult emergence, adult populations, and oviposition were monitored throughout the season in eight fields in 1981-83. (iastate.edu)
  • Rutaceae), fail to show any significant oviposition preference induction with two-day prior exposure to any of the host species tested. (valpo.edu)
  • It appears that the eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly, while polyphagous as a species (feeding on more than 9 families of plants), and variable in its population responses to oviposition favorites, has what may be considered a genetic "hard-wiring" at an individual level, with no evidence that preferences change with recent oviposition experience. (valpo.edu)
  • Variations in the site chosen for oviposition have been observed within the species. (fiocruz.br)
  • In contrast to the notable attention paid to larval plasticity, few studies have examined maternal plasticity in oviposition in response to varied hydroperiods. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Evolution of maternal plasticity in oviposition would allow mothers to achieve greater overall fitness. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We argue that plasticity in oviposition site selection and maternal effects on offspring phenotypes may be an important, yet underexplored, mechanism by which environmental conditions have consequences across generations. (uclouvain.be)
  • Wiklund C (1974) Oviposition preferences of Papilio machaon in relation to the host plants of the larvae. (springer.com)
  • In Lepidoptera, choosing the right host plant during oviposition is particularly important, because the small larvae cannot easily forage for alternate host plants. (jneurosci.org)
  • Resistance can be conferred by naturally occurring hydroxycinnamic acids which protect against oviposition by adults, but these compounds are restricted to the root surface so do not protect against the cortex bound larvae where the greatest damage occurs. (cipotato.org)
  • 2) Three transects containing 12 pairs of oviposition traps with both cups containing a similar number of larvae, but one containing a given level (0, 1, 3) of caged nymphs. (uncg.edu)
  • We hypothesized that both the abundance of immature Anopheles and the recruitment of Anopheles (from oviposition or larval movement) is positively related to the amount of surface cover present. (springer.com)
  • Anopheles gambiae s.s. primarily land on the water surface for oviposition. (diva-portal.org)
  • We knew already that moths select their oviposition sites carefully. (mpg.de)
  • The scientists identified two olfactory receptors whose sole function is to detect these defense substances and to guide the moths to the ideal oviposition sites. (mpg.de)
  • These results substantiate that one A. gambiae female uses multiple breeding sites for oviposition, and thus, average genetic relatedness for breeding sites with high larval populations tends to be low. (ajtmh.org)
  • Resources are often unevenly distributed through the environment, resulting in a challenging task for insects to locate food, mates and oviposition sites. (diva-portal.org)
  • There was some general indication that recent oviposition activity was reduced in sites that had been modified, evidenced by a relatively small proportion of young (dark coloured) eggshells. (edu.au)
  • Inter and intrapopulation variability regarding oviposition sites was observed. (fiocruz.br)
  • In insects, it is often the ability of the mother to find suitable oviposition sites that controls the availability and quality of food for the offspring because immature insect stages are often restricted in their mobility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • aegypti oviposition activity. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Ora´n city where tire dumps predominate. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • aegypti attraction to various oviposition container configurations. (edu.au)
  • In contrast, attraction and oviposition were significantly lower if non-fermented grape juice or growth media were used, and yeast-free grapes did not support larval development either. (lu.se)
  • Overall, selection for larval tolerance to urea did not significantly affect oviposition preference. (springer.com)
  • We found that flies with cancer reached the peak period of oviposition significantly earlier (i.e., 2 days) than healthy ones, while no difference in the length and extent of the fecundity peak was observed between the two groups of flies. (wildgenesgroup.com)
  • Our study revealed that habitat context influences both monarch oviposition preference and egg predation rates, and that these patterns vary by year. (datadryad.org)
  • Monarch Oviposition and Larval Survival on Nine Native Milkweed Specie" by Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski et al. (iastate.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this result it can be concluded that the three compounds possess remarkable oviposition attractancy against Ae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Oviposition responses to 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.00%, 1.25%, and 1.5% solutions of pure NaCl were evaluated over 8 days using ovitraps. (allenpress.com)
  • A research team from the Nanjing Agricultural University in Nanjing, China, and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, showed that isothiocyanates produced by cruciferous plants to fend off pests serve as oviposition cues. (mpg.de)
  • It was concluded that fraction 3, though mainly responsible for mediating aggregated oviposition by S. yahense , was acting in tandem with additional cues, probably further chemicals, which remain to be isolated and characterized. (unl.edu)
  • We found that oviposition was mainly governed by non-volatile chemical cues and less by volatile cues. (diva-portal.org)
  • Oviposition site selection is a critical fitness enhancing decision for container breeding insects. (uncg.edu)
  • [4] Male butterflies are territorial, and engage in flight performances to determine who settles in the best oviposition site. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results provide empirical support for use of early instar larval abundance as an index for oviposition site preference. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1995) and the choice of oviposition site is genetically controled (Schoenig 1968). (fiocruz.br)
  • In this review, we use examples from the literature to demonstrate that habitat fragmentation has important consequences on oviposition site selection in insects, with carryover effects on offspring survival and, therefore, population dynamics. (uclouvain.be)
  • Without considering the impact of habitat fragmentation on oviposition site selection, it will be difficult to assess the effect of fragmentation on offspring fitness, and ultimately to understand the impact of anthropogenic-induced environmental change on population viability. (uclouvain.be)
  • Myers A, Bahlai CA, Landis DA (2019) Habitat type influences Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) oviposition and egg survival on Asclepias syriaca (Gentianales: Apocynaceae). (datadryad.org)
  • Here, we show that microplastic concentrations in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) have increased by two orders of magnitude in the past four decades, and that this increase has released the pelagic insect Halobates sericeus from substrate limitation for oviposition. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Considerable variation in oviposition preference was seen both within and among populations, with four of the ten populations showing a significant mean preference for ureasupplemented food. (springer.com)
  • Oviposition was found to be nearly complete by the end of the first week of Sept. Regression equations are presented for the relationship between northern corn rootworm adult population parameters and final season egg populations. (iastate.edu)
  • There were no differences m oviposition between flies fed on the different concentrations of the two diets. (sun.ac.za)
  • Compared with controls, the inhibition of oviposition ranged from 84.4% to 97.0% at concentrations above 0.5% NaCl. (allenpress.com)
  • Methodology: Oviposition activity was detected in Ora´n City (Salta province) using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005-2007). (conicet.gov.ar)
  • abstract = "Oviposition response of the polyphagous European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (H{\"u}bner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), to chemical constituents in host plants was investigated in the laboratory using two‐choice bioassays. (elsevier.com)
  • Oviposition preference and survival of the maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae), on Napier grasses, Pennisetum spp. (journals.co.za)
  • This was done through oviposition preference tests and evaluation of larval survival on different varieties. (journals.co.za)
  • The outcomes of the diets were comparable with those of a beef liver diet in terms of oviposition, adult survival and number of offspring. (nih.gov)
  • Insect parasitoids are known to deposit chemical signals on utilized hosts following oviposition. (brillonline.com)
  • Additionally, increased oviposition activity was observed in adults exposed to the wettable powder (WP) formulations. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, in the present study culture filtrates containing metabolites of a few bacteria were examined for oviposition attractancy and the results are presented hereunder. (scielo.br)
  • The cell-mass was discarded and the cell-free supernatant was used as test material for oviposition attractancy tests. (scielo.br)
  • We report the results of a systematic assessment of media from various developmental stages of the sand fly using oviposition and olfactometer behavioral assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2.Here, we show that baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on its own is sufficient for fruit fly attraction, oviposition and larval development. (lu.se)
  • Results from two-choice tests with Napier grass and maize plants indicated B. fusca moths have no marked difference in oviposition preference. (journals.co.za)
  • Stanton ML (1979) The role of chemotactile stimuli in the oviposition preferences of Colias butterflies. (springer.com)
  • Wiklund C (1977) Oviposition, feeding and spatial separation of breeding and foraging habitats in a population of Leptidea sinapis (Lepidoptera). (springer.com)
  • Oviposition response of the polyphagous European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), to chemical constituents in host plants was investigated in the laboratory using two‐choice bioassays. (elsevier.com)
  • We conducted multiple-choice oviposition assays in 500 mL Nalgene jars. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The olfactometer results were consistent with the oviposition assays, with 2nd/3rd larval rearing medium being the most attractive, followed by 4th instar/pupae rearing medium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Facultative oviposition of Eastern Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) in response to water reduction of aquatic habitats. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Seiter, NJ , Greene, JK & Reay-Jones, FPF 2014, ' Aggregation and oviposition preferences of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in laboratory bioassays ', Journal of Entomological Science , vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 331-335. (illinois.edu)
  • Reay-Jones, Francis P.F. / Aggregation and oviposition preferences of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera : Plataspidae) in laboratory bioassays . (illinois.edu)
  • Oviposition time was similar for 8-h controls and bright/dim hens and delayed by 3 h for 16-h birds, but phase advanced by 2.4 h for dim/bright hens. (nih.gov)
  • The results of this study suggest that manipulating diameter and length of conveyance pipe in stormwater management devices may not be an effective strategy to deter oviposition. (bioone.org)