The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Saprolegniaceae. It is a parasite and pathogen of freshwater FISHES.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Sexual activities of animals.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
A species of shark in the family SQUALIDAE, used for its oil (SQUALENE) and as fish meal. It also figures heavily in biological research, especially with reference to its RECTAL GLAND in studies of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
The capability of producing yolk-filled eggs that hatch within the body, so that the young are born alive, but without placental attachment. This applies to certain species of REPTILES and FISHES.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
The study of the patterns of ridges of the skin of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles.
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.
The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.

Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor (Agamidae). (1/71)

The determinants of offspring size and number in the tropical oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor, were examined using both univariate and multivariate (path) analyses. In C. versicolor maternal snout-vent length (SVL) and body condition influence clutch mass and clutch size but have no significant influence on offspring size. The positive effect of maternal SVL and body condition on offspring number is counterbalanced by a negative effect of breeding time on egg mass. In fact, breeding time directly influences the offspring body mass and condition through variation in the egg mass. There is a trade-off between offspring mass and condition with offspring number, and breeding time influences both. Offspring hatched from the eggs of early (May-June) or mid (July-August) breeding periods invariably show lower mass and condition than those hatched from the eggs of late breeding season (September-October). Yet, there is no variation in offspring SVL among early, mid and late clutches. Thus, in C. versicolor offspring SVL is optimized while body mass and condition are not optimized.  (+info)

Altered neonatal development and endocrine function in Alligator mississippiensis associated with a contaminated environment. (2/71)

Reduced reproductive success, altered reproductive tract development, and differences in circulating hormones have been documented in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Lake Apopka, FL, compared to less contaminated sites, such as the Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, FL. Comparative studies among alligators of varying size and age suggest that in ovo contaminant-induced alterations of endocrine function are further modified during postembryonic development and/or through environmental exposure. In the present study, we examined developmental and endocrine-related indices in neonatal (age, <1 mo) alligators from Lake Apopka in comparison to those of a reference population (Lake Woodruff), thereby limiting contaminant exposure to that derived via maternal contribution. We compared several reproductive and developmental parameters, including hatching success, primary sex determination, and somatic indices. Furthermore, we examined circulating testosterone concentrations and aromatase activity in an effort to establish relative gonadal endocrine function shortly after hatching. Finally, we compared phallus size among males and oviduct epithelial cell height (ECH) among females (androgen- and estrogen-dependent tissues, respectively). Significant differences between populations were noted for body size and spleen somatic index. Neonatal alligators from Lake Apopka exhibited higher plasma testosterone, but no differences were detected in gonadal aromatase activity compared to Lake Woodruff. Phallus tip length and cuff diameter were smaller in males from Lake Apopka, whereas no differences were noted in oviduct ECH. Our data establish basic indices of development and endocrine function in neonatal alligators before environmental exposure to contaminants. These results should begin to help separate developmental abnormalities resulting from in ovo exposure, presumably of maternal origin, from physiological alterations induced through environmental exposure to contaminants.  (+info)

Changes in the localization of antigen presenting cells and T cells in the utero-vaginal junction after repeated artificial insemination in laying hens. (3/71)

The goal of our present study was to observe whether the populations of antigen presenting cells (Ia+ cells) and T cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) change in the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) of Rhode Island Red laying hens that showed dramatic declines in fertility after repeated artificial insemination (AI). Rhode Island Red laying hens were divided into two groups: a virgin group (R-V) and artificial inseminated group (R-AI), which was exposed to weekly AI for a period of 3 mo. Undiluted fresh semen collected from healthy Tosa-Jidori roosters, a native Japanese breed maintained in Kochi Prefecture, was used for AI. The UVJ tissues were processed for frozen sections, and Ia+ cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. The Ia+ cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed in the stroma and mucosal epithelium of UVJ in both the R-AI and R-V birds. The frequencies of them in the stroma were significantly higher in R-AI than R-V. The higher frequency of Ia+ cells in the UVJ of R-AI group indicated a greater potential capability for antigen presentation to CD4+ cells. The significant increase in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the UVJ of R-AI birds might be the result of a homing process of lymphocytes, which may affect sperm survivability and fertility.  (+info)

Honeybee workers use cues other than egg viability for policing. (4/71)

Worker policing, wherein social insect workers prevent their sisters from reproducing by eating worker-laid eggs, is recognized as a textbook example of kin selection in action. However, the evolutionary basis of policing was recently challenged in a study that suggested that police-workers remove worker-laid eggs not because rearing workers' sons reduces worker fitness, but merely because worker-laid eggs have low viability. Here, we refute Pirk et al.'s conclusions. First, we confirm earlier work that showed equal viability of eggs laid by queens and workers. Second, a statistical analysis of the data of Pirk et al. reveals that their own data do not support the conclusion that worker-laid eggs are policed merely because of their low viability. Third, we present data that unequivocally show that police-workers cannot discriminate between dead and live eggs. Hence, our study seriously weakens the challenge to the kin-selected basis of policing in honeybees.  (+info)

Heterotopic transplantation of testes in newly hatched chickens and subsequent production of offspring via intramagnal insemination. (5/71)

Transplantation of testicular tissue onto the back of immunodeficient nude mice provides a tool to examine testicular development and preserve fertility in mammals. There is no immunodeficient model in birds, but we recently transplanted ovarian tissue between newly hatched chicks from two lines of chickens and produced donor-derived offspring, showing that experimental transplantation is possible in newly hatched chicks. In the present study testicular tissue from newly hatched Barred Plymouth Rock (BPR) chicks was transplanted under the skin of the back, under the skin of the abdomen, or in the abdomen of White Leghorn chicks that had been surgically castrated and immunocompromised. Recipient birds were killed at 10 mo of age. Transplanted tissue was observed in one of five hosts receiving tissue under the skin of the back, two of five hosts receiving tissue under the skin of the abdomen, and three of five chicks with grafts inside the abdominal cavity. In recipients with no regeneration of host testes, testicular transplants grew to the size of normal testes, and histologic analysis showed active spermatogenesis. Subsequent collection of sperm from two successful transplants and surgical insemination of the sperm into the magna of the oviducts of BPR hens resulted in the production of 24 donor-derived chicks. These results demonstrate that the combination of testicular tissue transplantation with intramagnal insemination can produce viable, normal chicks, which could provide a simple approach for the recuperation of live offspring in avian species.  (+info)

Paternal indirect genetic effects on offspring viability and the benefits of polyandry. (6/71)

Although females are expected to maximize their reproductive success with only one or a few matings, the females of many species mate with multiple partners. Experimental studies have found evidence for an increase in egg or embryo viability when females mate polyandrously. These studies have been interpreted in the context of genetic-benefit models that propose that multiple mating increases offspring viability because it allows females to select male genotypes that influence viability directly or because it allows females to avoid genetic incompatibility. However, no studies have examined directly the precise mechanisms by which parents influence embryo viability. Using a morphological marker that enabled us to determine paternity and survival of embryos sired by individual male crickets in both sperm-competitive and -noncompetitive situations, we show that males inducing high embryo viability enhance the viability of embryos sired by inferior males. These results indicate that paternal effects and interacting phenotypes determine embryo viability. They show that a male's reproductive success is modified by the interaction between indirect genetic effects of sperm competitors. Importantly, our findings show that the benefits accruing to offspring of multiply mated females need not be transmitted genetically.  (+info)

Corticosterone stimulates hatching of late-term tree lizard embryos. (7/71)

The regulation of hatching in oviparous animals is important for successful reproduction and survival, but is poorly understood. We unexpectedly found that RU-486, a progesterone and glucocorticoid antagonist, interferes with hatching of viable tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus) embryos in a dose-dependent manner and hypothesized that embryonic glucocorticoids regulate hatching. To test this hypothesis, we treated eggs with corticosterone (CORT) or vehicle on Day 30 (85%) of incubation, left other eggs untreated, and observed relative hatch order and hatch time. In one study, the CORT egg hatched first in 9 of 11 clutches. In a second study, the CORT egg hatched first in 9 of 12 clutches, before vehicle-treated eggs in 10 of 12 clutches, and before untreated eggs in 7 of 9 clutches. On average, CORT eggs hatched 18.2 h before vehicle-treated eggs and 11.6 h before untreated eggs. Thus, CORT accelerates hatching of near-term embryos and RU-486 appears to block this effect. CORT may mobilize energy substrates that fuel hatching and/or accelerate lung development, and may provide a mechanism by which stressed embryos escape environmental stressors.  (+info)

Interleukin 1 in oviductal tissues of viviparous, oviparous, and ovuliparous species of amphibians. (8/71)

In previous reports, we have shown that interleukin 1 (IL1), a cytokine associated with implantation in mice, is also expressed in reproductive tissues of viviparous squamate reptiles and cartilaginous fishes. In the present study, we investigated the expression of IL1B and its functional membrane receptor type I (IL1R1) in amphibians, a class of vertebrates that is characterized by different reproductive modes, including internal and external fertilization. In particular, we investigated the oviductal tissues of the aplacental viviparous Salamandra lanzai, the oviparous Triturus carnifex, and the ovuliparous Bufo bufo. In immunohistochemistry with anti-human IL1B and IL1R1 polyclonal antibodies we found that in S. lanzai, most cells in the uterine mucosa were immunoreactive for IL1B and IL1R1. In T. carnifex, IL1B and IL1R1 were present in ciliated luminal cells, and there was evidence of IL1B in glandular cells. In B. bufo, the expression of IL1B and IL1R1 was limited to the apical cytoplasm of the ciliated oviductal cells. Western blot analysis showed that a putative mature form of IL1B, similar to that seen in mammals, was present in the oviductal tissues of S. lanzai, whereas different forms, which probably correspond to an inactive pro-IL1B protein, were found in T. carnifex and B. bufo. A band that corresponded to the predicted 80-kDa human IL1R1 was found in S. lanzai and T. carnifex. Although the present study shows that IL1B and IL1R1 expression occurs in all reproductive modes, the differential expression patterns noted between ovuliparity and oviparity and viviparity may reflect the different roles of IL1 in the various reproductive modes.  (+info)

Oviparity, expulsion of undeveloped eggs rather than live young. The eggs may have been fertilized before release, as in birds and some reptiles, or are to be fertilized externally, as in amphibians and many lower forms. In general, the number of eggs produced by oviparous species greatly exceeds
A new study has determined that social stress adversely affects digestive function in subordinate cichlid fish. Scientists compared bile retention and gall bladder size in dominant and subordinate males that had eaten equal amounts of food. They discovered not only were the gall bladders in the subordinate fish much larger, they were filled with dark
The bushmaster is an oviparous species, which means they lay eggs rather than bear live young. The bushmaster is the only egg-laying pit viper in the Americas. Bushmasters are solitary except when mating. Males find receptive females by following scent trails left by females. Finding a female, he rubs his head and flicks his tongue along the sides of her body to state his intentions and make sure she is receptive. If so, he flips his body upside down on top of hers and rubs his spinal ridge back and forth in a sawing motion against her body to stimulate her. If she is coiled up, he may also strike her with the side of his body to encourage her to loosen her coils and allow him access. When she uncoils, they wrap their bodies around one another and mate in that position, sometimes remaining together for five or more hours. When a female bushmaster is ready to lay her eggs, she finds a burrow built by another small animal to claim as her own, sometimes sharing the burrow with the animal that built ...
Animal sentience is the capacity of an animal to experience different feelings such as suffering or pleasure. The onset of sentience, that is the life stage at which an animal becomes sentient, is a highly contentious topic but its important as it forms the basis of decisions regarding animal foetuses.. Some have suggested that the embryo and foetus cannot suffer before or during birth [1] and foetuses cannot consciously experience negative sensations or feelings [2].. However, expert bodies considering available scientific literature have concluded that the stage of development at which there is a risk of poor welfare … is the beginning of the last third of development for mammals; when a fish, amphibian, cephalopod or decapod becomes capable of independent feeding and during the last days before hatching in precocial oviparous species [such as birds] [3].. In regards to marsupials which develop in the mothers pouch, unfurred pouch young are not considered sentient [4] because they ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from VLDLR very low density lipoprotein receptor available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
The Department of Defense inspector general has issued a scathing review of Rep. Ronny Jackson during his time serving as the top White House physician, concluding that he made sexual and denigrating comments about a female subordinate, violated the policy for drinking alcohol while on a presidential trip and took prescription-strength sleeping medication that prompted concerns from his colleagues about his ability to provide proper care.
Analysis of the distribution, haplotypes and conservation of the viviparous lizard, Zootoca vivipara vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) and the oviparous subspecies, Zootoca vivipara carniolica (Mayer, Böhme, Tiedemann & Bischoff, 2000) in the Bergamasque Prealps. -- In this study we analysed the distribution of two subspecies of the viviparous, Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) in Bergamasque Prealps-Orobic Alps. The project was commissioned by Parco delle Orobie Bergamasche (Anfi.Oro.Project 2008/2011); the aim of this project was to further investigate the ecological distributional, conservational and genetic aspects about this lizard. Over the course of the study it emerged that the viviparous subspecies (Zootoca vivipara vivipara) shows a broader distributional range in comparison with the oviparous populations (Zootoca vivipara carniolica, Mayer, Böhme, Tiedemann. & Bischoff, 2000). Z. v. vivipara is present along the watershed between the Brembana Valley and Valtellina, almost entirely ...
Animals make use of a variety of modes of reproduction to produce their young. Traditionally this variety was classified into three modes, oviparity (embryos in eggs), viviparity (young born live), and ovoviviparity (intermediate between the first two). However, each of those so-called traditional modes covered a wide range of diverse reproductive strategies. The biologist Thierry Lodé has accordingly proposed five modes of reproduction based on the relationship between the zygote (the fertilised egg) and the parents. His revised modes are ovuliparity, with external fertilisation ; oviparity, with internal fertilisation of large eggs containing a substantial nutritive yolk; ovo-viviparity, that is oviparity where the zygotes are retained for a time in a parent's body, but without any sort of feeding by the parent; histotrophic viviparity, where the zygotes develop in the female's oviducts , but are fed on other tissues; and hemotrophic viviparity, where the developing embryos are fed by the
Binds VLDL and transports it into cells by endocytosis. In order to be internalized, the receptor-ligand complexes must first cluster into clathrin-coated pits. Binding to Reelin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 and modulation of Tau phosphorylation.
Our work demonstrates that flies respond behaviourally to amplitude modulations in their courtship song, suggesting that Drosophila can auditorily process amplitude modulations. Mating-call amplitude is processed throughout the animal kingdom: the mating decisions of mammals (Clutton-Brock and Albon, 1979), birds (Ritschard et al., 2010), amphibians (Velez, 2013), and other insects (Roemer, 2013) are all influenced by song amplitude. Our study demonstrates that the mating decisions of the widely used model organism D. melanogaster (Jennings, 2011) are also influenced by song amplitude. It will be interesting to explore neural mechanisms for auditory processing of amplitude modulations in D. melanogaster, just as it is interesting to investigate neural mechanisms for processing song characteristics such as IPI (Vaughan et al., 2014; Zhou et al., 2014, 2015) and frequency (Kamikouchi et al., 2009).. Perceived amplitude can be affected by noise (Samarra et al., 2009), and positional changes during ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
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Studies examining how diet affects mortality risk over age typically characterise mortality using parameters such as aging rates, which condense how much and how quickly the risk of dying changes over time into a single measure. Demographers have suggested that decoupling the tempo and the magnitude of changing mortality risk may facilitate comparative analyses of mortality trajectories, but it is unclear what biologically meaningful information this approach offers. Here, we determine how the amount and ratio of protein and carbohydrate ingested by female Drosophila melanogaster affects how much mortality risk increases over a time-standardised life-course (the shape of aging) and the tempo at which animals live and die (the pace of aging ...
Vitellogenin (VTG), a complex protein, is a precursor of yolk proteins (lipovitellin and phosvitin) in all oviparous vertebrates studied to date. In amphibians, as in other oviparous vertebrates, VTG synthesis is hormonally dependent; estradiol-17β (E2) is especially important, although in vivo in the frog Rana esculenta the pituitary may be involved in hepatic VTG synthesis and secretion. The present in vitro experiments carried out during the main phases of the annual reproductive cycle of this frog showed that homologous pituitary homogenate (HPH), as well as E2, stimulated VTG synthesis in male and female livers, although their patterns of VTG secretion showed some differences with respect to the induction time and the rate of VTG secretion. The hepatic response to HPH occurred after a longer time than that of E2 VTG induction, and no cooperation between HPH and E2 was found in the VTG synthesizing response. It should be emphasized that during the refractory period (July), hepatic VTG ...
The European common lizard Zootoca vivipara exhibits reproductive bimodality, with populations being either viviparous or oviparous. In the central-eastern Italian Alps oviparous populations (Z. v. carniolica) and viviparous populations (Z. v. vivipara) partly overlap geographically. Studying the evolutionary relationship between these taxa presents an interesting opportunity to gain insight into the evolution of this trait. We aim to: i) test whether Z. v. carniolica, which is endangered, constitutes an ESU (Evolutionary Significant Unity); ii) infer mtDNA divergence time between the Z. v. carniolica clade and all the other Z. vivipara subspecies with the aid of an external calibration point; and iii) describe the phylogeographical and demographic scenarios in the area. To do so we sequenced about 200 individuals for mitochondrial variation; 64 of them were also analysed for three nuclear genes. Furthermore, we analysed the same nuclear markers in 17 individuals from the other oviparous subspecies Z. v
Arakane Y, Specht CA, Kramer KJ, Muthukrishnan S, Beeman RW. Chitin synthases are required for survival, fecundity and egg hatch in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Oct; 38(10):959-62 ...
Leonard Baskin. Thelia Bimaculata from Horned Beetles and Other Insects. (book published, 1958). Etching. plate: 1 7/16 x 1 11/16 (3.7 x 4.3 cm); sheet (irreg.): 6 1/2 x 9 15/16 (16.5 x 25.2 cm). The Gehenna Press, Northampton. the artist, Northampton. trial proof before the published edition of 30. Gift of the artist. 555.1959. Drawings and Prints Caption: The Museum of Modern Art, designed by Yoshio Taniguchi. Entrance at 53rd Street. Photo © 2011 Timothy Hursley
In oviparous vertebrates, the maternal transfer of steroid hormones to egg yolk can vary among species, within and among clutches, seasonally, due to age, and in response to social and environmental cues. In previous studies, significant effects on hatchling phenotype, sex and survival have been attributed to a variation in egg yolk hormone levels. The differential allocation of yolk hormones in sea turtles, multiple clutching oviparous reptiles with a high reproductive output and temperature dependent sexdetermination (TSD), has yet to be investigated. This study examined the variation of maternally derived egg yolk hormones of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) within a clutch and with increasing nest events across the season. The quantification of the relationship of yolk hormones to maternal circulating plasma hormones also was examined. Estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) are associated with vitellogenesis while progesterone (P) is associated with follicular ovulation. Therefore, E2 and T
We and others have shown that mated females suffer reduced ability to defend against systemic infection relative to virgin females (Fedorka et al. 2007; Short and Lazzaro 2010; Short et al. 2012), and this effect is eliminated when the females fail to produce eggs. We hypothesized that virgin females may exhibit gene expression differences after infection that differ from those of mated females, which could inform the nature of the physiological trade-off we have observed between reproduction and immune defense. Changes seen in egg-producing females that are not observed in eggless females may indicate germline-dependent elements of the trade-off.. There were 53 genes whose expression was significantly affected by infection in virgin but not mated females (comparison A but not comparison B in Figure 1; Figure 2). Of these 53 genes, 28 of them were up-regulated by infection, whereas 25 of them were down-regulated. GO analysis on the genes corresponding to up-regulated probesets revealed no ...
2016 Morimoto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Purpose: : It has been well documented that subretinal neovascularization (SNV) in VLDL receptor knockout (vldlr-/-) mice models retinal angiomatus proliferation (RAP). This study examines the role of VLDLR in retinal vascular formation during the development. Methods: : The level and cellular origin of VLDLR expression in the mouse retina during postnatal development were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. The development of retinal vasculature network was examined at various postnatal days in the whole mount retina after isolectin staining under a fluorescent confocal microscope. Littermates from heterozygous (vldlr+/-) breeders were used for comparison of the effect of VLDLR gene on retinal vessel development. Results: : Low level of VLDLR protein was detected in the retina at postnatal day 5 (P5). The level increased and peaked around P10 to P14 before it reduced to a lower level in adult mice. Immunofluorescent staining revealed intense signals of VLDLR in the outer ...
Aplacental viviparity is a form of egg development in which the eggs of an organism hatch while still inside the uterus but the developing young arent ...
Presented in Symposium I (Joseph Holson, L.B. Pearce, co-chairs) at the Forty-Third Annual Meeting of the Teratology Society, Philadelphia, June 26, 2003.
Infestation experience of a rodent host and offspring viability of fleas: variation among host-parasite associations. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology. 313:680-689. 2010 ...
Modification of offspring sex ratios in response to parental quality is predicted when the long-term fitness returns of sons and daughters differ. One factor that may influence a mothers sex allocation decision is the quality (or attractiveness) of her mate. We investigated whether the sex ratios of offspring produced by female Drosophila melanogaster are biased with respect to the age of the males to which they are mated, and whether there is an adaptive basis for this phenomenon. We found that females mated to old males (13 d post-eclosion) initially produced a greater proportion of daughters than did females mated to young males (1 d post-eclosion). This pattern does not appear to be due to a systematic difference in the numbers or mortality of the X- and Y-bearing sperm originating from old and young fathers, as the overall sex ratios of all offspring produced from a single copulation did not differ between broods fathered by the two types of males. The sons of older males fared worse in ...
Read Inhibition of DD2R gene expression in the corpus allatum activates alkaline phosphatase in female Drosophila melanogaster, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
On the Isle of May between 1986 and 1996, the average adult survival of Shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis was 82.1%, Common Guillemots Uria aalge 95.2%, Razorbills Alca torda 90.5%, Puffins Fratercula arctica 91.6% and Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla 88.2%. Shags, Razorbills and Puffins all had a single year of exceptionally low survival but these years did not coincide. In contrast, Kittiwake survival declined significantly over the period and there was evidence that substantial non-breeding occurred in several years. Breeding success of Kittiwakes also declined, which gives rise to concern for its future status. Given a high enough level of resighting, return rates (the proportion of birds known to be alive one year that were seen the next year) on a year-by-year basis provide a reasonable indication of relative changes in adult survival.. ...
Vitellogenin (VTG) is an estrogen-dependent, females-specific yolk precursor protein naturally synthesized during the reproductive period in the liver of oviparous vertebrates. Released in blood, VTG is taken from the growing oocytes by micropinocytosis and used as nourishment for the future embryo.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Juvenile hormone titre and related gene expression during the change of reproductive modes in the pea aphid. AU - Ishikawa, A.. AU - Ogawa, K.. AU - Gotoh, H.. AU - Walsh, T. K.. AU - Tagu, D.. AU - Brisson, J. A.. AU - Rispe, C.. AU - Jaubert-Possamai, S.. AU - Kanbe, T.. AU - Tsubota, T.. AU - Shiotsuki, T.. AU - Miura, T.. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Most aphids show reproductive polyphenism, i.e. they alternate their reproductive modes from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction in response to short photoperiods. Although juvenile hormone (JH) has been considered a likely candidate for regulating the transition from asexual to sexual reproduction after photoperiod sensing, there are few studies investigating the direct relationship between JH titres and the reproductive-mode change. In addition, the sequencing of the pea aphid genome has allowed identification of the genes involved in the JH pathway, which in turn allows us to examine their expression levels in relation to ...
Yesterday a new study was released in the journal of Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. Researchers from the University of Utah, studied the effects of the well documented right-to-left shunt in crocodylians.Okay, lets get the exposition out of the way first.. Mammals and birds are both characterized by a 4 chambered heart. This heart allows the complete separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood streams. Less publicized, but equally as important, this separation also allows for a pressure differential to exist between the two ventricular chambers. That way the right - pulmonary side - of the heart can pump deoxygenated blood at low pressure to the delicate walls of the alveoli in the lungs, while the left - systemic side - of the heart, can pump oxygenated blood at much higher pressure (~7 times higher) to the entire body.. Reptiles and amphibians differ from mammals and birds, in that they have a heart divided into 3 chambers (two atria, one ventricle). This allows for mixing of ...
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Recently, phylogenetics has expanded to routinely include estimation of clade ages in addition to their relationships. Various dating methods have been used, but their relative performance remains understudied. Here, we generate and assemble an extensive phylogenomic data set for squamate reptiles ( …
For a member of the skink family, blue-tongued skinks are among the best suited for lives in captivity for several reasons. Being relatively slow-moving, theyre not as difficult to handle compared to most of the slender skink species. Blue-tongued skinks short, thick physique makes them easy to hold, even by children. Although a biter is occasionally encountered, most adult blue-tongued skinks are loathe to even open their mouths, much less show off their startlingly fat, blue tongues that earned them their common name.. A 20-gallon long aquarium should be considered minimal housing for one specimen. Nearly any substrate from sand to pebbles to aspen provides blue-tongued skinks an adequate material to wander about in. A simple shelter of stone or a concave piece of wood will serve as a hide box. Blue-tongued skinks should have a small bowl of water available at all times. They may also receive needed moisture from pieces of fruit or other vegetation, which makes up the bulk of their diet. ...
Skinks (properly Scincidae… though read on) are one of the most successful of squamate groups, accounting for approximately 1500 species - in other words, for about 25% of all lizards.
talk contribs‎ 6,837 bytes +6,837‎ Created page with Gastrointestinal Tract Development * allantois - An extraembryonic membrane, endoderm in origin extension from the early hindgut, then cloaca into the connecting sta... ...
A bone-healthy version of a fish chowder called Cullen Skink. This home made soup has an abundance of healthy nutrients for your body . Click to learn more!
Aceptado: 17 febrero 2012.. Abstract. Egg retention (ER) and intrauterine embryonic development (IED) have been considered intermediate steps in the evolution from oviparity to viviparity. Sceloporus aeneus is an oviparous lizard that is closely related to the viviparous species (Sceloporus bicanthalis). The present study addresses the following 2 questions: 1) Are intermediate stages of egg retention (ER and IED) present in populations of Sceloporus aeneus? and 2) Are ER and/or IED explained by elevation, precipitation or phylogenetic effects? Results indicate that in S. aeneus, ER differs among populations. ER was negatively related to altitude and pluvial precipitation, whereas average environmental temperature had no effect on ER or IER. In contrast to previous observations of oviparous species related to viviparous species, populations of S. aeneus with advanced IED are associated with environmental factors such as low elevation and aridity instead of high elevation and cold climate, ...
Precise estimates of costs and benefits, the fitness economics, of mating are of key importance in understanding how selection shapes the coevolution of male and female mating traits. However, fitness is difficult to define and quantify. Here, we used a novel application of an established analytical technique to calculate individual- and population-based estimates of fitness-including those sensitive to the timing of reproduction-to measure the effects on females of increased exposure to males. Drosophila melanogaster females were exposed to high and low frequencies of contact with males, and life-history traits for each individual female were recorded. We then compared different fitness estimates to determine which of them best described the changes in life histories. We predicted that rate-sensitive estimates would be more accurate, as mating influences the rate of offspring production in this species. The results supported this prediction. Increased exposure to males led to significantly ...
Mating rate is a major determinant of female lifespan and fitness, and is predicted to optimize at an intermediate level, beyond which superfluous matings are costly. In female Drosophila melanogaster, nutrition is a key regulator of mating rate but the underlying mechanism is unknown. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signalling (IIS) pathway is responsive to nutrition, and regulates development, metabolism, stress resistance, fecundity and lifespan. Here we show that inhibition of IIS, by ablation of Drosophila insulin-like peptide (DILP)-producing median neurosecretory cells, knockout of dilp2, dilp3 or dilp5 genes, expression of a dominant-negative DILP-receptor (InR) transgene or knockout of Lnk, results in reduced female remating rates. IIS-mediated regulation of female remating can occur independent of virgin receptivity, developmental defects, reduced body size or fecundity, and the receipt of the female receptivity-inhibiting male sex peptide. Our ...
Social hierarchy formation is strongly evolutionarily conserved. Across species, rank within social hierarchy has large effects on health and behavior. To investigate the relationship between social rank and stress susceptibility, we exposed ranked male and female mice to social and non-social stressors and manipulated social hierarchy position. We found that rank predicts same sex social stress outcomes: dominance in males and females confers resilience while subordination confers susceptibility. Pre-existing rank does not predict non-social stress outcomes in females and weakly does so in males, but rank emerging under stress conditions reveals social interaction deficits in male and female subordinates. Both history of winning and rank of cage mates affect stress susceptibility in males: rising to the top rank through high mobility confers resilience and mice that lose dominance lose stress resilience, though gaining dominance over a subordinate animal does not confer resilience. Overall, we ...
Declines in populations of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) have been reported from both Central Europe and the continuous boreal forests of Fennoscandia. While intensified land-use is assumed to be the underlying cause of these declines, the mechanisms are not yet understood. Predation is the proximate cause of mortality of eggs, chicks and adults throughout capercaillie and black grouse ranges, but the link between predation and habitat and/or climate change remains unclear. To investigate temporal trends in reproductive output of woodland grouse, we collated previously published and unpublished data of reproduction in capercaillie and black grouse throughout their ranges from 1930 to 2012. We show that, overall, reproductive success has decreased and stabilized at low levels in most regions whilst capercaillie reproductive output in Scotland is still declining. With todays net reproduction, capercaillie and black grouse adult survival is too low to compensate for
While most skink species are identified by their distinct colors and markings, certain physical characteristics apply to most of the ones found in the United States. Theyre medium-sized lizards that reach between 4 and 7 inches long as adults. Adult males of some species, like the Five Lined skink, can reach 8½ inches (including their long tail). Skinks have long slender bodies with short limbs and are protected by a smooth-scaled skin thats similar to the skin of a snake. Their coloring can be extremely flamboyant, with many species exhibiting striped patterns with vivid metallic hues. Because theyre diurnal animals-meaning they can be active both day and night-you might find them sunning along the edges of buildings or on exposed tree roots. Most skink species are also ground dwellers that travel through dense vegetation and leaf litter to hunt their prey. There are at least 15 skink species in North America. Where I live in South Carolina, I tend to see mostly Five Lined skinks, ...
October 2014 continues - for no particular reason at all - to be Lizard Month here at Tet Zoo and right now its time for more skinks. The previous article is a sort of general introduction to the group as well as a review of the limbless acontiines/acontids and weird feylinines.
ID A0A151MF56_ALLMI Unreviewed; 2363 AA. AC A0A151MF56; DT 08-JUN-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 08-JUN-2016, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 11. DE RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003808}; GN ORFNames=Y1Q_0005596 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; OS Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Archelosauria; Archosauria; Crocodylia; Alligatoridae; Alligatorinae; OC Alligator. OX NCBI_TaxID=8496 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000050525} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=KSC_2009_1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; RX PubMed=22293439; DOI=10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415; RA St John J.A., Braun E.L., Isberg S.R., Miles L.G., Chong A.Y., RA Gongora J., Dalzell P., Moran C., Bedhom B., Abzhanov A., RA Burgess S.C., Cooksey A.M., Castoe T.A., Crawford N.G., ...
Waterbirds publishes content regarding the biology, status, ecology, management and conservation of all waterbird species living in habitats worldwide.
The Little Brown Skink (Scincella lateralis) is one of eight species of skinks that reside in Texas, but it is the only one of its genus.
Do you know which blue tongue skink subspecies you have? Find out with this helpful guide in ReptiFiles blue tongue skink care packet!
Native to Australia, plague skinks were first recorded in Auckland during the 1960s and are now posing a threat to our rare native lizards.
They have the slithery, cylindrical body of a snake, the proportionately stunted arms of a T. rex, and knowing, lidded eyes that are reminiscent of our own species.Theyre skinks, and Zach Griffith
The latest egg production articles and research on laying hens, feeding, housing, breeding and welfare to help egg producers improve their operations.
An advanced, double-strength formulation of healthful and natural ingredients that helps to reduce the appearance of bags and dark circles under the eyes and can help create a more rested and youthful appearance.
The evenings are beautifully long right now, ideal for getting in some after-work rides or weekend all-dayers. These new Knog lights are
Shop cute hatching baby alligator stationery created by doonidesignsanimals. Personalize it with photos & text or purchase as is!
Oviparity is where fertilisation occurs internally and so the female sheds zygotes (or newly developing embryos) into the water ... Lodé, T. (2012). "Oviparity or viviparity? That is the question…". Reproductive Biology. 12 (3): 259-264. doi:10.1016/j.repbio. ... since the ovuliparity is a new term which may be confused with oviparity. If ovuliparity is used, most of the fishes have ... oviparity, ovo-viviparity, histotrophic viviparity and hemotrophic viviparity. Ovuliparity means the female lays unfertilised ...
Ovo-viviparity: or oviparity with retention of zygotes in either the female's or in the male's body, but there are no trophic ... Oviparity: fertilisation is internal, but the female lays zygotes as eggs with a substantial quantity of yolk to feed the ... Oviparity is found in birds. Among mammals, the monotremes (four species of Echidna, and the Platypus) are oviparous. ... Thus the definition of oviparity is narrower in the revised scheme, as it does not include the "ovuliparity" found in most fish ...
Oviparity or viviparity ? That is the question. Reproductive Biology 12: 259-264 Carrier, J.C.; Musick, J.A.; Heithaus, M.R., ... Ovo-viviparity can be thought of as a form of oviparity where the zygotes are retained in the female's body or in the male's ... and most amphibians Oviparity: internal fertilisation, where the female lays zygotes as eggs with important vitellus (typically ... has seen the disuse of ovoviviparity in favour of the more specific definitions of lecithotrophic and matrotrophic oviparity ...
Oviparity: Fertilization of eggs is internal; zygotes develop externally as eggs with large vitellus. Ovoviviparity: ...
Oviparity. Some species are oviparous, laying their fertilized eggs in the water. In most oviparous shark species, an egg case ... Sharks display three ways to bear their young, varying by species, oviparity, viviparity and ovoviviparity.[70][71] ...
Reproduction in R. swinhonis is through oviparity. Each clutch contains 6-15 eggs. R. swinhonis occurs throughout Taiwan at ...
Lizards in the genus Lialis exhibit oviparity. The following two species are recognized as being valid. Lialis burtonis Gray, ...
This is opposed to oviparity which is a reproductive mode in which females lay developing eggs that complete their development ... Fraipont, M.D.; Clobert, J.; Barbault, R. (1996). "The evolution of oviparity with egg guarding and viviparity in lizards and ... Pyron, R. A.; Burbrink, F. T. (2013). "Early origin of viviparity and multiple reversions to oviparity in squamate reptiles". ... Advanced ancestral state reconstruction was used to more accurately prove that the reverse evolution of viviparity to oviparity ...
Tompa, Alex S. (1979-08-01). "Oviparity, Egg Retention and Ovoviviparity in Pulmonates". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 45 (2): ...
Both oviparity and viviparity are found in Euselachii. Around 70% of sharks are viviparous, including some members of ...
Oviparity in sharks can be categorized as single or retained. With single oviparity, the egg cases are extruded soon after ... With retained oviparity, eggs are kept within the oviduct for a period of time before depositing outside of the body as an ... Oviparity is completely absent in the superorder Squalomorphii. Egg cases are made of collagen protein strands, and are often ... and that it evolved through the elongation of retention time of retained oviparity. Oviparous sharks are known to regularly ...
It exhibits oviparity and mates in April or May. It swims slowly, due to the fact that its only way to move is by moving its ...
Reproduction in R. floridana is by laying eggs (oviparity). This species, Rhineura floridana, is classified as Least Concern on ...
The Atlantic pygmy skate exhibits oviparity, laying its eggs in pairs. Young obtain their nutrients through yolk as embryos. ...
"Effects of Incubation Temperature on Crocodiles and the Evolution of Reptilian Oviparity". American Zoologist. 29 (3): 953-971 ...
List of Culex species Oviparity Vector Barr, A. Ralph (1957-01-01). "The Distribution of Culex P. Pipiens and C. P. ...
The carpenter's chimaera exhibits oviparity, with egg shells containing "horns" on them. Males mature at a body length (BDL) of ...
The most common reproductive strategy for fish is known as oviparity, in which the female lays undeveloped eggs that are ... The term is derived from the diminutive meaning "little egg". Oviparity is where fertilisation occurs internally and so the ... Oviparity is typical of birds, reptiles, some cartilaginous fish and most arthropods. Terrestrial organisms are typically ...
Robert K. Carr; Gary Jackson (2018). "A preliminary note of egg-case oviparity in a Devonian placoderm fish". Acta Geologica ...
Like all birds, fluttering shearwaters breed via a process known as true oviparity. With both sexes containing their own sexual ...
The species uniquely uses sustained single oviparity producing larger but fewer eggs than others. Ebert, D.A., Ali, A., Pek ...
... s display three ways to bear their young, varying by species, oviparity, viviparity and ovoviviparity. Most sharks are ...
The evolution of oviparity with egg guarding and viviparity in lizards and snakes: A phylogenetic analysis. Evolution 50:391- ... No populations of this skink exhibit normal scincid oviparity behavior with greater-than-30-day incubation periods, which could ... while low-elevation populations from northern and southern in New South Wales exhibit short-period oviparity, an intermediate ...
This species has a zygoparous form of oviparity, which occupies an intermediate position between oviparity and viviparity. ...
... whereas oviparity is the most extreme form of lecithotrophy. The rough earth snake is generally not aggressive towards humans, ...
Haacke is remembered for research of oviparity in monotremes, and studies involving the morphology of jellyfish and corals. In ...
It exhibits oviparity, and lays a large amount of eggs at a time, which are gelatin-like in consistency. The species's larvae ...
Single oviparity is considered to be the basal condition, while multiple oviparity and aplacental viviparity are thought to be ... In contrast, a few species such as G. atlanticus and G. melastomus exhibit multiple oviparity, in which several eggs can mature ... Among the oviparous species, most (e.g. G. murinus, G. nipponensis) exhibit single oviparity, in which only a single egg ...
... some species of lizard use viviparity to bear young as the cooler temperatures limit the success of oviparity. Currently the ...
Unlike most members of its genus, the blackmouth catshark exhibits multiple oviparity, in which more than one egg can mature ...
Oviparity, expulsion of undeveloped eggs rather than live young. The eggs may have been fertilized before release, as in birds ... Oviparity, expulsion of undeveloped eggs rather than live young. The eggs may have been fertilized before release, as in birds ... of the female parent (oviparity), or within, so that she delivers living young (viviparity). Combinations of yolk, albumen, ...
"Oviparity" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Oviparity" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Oviparity" by people in Profiles. ...
OVIPARITY (egg-laying). Skate, chimaera and some species of shark (including catsharks and horn sharks) produce eggs that are ... Reproduction takes many forms in sharks and rays, with the three main methods being oviparity, viviparity and ovoviviparity - ...
Oviparity. Some species are oviparous, laying their fertilized eggs in the water. In most oviparous shark species, an egg case ... Sharks display three ways to bear their young, varying by species, oviparity, viviparity and ovoviviparity.[70][71] ...
oviparity. (redirected from Oviparous reproduction). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia.. Related to Oviparous ... a href=https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Oviparous+reproduction,oviparity,/a,. *Facebook ...
Compare oviparity; ovoviviparity.. 2. (in botany) a. A form of asexual reproduction in certain plants, such as the onion, in ...
Two types of oviparity occur, extended oviparity and retained oviparity. Almost all oviparous species have extended oviparity ... 7.1.2 Oviparity. Oviparity occurs in all batoids of the family Rajidae and six families and over 100 species of sharks in the ... Retained oviparity occurs much more rarely and refers to species in which cased eggs are retained in the oviduct and ... One form of retained oviparity occurs in some scyliorhinid catsharks when multiple egg cases are retained within the oviduct ...
oviparity , n. -oviparous , adj. ovoviviparism the bearing of offspring by producing eggs that mature within the body, with the ...
oviparity , n. - oviparous , adj. ovoviviparism the bearing of offspring by producing eggs that mature within the body, with ...
Here, we used data from 20 (12 oviparous and 8 viviparous) species of snakes to see if the oviparity-viviparity transition ... We conclude that the oviparity-viviparity transition does not alter yolk partitioning in embryonic snakes. ... The oviparity-viviparity transition is a major evolutionary event, likely altering the reproductive process of the organisms ... Oviparity is an ancestral mode of reproduction from which viviparity evolved independently ([35, 36]; but see also [37]). ...
5.8 Oviparity (egg-laying) 144. 5.9 Ovoviviparity and viviparity 150. 5.10 Other modes of reproduction 150 ...
Oviparity is where fertilisation occurs internally and so the female sheds zygotes (or newly developing embryos) into the water ... Lodé, T. (2012). "Oviparity or viviparity? That is the question…". Reproductive Biology. 12 (3): 259-264. doi:10.1016/j.repbio. ... since the ovuliparity is a new term which may be confused with oviparity. If ovuliparity is used, most of the fishes have ... oviparity, ovo-viviparity, histotrophic viviparity and hemotrophic viviparity. Ovuliparity means the female lays unfertilised ...
Ovo-viviparity: or oviparity with retention of zygotes in either the females or in the males body, but there are no trophic ... Oviparity: fertilisation is internal, but the female lays zygotes as eggs with a substantial quantity of yolk to feed the ... Oviparity is found in birds. Among mammals, the monotremes (four species of Echidna, and the Platypus) are oviparous. ... Thus the definition of oviparity is narrower in the revised scheme, as it does not include the "ovuliparity" found in most fish ...
Study Unit 1: flashcards from Joshua Bunting
Natural gamete release and oviparity in Caribbean Demospongiae. Aspects of Sponge Biology, New York: 25-27.Google Scholar ...
oviparity, n. -oviparous, adj.ovoviviparismthe bearing of offspring by producing eggs that mature within the body, with the ...
single oviparity (english) A mode of egg-laying or oviparity in which female sharks produce encase eggs in pairs, which are not ...
Rajoid Egg-bearing elasmobranch Single oviparity Oviposition rate Chile This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ...
Viviparity (live-bearing) has evolved from oviparity (egg-laying) more than 100 times within snakes and lizards, and thermal ... The scarcity of retention to later stages (intermediate between typical oviparity and viviparity), and the apparent lack of ... Thus, although the transition from oviparity to viviparity in squamates has been driven largely by thermal advantages, the ... A number of anatomical and physiological changes must accompany the evolutionary transitions from oviparity to viviparity, ...
Study Devo Lecture 1 - terms flashcards from Braeden Beaumont
Oviparity. A mode of reproduction in which the embryo is laid in an egg case that is expelled via the cloaca and left to ...
Oviparity. Issue Date: Jun-2017. Publisher: Universidade de São Paulo. Citation: Phyllomedusa 16(1): 89-96 (2017). ...
P. manihoti reproduces by parthenogenetic oviparity. The life cycle consists of an egg and four instar stages with the fourth ...
Early origin of viviparity and multiple reversions to oviparity in squamate reptiles. ...
oviparity. the production of offspring via eggs.. oviparous. producing offspring through laying eggs which are incubated ...
Oviparity: Egg birth as opposed to live birth (viviparity).. Paleontology: The study of fossils. ...
Oviposition - Oviparity - Ovoviviparity - Viviparity. Category: Endocrine system. This article is licensed under the GNU Free ...
Oviposition - Oviparity - Ovoviviparity - Viviparity. Categories: Embryology , Pregnancy. This article is licensed under the ...
So why the transition from oviparity (egg laying) to viviparity (live birth)? ...
  • Reproduction takes many forms in sharks and rays, with the three main methods being oviparity, viviparity and ovoviviparity - although there are still variations within each. (sharktrust.org)
  • 1996). Elasmobranch reproductive strategies include oviparity, aplacental viviparity and placental viviparity (Wourms, 1977). (fao.org)
  • Does the oviparity-viviparity transition alter the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes? (biomedcentral.com)
  • The oviparity-viviparity transition is a major evolutionary event, likely altering the reproductive process of the organisms involved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we used data from 20 (12 oviparous and 8 viviparous) species of snakes to see if the oviparity-viviparity transition alters the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Traditionally this variety was classified into three modes, oviparity (embryos in eggs), viviparity (young born live), and ovoviviparity (intermediate between the first two). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ovoviviparity, traditionally covering mechanisms which span the modes of oviparity and viviparity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ovo-viviparity: or oviparity with retention of zygotes in either the female's or in the male's body, but there are no trophic interactions between zygote and parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oviparity or viviparity? (wikipedia.org)
  • So why the transition from oviparity (egg laying) to viviparity (live birth)? (syfy.com)
  • The three different kinds of shark egg development are viviparity, oviparity and aplacental viviparity. (reference.com)
  • 3 Viviparity means to give live birth as opposed to hatching from an egg (i.e., oviparity). (icr.org)
  • Cornetti, Luca;Griffith, Oliver W;Benazzo, Andrea;Panziera, Alex;Whittington, Camilla M;Thompson, Michael B;Vernesi, Cristiano;Bertorelle, Giorgio 2017-10-19 00:00:00 Abstract Viviparity has evolved from oviparity at least 150 independent times in vertebrates. (deepdyve.com)
  • evolutionary genomics, gene-phenotype association, oviparity, population genetics, reproductive strategies, viviparity INTRODUCTION Reproductive mode fundamentally affects life-history patterns of living organisms, and it is associated with the evolution of a complex assortment of morphological structures and physiological functions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Among vertebrates, the two main types of reproductive mode are oviparity (mothers lay eggs) and viviparity (embryos develop inside the body of the parent, which then gives birth to live offspring). (deepdyve.com)
  • 2005). By comparing specific traits, genes and genomes between closely related viviparous and oviparous taxa, it is possible to identify the mechanisms that underlie the evolutionary transition from oviparity to viviparity (Murphy & Thompson, 2011). (deepdyve.com)
  • 2006). These species provide ideal models for studying morphological and physiological modifications as well as the genetic processes underlying the transition from oviparity to viviparity. (deepdyve.com)
  • New and exciting data is presented including the idea that yolk sac viviparity is the plesiomorphic state rather than oviparity. (routledge.com)
  • The reproductive mode is a zygoparous form of oviparity, intermediate between oviparity and viviparity (Ref. 36265 , 79712 ). (fishbase.org)
  • Insect reproduction varies from oviparity (egg production) to viviparity (birth of live young). (uc.edu)
  • However, their phylogenetic work led them to argue that these lizards cannot switch from viviparity back to oviparity: there are a few places in squamate phylogeny where such a transition might have occurred, but general thinking is that it's essentially irreversible (Lee & Shine 1998). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Egg retention (ER) and intrauterine embryonic development (IED) have been considered intermediate steps in the evolution from oviparity to viviparity. (scielo.org.mx)
  • reproductive mode, oviparity viviparity evolution, environmental factors. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Almost all oviparous species have extended oviparity in which large egg cases are fertilized , enclosed in an egg case, deposited and hatch after a period of up to 15 months. (fao.org)
  • Oviparous, but with several egg-capsules retained in the oviduct until the embryos reach an advanced stage before they are laid which might be regarded as being intermediate between oviparity and ovoviviparity. (fishbase.org)
  • Reproductive strategy lies midway between oviparity and ovoviviparity. (fishbase.org)
  • Currently, very little is known about the morphology of P. cooperi larvae (San Mauro 2014), but they are assumed to have their ancestral reproductive mode of oviparity with free-living larvae (Nussbaum 1984, Nussbaum and Gerlach 2004, Parker 1941, Parker 1958). (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Oviparity , expulsion of undeveloped eggs rather than live young. (britannica.com)
  • Retained oviparity occurs much more rarely and refers to species in which cased eggs are retained in the oviduct and development proceeds for a longer period before the eggs are released into the sea. (fao.org)
  • The three traditional modes of reproduction are: Oviparity, taken to be the ancestral condition, is traditionally where either unfertilised oocytes or fertilised eggs are spawned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oviparity: fertilisation is internal, but the female lays zygotes as eggs with a substantial quantity of yolk to feed the embryo while it remains in the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • (english) A mode of egg-laying or oviparity in which female sharks produce encase eggs in pairs, which are not retained in the oviducts and are deposited on the bottom. (fishbase.org)
  • Sharks who give birth through oviparity release eggs in the ocean that will hatch at a later time. (reference.com)
  • The most common reproductive strategy for fish is known as oviparity , in which the female lays undeveloped eggs that are externally fertilized by a male. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reproductive strategy possibly similar to other members of this family featuring oviparity, with oval pelagic eggs floating in a gelatinous mass (Ref. 205 ). (fishbase.org)
  • Different forms of birth are oviparity, vivipary and ovovivipary. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Oviparity-An egg case with yolk sac inside for nourishment is laid by the female on the sea floor or on rocks. (nautilusproductions.com)
  • Avian species are optimal vertebrates in which to examine germ cell development during embryogenesis , because of their oviparity. (omicsonline.org)
  • A more interesting approach (maybe I should try it) would be a scenario where our own super-brained species has to watch ourselves go slowly extinct because some environmental change suddenly throws the advantage back over to oviparity. (cmnh.org)
  • The evolution of oviparity in squamate reptiles: An adaptationist perspective. (semanticscholar.org)
  • En reptiles, este tipo de estudios son escasos, quizá como consecuencia del poco conocimiento sobre la demografía, la historia natural y, en algunos casos, la distribución de sus poblaciones. (snib.mx)
  • Palmer, B. D. & Guillette, L. J. Jr. Alligators provide evidence for the evolution of an archosaurian mode of oviparity. (nature.com)
  • This fertilization occurs externally, and it is termed 'oviparity' in the biological world. (inlandaquatics.com)
  • Thus the definition of oviparity is narrower in the revised scheme, as it does not include the "ovuliparity" found in most fish, most frogs and many invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • H. pictus has extended single oviparity, depositing one egg case at a time (von Bonde 1945a, Bass et al . (iucnredlist.org)
  • Oviparity - the female lays an egg from which young eventually hatch. (teara.govt.nz)
  • But the main restriction to amassing the incredible number of neurons required to handle the complex manipulation of symbols for language, for example, is oviparity. (cmnh.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Oviparity" by people in this website by year, and whether "Oviparity" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Two types of oviparity occur, extended oviparity and retained oviparity. (fao.org)
  • 綿羊的 ovipara n. 卵生動物 oviparity n. 卵生 oviparous n. 卵生的, 產卵的 oviphagous n. 食卵的 oviposit vi. (eng.tw)