The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.
Pathological processes of the OVARY.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTES
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Hormones produced in the testis.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (1/8699)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (2/8699)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Utero-ovarian interaction in the regulation of reproductive function. (3/8699)

The physiological regulation of fertile reproductive cycle in mammals depends on interactions between hypothalamus-pituitary, ovarian and uterine stimuli. Over the past 20 years, much has been learned about the interrelation between the affluent and effluent lymph and vascular drainage in and around both ovarian and uterine tissues. An essential feature in the regulation of the fertile cycle is the functional status of the ovary, particularly the corpus luteum. During the time of implantation and the early pregnancy, an active corpus luteum is essential. As human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is important in the maintenance of the corpus luteum, we investigated if it was produced by the cyclic endometrium. Immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization reactions were performed but neither identified the presence of HCG during the proliferative phase. Positive staining and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-HCG) mRNA were observed during the secretory phase in the glandular cells of the endometrium. The results were confirmed by Western blotting of secretory phase endometrium extracts and assessment of the functional secretory capacity of primary endometrial cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigations showed a positive result in the secretory phase. We postulate that, based on the very close morphological interrelation between the uterus and the ovary, the beta-HCG of the endometrium is the primary factor for the maintenance of the corpus luteum and early pregnancy.  (+info)

Uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle: effects of oestrogen, antioestrogen and oxytocin. (4/8699)

Uterine peristalsis, directing sustained and rapid sperm transport from the external cervical os or the cervical crypts to the isthmic part of the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, changes in direction and frequency during the menstrual cycle, with lowest activity during menstruation and highest activity at mid cycle. It was therefore suggested that uterine peristalsis is under the control of the dominant follicle with the additional involvement of oxytocin. To test this hypothesis, vaginal sonography of uterine peristalsis was performed in the early, mid and late proliferative phases, respectively, of cycles of women treated with oestradiol valerate and with human menopausal gonadotrophin following pituitary downregulation, with clomiphene citrate and with intravenous oxytocin, respectively. Administration of oestradiol valerate resulted in oestradiol serum concentrations comparable with the normal cycle with a simulation of the normal frequency of peristaltic contractions. Elevated oestradiol concentrations and bolus injections of oxytocin resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of peristaltic contractions in the early and mid follicular phases, respectively. Chlomiphene tended, though insignificantly so, to suppress the frequency of peristaltic waves in the presence of elevated oestradiol concentrations. In the late follicular phase of the cycle extremely elevated oestradiol concentrations as well as the injection of oxytocin resulted only in an insignificant further increase of peristaltic frequency. In the normal cycles, as well as during extremely elevated oestradiol concentrations and following oxytocin administration, the peristaltic contractions were always confined to the subendometrial layer of the muscular wall. The results and the review of literature indicate that uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is controlled by oestradiol released from the dominant follicle with the probable involvement of oxytocin, which is presumably stimulated together with its receptor within the endometrial-subendometrial unit and therefore acting in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. Since unphysiological stimulation with oestradiol and oxytocin did not significantly increase the frequency of uterine peristalsis in the late follicular phase of the cycle it is assumed that normal preovulatory frequency of uterine peristalsis is at a level which cannot be significantly surpassed due to phenomena of refractoriness of the system.  (+info)

Sonographic evidence for the involvement of the utero-ovarian counter-current system in the ovarian control of directed uterine sperm transport. (5/8699)

Sperm transport from the cervix into the tube is an important uterine function within the process of reproduction. This function is exerted by uterine peristalsis and is controlled by the dominant ovarian structure via a cascade of endocrine events. The uterine peristaltic activity involves only the stratum subvasculare of the myometrium, which exhibits a predominantly circular arrangement of muscular fibres that separate at the fundal level into the fibres of the cornua and continue into the circular muscles of the respective tubes. Since spermatozoa are transported preferentially into the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, this asymmetric uterine function may be controlled by the ovary via direct effects utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system, in addition to the systemic circulation. To test this possibility the sonographic characteristics of the uterine vascular bed were studied during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Vaginal sonography with the measurement of Doppler flow characteristics of both uterine arteries and of the arterial anastomoses of the uterine and ovarian arteries (junctional vessels) in the cornual region of both sides of the uterus during the menstrual phase of regular-cycling women demonstrated significant lower resistance indices of the junctional vessels ipsilateral to the side of the dominant ovarian structure as compared with the corresponding arteries contralaterally. By the use of the perfusion mode technique, it could be observed that vascular perfusion of the fundal myometrium was significantly increased ipsilateral to the dominant follicle during the late follicular phase of the cycle. These results show that the endocrine control of the dominant ovarian structure over uterine function is not only exerted via the systemic circulation but also directly, most probably utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system.  (+info)

Endometriotic disease: the role of peritoneal fluid. (6/8699)

Peritoneal fluid and the intraovarian milieu are a specific microenvironment. Peritoneal fluid originates mainly as an ovarian exudation product caused by increased vascular permeability, with cyclic variation in volume and steroid hormones which are always higher than in plasma. It contains large amounts of macrophages and their secretion products, and has a large exchange area with plasma through the peritoneum, which is highly permeable for small molecules. Diffusion becomes virtually zero for molecules with a molecular weight of >100000 Da. In women with the luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome, concentrations of oestrogens and progesterone are much lower in the luteal phase. Endometriosis is associated with sterile low-grade inflammation, increased concentrations of activated macrophages and many of their secretions, such as cytokines, growth factors and angiogenic factors. Concentrations of CA-125 and of glycodelins are also increased, secreted locally by the endometrial cells. Natural killer (NK) cell function declines, possibly mediated by glycodelins or local intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) -1 shedding. The ovary is also a specific microenvironment, with steroid hormone concentrations 1000-fold higher in follicles than in plasma. Endometrial and superficially implanted cells are influenced by peritoneal fluid concentrations so that local environment, rather than inherent cellular differences could explain differences between superficial endometriosis and eutopic endometrium. Differences between superficial implants and endometriotic disease, deep infiltrating or cystic ovarian endometriosis, may thus arise via different endocrine environments. Superficial endometrial implants are regulated by peritoneal fluid factors, whereas deep endometriosis and cystic ovarian endometriosis are influenced by blood or ovarian factors. The endometriotic disease theory considers superficial endometriotic implants and their remodelling as a physiological process in most women, and concentrates on the causes of severe endometriosis such as differences in the eutopic endometrium from women with and without endometriosis (which may indicate hereditary differences), the invasiveness of some endometriotic cells in vitro, focal 'shielding' of endometriotic foci by adhesions, and inhibition of NK activity by ICAM-1 and glycodelins. Endometriotic disease is thus seen as a benign tumour. The type of cellular lesion, hereditary and immunological environments and local hormone concentrations in the ovary and in peritoneal fluid, will decide expression as cystic ovarian endometriosis, deep endometriosis or adenomyosis externa, and whether the latter is associated with adhesions.  (+info)

Leptin and reproduction. (7/8699)

In the few years since leptin was identified as a satiety factor in rodents, it has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes. Leptin has been shown to promote sexual maturation in rodent species and a role in reproduction has been investigated at various sites within the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. This review considers the evidence that leptin (or alteration in amount of body fat) can affect reproduction. There is evidence that leptin plays a permissive role in the onset of puberty, probably through action on the hypothalamus, where leptin receptors are found in cells that express appetite-regulating peptides. There is little evidence that leptin has a positive effect on the pituitary gonadotrophs and the gonads. There is also very little indication that leptin acts in an acute manner to regulate reproduction in the short term. It seems more likely that leptin is a 'barometer' of body condition that sends signals to the brain. Studies in vitro have shown negative effects on ovarian steroid production and there are no reports of effects on testicular function. Leptin concentrations in plasma increase in women during pregnancy, owing to production by the placenta but the functional significance of this is unknown. A number of factors that affect the production and action of leptin have yet to be studied in detail.  (+info)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (8/8699)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperandrogenism (excess male hormones), ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The Rotterdam criteria are commonly used for diagnosis, which require at least two of the following three features:

1. Oligo- or anovulation (irregular menstrual cycles)
2. Clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (e.g., hirsutism, acne, or high levels of androgens in the blood)
3. Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination (presence of 12 or more follicles measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, or increased ovarian volume >10 mL)

The exact cause of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Insulin resistance and obesity are common findings in women with PCOS, which can contribute to the development of metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.

Management of PCOS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss), medications to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce hyperandrogenism (e.g., oral contraceptives, metformin, anti-androgens), and fertility treatments if desired. Regular monitoring of metabolic parameters and long-term follow-up are essential for optimal management and prevention of complications.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

CHO cells, or Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, are a type of immortalized cell line that are commonly used in scientific research and biotechnology. They were originally derived from the ovaries of a female Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) in the 1950s.

CHO cells have several characteristics that make them useful for laboratory experiments. They can grow and divide indefinitely under appropriate conditions, which allows researchers to culture large quantities of them for study. Additionally, CHO cells are capable of expressing high levels of recombinant proteins, making them a popular choice for the production of therapeutic drugs, vaccines, and other biologics.

In particular, CHO cells have become a workhorse in the field of biotherapeutics, with many approved monoclonal antibody-based therapies being produced using these cells. The ability to genetically modify CHO cells through various methods has further expanded their utility in research and industrial applications.

It is important to note that while CHO cells are widely used in scientific research, they may not always accurately represent human cell behavior or respond to drugs and other compounds in the same way as human cells do. Therefore, results obtained using CHO cells should be validated in more relevant systems when possible.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

"Cricetulus" is a genus of rodents that includes several species of hamsters. These small, burrowing animals are native to Asia and have a body length of about 8-15 centimeters, with a tail that is usually shorter than the body. They are characterized by their large cheek pouches, which they use to store food. Some common species in this genus include the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) and the Daurian hamster (Cricetulus dauuricus). These animals are often kept as pets or used in laboratory research.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Granulosa cells are specialized cells that surround and enclose the developing egg cells (oocytes) in the ovaries. They play a crucial role in the growth, development, and maturation of the follicles (the fluid-filled sacs containing the oocytes) by providing essential nutrients and hormones.

Granulosa cells are responsible for producing estrogen, which supports the development of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle in preparation for a potential pregnancy. They also produce inhibin and activin, two hormones that regulate the function of the pituitary gland and its secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

These cells are critical for female reproductive health and fertility. Abnormalities in granulosa cell function can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and infertility.

Hyperandrogenism is a medical condition characterized by excessive levels of androgens (male sex hormones) in the body. This can lead to various symptoms such as hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility in women. It can be caused by conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and tumors in the ovaries or adrenal glands. Proper diagnosis and management of hyperandrogenism is important to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

Ovarian diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the function and health of the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs (oocytes) and female hormones estrogen and progesterone. These diseases can be categorized into functional disorders, infectious and inflammatory diseases, neoplastic diseases, and other conditions that impact ovarian function. Here's a brief overview of some common ovarian diseases:

1. Functional Disorders: These are conditions where the ovaries experience hormonal imbalances or abnormal functioning, leading to issues such as:
* Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A condition characterized by hormonal imbalances that can cause irregular periods, cysts in the ovaries, and symptoms like acne, weight gain, and infertility.
* Functional Cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop within the ovary, usually as a result of normal ovulation (follicular or corpus luteum cysts). They're typically harmless and resolve on their own within a few weeks or months.
2. Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases: These conditions are caused by infections or inflammation affecting the ovaries, such as:
* Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): An infection that spreads to the reproductive organs, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus. It's often caused by sexually transmitted bacteria like Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
* Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that can spread to the ovaries and cause inflammation, abscesses, or scarring.
3. Neoplastic Diseases: These are conditions where abnormal growths or tumors develop in the ovaries, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Examples include:
* Ovarian Cysts: While some cysts are functional and harmless, others can be neoplastic. Benign tumors like fibromas, dermoids, or cystadenomas can grow significantly larger and cause symptoms like pain or bloating. Malignant tumors include epithelial ovarian cancer, germ cell tumors, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
4. Other Conditions: Various other conditions can affect the ovaries, such as:
* Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with small cysts. It's associated with irregular periods, infertility, and increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
* Premature Ovarian Failure (POF): Also known as primary ovarian insufficiency, it occurs when the ovaries stop functioning before age 40, leading to menstrual irregularities, infertility, and early onset of menopause.

It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience any symptoms related to your reproductive system or suspect an issue with your ovaries. Early detection and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis for many conditions affecting the ovaries.

Follicular atresia is a physiological process that occurs in the ovary, where follicles (fluid-filled sacs containing immature eggs or oocytes) undergo degeneration and disappearance. This process begins after the primordial follicle stage and continues throughout a woman's reproductive years. At birth, a female has approximately 1 to 2 million primordial follicles, but only about 400 of these will mature and release an egg during her lifetime. The rest undergo atresia, which is a natural process that helps regulate the number of available eggs and maintain hormonal balance within the body.

The exact mechanisms that trigger follicular atresia are not fully understood, but it is believed to be influenced by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, oxidative stress, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). In some cases, accelerated or excessive follicular atresia can lead to infertility or early menopause.

Oogenesis is the biological process of formation and maturation of female gametes, or ova or egg cells, in the ovary. It begins during fetal development and continues throughout a woman's reproductive years. The process involves the division and differentiation of a germ cell (oogonium) into an immature ovum (oocyte), which then undergoes meiotic division to form a mature ovum capable of being fertilized by sperm.

The main steps in oogenesis include:

1. Multiplication phase: The oogonia divide mitotically to increase their number.
2. Growth phase: One of the oogonia becomes primary oocyte and starts to grow, accumulating nutrients and organelles required for future development.
3. First meiotic division: The primary oocyte undergoes an incomplete first meiotic division, resulting in two haploid cells - a secondary oocyte and a smaller cell called the first polar body. This division is arrested in prophase I until puberty.
4. Second meiotic division: At ovulation or just before fertilization, the secondary oocyte completes the second meiotic division, producing another small cell, the second polar body, and a mature ovum (egg) with 23 chromosomes.
5. Fertilization: The mature ovum can be fertilized by a sperm, restoring the normal diploid number of chromosomes in the resulting zygote.

Oogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process that involves various hormonal signals and cellular interactions to ensure proper development and maturation of female gametes for successful reproduction.

Theca cells are specialized cells that are part of the follicle where the egg matures in the ovary. They are located in the outer layer of the follicle and play an important role in producing hormones necessary for the growth and development of the follicle and the egg within it. Specifically, they produce androgens, such as testosterone, which are then converted into estrogens by another type of cells in the follicle called granulosa cells. These hormones help to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a possible pregnancy. In some cases, theca cells can become overactive and produce too much testosterone, leading to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ovary, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various cell types within the ovary, including epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian neoplasms are often classified based on their cell type of origin, histological features, and potential for invasive or metastatic behavior.

Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are the most common type and can be further categorized into several subtypes, such as serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and Brenner tumors. Some of these epithelial tumors have a higher risk of becoming malignant and spreading to other parts of the body.

Germ cell ovarian neoplasms arise from the cells that give rise to eggs (oocytes) and can include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Stromal ovarian neoplasms develop from the connective tissue cells supporting the ovary and can include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas.

It is essential to diagnose and treat ovarian neoplasms promptly, as some malignant forms can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if not managed appropriately. Regular gynecological exams, imaging studies, and tumor marker tests are often used for early detection and monitoring of ovarian neoplasms. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the type, stage, and patient's overall health condition.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Equine Gonadotropins are glycoprotein hormones derived from the pituitary gland of horses. They consist of two subunits: a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit that determines the biological activity of each hormone. There are two main types of equine gonadotropins: Equine Follicle Stimulating Hormone (eFSH) and Equine Luteinizing Hormone (eLH).

eFSH plays a crucial role in the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females, while eLH stimulates ovulation and the production of sex steroids in both males and females. These hormones are often used in veterinary medicine to induce ovulation and improve fertility in horses, as well as in research to study the physiology and biochemistry of gonadotropins and reproduction. It's important to note that equine gonadotropins have limited application in human reproductive medicine due to potential immunogenic reactions and other safety concerns.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

An ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with fluid that forms on the ovary. Ovarian cysts are quite common in women during their childbearing years, and they often cause no symptoms. In most cases, ovarian cysts disappear without treatment over a few months. However, larger or persistent cysts may require medical intervention, including surgical removal.

There are various types of ovarian cysts, such as functional cysts (follicular and corpus luteum cysts), which develop during the menstrual cycle due to hormonal changes, and non-functional cysts (dermoid cysts, endometriomas, and cystadenomas), which can form due to different causes.

While many ovarian cysts are benign, some may have malignant potential or indicate an underlying medical condition like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Regular gynecological check-ups, including pelvic examinations and ultrasounds, can help detect and monitor ovarian cysts.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Anovulation is a medical condition in which there is a failure to ovulate, or release a mature egg from the ovaries, during a menstrual cycle. This can occur due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, excessive exercise, stress, low body weight, or certain medications. Anovulation is common in women with irregular menstrual cycles and can cause infertility if left untreated. In some cases, anovulation may be treated with medication to stimulate ovulation.

The estrous cycle is the reproductive cycle in certain mammals, characterized by regular changes in the reproductive tract and behavior, which are regulated by hormonal fluctuations. It is most commonly observed in non-primate mammals such as dogs, cats, cows, pigs, and horses.

The estrous cycle consists of several stages:

1. Proestrus: This stage lasts for a few days and is characterized by the development of follicles in the ovaries and an increase in estrogen levels. During this time, the female may show signs of sexual receptivity, but will not allow mating to occur.
2. Estrus: This is the period of sexual receptivity, during which the female allows mating to take place. It typically lasts for a few days and is marked by a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which triggers ovulation.
3. Metestrus: This stage follows ovulation and is characterized by the formation of a corpus luteum, a structure that produces progesterone to support pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will eventually regress, leading to the next phase.
4. Diestrus: This is the final stage of the estrous cycle and can last for several weeks or months. During this time, the female's reproductive tract returns to its resting state, and she is not sexually receptive. If pregnancy has occurred, the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over this function later in pregnancy.

It's important to note that the human menstrual cycle is different from the estrous cycle. While both cycles involve hormonal fluctuations and changes in the reproductive tract, the menstrual cycle includes a shedding of the uterine lining (menstruation) if fertilization does not occur, which is not a feature of the estrous cycle.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Oligomenorrhea is a medical term used to describe infrequent menstrual periods, where the cycle length is more than 35 days but less than 68 days. It's considered a menstrual disorder and can affect people of reproductive age. The causes of oligomenorrhea are varied, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, excessive exercise, significant weight loss or gain, and stress. In some cases, it may not cause any other symptoms, but in others, it can be associated with infertility, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, or obesity. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle modifications, hormonal medications, or surgery in rare cases.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Androstenedione is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. It is a precursor to both male and female sex hormones, including testosterone and estrogen. In the adrenal glands, it is produced from cholesterol through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes. Androstenedione can also be converted into other steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrone.

In the body, androstenedione plays an important role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a deep voice in men, and breast development and menstrual cycles in women. It also contributes to bone density, muscle mass, and overall physical strength.

Androstenedione is available as a dietary supplement and has been marketed as a way to boost athletic performance and increase muscle mass. However, its effectiveness for these purposes is not supported by scientific evidence, and it may have harmful side effects when taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Additionally, the use of androstenedione as a dietary supplement is banned by many sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

A Granulosa Cell Tumor is a type of sex cord-stromal tumor, which are uncommon neoplasms that arise from the supporting cells of the ovary or testis. These tumors account for approximately 5% of all ovarian tumors and can occur at any age, but they are most commonly found in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

Granulosa cell tumors originate from the granulosa cells, which are normally responsible for producing estrogen and supporting the development of the egg within the ovarian follicle. These tumors can be functional, meaning they produce hormones, or nonfunctional. Functional granulosa cell tumors often secrete estrogen, leading to symptoms such as irregular menstrual periods, postmenopausal bleeding, and, in rare cases, the development of male characteristics (virilization) due to androgen production.

Granulosa cell tumors are typically slow-growing and can vary in size. They are often diagnosed at an early stage because they cause symptoms related to hormonal imbalances or, less commonly, due to abdominal pain or distention caused by the growing mass. The diagnosis is usually confirmed through imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI) and a biopsy or surgical removal of the tumor, followed by histopathological examination.

Treatment for granulosa cell tumors typically involves surgery to remove the tumor and, in some cases, adjacent organs if there is evidence of spread. The role of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is less clear, but they may be used in certain situations, such as advanced-stage disease or high-risk features. Regular follow-up with imaging studies and tumor marker measurements (such as inhibin) is essential due to the risk of recurrence, even many years after initial treatment.

Sexual maturation is the process of physical development during puberty that leads to the ability to reproduce. This process involves the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics, changes in hormone levels, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. In females, this includes the onset of menstruation and the development of breasts and hips. In males, this includes the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the production of sperm. Achieving sexual maturation is an important milestone in human development and typically occurs during adolescence.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

The follicular phase is a term used in reproductive endocrinology, which refers to the first part of the menstrual cycle. This phase begins on the first day of menstruation and lasts until ovulation. During this phase, several follicles in the ovaries begin to mature under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the pituitary gland.

Typically, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to mature, while the others regress. The dominant follicle produces increasing amounts of estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a possible pregnancy. The follicular phase can vary in length, but on average it lasts about 14 days.

It's important to note that the length and characteristics of the follicular phase can provide valuable information in diagnosing various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid dysfunction.

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein hormone that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family. It is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovaries of females. AMH plays an essential role in female reproductive physiology, as it inhibits the recruitment and further development of primordial follicles, thereby regulating the size of the primordial follicle pool and the onset of puberty.

AMH levels are often used as a biomarker for ovarian reserve assessment in women. High AMH levels indicate a larger ovarian reserve, while low levels suggest a decreased reserve, which may be associated with reduced fertility or an earlier onset of menopause. Additionally, measuring AMH levels can help predict the response to ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Follicular fluid is the fluid that accumulates within the follicle (a small sac or cyst) in the ovary where an egg matures. This fluid contains various chemicals, hormones, and proteins that support the growth and development of the egg cell. It also contains metabolic waste products and other substances from the granulosa cells (the cells that surround the egg cell within the follicle). Follicular fluid is often analyzed in fertility treatments and studies as it can provide valuable information about the health and viability of the egg cell.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Oogonia are the diploid stem cells that are present in the ovary and give rise to oocytes (haploid cells) through the process of mitosis. These oocytes have the potential to develop into mature eggs or ova during female fetal development and after birth, which is a unique characteristic of human female reproduction. The oogonia are enclosed within primordial follicles that protect and nourish them as they develop into oocytes.

It's worth noting that in contrast to males, who continue to produce sperm throughout their reproductive lives, females are born with a finite number of oocytes already present in their ovaries, which is typically around 1-2 million at birth. Over time, this number decreases due to natural attrition and ovulation, leaving only about 400,000 oocytes by puberty, and declining further with age until menopause when the supply of oocytes is depleted.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Clomiphene is a medication that is primarily used to treat infertility in women. It is an ovulatory stimulant, which means that it works by stimulating the development and release of mature eggs from the ovaries (a process known as ovulation). Clomiphene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), which means that it binds to estrogen receptors in the body and blocks the effects of estrogen in certain tissues, while enhancing the effects of estrogen in others.

In the ovary, clomiphene works by blocking the negative feedback effect of estrogen on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which results in an increase in the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These hormones stimulate the growth and development of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. As the follicles grow and mature, they produce increasing amounts of estrogen, which eventually triggers a surge in LH that leads to ovulation.

Clomiphene is typically taken orally for 5 days, starting on the 3rd, 4th, or 5th day of the menstrual cycle. The dosage may be adjusted based on the patient's response to treatment. Common side effects of clomiphene include hot flashes, mood changes, breast tenderness, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which is a potentially serious complication characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.

It's important to note that clomiphene may not be suitable for everyone, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider. Women with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, thyroid disorders, or uterine fibroids, may not be able to take clomiphene. Additionally, women who become pregnant while taking clomiphene have an increased risk of multiple pregnancies (e.g., twins or triplets), which can pose additional risks to both the mother and the fetuses.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of specific cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the endocrine system, particularly in the regulation of reproduction and development.

FSH receptors are primarily located on the granulosa cells that surround and support the developing eggs (oocytes) within the ovarian follicles in females. In males, these receptors can be found on the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.

When FSH, a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, binds to its specific receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to various physiological responses. In females, FSH receptor activation stimulates follicle growth, estrogen production, and oocyte maturation. In males, FSH receptor signaling supports spermatogenesis, the process of sperm cell development within the testes.

In summary, FSH receptors are essential components in the hormonal regulation of reproduction and development, mediating the actions of follicle-stimulating hormone on target cells in both females and males.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Metformin is a type of biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used primarily in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It works by decreasing glucose production in the liver, reducing glucose absorption in the gut, and increasing insulin sensitivity in muscle and fat tissue. By lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose levels, metformin helps to control blood sugar levels and improve glycemic control. It is also used off-label for various other indications such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes. Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious side effect that requires immediate medical attention.

Aromatase is a enzyme that belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, and it is responsible for converting androgens into estrogens through a process called aromatization. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway, particularly in females where it is primarily expressed in adipose tissue, ovaries, brain, and breast tissue.

Aromatase inhibitors are used as a treatment for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women, as they work by blocking the activity of aromatase and reducing the levels of circulating estrogens in the body.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Inhibins are a group of protein hormones that play a crucial role in regulating the function of the reproductive system, specifically by inhibiting the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland. They are produced and secreted primarily by the granulosa cells in the ovaries of females and Sertoli cells in the testes of males.

Inhibins consist of two subunits, an alpha subunit, and a beta subunit, which can be further divided into two types: inhibin A and inhibin B. Inhibin A is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovary, while inhibin B is mainly produced by the Sertoli cells in the testes.

By regulating FSH production, inhibins help control the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males. Abnormal levels of inhibins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and certain types of cancer.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Vitellogenesis is the process of producing and accumulating yolk proteins in the oocytes (immature ovum or egg cell) of females in preparation for fertilization and embryonic development. This process is primarily seen in oviparous animals, such as birds, fish, and insects, where the yolk serves as a source of nutrients for the developing embryo.

The yolk proteins are synthesized mainly in the liver under the control of estrogen hormones and are then transported to the oocytes through the bloodstream. Once inside the oocytes, these proteins are taken up by a process called pinocytosis, where they are enclosed in vesicles and fuse with lysosomes to form yolk granules. The accumulation of these yolk granules provides the developing embryo with essential nutrients such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins.

In addition to its role in reproduction, vitellogenesis has been used as a biomarker for environmental estrogen exposure in non-target organisms, as the production of yolk proteins can be induced by estrogenic compounds found in pollutants such as pesticides and industrial chemicals.

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), also known as Premature Ovarian Failure, is a condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in decreased estrogen production and loss of fertility. It is often associated with menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation). The exact cause can vary, including genetic factors, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and iatrogenic causes such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Gonads are the reproductive organs that produce gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones. In males, the gonads are the testes, which produce sperm and testosterone. In females, the gonads are the ovaries, which produce eggs and estrogen and progesterone. The development, function, and regulation of the gonads are crucial for reproductive health and fertility.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

An ovum is the female reproductive cell, or gamete, produced in the ovaries. It is also known as an egg cell and is released from the ovary during ovulation. When fertilized by a sperm, it becomes a zygote, which can develop into a fetus. The ovum contains half the genetic material necessary to create a new individual.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Testicular hormones, also known as androgens, are a type of sex hormone primarily produced in the testes of males. The most important and well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a crucial role in the development of male reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Testosterone is responsible for the growth and maintenance of male sex organs, such as the testes and prostate, and it also promotes the development of secondary sexual characteristics like facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass.

Testicular hormones are produced and regulated by a feedback system involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain. The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone, while FSH works together with testosterone to promote sperm production.

In addition to their role in male sexual development and function, testicular hormones also have important effects on other bodily functions, such as bone density, muscle mass, red blood cell production, mood, and cognitive function.

Female fertility agents are medications or treatments that are used to enhance or restore female fertility. They can work in various ways such as stimulating ovulation, improving the quality of eggs, facilitating the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus, or addressing issues related to the reproductive system.

Some examples of female fertility agents include:

1. Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene): This medication stimulates ovulation by causing the pituitary gland to release more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
2. Gonadotropins: These are hormonal medications that contain FSH and LH, which stimulate the ovaries to produce mature eggs. Examples include human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
3. Letrozole (Femara): This medication is an aromatase inhibitor that can be used off-label to stimulate ovulation in women who do not respond to clomiphene citrate.
4. Metformin (Glucophage): This medication is primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes, but it can also improve fertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by regulating insulin levels and promoting ovulation.
5. Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This medication is used to treat infertility caused by hyperprolactinemia, a condition characterized by high levels of prolactin in the blood.
6. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): These include procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). They involve manipulating eggs and sperm outside the body to facilitate fertilization and implantation.

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider or reproductive endocrinologist to determine the most appropriate fertility agent for individual needs, as these medications can have side effects and potential risks.

Cyclohexenes are organic compounds that consist of a six-carbon ring (cyclohexane) with one double bond. The general chemical formula for cyclohexene is C6H10. The double bond can introduce various chemical properties and reactions to the compound, such as electrophilic addition reactions.

Cyclohexenes are used in the synthesis of other organic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials. Some cyclohexene derivatives also occur naturally, for example, in essential oils and certain plant extracts. However, it is important to note that pure cyclohexene has a mild odor and is considered a hazardous substance, with potential health effects such as skin and eye irritation, respiratory issues, and potential long-term effects upon repeated exposure.

Luteal cells, also known as granulosa-lutein cells, are specialized cells found in the ovary that play a crucial role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are formed from the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle after ovulation, during which the follicle ruptures and releases the egg (oocyte). The remaining cells then transform into luteal cells, forming a structure called the corpus luteum.

The primary function of luteal cells is to produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen, two hormones that are essential for preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining early pregnancy. Progesterone stimulates the growth of blood vessels in the endometrium (the lining of the uterus), making it thicker and more receptive to the implantation of a fertilized egg. It also suppresses further development of ovarian follicles, preventing the release of additional eggs during pregnancy.

If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate, and the levels of progesterone and estrogen will decrease, leading to menstruation. However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo will produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which stimulates the luteal cells to continue producing progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over these functions around the 10th week of gestation.

In summary, luteal cells are specialized ovarian cells that produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy to prepare the uterus for implantation and maintain pregnancy.

Germ cells are the reproductive cells, also known as sex cells, that combine to form offspring in sexual reproduction. In females, germ cells are called ova or egg cells, and in males, they are called spermatozoa or sperm cells. These cells are unique because they carry half the genetic material necessary for creating new life. They are produced through a process called meiosis, which reduces their chromosome number by half, ensuring that when two germ cells combine during fertilization, the normal diploid number of chromosomes is restored.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

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The follicular cyst of the ovary is a type of functional simple cyst, and is the most common type of ovarian cyst. Its rupture ... Retrieved July 2012 "Follicular cyst of the ovary definition". MedTerms. "Ovarian Cysts". The Institute for Female Alternative ... can create sharp, severe pain on the side of the ovary on which the cyst appears. This sharp pain (sometimes called ...
The suspensory ligament of the ovary is one continuous tissue that connects the ovary to the wall of the pelvis. There are ... Ligament of ovary This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1254 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy ( ... In the more posterior region, the suspensory ligament is attached to the upper pole of ovary and infundibulum of fallopian tube ... The prenatal development of the suspensory ligament of the ovary is a part of the development of the reproductive system. ...
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are an epithelial cell line derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, often used in ... "CHO cells - 7 facts about the cell line derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster". evitria AG. 3 May 2022. Tjio J. H.; ... Since 2016, about 70% of all rBPs and mAbs were produced from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines Wurm FM; Hacker D (2011 ... However, 70% of biologics, and almost all mAbs, are produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, as the most commonly used ...
Resistant ovary syndrome, previously known as Savage syndrome, is a cause of ovarian failure that can lead to secondary ... Resistant ovaries result from a functional disturbance of the gonadotropin receptors in the ovarian follicles. It may be a ...
Infertility in polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance in women that is thought to be one of the leading causes ... Polycystic ovary syndrome causes more than 75% of cases of anovulatory infertility. Not all women with PCOS have difficulty ... ISBN 978-0-07-149868-5. Qiao, J.; Feng, H. L. (2010). "Extra- and intra-ovarian factors in polycystic ovary syndrome: impact on ... Tang, T.; Balen, A. H. (2012). "Use of metformin for women with polycystic ovary syndrome". Human Reproduction Update. 19 (1): ...
... (TCC of the ovary) is a rare type of ovarian cancer that has an appearance similar to ... These tumours do better than other types of epithelial tumours of the ovary. Brenner tumour Tazi, EM.; Lalya, I.; Tazi, MF.; ... Apr 2004). "Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary: a morphologic study of 100 cases with emphasis on differential diagnosis ... Ahellal, Y.; M'rabti, H.; Errihani, H. (2010). "Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary: a rare case and review of literature ...
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"Play synopsis for two That Takes Ovaries plays , That Takes Ovaries". www.thattakesovaries.org. "That Takes Ovaries mission, ... "Now {that} takes ovaries…". Nelson, Autumn (May 1, 2012). ""Courage Is Contagious": The Use of That Takes Ovaries Drama Therapy ... That Takes Ovaries': A tribute to strong women , The Northern Light". "Deconstructing That Takes Ovaries". Radcliffe Institute ... "Records of That Takes Ovaries, 2002-2010 (MC 746)". Flickr. moniqueღ, jianda (August 10, 2013). "That Takes Ovaries". Medium. " ...
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... inferior ovary. Fruits in berries, coriaceous. Species include: List: Psammisia of Ecuador Media related to Psammisia at ...
Ovary superior. Carpels 3 to 20, in 1 (rarely 2) whorls, free or basally connate. Ovules 12 to 100 per carpel and scattered ...
The ovary are under constant. A large part of the species blooms at night. The flower formula is: ⋆ {\displaystyle \star } bis ... inferior ovary. There are three sepals present. The three petals often have different shades of blue, there are also yellow, ...
Tepals are translucent white with green midveins; anthers yellow; ovary green. "Ori Fragman-Sapir & Reinhard M. Fritsch. 2012. ...
Ovary glabrous; style 7-9 mm long, longer than the smaller stamens, cylindrical, glabrous, curved near apex, closely appressed ...
Fluhmann CF (1944). "Clinical use of extracts from the ovaries". Journal of the American Medical Association. 125 (1): 1. doi: ... Schriener WE (6 December 2012). "The Ovary". In Labhart A (ed.). Clinical Endocrinology: Theory and Practice. Springer Science ...
Ovary multilocular. - Ovules basal, erect, 1 per locule. - Fruit a small drupe, usually blue. Pyrenes with thick walls. The ...
Flowers bell-shaped, up to 6 mm across; tepals pink; anthers and pollen pale yellow; ovary crested. Flora of North America, v ...
... ovary bilocular. Fruit a corky berry. Species in cultivation include Brunfelsia americana and Brunfelsia pauciflora. Brunfelsia ...
Ovary sessile; stigmas small, dish-shaped or capitate. Fruits are fleshy, globose, rarely ellipsoid or oblong, subtended at ...
I) Flower hypogynus; ovary superior. I) Stamens indefinite, monadelphous. II) Ovary 5 carpellary, placentation axile. I) Plant ... Carples: five, syncarpous, ovary superior, penta or multilocular with axile placentation, one ovule in each locule; style 1, ...
Ovary striate. pubescent. Tube recurved. Strip very dilated, with two cordate and very developed auricles. Outer. part greenish ...
Female flowers: ovary pubescent or glabrous. Fruit ellipsoid, 10-12 × 7-9 mm, seated on discoid perianth tube; fruiting pedicel ... ovary superior; style elongated; stigma enlarge with 6 tepals. The pollination is done by bees and other insects. They have ...
Left ovary Ovaries Ovarian reserve Folliculogenesis Oophorectomy Ovarian drilling Artificial ovary Ovary culture Colvin, ... There is an ovary (from Latin ovarium egg, nut) found on the left and the right side of the body. The ovaries also secrete ... The ovaries are uncovered in the peritoneal cavity but are tethered to the body wall via the suspensory ligament of the ovary ... The ovaries are considered the female gonads. Each ovary is whitish in color and located alongside the lateral wall of the ...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a woman has increased levels of male hormones (androgens). Many ... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a woman has increased levels of male hormones (androgens). Many ... Instead, they stay in the ovaries with a small amount of fluid (cyst) around them. The affected ovary may be slightly enlarged ... Polycystic ovaries; Polycystic ovary disease; Stein-Leventhal syndrome; Polyfollicular ovarian disease; PCOS ...
... enlarged ovaries with thickened sclerotic capsules and an abnormally high number of follicles are present. The follicles may ... In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), enlarged ovaries with thickened sclerotic capsules and an abnormally high number of ... Polycystic ovary syndrome is not a primary disease process. When polycystic ovaries are discovered at radiologic examination, ... Typically, the ovaries are hypoechoic in relation to the surrounding pelvic fat and myometrium. Polycystic ovaries often ...
Focused Inflammatory Lesions of Ovary with stained slides of pathology. ... Inflammatory Lesions of Ovary. High Quality Pathology Images of Gynecologic: Ovary of Inflammatory Lesions of Ovary. ...
When I had scans done after dx of ca, the left ovary was "dried" up. The right lives on and I think it likes chemo. I tell it ... Also has hysterectomy that left ovaries, but I was told the chemo will kill them both. How do you know if there dead ??? ... Any advice on mutant ovaries? I see onc doc on the 16th. (I think) ... Let the ovaries so wouldnt have to have estrogene. OK, the hormone levels are that of a girl in puberty! One of the levels ...
... and polycystic ovaries, where the ovaries are enlarged and the eggs are surrounded by fluid-filled sacs. While there is no cure ... PCOS is related to abnormal hormone levels in the body and affects how the ovaries work. Around 1 in 10 people have the ... Welcome to our information hub about Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Here youll find resources that will give you a better ...
... in ovary tissue. Antibody staining with HPA017059 and CAB003780 in immunohistochemistry. ... TISSUE PRIMARY DATA OVARY ADIPOSE TISSUE ADRENAL GLAND AMYGDALA APPENDIX BASAL GANGLIA BONE MARROW BREAST BRONCHUS CEREBELLUM ... ORAL MUCOSA OVARY PANCREAS PARATHYROID GLAND PITUITARY GLAND PLACENTA PROSTATE RECTUM RETINA SALIVARY GLAND SEMINAL VESICLE ... OVARY - Expression summary. Protein expression. Ovaryi On the top, protein expression in current human tissue, based on all ...
Can Ovaries Be Transplanted. Can Ovaries Be Transplanted?. Yes, ovaries can be transplanted. Ovarian transplantation is a ... 5. Ovary Implantation: The preserved ovary is implanted into the recipients body through a surgical procedure. The ovary is ... 2. Ovary Removal: The donor undergoes a surgical procedure to remove one or both of her ovaries. The procedure is performed ... 3. Ovary Preservation: The removed ovaries are carefully preserved to maintain their viability outside the body. They are ...
News stories and articles referencing Polycystic ovary syndrome on European Pharmaceutical Review ...
In Vitro Biosynthesis of Steroids in Ovary of Asynchronic Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallus, 1770). Comparative Biochemistry ... The goal of this study was to examine the gene transcription of SL changes in the ovary of blue gourami females (Trichogaster ... Degani, G., Gal, E. and Vaya, J. (1994) In Vitro Biosynthesis of Steroids in Ovary of Asynchronic Trichogaster trichopterus ( ...
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO). Reference. Hatakeyama M et al., A computational model on the modulation of mitogen-activated ... HRG-stimulated ErbB4 receptor signalling in Chinese-hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express ErbB4.. ...
The Role of Ethylene and Pollination in Petal Senescence and Ovary Growth of Brodiaea ...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a medical condition with important consequences for womens well-being and reproductive ... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a medical condition with important consequences for womens well-being and reproductive ... developmental origins of health, maternal diabetes, maternal smoking, polycystic ovary syndrome. in International Journal of ... article{0216d485-8209-48ef-8ca8-65062df74ea3, abstract = {{,p,Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a medical condition with ...
Chromosomal analysis of the eggs and ovaries of the laying workers of Apis cerana F. S. Verma and A. Karol Nimachal Pradesh ... Abstract - The chromosomal behavior during mitotic and meiotic cell division of eggs and ovaries of Apis cerana F laying ...
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) of the ovary are a rare subtype of sex cord-stromal tumor accounting for less than 0.5% of ... Multiplatform tumor-profiling of 50 malignant Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary reveals therapeutic. ...
Is Ovary Pain an early sign of pregnancy? Get the statistics. Real women share their symptoms from ovulation to testing. ... Ovary Pain. Women who are pregnant will often experience aches and pains they have never felt before. There are a lot of ... If you know you are pregnant and experience ovary pain in the first trimester you should call your doctor, as this pain can be ... Any unusual or extreme pain in the lower abdomen, pelvic area, ovaries, or vaginal area should be reported to your physician ...
... actress Angelina Jolie has now removed her ovaries after a health scare. ... In an open letter in The New York Times, Angelina Jolie bravely revealed that she has recently removed her ovaries and ... actress Angelina Jolie has revealed that she has now removed her ovaries following another health scare. ...
Only 63 (0.49%) genes were differentially expressed (,2-fold) in R-eCG-treated ovaries compared to N-eCG treated ovaries. ... These genes, Tex19.2, Sectm1b, Ctsk, Gpnmb, Sectm1a, and Hsd17b1, were specifically over-expressed in R-eCG-treated ovaries. ... The number of genes down-regulated by ,2-fold in the R-eCG-treated ovaries was 43 (0.34%) (Table 2). Seven genes (Ovgp1, ... Genes showing a ,2-fold difference in expression levels were identified in eight ovaries (N-eCG: four, R-eCG: four). Figure 4 ...
... evidence of expression at different stages of development as well as localization to different cell types within the ovary. ... Dzyadyk, Marta N., "Role of Progesterone Receptors in Neonatal Ovary Development" (2012). Honors Capstone Projects - All. 139. ... evidence of expression at different stages of development as well as localization to different cell types within the ovary. ...
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Causes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome What causes polycystic ovary syndrome is not clear. Some evidence suggests that it is ... Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome typically develop during puberty and worsen with ... Ultrasonography is done to see whether the ovaries contain many cysts and to check for a tumor in an ovary or adrenal gland. ...
Copyright 2013 by That Takes Ovaries. The name "That Takes Ovaries" is a registered trademark ® ... That Takes Ovaries. PO Box 3582 Amherst, MA 01004, USA 781-583-1515, Email Us Website design by WebTrax Studio ... Thank you for visiting the website for That Takes Ovaries.. We have closed shop. Or we are on a very long sabbatical. You can ... Bring us to your workplace, school, conference or community to lead a That Takes Ovaries event or a Leading a Bold Life event. ...
5A80.1 Polycystic ovary syndrome. *5A80.2 Polycystic ovary - Ovary with increased size (, 7 mL) and stromal volume, and with ... ICD-11 5A80.1 Polycystic ovary syndrome , 5A80.2 Polycystic ovary - Ovary with increased size (, 7 mL) and stromal volume, and ... Links: 1912 Ovary Growth , Table Ovary Growth Table , Collapsible Table , Ovary Development ... Links: 1912 Ovary Growth , Table Ovary Growth Table , Collapsible Table , Ovary Development ...
Disclaimer: MushroomsGuide.com is an information site ONLY and the focus of this site is on the medicinal mushrooms. Any mushroom, substance or product mentioned on this site are not to be used as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem, nor as any marketing or sales efforts of any products. Visitors of this site should not solely rely on information provided on this website for their own health problems. The information presented here should only be used as a reference. Any questions regarding your own health should be addressed to your own physician or other health care provider.. ...
Histology of the ovary - primordial, primary (unilaminar and multilaminar), secondary (or antral), and mature (or Graafian) ... MH 161 Ovary. Ovary. Ovaries produce female gametes (oocytes) and steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone). ... Ovary. *. Mature (or Graafian) Follicles. - usually only one follicle will continue to grow each cycle to form a very large, ... Ovary. *. Secondary (Antral) Follicles. - characterized by the formation an antrum. (a fluid-filled space) containing an oocyte ...
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Evidence suggests low iron levels are linked to depression in the general population and increases the likelihood of depression in pregnant women by as much as 29%.. Learn More ...
... there is free carpel in apocarpous whereas present of fused carpel in syncarpous ovary ... How does apocarpous ovary differ from syncarpous ovary?. Apocarpous ovary differ from syncarpous in being that flower of ... 1) Apocarpous ovary is constituted by more than one carpel which are free to one another whereas syncarpous ovary is ... 3) apocarpous ovary generally form aggregate type of fruit whereas syncarpous ovary generally form simple fruit types with one ...
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?. Polycystic (pronounced: pol-ee-SISS-tik) ovary syndrome ( ... How Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Diagnosed?. If your doctor thinks you might have PCOS, he or she may refer you to a ... What Causes Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?. Doctors cant say for sure what causes it, but PCOS seems to be related to an ... How Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Treated?. Theres no cure for PCOS, but there are several ways to treat and manage it. ...
POP Goes My Ovary!. For about a week now, Ive been having what I know are ovulation pains. Years of tracking my cycles have ... I headed in to my appointment and there it was determined that I had a cyst on my right ovary which was so kind as to blow up ... Then I stood up from the dining room table and had a horrible stabbing pain in my right ovary that took my breath away and ... I was scared to move for a few moments, as I certainly didnt want to aggravate the lovely "knife in the ovary" thing I had ...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) answers are found in the Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines powered by Unbound Medicine. ... "Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)." Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines, Duodecim Medical Publications Limited, 2019. Evidence ... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (2019). In Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines. Duodecim Medical Publications Limited. https ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) [Internet]. In: Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines. Duodecim Medical Publications Limited; ...
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a problem with hormones that happens during the reproductive years. (mayoclinic.org)
  • With PCOS , many small sacs of fluid develop along the outer edge of the ovary. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a woman has increased levels of male hormones (androgens). (medlineplus.gov)
  • PCOS is linked to changes in hormone levels that make it harder for the ovaries to release fully-grown (mature) eggs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of childbearing age. (aafp.org)
  • The diagnosis of PCOS is primarily clinical, based on the presence of at least two of the three Rotterdam criteria: oligoanovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries on ultrasonography. (aafp.org)
  • In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), enlarged ovaries with thickened sclerotic capsules and an abnormally high number of follicles are present. (medscape.com)
  • They state that the diagnosis of PCOS is based on the presence of at least 2 of the following 3 criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological), and polycystic ovaries. (medscape.com)
  • On the other hand, a larger than average dominant follicle may indicate hormonal imbalances like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (reproduction-online.org)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a medical condition with important consequences for women's well-being and reproductive outcomes. (lu.se)
  • BACKGROUND: Here we describe the consensus guideline methodology, summarise the evidence-based recommendations we provided to the World Health Organisation (WHO) for their consideration in the development of global guidance and present a narrative review on the management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (uu.nl)
  • Looking at the role your ovaries play in your reproductive system can help you understand polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (toplinemd.com)
  • PCOS disrupts the hormonal balance in your ovaries, causing a disruption in egg production and release. (toplinemd.com)
  • In effect, PCOS packs a double punch by affecting the hormones in your body, as well as creating physical problems due to the cysts on your ovaries. (toplinemd.com)
  • A family member, friend, co-worker, or neighbor: You probably know someone with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like the name sounds, PCOS is a disorder that is associated with multiple small cysts on the ovaries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has previously been associated with several comorbidities that may have shared genetic, epigenetic, developmental or environmental origins. (lu.se)
  • Despite a large number of studies, the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) still remains unexplained. (bvsalud.org)
  • This syndrome gets its name from the many fluid-filled sacs (cysts) that often develop in the ovaries, causing them to enlarge. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Often eggs don't develop correctly, or they aren't released as they should be during your ovulation cycles, which can lead to cysts on your ovaries. (toplinemd.com)
  • Those cysts can sometimes make ovaries swell to twice their normal size. (medlineplus.gov)
  • and cysts (fluid-filled sacs) on one or both ovaries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Follicle cysts of the ovary are the most common cystic structures found in healthy ovaries. (medscape.com)
  • Each ovary is whitish in color and located alongside the lateral wall of the uterus in a region called the ovarian fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The side of the ovary closest to the fallopian tube is connected to it by infundibulopelvic ligament, and the other side points downwards attached to the uterus via the ovarian ligament. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ovaries lie within the peritoneal cavity, on either side of the uterus, to which they are attached via a fibrous cord called the ovarian ligament. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ovaries are uncovered in the peritoneal cavity but are tethered to the body wall via the suspensory ligament of the ovary which is a posterior extension of the broad ligament of the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The part of the broad ligament of the uterus that covers the ovary is known as the mesovarium. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Women are born with two ovaries, small organs positioned near the top of the uterus, one on each side. (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • It can grow on the ovaries, behind the uterus, on the bowels, or on the bladder. (cdc.gov)
  • Ovarian cancer begins in the ovaries, which are located on each side of the uterus. (cdc.gov)
  • The ovarian ligament connects the uterus and ovary. (medscape.com)
  • At the completion of childbearing, usually the remaining ovary and uterus are removed. (medscape.com)
  • The suspensory ligament of the ovary (infundibular pelvic ligament) attaches the ovary to the pelvic sidewall. (medscape.com)
  • Nerve supply to the ovaries runs with the vasculature via the suspensory ligament of the ovary, entering the ovary at the hilum. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of omega-3 in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome and to compare the clinical, hormonal, TNF-α and resistin levels in the patients treated with omega-3. (nih.gov)
  • 4. The ovary tissue of young, fertile women is flexible, and hormonal changes can cause the ovary to twist or move a little bit (twisting too far is called ovarian torsion). (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • Evidence suggests that the underlying disorder of polycystic ovary disease is insulin resistance, with the elevated insulin levels stimulating excess ovarian androgen production. (medscape.com)
  • Transverse endovaginal sonogram of the left ovary. (medscape.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the gene expression profiles of mouse ovaries upon stimulation with N-eCG and R-eCG produced from CHO-suspension (CHO-S) cells. (researchsquare.com)
  • Chlordecone-induced follicular toxicity in mouse ovaries. (cdc.gov)
  • Polycystic ovaries. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Although a multiplicity of clinical presentations exists for polycystic ovary disease , in 1935, Stein and Leventhal reported the classic symptomatology in a group of women who had amenorrhea, infertility, hirsutism, and enlarged polycystic ovaries. (medscape.com)
  • As was discovered over time, women may have polycystic ovaries, yet their cases may not conform to all of the original criteria for this condition. (medscape.com)
  • Any unusual or extreme pain in the lower abdomen, pelvic area, ovaries, or vaginal area should be reported to your physician immediately. (countdowntopregnancy.com)
  • The ovaries are the female pelvic reproductive organs that house the ova and are also responsible for the production of sex hormones. (medscape.com)
  • In an open letter in The New York Times , Angelina Jolie bravely revealed that she has recently removed her ovaries and fallopian tubes as she carries the mutated BRCA1 gene that gave her a 50 per cent risk of developing ovarian cancer. (emirateswoman.com)
  • Stage I (T1-N0-M0) consists of tumor limited to the ovaries or fallopian tubes. (medscape.com)
  • In stage III, tumor involves one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes, or primary peritoneal cancer, with cytologically or histologically confirmed spread to the peritoneum outside the pelvis and/or metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes (T1/T2-N1-M0). (medscape.com)
  • In many women with polycystic ovary syndrome, the body's cells resist the effects of insulin (called insulin resistance or sometimes prediabetes). (msdmanuals.com)
  • A cross-section of the ovary reveals many cystic structures that vary in size. (medscape.com)
  • Usually, ovulation occurs in one of the two ovaries releasing an egg each menstrual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • 833 When an oocyte completes its maturation in the ovary, a surge of luteinizing hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates the release of the oocyte through the rupture of the follicle, a process called ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who ovulate monthly have ovaries that look rough, uneven or pock marked as a result of one follicle rupturing monthly during ovulation. (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • 7. The ovary doesn't stop working at ovulation. (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • The dominant follicle in ovary ultrasound is a vital aspect of reproductive health. (reproduction-online.org)
  • A dominant follicle refers to the largest and most developed follicle in the ovary during a menstrual cycle. (reproduction-online.org)
  • By the time she reaches menstruation, a female's follicle count - the sac of cells surrounding each egg within the ovary that nurtures an egg that will be ovulated to maturity - is roughly 200,000. (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • Each month, the ovaries go through a series of stages, depending on stimulation by the anterior pituitary hormones the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH). (medscape.com)
  • They note that ultrasonography now allows diagnosis of PCOM in patients with at least 25 small follicles (2-9 mm) in the whole ovary, and ovarian size of 10 ml is the threshold between normal and increased ovary size. (medscape.com)
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) of the ovary are a rare subtype of sex cord-stromal tumor accounting for less than 0.5% of ovarian malignancies. (carislifesciences.com)
  • The ovary is within the ovarian fossa, a space that is bound by the external iliac vessels, obliterated umbilical artery, and the ureter. (medscape.com)
  • This larger structure also contains the ovarian artery and vein, as well as nerve supply to the ovary. (medscape.com)
  • The ovarian artery and vein enter and exit the ovary at the hilum. (medscape.com)
  • The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • At puberty, the ovary begins to secrete increasing levels of hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the ovaries are able to regulate hormones, they also play an important role in pregnancy and fertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • In turn, the pituitary gland releases hormones to the ovaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • From this signaling, the ovaries release their own hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. The ovaries secrete the hormones necessary for proper development of the female body in her fertile years and help her maintain healthy fertility. (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by irregular or no menstrual periods and often obesity or symptoms caused by high levels of male hormones (androgens), such as excess body hair and acne. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This action is dictated by your hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which are also produced by your ovaries. (toplinemd.com)
  • Aromatase, encoded by the gene Cyp19a1, is an enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, and is primarily expressed in the granulosa cells of the ovary. (depaul.edu)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of retinoic acid in regulating aromatase expression in granulosa cells from the mouse ovary. (depaul.edu)
  • This process is a natural part of the menstrual cycle and prepares the ovary for the development of new follicles in the following cycle. (reproduction-online.org)
  • Other structures and tissues of the ovaries include the hilum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicular cells are flat epithelial cells that originate from surface epithelium covering the ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • A germinal layer coats the entire ovary, made of cuboidal epithelial cells. (medscape.com)
  • I am looking into drugs to stop my ovaries from producing estrogen.For example zolodex or luprin. (cancer.org)
  • The surface of the ovaries is covered with a membrane consisting of a lining of simple cuboidal-to-columnar shaped mesothelium, called the germinal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The posterior portion of the broad ligament forms the mesovarium, which supports the ovary and houses its arterial and venous supply. (medscape.com)
  • Many follicles containing immature eggs may develop around the edge of the ovary. (mayoclinic.org)
  • 2. A female fetus' ovaries are home to roughly 7 million eggs while she is still in her mother's womb. (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • The ovaries are responsible for housing and releasing ova, or eggs, necessary for reproduction. (medscape.com)
  • In women before menopause, 50% of testosterone is produced by the ovaries and released directly into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, not all women with the condition will have ovaries with this appearance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is promising for women whose ovaries don't function as they should or are damaged. (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome affects about 5 to 10% of women. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If women who have polycystic ovary syndrome and are overweight or obese become pregnant, their risk of complications during pregnancy is increased. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We developed our Leading a Bold Life event because we found that some workplaces and communities wanted a That Takes Ovaries type of event - with our unique mix of inspiring discussion, probing questions about why a person should lead a bold life, dramatic readings, storytelling and audience participation - but they preferred the idea of celebrating the bold acts of men and women and all genders equally, not focusing only on women. (thattakesovaries.org)
  • For women of childbearing age, simple unilateral oophorectomy via laparoscopy or laparotomy is adequate, provided that the contralateral ovary appears grossly normal. (medscape.com)
  • The ovaries are surrounded by a capsule, and have an outer cortex and an inner medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your provider may also perform or order an ultrasound of your pelvis to look at your ovaries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ovaries are small, oval-shaped, and grayish in color, with an uneven surface. (medscape.com)
  • however, how retinoic acid may regulate aromatase expression in the ovary is not known. (depaul.edu)
  • A detailed histologic assessment of the ovary was made following exposure of the adult virgin female CD-1-mouse to chlordecone (143500) for 4 weeks, 5 days a week at 0.25 milligrams/day in efforts to detect a morphological basis for the decreased ovulatory response observed following exogenous gonadotropin stimulation. (cdc.gov)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common cause of infertility in the United States. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The goal of this study was to examine the gene transcription of SL changes in the ovary of blue gourami females (Trichogaster trichopterus) during oogenesis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR). (scirp.org)
  • If you know you are pregnant and experience ovary pain in the first trimester you should call your doctor, as this pain can be a sign of ectopic pregnancy. (countdowntopregnancy.com)
  • In the ovaries, the developing egg cells (or oocytes) mature in the fluid-filled follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers examined how the PI3K-Akt pathway and its interference with the Raf-ERK pathway were involved in HRG-stimulated ErbB4 receptor signalling in Chinese-hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express ErbB4. (harvard.edu)
  • Each receptor type shows evidence of expression at different stages of development as well as localization to different cell types within the ovary. (syr.edu)
  • Histologically, the ovary has 2 main sections: the outer cortex and inner medulla. (medscape.com)
  • Enhancement of ricin cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells by depletion of intracellular K+: evidence for an Na+/H+ exchange system in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (rupress.org)
  • Each ovary is roughly the size of a large grape or small walnut during her fertile years (shrinking to an almond size in menopause). (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • Instead, they stay in the ovaries with a small amount of fluid (cyst) around them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Follicular development was classified as small, medium, or large following serial sectioning of the ovaries. (cdc.gov)
  • LBL is an outgrowth of our successful That Takes Ovaries (TTO) events that focus on women's empowerment (1000+ held to date), however LBL events are geared equally to a mixed-gender audience. (thattakesovaries.org)
  • the ovaries, covered by a modified peritoneum, are approximately 3-5 cm in length during childbearing years and become much smaller and then atrophic once menopause occurs. (medscape.com)
  • The ovaries are the site of production and periodical release of egg cells, the female gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each month, your ovaries produce an egg, which they prepare and release for fertilization. (toplinemd.com)
  • The ovary progresses through many stages beginning in the prenatal period through menopause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal Ovaries: What is normal? (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • Retinoic acid is essential in normal embryonic development, and studies from the Kipp laboratory have also demonstrated its importance in the developing ovary. (depaul.edu)

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