Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Cyst Fluid: Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.Follicular Cyst: Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.Dermoid Cyst: A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)Epidermal Cyst: Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Puberty, Precocious: Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.Torsion Abnormality: An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.Mediastinal Cyst: Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Bronchogenic Cyst: A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Parovarian Cyst: A cyst (CYSTS) near the OVARY, derived from anomalies of the FALLOPIAN TUBES or the BROAD LIGAMENT. The paramesonephric type consists of ciliated cells similar to the oviduct epithelium. The mesonephric type consisted of an epithelium with minimally surface structures. They can be found on the thin oviduct (paratubal cysts) or near its fimbriated end (hydatid of Morgagni).Remission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Leiomyoma: A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Odontogenic Cysts: Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Wit and Humor as Topic: The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Appointments and Schedules: The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Civil Disorders: Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.Yoga: A major orthodox system of Hindu philosophy based on Sankhya (metaphysical dualism) but differing from it in being theistic and characterized by the teaching of raja-yoga as a practical method of liberating the self. It includes a system of exercises for attaining bodily or mental control and well-being with liberation of the self and union with the universal spirit. (From Webster, 3d ed)Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.BostonHospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Focal InfectionPain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.

Hyperreactio luteinalis associated with chronic renal failure. (1/426)

Hyperreactio luteinalis is a rare benign condition characterized by bilateral ovarian enlargement associated with pregnancies where high concentrations of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophins are present. This condition may mimic the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. We report a case of a 34 year old woman with a history of chronic renal failure on haemodialysis who presented at 10 weeks' gestational age with hyperreactio luteinalis which was treated conservatively. Because of chronic renal failure, the presentation and course of the disease was different from that which has been previously reported.  (+info)

Histopathological findings of the ovaries in anovulatory women. (2/426)

Wedge resection of the ovary was carried out in 45 anovulatory women to study the correlation between the degree of disturbance of ovulation and the histopathological findings. Polycystic ovary was always found in patients with anovulatory cycles. The ovaries in grade 1 amenorrhea showing withdrawal bleeding in response to gestagen alone belonged to the nonspecific type, polycystic type and sclerotic type. These histological changes were relatively mild in many cases. The ovaries in grade 2 amenorrhea showing withdrawal bleeding in response to estrogen and gestagen but not to gestagen alone belonged to the non-specific type, polycystic type, sclerotic type, atrophic type and streak type. Even within the same histological entity, the histological findings of the ovaries were more pronounced in grade 2 amenorrhea than in grade 1 amenorrhea. The patients with primary amenorrhea had only hypoplastic and aplastic ovaries with marked histological abnormalities.  (+info)

Ovarian cysts in women receiving tamoxifen for breast cancer. (3/426)

Tamoxifen is a nonsteroidal anti-oestrogen with gynaecological side-effects. Only recently, ovarian cyst formation during tamoxifen treatment has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate patient-related parameters that determine ovarian cyst formation in women using tamoxifen for breast cancer. A cross-sectional study was performed in 142 breast cancer patients using tamoxifen. Forty-five patients were also examined prior to tamoxifen treatment. Gynaecological assessment, transvaginal ultrasonography (TVU) and serum oestradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) analysis were performed. Follow-up assessments were performed twice a year. Uni- or bilateral ovarian cysts were detected by TVU in 24 tamoxifen-using patients and in one patient before tamoxifen treatment. Multiple regression analysis showed that cyst development is related (multiple R = 0.73) to high E2 (P < 0.001), younger age (P < 0.001) and absence of high-dose chemotherapy (P = 0.007). Patients with ovarian cysts had higher serum E2 levels compared to patients without cysts (1.95 vs 0.05 nmol l(-1); P < 0.001). All patients after high-dose chemotherapy or older than 50 years had E2 < 0.10 nmol l(-1) and/or amenorrhoea > 1 year and did not develop ovarian cysts. Patients still having a menstrual cycle during tamoxifen had a high chance (81%) of developing ovarian cysts. Breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen only develop ovarian cysts if their ovaries are able to respond to FSH stimulation as shown by E2 production.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor levels in ovarian cyst fluid correlate with malignancy. (4/426)

Ovarian cancer is a richly vascularized neoplasm with solid and cystic components. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyst fluid could be used to quantitatively evaluate production of angiogenic factors in ovarian lesions. ELISA was used to measure vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the cyst fluid of patients with ovarian cancer (n = 13), benign cysts and cystadenomas (n = 23), borderline tumors (n = 5), and functional cysts (n = 8). VEGF levels were markedly elevated in the fluid of malignant cysts (38.5+/-8.2 ng/ml) as compared with benign (1.6+/-0.4 ng/ml; P < 0.001), borderline (5.7+/-1.5 ng/ml; P < 0.001), or functional cysts (3.8+/-2.0 ng/ml; P < 0.001). The presence of VEGF in cancer cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Follow-up of patients with malignant and borderline lesions demonstrated a correlation between VEGF levels in cyst fluid and tumor recurrence (P = 0.03). bFGF in malignant cysts was either undetectable or very low (0.3+/-0.2 ng/ml), and no significant differences were found in bFGF levels among malignant, benign, borderline, and functional cysts. This study demonstrates that ovarian malignancy is associated with dramatic elevation of VEGF levels in ovarian cyst fluid. Conversely, there is no correlation between cyst fluid bFGF levels and malignant transformation. The high levels of VEGF in malignant cysts are consistent with the hypothesis that this growth factor plays an important role in ovarian cancer related-angiogenesis and tumor progression and represents a potentially important target of antiangiogenic therapy.  (+info)

A case-control study to compare the variability of operating time in laparoscopic and open surgery. (5/426)

The purpose of this study was to compare the variability of operating times for some of the most common gynaecological procedures performed laparoscopically and by open surgery. The case notes of 60 women randomly selected from a cohort of 600 who had undergone laparoscopic surgery for ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cysts, leiomyoma and hysterectomy were reviewed. These patients were matched with an equal number of women who had been treated by open surgery for similar indications. Additional matching criteria included age (+/-2 years), size of the lesion in cases of ovarian cysts and fibroids (+/-3 cm), the period of amenorrhoea in ectopic pregnancies, and uterine size and pelvic pathology in women undergoing hysterectomy. Comparison of laparoscopy and laparotomy showed that the mean procedure times were similar for the two routes of surgery, with the exception of hysterectomy which took significantly longer if done laparoscopically. The duration of laparoscopic surgery for ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cystectomy and hysterectomy was significantly less predictable than at laparotomy. These data indicate that with the exception of hysterectomy, the average operating time for laparoscopic procedures is comparable to that for laparotomy. In contrast, the variability of duration of laparoscopic surgery tends to be much greater than with laparotomy for all procedures considered.  (+info)

Follow up of precocious pseudopuberty associated with isolated ovarian follicular cysts. (6/426)

The clinical outcomes of seven girls presenting with pseudosexual precocity caused by isolated autonomous ovarian follicular cysts are presented. Six of the seven girls, aged 11 months to 6.9 years, had a unilateral ovarian cyst detected by ultrasound at the first acute episode. Plasma oestradiol was raised in only five of the cases, but all had a low response to luteinising hormone releasing hormone stimulation. Follow up lasted for up to eight years with recurrent episodes of variable frequency and severity in all seven patients. Evidence of McCune-Albright syndrome appeared later in only three patients. It could not be predicted from the initial symptoms or the clinical course. Mutations of the G(s)alpha protein leading to activation were investigated in the lymphocytes and ovarian and bone tissues of four patients. Only one patient showed a mutation in bone tissue. Close follow up with repeated searches for skeletal lesions remains necessary since the distribution of somatic mutations cannot be assessed by molecular studies. Most patients with recurrent ovarian cysts require a conservative approach.  (+info)

How long does laparoscopic surgery really take? Lessons learned from 1000 operative laparoscopies. (7/426)

The purpose of this study was to assess the operating time of the most common gynaecological laparoscopic procedures. We analysed retrospectively 1000 consecutive operative laparoscopies on a procedure-by-procedure basis. Diagnostic laparoscopy and laparoscopic sterilization were specifically excluded from the analysis. The various laparoscopic procedures were grouped and analysed under six major categories. The average operating time for all cases was 76.9 min (range 10-400). In 38 cases (3.8%) the laparoscopic procedure was converted to laparotomy. The average operating time for treating ectopic pregnancy and tubal disease was approximately 60 min (range 13-240). Surgery for endometriosis and ovarian cysts averaged 72 min (range 10-240). Laparoscopic myomectomy and hysterectomy averaged 113 and 131 min respectively (range 25-400). Our results show that while the operating time for most operative laparoscopies is less than 75 min, the range of operating times is great. The relative lack of predictability in procedure times means that the efficient utilization of fixed theatre sessions is difficult.  (+info)

Cytokines in the follicular fluid of stimulated and non-stimulated human ovaries; is ovulation a suppressed inflammatory reaction? (8/426)

We determined the concentrations of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukins (IL)-1 beta, -6, -8 and -1-receptor antagonist (IL-1-ra) and of oestradiol and progesterone in the follicular fluid of 111 women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and of six women with ovarian cysts in order to elucidate mid-cycle mechanisms causing dissociation of the follicle wall and local rupture of the ovarian tissue complex. Four stimulation protocols were administered: gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist/human menopausal gonadotrophin (GnRHa/HMG), clomiphene citrate/HMG (CC/HMG), HMG and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Concentrations of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta were below 15 and 3 pg/ml respectively. IL-6 (median 4.1, 3.5-4.4 pg/ml, 95% CI) was higher after stimulation with FSH (5.6 pg/ml) than with HMG (3.2 pg/ml, P < 0.05) or GnRHa/HMG (3.7 pg/ml, P < 0.05), and after stimulation with CC/HMG (5.5 pg/ml) than with HMG (P < 0.01) or GnRHa/HMG (P < 0.001). IL-8 ranged from 32 to 1241 pg/ml (147, 117-178 pg/ml) and IL-1-ra from < 31 to > 10,000 pg/ml (156, 109-192 pg/ml). Cytokine levels did not correlate to oestradiol or progesterone concentrations. The ovarian cysts contained similar IL-8 (14-540 pg/ml) and IL-1 beta (< 30 pg/ml), but higher IL-6 (13.6-> 500 pg/ml) and lower IL-1-ra concentrations. We assume that IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1-ra are involved in peri-ovulatory cellular interactions. Thus, ovulation appears to be a cytokine-regulated process of an 'inflammation' (IL-6 and IL-8) followed by 'anti-inflammatory' reactions (IL-1-ra).  (+info)

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