An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A COUP transcription factor that was originally identified as a homodimer that binds to a direct repeat regulatory element in the chicken albumin promoter. It is a transcription factor that plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
A COUP transcription factor that negatively regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and competes with other hormone receptors for the common response element AGGTCA. It can also stimulate transcription of genes involved in the metabolism of GLUCOSE and CHOLESTEROL.
A sub-family of steroid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptors that have specificity for a variety of DNA sequences related to AGGTCA. COUP transcription factors can heterodimerize with a variety of factors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.

Interleukin-8 receptor modulates IgE production and B-cell expansion and trafficking in allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. (1/4583)

We examined the role of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) receptor in a murine model of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation using mice with a targeted deletion of the murine IL-8 receptor homologue (IL-8r-/-). Wild-type (Wt) and IL-8r-/- mice were systemically immunized to ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed with either single or multiple challenge of aerosolized phosphate-buffered saline (OVA/PBS) or OVA (OVA/OVA). Analysis of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed a diminished recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen after single challenge in IL-8r-/- mice compared with Wt mice, whereas multiply challenged IL-8r-/- mice had increased B cells and fewer neutrophils compared with Wt mice. Both Wt and IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice recruited similar numbers of eosinophils to the BAL fluid and exhibited comparable degrees of pulmonary inflammation histologically. Both total and OVA-specific IgE levels were greater in multiply challenged IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA mice than in Wt mice. Both the IL-8r-/- OVA/OVA and OVA/PBS mice were significantly less responsive to methacholine than their respective Wt groups, but both Wt and IL-8r mice showed similar degrees of enhancement after multiple allergen challenge. The data demonstrate that the IL-8r modulates IgE production, airway responsiveness, and the composition of the cells (B cells and neutrophils) recruited to the airway lumen in response to antigen.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (2/4583)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (3/4583)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine. (4/4583)

1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh.  (+info)

Stabilization of L-ascorbic acid by superoxide dismutase and catalase. (5/4583)

The effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase on the autoxidation rate of L-ascorbic acid (ASA) in the absence of metal ion catalysts were examined. The stabilization of ASA by SOD was confirmed, and the enzyme activity of SOD, which scavenges the superoxide anion formed during the autoxidation of ASA, contributed strongly to this stabilization. The stabilization of ASA by catalase was observed for the first time; however, the specific enzyme ability of catalase would not have been involved in the stabilization of ASA. Such proteins as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin also inhibited the autoxidation of ASA, therefore it seems that non-specific interaction between ASA and such proteins as catalase and BSA might stabilize ASA and that the non-enzymatic superoxide anion scavenging ability of proteins might be involved.  (+info)

Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. (6/4583)

Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy.  (+info)

Compliance and stability of the bronchial wall in a model of allergen-induced lung inflammation. (7/4583)

Airway wall remodeling in response to inflammation might alter load on airway smooth muscle and/or change airway wall stability. We therefore determined airway wall compliance and closing pressures in an animal model. Weanling pigs were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; ip and sc, n = 6) and were subsequently challenged three times with OVA aerosol. Control pigs received 0.9% NaCl (n = 4) in place of OVA aerosol. Bronchoconstriction in vivo was assessed from lung resistance and dynamic compliance. Semistatic airway compliance was recorded ex vivo in isolated segments of bronchus, after the final OVA aerosol or 0.9% NaCl challenge. Internally or externally applied pressure needed to close bronchial segments was determined in the absence or presence of carbachol (1 microM). Sensitized pig lungs exhibited immediate bronchoconstriction to OVA aerosol and also peribronchial accumulations of monocytes and granulocytes. Compliance was reduced in sensitized bronchi in vitro (P < 0.01), and closing pressures were increased (P < 0.05). In the presence of carbachol, closing pressures of control and sensitized bronchi were not different. We conclude that sensitization and/or inflammation increases airway load and airway stability.  (+info)

Qualitative and quantitative differences in T cell receptor binding of agonist and antagonist ligands. (8/4583)

The kinetics of interaction between TCR and MHC-peptide show a general relationship between affinity and the biological response, but the reported kinetic differences between antigenic and antagonistic peptides are very small. Here, we show a remarkable difference in the kinetics of TCR interactions with strong agonist ligands at 37 degrees C compared to 25 degrees C. This difference is not seen with antagonist/positive selecting ligands. The interaction at 37 degrees C shows biphasic binding kinetics best described by a model of TCR dimerization. The altered kinetics greatly increase the stability of complexes with agonist ligands, accounting for the large differences in biological response compared to other ligands. Thus, there may be an allosteric, as well as a kinetic, component to the discrimination between agonists and antagonists.  (+info)

The diagnosis of BHR is based on a combination of clinical, physiological, and imaging tests. The most common method used to assess BHR is the methacholine or histamine challenge test, which involves inhaling progressively increasing concentrations of these substances to measure airway reactivity. Other tests include exercise testing, hyperventilation, and mannitol challenge.

BHR is characterized by an increased responsiveness of the airways to various stimuli, such as allergens, cold or exercise, leading to inflammation and bronchoconstriction. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness.

There are several risk factors for BHR, including:

* Allergies
* Respiratory infections
* Exposure to environmental pollutants
* Genetic predisposition
* Obesity
* Smoking

Treatment of BHR typically involves the use of bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and other medications to reduce inflammation and airway constriction. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as lung volume reduction or bronchial thermoplasty may be necessary. Environmental modifications, such as avoiding triggers and using HEPA filters, can also help manage symptoms.

In summary, bronchial hyperreactivity is a condition characterized by an exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli, leading to increased smooth muscle contraction and narrowing of the bronchi. It is commonly seen in asthma and other respiratory diseases, and can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Treatment typically involves medications and environmental modifications to reduce inflammation and airway constriction.

Respiratory hypersensitivity can be diagnosed through medical history, physical examination, and allergy testing. Treatment options include avoidance of allergens, medication, such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunotherapy, which involves exposing the person to small amounts of the allergen over time to build up their tolerance.

Some people with respiratory hypersensitivity may experience more severe symptoms, such as asthma, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is important for individuals with respiratory hypersensitivity to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent complications.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

There are several types of hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Type I hypersensitivity: This is also known as immediate hypersensitivity and occurs within minutes to hours after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from immune cells, leading to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Examples of Type I hypersensitivity reactions include allergies to pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.
2. Type II hypersensitivity: This is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and occurs within days to weeks after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against specific proteins on the surface of cells, leading to their destruction. Examples of Type II hypersensitivity reactions include blood transfusion reactions and serum sickness.
3. Type III hypersensitivity: This is also known as immune complex hypersensitivity and occurs when antigens bind to immune complexes, leading to the formation of deposits in tissues. Examples of Type III hypersensitivity reactions include rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
4. Type IV hypersensitivity: This is also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity and occurs within weeks to months after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

The diagnosis of hypersensitivity often involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and elimination diets or challenges. Treatment depends on the specific type of hypersensitivity reaction and may include avoidance of the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory therapy.

There are several types of food hypersensitivity, including:

1. Food Allergy: An immune system reaction to a specific food that can cause symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Common food allergies include reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs, wheat, and soy.
2. Non-Allergic Food Hypersensitivity: Also known as non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, this type of reaction does not involve the immune system. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headaches. Common culprits include gluten, dairy, and high-FODMAP foods.
3. Food Intolerance: A condition where the body cannot properly digest or process a specific food. Symptoms can include bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gas. Common food intolerances include lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption, and celiac disease.
4. Food Aversion: An emotional response to a specific food that can cause avoidance or dislike of the food. This is not an allergic or physiological reaction but rather a psychological one.

The diagnosis of food hypersensitivity typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as skin prick testing or blood tests. Treatment options for food hypersensitivity depend on the type and severity of the reaction and may include avoidance of the offending food, medication, or immunotherapy.

Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

1. Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat
2. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
3. Abdominal cramps
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Rapid heartbeat
6. Feeling of impending doom or loss of consciousness

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. Treatment for anaphylaxis typically involves administering epinephrine (adrenaline) via an auto-injector, such as an EpiPen or Auvi-Q. Additional treatments may include antihistamines, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy.

Prevention of anaphylaxis involves avoiding known allergens and being prepared to treat a reaction if it occurs. If you have a history of anaphylaxis, it is important to carry an EpiPen or other emergency medication with you at all times. Wearing a medical alert bracelet or necklace can also help to notify others of your allergy and the need for emergency treatment.

In severe cases, anaphylaxis can lead to unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Airway remodeling is a complex process that involves changes in the structure and function of the airways, as well as an immune response. It is characterized by the following features:

* Airway wall thickening and inflammation
* Increased mucus production
* Narrowing of the airway lumina due to smooth muscle hypertrophy and fibrosis
* Increased airway resistance and decreased lung function.

Airway remodeling is a hallmark of asthma and COPD, and it can lead to exacerbations and poor disease control if left untreated. The exact mechanisms driving airway remodeling are not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to its development.

There are several techniques used to assess airway remodeling in patients with respiratory diseases, including:

* Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) - This technique allows for the measurement of airway wall thickness and luminal area.
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - MRI can provide information on airway size and shape, as well as tissue composition.
* Bronchoscopy with biopsy - This procedure allows for the examination of airway tissue and the assessment of inflammation and fibrosis.

There are several treatments available for airway remodeling in patients with respiratory diseases, including:

* Medications such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and anti-inflammatory drugs
* Pulmonary rehabilitation - This includes exercises and education to help improve lung function and overall health.
* Lung transplantation - In severe cases of airway remodeling that do not respond to other treatments, lung transplantation may be considered.

It is important for patients with respiratory diseases to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their condition and adjust their treatment plan as needed. With appropriate management, many patients with airway remodeling can experience improved lung function and quality of life.

The diagnosis of pulmonary eosinophilia is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests such as chest X-rays, blood tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis.

Treatment of pulmonary eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as corticosteroids, antihistamines, or antibiotics, as well as lifestyle modifications such as avoiding allergens and managing stress. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.

Some common symptoms of pulmonary eosinophilia include:

* Coughing
* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Fatigue
* Wheezing
* Recurrent respiratory infections

Complications of pulmonary eosinophilia can include:

* Respiratory failure
* Asthma exacerbation
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Pneumonia or other respiratory infections
* Airway obstruction

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.


There are many possible causes of eosinophilia, including:

* Allergies
* Parasitic infections
* Autoimmune disorders
* Cancer
* Medications


The symptoms of eosinophilia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Swelling of the skin, lips, and eyes
* Hives or itchy skin
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea


Eosinophilia is typically diagnosed through a blood test that measures the number of eosinophils in the blood. Other tests such as imaging studies, skin scrapings, and biopsies may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the underlying cause.


The treatment of eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, and chemotherapy. In some cases, removal of the causative agent or immunomodulatory therapy may be necessary.


Eosinophilia can lead to a number of complications, including:

* Anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction)
* Asthma
* Eosinophilic granulomas (collections of eosinophils that can cause organ damage)
* Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (conditions where eosinophils invade the digestive tract)


The prognosis for eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause, but in general, the condition is not life-threatening. However, if left untreated, complications can arise and the condition can have a significant impact on quality of life.

In conclusion, eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in eosinophils in the body. While it can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, and autoimmune disorders, the underlying cause must be identified and treated in order to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

Symptoms of pneumonia may include cough, fever, chills, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. In severe cases, pneumonia can lead to respiratory failure, sepsis, and even death.

There are several types of pneumonia, including:

1. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): This type of pneumonia is caused by bacteria or viruses and typically affects healthy people outside of hospitals.
2. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP): This type of pneumonia is caused by bacteria or fungi and typically affects people who are hospitalized for other illnesses or injuries.
3. Aspiration pneumonia: This type of pneumonia is caused by food, liquids, or other foreign matter being inhaled into the lungs.
4. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): This type of pneumonia is caused by a fungus and typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS.
5. Viral pneumonia: This type of pneumonia is caused by viruses and can be more common in children and young adults.

Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment may involve antibiotics, oxygen therapy, and supportive care to manage symptoms and help the patient recover. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive care and monitoring.

Prevention of pneumonia includes vaccination against certain types of bacteria and viruses, good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for those affected by pneumonia.

Synonyms: Bronchial Constriction, Airway Spasm, Reversible Airway Obstruction.

Antonyms: Bronchodilation, Relaxation of Bronchial Muscles.

Example Sentences:

1. The patient experienced bronchial spasms during the asthma attack and was treated with an inhaler.
2. The bronchial spasm caused by the allergic reaction was relieved by administering epinephrine.
3. The doctor prescribed corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and prevent future bronchial spasms.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Egg hypersensitivity can be caused by either an immunoglobulin E (IgE) or non-IgE mechanism. IgE is an antibody produced by the immune system in response to an allergen, and it is responsible for triggering the allergic reaction. Non-IgE mechanisms are not well understood but may involve other immune cells such as T cells and macrophages.

The symptoms of egg hypersensitivity can vary from person to person and may range from mild to severe. In addition to anaphylaxis, they may include:

* Hives or itchy skin
* Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat
* Difficulty breathing or swallowing
* Abdominal cramps
* Diarrhea
* Vomiting

Egg hypersensitivity can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:

* Skin prick test (SPT): This is the most common method of testing for egg hypersensitivity. It involves placing a small amount of egg protein on the skin and then pricking the skin with a small needle to allow the protein to enter the body. If a person is allergic to eggs, a raised bump or hive will appear within 15-20 minutes.
* Blood test: A blood test can measure the levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in the blood, which are responsible for triggering the allergic reaction. High levels of IgE antibodies indicate an egg hypersensitivity.
* Food challenge: This involves feeding a person increasing amounts of egg to see if they experience any symptoms.

There is no cure for egg hypersensitivity, but there are several treatments available to manage the symptoms. These include:

* Avoidance: The best way to manage egg hypersensitivity is to avoid eggs altogether. This can be challenging, as eggs are a common ingredient in many foods.
* Antihistamines: These medications can help relieve mild to moderate symptoms such as hives and itching.
* Corticosteroids: These medications can help reduce inflammation and swelling.
* Epinephrine injectors: These devices administer a dose of epinephrine, which can help reverse severe symptoms such as anaphylaxis.
* Immunotherapy: This involves exposing the person to small amounts of egg protein over time to build up their tolerance to the allergen.

It is important to note that egg hypersensitivity can be life-threatening, especially in cases of anaphylaxis. Therefore, it is crucial to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The function of ovalbumin is unknown, although it is presumed to be a storage protein. Ovalbumin is an important protein in ... Ovalbumin's signal sequence is not cleaved off, but remains as part of the mature protein. When heated, ovalbumin undergoes a ... Ovalbumin (abbreviated OVA) is the main protein found in egg white, making up approximately 55% of the total protein. Ovalbumin ... Ovalbumin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short description, Short ...
The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TFs) proteins are members of the nuclear receptor family of ... Park JI, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ (2003). "Molecular mechanism of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP-TF) ...
Ovalbumin is the protein which makes up around two-thirds of the white of an egg. When an egg is cooked, the ovalbumin changes ... Hu, H. Y.; Du, H. N. (2000). "α-to-β Structural transformation of ovalbumin: Heat and pH effects". Journal of Protein Chemistry ... Huntington, J. A.; Stein, P. E. (2001). "Structure and properties of ovalbumin". Journal of Chromatography B. 756 (1-2): 189- ...
The non-inhibitory serpin ovalbumin is the most abundant protein in egg white. Its exact function is unknown, but it is thought ... Stein PE, Leslie AG, Finch JT, Turnell WG, McLaughlin PJ, Carrell RW (September 1990). "Crystal structure of ovalbumin as a ... This together with the subsequent solving of the structure of native (uncleaved) ovalbumin indicated that the inhibitory ... Hunt LT, Dayhoff MO (July 1980). "A surprising new protein superfamily containing ovalbumin, antithrombin-III, and alpha 1- ...
Ovalbumin is the most abundant protein in albumen. Classed as phosphoglycoprotein, during storage, it converts into s-ovalbumin ... Ovalbumin in solution is heat-resistant. Denaturation temperature is around 84°C, but it can be easily denatured by physical ... and trivalent metal cations into a complex and is more heat sensitive than ovalbumin. At its isoelectric pH (6.5), it can bind ...
... and ovalbumin; epidermal growth factor and the light chain of coagulation factor X; and apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, C-I and C- ...
Ovalbumin is frequently contaminated with endotoxins. Ovalbumin is one of the extensively studied proteins in animal models and ... "Endotoxin contamination of ovalbumin suppresses murine immunologic responses and development of airway hyper-reactivity". The ... also an established model allergen for airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Commercially available ovalbumin that is contaminated ...
As a member of the ovalbumin-related serpin family, PAI-2 is genetically similar to chicken ovalbumin (Gallus gallus), and is a ... Both ovalbumin and PAI-2 undergo secretion via uncleaved secretory signal peptides, although PAI-2 secretion is relatively much ... the ovalbumin family of serine protease inhibitors". Journal of Molecular Biology. 335 (2): 437-53. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2003.10. ... The nearest mammalian homologue of chicken ovalbumin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (10): 5495-502. doi:10.1016/ ...
Egg white ovalbumin and anti ovalbumin antibody system was established in his lab, and was used to study the in vitro protein- ... As opposed to ovalbumin, the denaturation of egg white ovomucoid protein did not proceed in a single step but occurred in two ... The transition of ovalbumin from native (N) in the absence of denaturant to the denatured protein in random coil structure (D) ... The viscosity of ovalbumin in the absence of guanidine hydrochloride was low, 3.55 mL/g. However, viscosity in aqueous solution ...
Fluorescent conjugates of ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin". Biochem. J. 51 (2): 155-168. doi:10.1042/bj0510155. PMC 1197815 ...
Perlmann, G. E. (1948). "Electrophoretic behavior of modified ovalbumins". Nature. 161 (4097): 720-721. Bibcode:1948Natur.161.. ...
Turato, C.; Pontisso, P. (2015). "SERPINB3 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 3)". Atlas of Genetics and ...
Xu Z, Yu S, Hsu CH, Eguchi J, Rosen ED (February 2008). "The orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter- ... The COUP acronym stands for chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter. COUP-TFII plays a critical role in controlling the development ... De Martino MU, Alesci S, Chrousos GP, Kino T (2004). "Interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor and the chicken ovalbumin ... "Isolation of a Novel Family of C2H2 Zinc Finger Proteins Implicated in Transcriptional Repression Mediated by Chicken Ovalbumin ...
Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINB10 gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 10". Huber R, Carrell RW (November 1989). "Implications of ... is characterized by a high degree of homology to chicken ovalbumin, lack of N- and C-terminal extensions, absence of a signal ...
The egg white proteins, mainly ovalbumin, "function as structure formers. Egg solids, chiefly the egg white solids combined ...
Two amino acid storage proteins in animals are casein and ovalbumin. Seeds, particularly of leguminous plants, contain high ...
"Entrez Gene: SERPINB8 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 8". Hubberstey A, Yu G, Loewith R, et al. (1997 ... and partial characterization of two novel members of the ovalbumin family of serine proteinase inhibitors". J Biol Chem. 270 ( ...
"Entrez Gene: SERPINB4 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 4". Barnes RC, Worrall DM (1995). "Identification ...
"Entrez Gene: SERPINB13 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 13". Spring P, Nakashima T, Frederick M, et al ... UV-repressible serine proteinase inhibitor of the ovalbumin serpin family". J Mol Biol. 293 (1): 29-39. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ...
"Entrez Gene: SERPINB7 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 7". Tsujimoto M, Tsuruoka N, Ishida N, et al. ( ...
"Entrez Gene: SERPINB9 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 9". Sun J, Bird CH, Sutton V, et al. (1996). "A ... PI9 and ELANH2 which have a common structure almost identical to the 18q21 ovalbumin serpin genes". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 82 (3 ... and partial characterization of two novel members of the ovalbumin family of serine proteinase inhibitors". J Biol Chem. 270 ( ...
"Entrez Gene: SERPINB6 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 6". Sun J, Coughlin P, Salem HH, Bird P (1995). " ... PI9 and ELANH2 which have a common structure almost identical to the 18q21 ovalbumin serpin genes". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 82 (3 ...
They are not in the same family as vertebrate albumins: Ovalbumin is a storage protein in egg white (albumen). It is a serpin. ... See § Other albumin types for lactalbumin, ovalbumin and plant "2S albumin". Albumins in general are transport proteins that ...
... and ovalbumin from egg white". Poultry Science. 93 (4): 1001-1009. doi:10.3382/ps.2013-03403. PMID 24706978. Fee, Conan J.; Van ...
"Entrez Gene: SERPINB3 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 3". Suminami Y, Kishi F, Sekiguchi K, Kato H ( ...
It is a member of the clade B serpins or ov-serpins (ovalbumin related serpins) founded by ovalbumin. MNEI (monocyte/neutrophil ... "Entrez Gene: SERPINB1 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 1". Benarafa C, Remold-O'Donnell E (August 2005 ... "The ovalbumin serpins revisited: perspective from the chicken genome of clade B serpin evolution in vertebrates". Proc. Natl. ... PI9 and ELANH2 which have a common structure almost identical to the 18q21 ovalbumin serpin genes". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 82 ( ...
Coup (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter) transcription factor binds to the ovalbumin promoter and, in conjunction with ... Rohr O, Schwartz C, Hery C, Aunis D, Tardieu M, Schaeffer E (Jan 2000). "The nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream ... Tsai SY, Tsai MJ (Apr 1997). "Chick ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFs): coming of age". Endocrine ... Sawaya BE, Rohr O, Aunis D, Schaeffer E (Sep 1996). "Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor, a ...
The most common carriers include serum globulin, albumins, ovalbumin and many others. Although proteins are mostly employed for ...
After their discovery in adenovirus, introns were found in a number of eukaryotic genes such as the eukaryotic ovalbumin gene ( ... Lai EC, Woo SL, Dugaiczyk A, Catterall JF, O'Malley BW (May 1978). "The ovalbumin gene: structural sequences in native chicken ... O'Hare K, Breathnach R, Benoist C, Chambon P (September 1979). "No more than seven interruptions in the ovalbumin gene: ...
Also, BLT2 knockout mice exhibited a greatly enhanced response to ovalbumin challenge. Finally, BLT2 receptor expression was ... In a mice model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway disease, 12-HHT and its companion cyclooxygenase metabolites, ... showed a statistically significantly increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels after intratracheal ovalbumin challenge; ...
... Immunology. 1998 Mar; ... A single injection of M. vaccae into ovalbumin (OVA)-preimmunized BALB/c mice suppressed serum IgE over a wide dose range (10(7 ... but also the potential for ovalbumin-induced IL-5 production by spleen cells. This non-specific ability of a mycobacterium to ...
Microspheres as a Delivery System of Protein Ovalbumin Used as a Model Protein Drug ... FTIR spectra of ovalbumin microspheres (after formulation). Cumulative ovalbumin release pattern varied by 20% in the ... The FTIR analysis showed the structural integrity of ovalbumin in PLGA microspheres. PLGA microspheres containing ovalbumin as ... Ovalbumin-loaded PLGA microspheres had a loss in yield. The loss of yield might be mainly due to the adherence of primary ...
OVALBUMIN is the predominant protein in egg white, comprising approximately 54% of the total protein. ... OVALBUMIN 90: ≥ 90% purity. Note: 5X Crystalline powder found elsewhere is typically specified at ≥80% purity. References. * ... OVALBUMIN is the predominant egg-white protein, comprising 54% of the total. A 43kDa glycoprotein also known as albumin from ... As one of the first to be purified in crystalline form, OVALBUMIN was among the earliest proteins to be readily available in ...
Order Chicken egg ovalbumin OVA 323-339 peptide control peptide 01011972186 at Gentaur egg ovalbumin OVA (323-339) peptide ... Ovalbumin (abbreviated OVA) is the main protein found in egg white, making up 60-65% of the total protein. Ovalbumin displays ... Chicken egg ovalbumin OVA (323-339) peptide control peptide. Size:. 1 mg. Catalog no:. OVA3231-P. Price:. 282 EUR. Buy online ... The function of ovalbumin is unknown, although it is presumed to be a storage protein. OVA is also the best characterized and ...
Synthesis of an ovalbumin-like protein by Escherichia coli K12 harbouring a recombinant plasmid. scientific article published ... Synthesis of an ovalbumin-like protein by Escherichia coli K12 harbouring a recombinant plasmid (English) ... The presence of ovalbumin mRNA coding sequences in multiple restriction fragments of chicken DNA ... Thiol and disulphide contents of hen ovalbumin. C-Terminal sequence and location of disulphide bond ...
Gekko gecko extract attenuates airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in a murine model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. ... using an established mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS:. To evaluate the anti-asthmatic effects of ...
Hypersensitivity of vagal pulmonary C-fibers induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. / Lin, Yu ... Hypersensitivity of vagal pulmonary C-fibers induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. In: ... Hypersensitivity of vagal pulmonary C-fibers induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. American ... title = "Hypersensitivity of vagal pulmonary C-fibers induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats", ...
Estimated to contain ,50 femtograms (5x10-8 µg) of total egg protein (of which ovalbumin is a fraction) per 0.5 mL dose of ... Ovalbumin is not directly measured for Flucelvax, but it is estimated by calculation from the initial content in the reference ... Owens G, MacGinnitie A. Higher-ovalbumin-content influenza vaccines are well tolerated in children with egg allergy. J Allergy ... Among IIVs for which ovalbumin content was disclosed during the 2011-12 through 2014-15 seasons, reported maximum amounts were ...
Bee venom (BV) is one of the alternative medicines that have been widely used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. We previously demonstrated that BV induces immune tolerance by increasing the population of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in immune disorders. However, the major component and how it regulates the immune response have not been elucidated. We investigated whether bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) exerts protective effects that are mediated via Tregs in OVA-induced asthma model. bvPLA2 was administered by intraperitoneal injection into control and OVA-challenged mice. The Treg population, total and differential bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell count, Th2 cytokines, and lung histological features were assessed. Treg depletion was used to determine the involvement of Treg migration and the reduction of asthmatic symptoms. The CD206-dependence of bvPLA2-treated suppression of airway inflammation was evaluated in OVA-challenged CD206(-/-) mice. The bvPLA2 treatment induced
Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were immunized subcutaneously with 25 µg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 25 µg OVA ... The study was conducted to investigate the promoted immune response to ovalbumin in mice by chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) and ... Chitosan Nanoparticles Act as an Adjuvant to Promote both Th1 and Th2 Immune Responses Induced by Ovalbumin in Mice by Zheng- ... Adjuvant effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice. Vaccine 2004, 22, 3882-3889. [ ...
The purified apisin and ovalbumin (Sigma-Aldrich Co., LLC., Missouri, USA), which was used as an internal standard, were ...
Ovalbumin was used as a negative control of binding. (B) Prediction of the epitope recognized by 4C3 on PR3. View of the top 30 ... Neutrophils were pre-incubated with 4C3 or with 6H4, a human anti-ovalbumin IgG1κ strictly produced and stored under the same ... anti-ovalbumin) was used as a negative control. A combination of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 50 ng/ml) and calcium ... 4C3 did not recognize non-relevant antigens such as ovalbumin, peanut and alpha-gal, whereas 5D11 did (Figure 1A right panel). ...
Ovalbumin; PPOH, 6-(2-Propargyloxyphenyl) hexanoic acid; TGA, C70-tetraglycolate ...
Most patients who react to the ovalbumin skin test can ingest ovalbumin without any difficulties. Genuine anaphylactic ... ovalbumin). Both had serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactive with the ovalbumin-related antigens in measles vaccine and MMR. ... Egg allergy refers to an IgE-mediated immediate reaction to ovalbumin, the most severe manifestation being anaphylactic shock. ... Both children had serum IgE reactive with ovalbumin-related antigens in the vaccine. They had no detectable IgE directed ...
Kumar, R.K., Herbert, C. & Foster, P.S. The "classical" ovalbumin challenge model of asthma in mice. Curr. Drug Targets 9, 485- ...
... ovalbumin-induced inflammation; and (c) house dust mite-induced inflammation. Aim 2: Evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of ...
Dose-dependent thiol and immune responses to ovalbumin challenge in Brown Norway rats. ... were measured following ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation challenge. Alveolar macrophages (AM) and pulmonary-associated lymph node ... ovalbumin; parathymic and tracheal lymph nodes; thiols ...
The scientists used an innocuous protein called ovalbumin for their screen. Mice inhaling either ovalbumin alone or any of a ... However, when given together, certain products caused some mice to become sensitized to ovalbumin and develop airway ... The scientists saw particularly strong allergic airway responses in mice receiving ovalbumin together with a bacterial protein ...
2023 EndoFit Ovalbumin Szeto A.C.H. et al. (Nat Immunol. ). 2023 AddaVax™ Chiba S. et al. (Vaccine ) ...
6. Ovalbumen, Sarc, and Viral Genes in Chicken Chromosomes Creator: UCSF Date: [1978] Genre: Slides (photographs). Graphs 7 ...
Smith D, Wong P, Gomez R, White K. Ovalbumin content in the yellow fever vaccine. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2015;3(5):794- ... The influenza vaccines contained three different amounts of egg protein (ovalbumin/ovomucoid; 0.1, 1.2, and 0.02 mcg/mL). No ... The authors tested four lots of the vaccine manufactured in the United States revealing different concentrations of ovalbumin ... 0.24 mcg/0.2 mL dose of ovalbumin was investigated in 282 children aged 2-17 years with documented IgE-mediated food allergy to ...
Bromelain limits airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of established asthma. Altern Ther Health M. 2012; 18 ... Oral Bromelain Attenuates Inflammation in an Ovalbumin-induced Murine Model of Asthma. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 ... Bromelain exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease. Cell Immunol. 2005 ... Oral Bromelain Attenuates Inflammation in an Ovalbumin-induced Murine Model of Asthma. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 ...
Here, we report that AhR-deficient mice develop increased allergic responses to the model allergen ovalbumin (OVA), which are ... Ovalbumin; Pneumonia/chemically induced; Pneumonia/immunology; Pneumonia/metabolism*; Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/agonists; ...
Traditional Medicinal Plants Conferring Protection Against Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma in Experimental Animals: A Review. Azman S ... we evaluated the effect of oral or intraperitoneal administrations of noni juice in vivo on the lung inflammation in ovalbumin ...
The amount of ovalbumin was determined by ELISA, which was considered satisfactory in concentrations ,10 ng/mL. Aluminum ...
Name: serine (or cysteine) peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 3B. Synonyms: Scca2-rs ...
In adulthood, or at the age of 45 days, the animals were fed with the egg white protein ovalbumin - which had not previously ... Rats descending from the control group developed a food tolerance of ovalbumin, which resulted in a lack of immune responses, ... The researchers then looked out for any immune reaction directed against ovalbumin among the animals. ... Furthermore, repeated oral administrations of ovalbumin in these rats induced colonic inflammation that often characterises ...
After initial intraperitoneal sensitization and airway challenge to ovalbumin (OVA), mice were provoked by additional exposure ...
  • In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. (
  • Background: We have previously shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in sensitised animals 18 h after ovalbumin (OVA) challenge inhibits OVA-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). (
  • Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Airway Inflammation in a Murine Model of Ovalbumin-Challenged Asthma. (
  • Lindera obtusiloba Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Airway Inflammation in a Murine Model of Ovalbumin-Challenged Asthma. (
  • Bee venom phospholipase A2 suppresses allergic airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced asthma model through the induction of regulatory T cells. (
  • Mice inhaling either ovalbumin alone or any of a series of microbial products alone didn't have airway reactions. (
  • However, when given together, certain products caused some mice to become sensitized to ovalbumin and develop airway inflammation when later exposed. (
  • The scientists saw particularly strong allergic airway responses in mice receiving ovalbumin together with a bacterial protein called flagellin. (
  • Here, we investigated whether endogenous apo A-I modulates ovalbumin (OVA)-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation in mice. (
  • We conclude that endogenous apoA-I negatively regulates key pathways that mediate the chemotaxis, vascular adhesion and survival of neutrophils in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. (
  • Cysteine (CYSH), glutathione (GSH), and markers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured following ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation challenge. (
  • Here, ovalbumin was used as a model protein drug. (
  • In vitro protein release study showed that release profile of ovalbumin from biodegradable microspheres varied due to the change in homogenizing speeds during multiple emulsion preparation technique. (
  • PLGA microspheres containing ovalbumin as a model protein could be useful for the controlled delivery of similar protein drugs. (
  • The purpose of the present study was to develop protein (ovalbumin)-loaded microspheres with biodegradable polymer, poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and standardization of various process parameters such as homogenizing speed during preparations, particle surface morphology and surface charges, particle size and in vitro protein release to obtain microspheres with maximum protein-loading and minimum polydispersion with a maximally sustained protein release pattern. (
  • OVALBUMIN is the predominant egg-white protein, comprising 54% of the total. (
  • Ovalbumin (abbreviated OVA) is the main protein found in egg white, making up 60-65% of the total protein. (
  • The function of ovalbumin is unknown, although it is presumed to be a storage protein. (
  • The scientists used an innocuous protein called ovalbumin for their screen. (
  • Objective: In the present study, the anti-allergic effect of OR extract was evaluated on an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis in mice and rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). (
  • The study was conducted to investigate the promoted immune response to ovalbumin in mice by chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) and its toxicity. (
  • Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were immunized subcutaneously with 25 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 25 μg OVA dissolved in saline containing Quil A (10 μg), chitosan (CS) (50 μg) or CNP (12.5, 50 or 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. (
  • Here, we report that AhR-deficient mice develop increased allergic responses to the model allergen ovalbumin (OVA), which are driven in part by increased dendritic cell (DC) functional activation. (
  • on ovalbumin-induced asthma mice. (
  • In this study we evaluated the effect of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) isolated from Alpinia galanga rhizomes in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. (
  • In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the methanolic extract of L. obtusiloba leaves (LOL) in an ovalbumin ( OVA )-challenged allergic asthma model and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated NCI-H292 cell . (
  • The full-length pigeon ovalbumin (OVA) gene cDNA was cloned and sequenced by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. (
  • Ovalbumin displays sequence and three-dimensional homology to the serpin superfamily, but unlike most serpins it is not a serine protease inhibitor. (
  • Sequence of chicken ovalbumin mRNA. (
  • Antiallergic effect of Ostericum koreanum root extract on ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis mouse model and mast cells. (
  • Thiol and disulphide contents of hen ovalbumin. (
  • Dose-dependent thiol and immune responses to ovalbumin challenge in Brown Norway rats. (
  • This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that HWA enhances the pulmonary C-fiber sensitivity in Brown-Norway rats sensitized with ovalbumin (Ova). (
  • The Chicken egg ovalbumin OVA (323-339) peptide control peptide is manufactured for Research Use Only or for diagnostics purposes. (
  • In a common model system, the ovalbumin epitope 323-339 binds the murine class II MHC, I-A(d), in at least three distinct registers. (
  • Catalpol also expressed a therapeutic effect in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic animal model. (
  • The pulmonary effects of two environmentally relevant aldehydes were investigated in ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea-pigs (GP). (
  • ovalbumin content is ≤3 ng/dose (1 mL), based on ELISA. (
  • To revise the Ovalbumin test release specification and make the associated changes to the labeling. (