Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Thermodilution: Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Cardiac Output, High: A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cardiography, Impedance: A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Catheterization, Swan-Ganz: Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Amplifiers, Electronic: Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Ergometry: Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Isotonic Contraction: Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Oliguria: Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Rest: Freedom from activity.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Ytterbium: Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Gastric Acidity Determination: Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.PyridazinesVagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.
Economic output[edit]. Cattle grazing on the salt marshes of the Ribble Estuary near Banks. ...
Outputs[edit]. The status outputs are various individual signals that convey supplemental information about the result of the ... the ALU's output is the result of the performed operation. In many designs, the ALU also has status inputs or outputs, or both ... A basic ALU has three parallel data buses consisting of two input operands (A and B) and a result output (Y). Each data bus is ... An ALU has a variety of input and output nets, which are the electrical conductors used to convey digital signals between the ...
Daily salivary output[edit]. There is much debate about the amount of saliva that is produced in a healthy person per day; ...
Output[edit]. CrimeStat has three different types of output: *Screen output that displays the results once the calculations are ... Graphical output for many routines to allow the calculated objects to be displayed in a GIS. Currently, the graphical output ... Non-graphical output for many routines in either dBase DBF or Ascii text format. ...
Output transformer distortion[edit]. The output transformer sits between the power valves and the speaker, serving to match ... The output level of the guitar's pickups, the setting of the guitar's volume knob, how hard the strings are plucked, and the ... When the valve amplifier was operated at high volume, the power supply voltage would dip, reducing power output and causing ... Because the first component in a valve amplifier is a valve gain stage, the output level of the preceding elements of the ...
The rate of blood flow out of the heart (often expressed in L/min) is known as the cardiac output (CO). ... the cardiac output).[8] Because of this, the velocity of blood flow across each level of the circulatory system is primarily ...
Pressure output[edit]. The maximum pressure, or how much air the pump can force into a tire, is an important consideration. The ...
Largest Countries by agricultural output according to UNCTAD at 2005 constant prices and exchange rates, 2015 [138]. Economy. ... In 2009, the agricultural output of China was the largest in the world, followed by the European Union, India and the United ... List of countries by agricultural output[edit]. Main article: List of countries by GDP sector composition ... Largest countries by agricultural output according to IMF and CIA World Factbook, 2015. Economy. Countries by agricultural ...
... and power output[edit]. Vertical jumps are used to both train and test for power output in athletes. Plyometrics ... power output, and ground reaction force produced.[7][8][9] Fatigue has been researched in athletes for its effect on vertical ... are particularly effective in training for power output, and include vertical jumps of different types in their protocol. In ...
Standard output (stdout)[edit]. Standard output is the stream where a program writes its output data. The program requests data ... The three input/output (I/O) connections are called standard input (stdin), standard output (stdout) and standard error (stderr ... Standard error is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages or diagnostics. It is a stream ... OUTPUT_UNIT. , and ERROR_UNIT. to portably specify the unit numbers. ! FORTRAN 77 example PROGRAM MAIN INTEGER NUMBER READ(UNIT ...
The output power of an engine is dependent on the ability of intake (air-fuel mixture) and exhaust matter to move quickly ... To increase an engine's output power, irregularities in the intake and exhaust paths, such as casting flaws, can be removed, ... When much more power output is required, the engine speed and throttle opening are increased until the exhaust gases are ... Supercharging increases the power output limits of an internal combustion engine relative to its displacement. Most commonly, ...
Outputs / Reports[edit]. As required by this legislation, the UK Government has produced several reports, some of which are set ... The above reports and outputs were supported by the UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) ([58]), and also the UKCP09 ... amendment to allow the Secretary of State to set the maximum level of carbon dioxide that may be emitted per unit of output by ...
Also not all formats can be output. DVD High Definition Smart phone QuickTime Windows Media MPEG-4 XML/EDL Print to tape Web, ... Output options[edit]. Please note that recording to Blu-ray does not imply [email protected]/60p . Most only support up to 1080i 25/30 ...
... open-output-file 'helloworldoutputfile'))) (hello1 output-port) (close-output-port output-port)) ... close-output-port, input-port?, output-port?, current-input-port, current-output-port, call-with-input-file, call-with-output- ... Example 1: With output defaulting to (current-output-port): (let ((hello0 (lambda() (display 'Hello world') (newline)))) ( ... Input/output[edit]. Scheme's input and output is based on the port datatype. (R5RS sec 6.6)[4] R5RS defines two default ports, ...
By purpose and output[edit]. Application software can also be seen as being either horizontal or vertical.[10][11] Horizontal ... and respect of their purpose and outputs. ...
Statistical Outputs[edit]. HESA publishes statistics and analyses based on the data it collects: *Statistical Bulletins - ...
Outputs of the anterior cingulate gyrus[edit]. The rostral cingulate gyrus (Brodmanns's area 32) projects to the rostral ... Outputs of the posterior cingulate gyrus[edit]. The posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 23) sends projections to ...
This relates the multiplier to the 'output of consumption-goods' rather than the output of all goods and ignores the ' ... The first postulate can be expressed in the equation y' (N ) = W / p, where y (N ) is the real output when employment is N, and ... relating the output of consumption-goods which it pays to produce to the output of investment-goods; and I have given attention ... Here y is written as a function of N, the number of workers employed; p is the price (in money terms) of a unit of real output ...
and terminal output (. ). .... A code snippet (code example). Conventionally rendered in a mono-space font. CODE existed in ... Sample output - from a program or script: (samp example). SAMP existed in HTML Internet Draft 1.2, and was standardized in HTML ... for computer output. ... ... Can specify the font colour with the color attribute (note the American spelling), typeface with ...
Output: An s. −. t. {\displaystyle s-t}. flow f. {\displaystyle f}. of maximum value.. *Set f. (. e. ). =. 0. {\displaystyle f( ...
Four categories of management means have been devised, regulating either input/investment, or output, and operating either ...
Output x. =. f. 0. log. g. ⁡. (. −. 1. ). +. f. 1. log. g. ⁡. 2. +. ⋯. +. f. r. log. g. ⁡. p. r. −. s. .. {\displaystyle x=f_{0 ...
Output:. Freezing processor. Loading from 0x00 data: 'Some data from sector 100 with size 1024'. Jumping to: 0x00 Executing. ...
output: result r. {\displaystyle r}. f. ←. 1. {\displaystyle f\leftarrow 1}. r. ←. 0. {\displaystyle r\leftarrow 0}. while i. , ...
outputs Sim. 2. ⁡. (. σ. ,. τ. ,. y. ). {\displaystyle \operatorname {Sim} _{2}(\sigma ,\tau ,y)}. for (. y. ,. w. ). ∈. R. σ. ... and both oracles output failure otherwise. Pairing-based non-interactive proofs[edit]. Pairing-based cryptography has led to ...
... Topic Overview. High-output heart failure happens when the bodys need for blood is unusually high, ... High-output heart failure occurs when the normally functioning heart cannot keep up with an unusually high demand for blood to ... High-output heart failure results in the same symptoms of heart failure, including fatigue and shortness of breath. ... Although the causes of high-output heart failure are different from the cause of other types of heart failure, the end result ...
What is high-output heart failure? Meaning of high-output heart failure as a legal term. What does high-output heart failure ... Definition of high-output heart failure in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to high-output heart failure: low output heart failure. failure. (Bankruptcy), noun commercial failure, default, ... redirected from high-output heart failure). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia. ...
The compound output (Figure 6) tracks the target number but, in parallel with the output from all institutions (Figure 1) ... The intensity of output around this successful target (reflected in the area under the curve of Figure 8A) is related not only ... The three significant output peaks in Figure 12 would seem to support this. There is also an implication of parallel tracking, ... The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of ...
... output of either ventricle per heartbeat) and the number of beats per minute. ... Cardiac output, in human physiology, volume of blood expelled by either ventricle of the heart. It is customarily expressed as ... it expels per minute (the cardiac output). Rapid increase in the cardiac output occurs between the 9th and the 14th week of ... output of either ventricle per heartbeat) and the number of beats per minute. Maintaining and regulating cardiac output, which ...
The majority of the output gap - over 5 percentage points of GDP - could be closed by a retur ... ... The majority of the output gap - over 5 percentage points of GDP - could be closed by a return to trend of the construction of ...
Outputs at a glance Results 1 - 10 of 618 Outcome of the Public Consultation on the draft Scientific Opinion on the state of ... EFSA publishes all its scientific outputs, including its scientific opinions, in the EFSA Journal. It also issues a range of ...
Outputs at a glance Results 1 - 20 of 80 Pre-Accession Study visit to the Croatian food safety authorities. Language English ... EFSA publishes all its scientific outputs, including its scientific opinions, in the EFSA Journal. It also issues a range of ...
German industrial production plunged in May at its sharpest pace in more than two years, suggesting that Europes largest economy struggled to expand in the spring after a robust first quarter.
Summary:. While some credit booms are followed by economic underperformance, many are not. Can lending standards help separate good credit booms from bad credit booms contemporaneously? To observe lending standards internationally, I use information from primary debt capital markets. I construct the high-yield (HY) share of bond issuance for a panel of 38 countries. The HY share is procyclical, suggesting that lending standards in bond markets are extrapolative. Credit booms with deteriorating lending standards (rising HY share) are followed by lower GDP growth in the subsequent three to four years. Such booms deserve attention from policy makers.. ...
Japans output improved modestly in December thanks to strong exports to the U.S., but domestic demand still lacked strength ... TOKYO-Japans output improved modestly in December thanks to strong exports to the U.S., but domestic demand still lacked ... Japan Output Modestly Improves in December. Mixed Figures Also Show Domestic Demand Lacking Strength. ...
... output) is a container element into which a site or app can inject the results of a calculation or the outcome of a user action ... The HTML Output element (. ,output,. ) is a container element into which a site or app can inject the results of a calculation ... The definition of ,output, in that specification.. Living Standard. HTML5. The definition of ,output, in that specification ... If this attribute is not specified, the output element must be a descendant of a form element. This attribute enables you to ...
Economists had forecast that output fell 2.3 percent in February over one month and 17.5 percent over one year.. The February ... the industrial slump showed no sign of letting up in February after factory and refinery output fell in January 2.4 percent ...
PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue: Global Output ... Market Landscape06.1 Output Management Process06.2 Output Management Interface and Integration06.3 Output Management as a ... Exhibit 13: Output Management Market in the EMEA Region (US$ million). Exhibit 14: Output Management Market in the APAC Region ... Exhibit 10: Global Output Management Software Market by Product Type. Exhibit 11: Global Output Management Software Market by ...
Looking for twin output card able to do different resolutions? *Started by realitybites ...
... Endothelial Junctions *Schossleitner K, Rauscher S, Gröger M, Friedl HP, Finsterwalder R, Habertheuer A, Sibilia M, ...
Hammond, Simon P. and Cross, Jane L. and Shepstone, Lee and Backhouse, Tamara and Henderson, Catherine and Poland, Fiona and Sims, Erika and MacLullich, Alasdair and Penhale, Bridget and Howard, Robert and Lambert, Nigel and Varley, Anna and Smith, Toby O. and Sahota, Opinder and Donell, Simon and Patel, Martyn and Ballard, Clive and Young, John and Knapp, Martin and Jackson, Stephen and Waring, Justin and Leavey, Nick and Howard, Gregory and Fox, Chris (2017) PERFECTED enhanced recovery (PERFECT-ER) care versus standard acute care for patients admitted to acute settings with hip fracture identified as experiencing confusion: study protocol for a feasibility cluster randomized controlled trial. Trials, 18 (583). ISSN 1745-6215 Service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening in low- and middle-income countries: a cross-country qualitative study ...
... output 1/2).. it allows you to automate programs only.. can anyone explain how it works? ... I cant find the way to write automation for the whole sequence or for master channel(output 1/2).. it allows you to automate ...
... output) is a container element into which a site or app can inject the results of a calculation or the outcome of a user action ... The HTML Output element (. ,output,. ) is a container element into which a site or app can inject the results of a calculation ... output,. is associated with its ancestor ,form,. element, if any.). This attribute lets you associate ,output,. elements to , ... The definition of ,output, in that specification.. Living Standard. HTML5. The definition of ,output, in that specification ...
... Ian Lance Taylor [email protected] Mon Apr 26 14:09:00 GMT 2010 *Previous message (by thread ... Previous message (by thread): Output of gcc -fdump-tree-original *Next message (by thread): alpha-dec-vms __sync_lock_test_and_ ... Output of gcc -fdump-tree-original *Next message (by thread): alpha-dec-vms __sync_lock_test_and_set char/short -O2 fails on ...
Output Arguments. RESP. Voltage responses of the phased array. The output depends on whether the array supports polarization or ...
BiliScreen provides estimates of bilirubin levels in a persons blood. Elevated levels can be an early warning sign for pancreatic cancer, hepatitis and other diseases.
UK factory output grew at its fastest pace for a quarter in nearly 15 years during the first three months of 2014, official ... Industrial output overall expanded by 0.7% in the first three months of 2014, up from 0.5% in the last three months of 2013 but ... UK factory output grew at its fastest pace in nearly four years during the first quarter of 2014 and the trade deficit narrowed ... UK factory output growth enjoys best quarter in nearly 15 years Updated / Friday, 9 May 2014 13:07 ...
Decreased urine output means that you produce less urine than normal. Most adults make at least 500 mL of urine in 24 hours (a ... Decreased urine output means that you produce less urine than normal. Most adults make at least 500 mL of urine in 24 hours (a ... A large decrease in urine output may be a sign of a serious condition. In some cases, it can be life threatening. Most of the ... You have dizziness, lightheadedness, or a fast pulse with decreased urine output. ...
  • Zanganeh said the OPEC agreement on output cuts would continue until the end of the Iranian year in March 2018 and that "there are talks underway to extend it but they are not official yet. (reuters.com)
  • A range of surveys of companies' expected output weakened at the end of 2018 and are now below their historical averages ( Chart 2.2 ). (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • Looking through the volatility, underlying output growth appears to have slowed relative to 2018, reflecting the impact of Brexit-related uncertainties and weaker global growth. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • Boeing is hoping to boost 737 output to 52 per month, and it hopes to do that in 2018, just after the MAX version enters high-rate production. (forbes.com)
  • Also, the series of input output tables with 69 industries has been updated with data for the year 2016 as well as preliminary versions of the tables for 2017 and 2018. (dst.dk)
  • Economists polled by Reuters had expected output to decline 0.2 percent in April. (cnbc.com)
  • LONDON (Reuters) - OPEC members' compliance with the agreement to reduce output has improved in recent months, Iran's oil minister said on Monday, noting that unofficial talks were underway among the oil producing countries to extend the cuts next year. (reuters.com)
  • SARAJEVO (Reuters) - ArcelorMittal MT.AS resumed output at its Bosnia steel plant on Thursday after a 10-day stoppage due to a drop in demand caused by the coronavirus crisis, its spokesperson told Reuters. (reuters.com)
  • Is there any easy way of extracting and then exporting to excel the coefficients, sig values, r squared etc for all the regression results open on an output window? (stata.com)
  • Guermeur Y., Paugam-Moisy H., Gallinari P. (1998) Multivariate Linear Regression on Classifier Outputs: a Capacity Study. (springer.com)
  • TOKYO-Japan's output improved modestly in December thanks to strong exports to the U.S., but domestic demand still lacked strength and inflation again slowed. (wsj.com)
  • HONG KONG (MarketWatch) -- Japan's industrial production expanded a lower-than-expected 1.4% in December from the previous month, with manufacturers expecting their output to decline over the next two months, according to government data released Wednesday. (marketwatch.com)
  • Tokyo, July 30 (IANS) Japan's industrial output was down 0.1 percent in June from the previous month, marking the third consecutive month of contraction, a government report said Monday. (thaindian.com)
  • The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • U.S. industrial production fell by more than expected in April, reflecting a broad decline in factory output and a weather-related decrease in demand for utilities. (cnbc.com)
  • Looking ahead, manufacturers polled by the ministry anticipated that output will decline 0.1 percent in November and rise 7.5 percent in December. (ecnmag.com)
  • Output by transport equipment makers also rose 1.1 percent for the first increase in six months, after facing a decline in production such as due to the termination of government subsidies to promote the purchase of environmentally friendly vehicles. (ecnmag.com)
  • Output rebounded from a 1.2 percent decline in June. (marketwatch.com)
  • Separate data showed industrial output growth fell 0.5% in March compared with an expansion of 3.5% a year earlier and a decline of 1.8% in the previous month. (indiatimes.com)
  • Data-outputting buffer circuit suitable for reducing noise which is generated in an output buffer circuit part when minus electric filed is applied to a data output pad in inputting data is disclosed, including a noise generation restraining part detecting a level of a signal applied to an input/output. (google.com)
  • 2. The data-outputting buffer circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein the first driving part is composed of a PMOS M5 having a source connected to a Vpp terminal and an NMOS M4 having a source connected to a ground terminal to be turned off by the second noise generation restraining signal and drains of the PMOS and NMOS are connected to the gate of the pullup transistor. (google.com)
  • 3. The data-outputting buffer circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein the second driving part is composed of an inverter for inverting a DOUT signal for outputting the inverted DOUT signal to the gate of the pulldown transistor. (google.com)
  • 4. The data-outputting buffer circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein a noise-reducing resistor R1 is formed between the first driving part and the gate of the pullup transistor, and a noise-reducing resistor R2 is formed between the second driving part and the gate of the pulldown transistor. (google.com)
  • 6. The data-outputting buffer circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein the clamp transistor has a source connected to the input/output pad and a drain connected to both the gate of the pullup transistor and an output terminal of the first driving part through the noise-reducing resistor R1. (google.com)
  • In semiconductor memory devices, a data-outputting buffer circuit serves to output data read from a memory cell to an external chip. (google.com)
  • I'll make the output sink buffer its output in the stream case (it already buffers the whole file in the nsString case). (mozilla.org)
  • However, the diversity and anatomical organization of thalamic relay cells and targets of sub-cortical cerebellar outputs remain poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • it also covers the Global Output Management Software market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. (prnewswire.com)
  • The growth in factory output in the first quarter of 2014 was faster than the 1.3% pencilled into an initial estimate of gross domestic product released last month, but a steep fall in electricity and gas supply dragged down the broader industrial output measure. (rte.ie)
  • Past estimates of NHS output growth have not taken account of changes in quality. (repec.org)
  • Until there is routine collection of health outcomes data, measurement of the quality of NHS output will remain partial and productivity growth is likely to be underestimated. (repec.org)
  • The sustained increase in productivity gains from the spread of ICTs may increase potential output growth in the medium to long term via capital deepening effects and total factor productivity (TFP) gains, and in the short to medium term via the lagged adjustment of wages to productivity gains. (repec.org)
  • ICT Diffusion and Potential Output Growth ," Working papers 112, Banque de France. (repec.org)
  • ICT diffusion and potential output growth ," Post-Print hal-01295834, HAL. (repec.org)
  • Official data from the ONS suggest that output growth slowed to 0.3% in the three months to November, with growth in the manufacturing and energy sectors slowing particularly sharply. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • Output growth was volatile in 2019 H1, largely driven by Brexit-related stockbuilding. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • Erratic monthly moves in output around the turn of the year also boosted growth in Q1. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • One area of the economy where this effect may be apparent is in business services and finance, where output growth has slowed sharply ( Chart 2.4 ). (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • Retail inflation accelerated to a three-month high of 8.6% in April, while industrial output fell for the second consecutive month in March, highlighting the steep challenge for the new government to tame price pressures and revive growth when it assumes office later in the month. (indiatimes.com)
  • This is estimated to have boosted domestic output by between 0.1 to 0.2 percentage points in 2019 Q1, largely within the manufacturing sector, as companies in the UK and elsewhere in the EU built inventories of UK products. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • It is projected to remain subdued in 2019 H2, with business surveys pointing to broadly flat output in 2019 Q3. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • UK factory output grew at its fastest pace in nearly four years during the first quarter of 2014 and the trade deficit narrowed, official data showed today. (rte.ie)
  • A breakdown of the data showed that output fell in all industrial sectors except for energy. (reuters.com)
  • German industrial output fell 1.8 percent during October, mainly due to weaker production of machinery and cars, preliminary data showed Tuesday. (newsmax.com)
  • German industrial output fell 1.8 percent during October, mainly due to weaker production of machinery and cars, preliminary data showed Tuesday.The fall followed a healthy 3.1 percent increase in September, revised up from an initial estimate of 2.7 percent, the Economy. (newsmax.com)
  • Oliguria is considered to be a urinary output of less than 400 milliliters, which is less than about 13.5 ounces, over the course of 24 hours. (healthline.com)
  • Output Manager uses: Db2® for metadata repository, DFSMS for report content management, DFSMShsm for data lifecycle management and RACF for security and access control. (ibm.com)
  • Output Manager allows you to control who sees the report content and the list of report names. (ibm.com)
  • The save code passes an nsIOutputStream to the content sink, and the nsHTMLContentSinkStream calls Write() with lots of small chunks on this output stream. (mozilla.org)
  • We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • BEIJING - The growing shortage of farmland and water resources may prevent China from achieving its ambitious grain output targets in the next decade, warned both officials and experts. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The Office for National Statistics said manufacturing output grew by 1.4% in the first three months of the year, up from 0.6% in the last three months of 2013. (rte.ie)
  • Today's figures showed that industrial output dropped 0.1% on the month in March after a 0.8% rise in February, while factory output grew by 0.5%, building on February's 1% rise. (rte.ie)
  • By sector, production by electronic parts and devices makers grew a record-high 14.7 percent amid increased output of parts used in smartphones for shipments in Asia, including China, a ministry official said. (ecnmag.com)
  • Output grew by 0.6% in Q3. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • 3) Pure sine wave output with good transient response, little harmonic distortion, higher conversion efficiency and stable output voltage features. (alibaba.com)
  • if not, you'll have to keep it as a variable, 'A' is often used for it, and your final result will for the output voltage will be an expression involving A. A typical value for A for modern OpAmps is in the neighborhood of 10 6 or 10 7 . (physicsforums.com)
  • Developing new approaches to measuring NHS outputs and productivity ," NIESR Discussion Papers 264, National Institute of Economic and Social Research. (repec.org)
  • But these grain output increases cannot be continued since China does not have much additional farmland to be cultivated in the future," he said. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Economists had forecast that output fell 2.3 percent in February over one month and 17.5 percent over one year. (france24.com)
  • Economists say that they were pleased with the output data while the jobs figure wasn't bad. (marketwatch.com)
  • With the eurozone mired in recession, the industrial slump showed no sign of letting up in February after factory and refinery output fell in January 2.4 percent over one month and 16.0 percent over one year. (france24.com)
  • Industrial output overall expanded by 0.7% in the first three months of 2014, up from 0.5% in the last three months of 2013 but slower than the 0.8% estimate in last month's GDP data. (rte.ie)
  • Britain's economy overall expanded by 0.8% in the first quarter, and the ONS said that this estimate was not materially affected by today's new data on industrial output and construction output. (rte.ie)
  • I think Japan has been in recession from this spring, but the industrial output survey suggests that the period could be relatively short -- possibly by the end of the year," Shinke said. (ecnmag.com)
  • Industrial output decreased by 1.4 percent after falling by a revised 0.9 percent in September. (reuters.com)
  • lp__" in Stan's output would be the sum of the "lp" vector, which essentially quantifies how well the model match the data, hereby useful for model comparison purposes. (jax.org)
  • Facing a rising population, the central government plans to boost China's annual grain output to more than 550 million tons by 2020, an increase of 50 million tons over 2007. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The majority of the output gap - over 5 percentage points of GDP - could be closed by a return to trend of the construction of housing, hospitals and medical facilities and public infrastructure as well as an increase to trend in the production of transportation equipment. (slate.com)
  • In August output rose by 2.6 percent, which was the biggest increase in more than six years. (reuters.com)
  • Jeremy Douglas, UNODC regional representative for Southeast Asia and Pacific, says that although output has stabilized, the long-term trend in recent years has been for a steady increase in production. (voanews.com)
  • But the UK's composite output PMI is now at the bottom of a range of advanced economies ( Chart 2.3 ), so the weakness is likely to also reflect an increase in Brexit-related uncertainties. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • The increase of the grain output in recent years is mainly due to enlarging the planted areas, as the government encouraged farmers to produce grain by offering subsidies since 2004," said Lu Bu, a researcher with the institute of agriculture resources and regional planning at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • In the present arrangement the input surface is provided with pads to increase the mass ratio between the input and output sections for effecting substantially uniform motional amplitude along the entire output surface. (google.ca)
  • Thus, for R&D, while there is adequate data to measure the "D" output an equivalent assessment of "R" (as the input to "D") is much more difficult. (drugpatentwatch.com)
  • That assessment is partly based on survey indicators of companies' output that have weakened in recent months (Section 2.1), although the outlook over coming quarters is more uncertain than usual. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • Total percentage of output materials that are treated by an on-site system or device for treating waste products (other than water) such as methane digestion, tower scrubbers, reed beds, marsh treatment, etc. (greenbuildingpages.com)
  • We show that the EMG outputs of two cortical points simultaneously stimulated are additive. (jneurosci.org)
  • Based on its survey of companies, METI expects manufacturers' output to rise 2 percent in August and climb 1.5 percent in September. (marketwatch.com)