Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.United StatesLymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.JapanNeoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.ItalyPatient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Discriminant Analysis: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.BrazilStomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.CreatinineLymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Karnofsky Performance Status: A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.GermanyNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.TaiwanImmunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Patient Outcome AssessmentElectrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.CaliforniaCarcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.IndiaNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Many of the potential favorable outcomes of the Forum were assessed on constructs represented in the multivariate analyses (i.e ... with the exception of one univariate effect, no evidence of negative effects was found on any of the measures [...] ... or long-term multivariate treatment effects. On one, Perceived Control, the short- but not the long-term multivariate ... Professor of Communication Studies, Bruce R. Hyde in his paper, "Saying the Clearing: A Heideggerian Analysis of the ...
Many of the potential favorable outcomes of the Forum were assessed on constructs represented in the multivariate analyses (i.e ... with the exception of one univariate effect, no evidence of negative effects was found on any of the measures [...] ... or long-term multivariate treatment effects. On one, Perceived Control, the short- but not the long-term multivariate ... Hyde, R. B., Saying the Clearing: A Heideggerian Analysis of the Ontological Rhetoric of Werner Erhard, University of Southern ...
... multivariate analyses that play a similar role to the corresponding set of distributions that are used in univariate analysis ... univariate) conditional distribution of a single outcome variable given the other variables. There are many different models, ... The application of multivariate statistics is multivariate analysis. Multivariate statistics concerns understanding the ... each with its own type of analysis: Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) extends the analysis of variance to cover cases ...
... a decision must be made as to whether a univariate or multivariate analysis is selected. If a univariate method is selected, ... Their outcomes are represented on the left-hand side of the matrix, while differences between the outcomes for each treatment ... "Sphericity in Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance" (PDF). Collier, R. O., Jr., Baker, F. B., Mandeville, G. K., & Hayes, T. ... In general, Wilks' lambda has been recommended as the most appropriate multivariate test statistic to use. While Mauchly's test ...
History of hypertension, although not associated in the univariate analysis, became significant in the multivariate model ... Koziol JA, Feng AC; Feng (October 2006). "On the analysis and interpretation of outcome measures in stroke clinical trials: ... "Cardiac papillary fibroelastoma: a comprehensive analysis of 725 cases". Division of Cardiology, Long Island College Hospital; ... "Microplasmin: a novel thrombolytic that improves behavioral outcome after embolic strokes in rabbits". Department of ...
... unlike univariate ANOVA, it uses the covariance between outcome variables in testing the statistical significance of the mean ... Where sums of squares appear in univariate analysis of variance, in multivariate analysis of variance certain positive-definite ... multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a procedure for comparing multivariate sample means. As a multivariate procedure ... "Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA): I. Theory" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-22. Garson, G. David. "Multivariate GLM, MANOVA ...
A probability distribution can either be univariate or multivariate. A univariate distribution gives the probabilities of a ... A secondary analysis of the data from a planned study uses tools from data analysis. Data analysis is divided into: descriptive ... The outcome of statistical inference may be an answer to the question "what should be done next?", where this might be a ... The multivariate normal distribution is a commonly encountered multivariate distribution. Normal distribution (Gaussian ...
... as well as multivariate source-based morphometry[40] (SBM) to investigate a structural network of loss aversion and univariate ... mean outcome) in tasks where outcomes are framed as losses than when they are framed as gains. Yechiam and Hochman [14] found ... "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 89 (2): 145-155. doi:10.1901/jeab.2008-89-145. ISSN 0022-5002. PMC 2251327. ... 2008). "On loss aversion in capuchin monkeys". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 89 (2): 145-155. doi:10.1901/ ...
... as well as multivariate source-based morphometry (SBM) to investigate a structural network of loss aversion and univariate ... Finally, losses may have an effect on attention but not on the weighting of outcomes; as suggested, for instance, by the fact ... Yechiam, E.; Hochman, G. (2013). "Losses as modulators of attention: Review and analysis of the unique effects of losses over ... Outcome anticipation and ensuing loss aversion involve multiple neural systems, showing functional and structural individual ...
... but it uses multiple outcomes. Anderson's 1958 textbook, An Introduction to Multivariate Analysis, educated a generation of ... Regression analysis Soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA) Statistical interference Univariate analysis ... includes multivariate analysis. The Unscrambler® X is a multivariate analysis tool. Bivariate analysis Design of experiments ( ... Multivariate analysis can be complicated by the desire to include physics-based analysis to calculate the effects of variables ...
link, pdf Draper, N.L., Smith, H. (1998) Applied Regression analysis, 3rd Edition, Wiley. ISBN 0-471-17082-8 M. Gebel, "[2]," ... The following univariate calibration methods exist for transforming classifier scores into class membership probabilities in ... The following multivariate calibration methods exist for transforming classifier scores into class membership probabilities in ... specifically that the magnitude of the assigned probabilities track the relative frequency of the observed outcomes. Philip E. ...
Thus, mean imputation has some attractive properties for univariate analysis but becomes problematic for multivariate analysis ... developed a method for averaging the outcomes across multiple imputed data sets to account for this. All multiple imputation ... Analysis - Each of the m datasets is analyzed. At the end of this step there should be m analyses. Pooling - The m results are ... involves deleting a case when it is missing a variable required for a particular analysis, but including that case in analyses ...
Includes univariate and multivariate probability mass functions, distribution functions, quantiles, random variable generating ... The sampling distribution of responders in group X conditional upon the trial outcome and prevalences, P r ( X = x , X + Y = n ... "The saddlepoint correction in conditional logistic likelihood analysis", Biometrika, 77 (2), pp. 275-285, doi:10.1093/biomet/ ... The multivariate distribution is used when there are more than two colors. The probability function and a simple approximation ...
D-STEM is a software based on the MATLAB language able to handle spatiotemporal univariate and multivariate datasets. The ... Sampling from the entire probability density function f(z,x) by actually considering each possible outcome of it at each ... "Statios - WinGslib". Finazzi, F. and Fassò, A. (2014). "D-STEM: A Software for the Analysis and Mapping of Environmental Space- ... Wackernagel, H. (2003). Multivariate geostatistics, Third edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 387 pp. Pyrcz, M. J. and Deutsch, C ...
... either univariate or multi-variate) interact in a complex system of equations. He concluded that only this third type of model ... He claims (in 1947 and 1957) that if a complete analysis is to be done, a decision will be immensely complex. He also says that ... "The Influence of Cognitive-Based Group Composition on Decision-Making Process and Outcome." Journal of Management Studies. 35.1 ... They are the univariate model (He called it the "simple scheme".) in which only one behavioural determinant was allowed in a ...
ISBN 0-471-57428-7. Geisser, S. (1965). "Bayesian Estimation in Multivariate Analysis". The Annals of Mathematical Statistics. ... As with the univariate case of linear Bayesian regression, we will find that we can specify a natural conditional conjugate ... Equivalently, it can be viewed as a single regression problem where the outcome is a row vector y i T {\displaystyle \mathbf {y ... In statistics, Bayesian multivariate linear regression is a Bayesian approach to multivariate linear regression, i.e. linear ...
Methods of time series analysis may also be divided into linear and non-linear, and univariate and multivariate. A time series ... given knowledge of the most recent outcomes (forecasting). Forecasting on time series is usually done using automated ... The former include spectral analysis and wavelet analysis; the latter include auto-correlation and cross-correlation analysis. ... Interrupted time series analysis is the analysis of interventions on a single time series Time series data have a natural ...
They allow the joining of multiple univariate distributions to a single multivariate distribution. Formally, a copula function ... For a comparative analysis of correlation approaches in finance, see Albanese, Li, Lobachevskiy, and Meissner (2010). Low, R.K. ... where P is the probability of outcome X. Hence, we derive the joint default dependence coefficient of the binomial events 1 { τ ... However, only few financial distributions such as the multivariate normal distribution and the multivariate student-t ...
The usual approach for statistical analysis is mass-univariate (analysis of each voxel separately), but pattern recognition may ... The outcome of these steps is a statistical parametric map, highlighting all voxels of the brain where intensities (volume or ... "Multivariate voxel-based morphometry successfully differentiates schizophrenia patients from healthy controls". NeuroImage. 34 ... Tutorial: A Critical Analysis of Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM). *Voxel-Based Morphometry Should Not Be Used with Imperfectly ...
... is called univariate, while a distribution whose sample space is a vector space of dimension 2 or more is called multivariate. ... Related to categorical outcomes (events with K possible outcomes, with a given probability for each outcome)[edit]. * ... For generalized functions in mathematical analysis, see Distribution (mathematics). For continuous variation in biology, see ... multivariate Laplace. multivariate normal. multivariate stable. multivariate t. normal-inverse-gamma. normal-gamma. Matrix- ...
... while a distribution whose sample space is a vector space is called multivariate. A univariate distribution gives the ... Related to categorical outcomes (events with K possible outcomes, with a given probability for each outcome)Edit. *Categorical ... For generalized functions in mathematical analysis, see Distribution (mathematics). For continuous variation in biology, see ... Each of these individual outcomes has probability zero, yet the probability that the outcome will fall into the interval (3 cm ...
... analysis of variance, and regression analysis. The primary reason that the chi-squared distribution is used extensively in ... In the case of a binomial outcome (flipping a coin), the binomial distribution may be approximated by a normal distribution ( ... Continuous Univariate Distributions. 1 (Second ed.). John Willey and Sons. pp. 415-493. ISBN 0-471-58495-9. Mood, Alexander; ... Pearson sought for and found a multivariate normal approximation to the multinomial distribution. Pearson showed that the chi- ...
Univariate mixture distribution, showing bimodal distribution Multivariate mixture distribution, showing four modes Mixture ... In meta-analysis of separate studies, study heterogeneity causes distribution of results to be a mixture distribution, and ... In cases where each of the underlying random variables is continuous, the outcome variable will also be continuous and its ... in a multivariate normal mixture are explored by Ray and Lindsay extending the earlier work on univariate and multivariate ...
The existence of heteroscedasticity is a major concern in the application of regression analysis, including the analysis of ... One version of this is to use covariance matrices as the multivariate measure of dispersion. Several authors have considered ... Bartlett's test for heteroscedasticity between grouped data, used most commonly in the univariate case, has also been extended ... data will still provide an unbiased estimate for the relationship between the predictor variable and the outcome, but standard ...
A vector X ∈ Rk is multivariate-normally distributed if any linear combination of its components ∑k j=1aj Xj has a (univariate ... The reason for expressing the formulas in terms of precision is that the analysis of most cases is simplified. Both univariate ... When the outcome is produced by many small effects acting additively and independently, its distribution will be close to ... The rainfall data are represented by plotting positions as part of the cumulative frequency analysis. In regression analysis, ...
... , MD (born 1952) is an American cancer surgeon, researcher, and expert in the surgical treatment of benign and malignant bone tumors and other musculoskeletal cancers. He serves as Chair of the Orthopaedic Service and Stephen P. McDermott Chair in Surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), as well as Professor of Surgery at Weill Cornell Medical College, in New York, NY. Healey earned a Bachelor of Science degree in biology from Yale University and a Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Vermont College of Medicine. He completed training in surgery, orthopaedic surgery, and musculoskeletal oncology at the New England Medical Center Hospital in Boston, MA, and at the Hospital for Special Surgery and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, NY. Healey's research and clinical activities in the area of hip reconstruction have led to the development of orthopaedic implant devices, including the Healey Flanged Revision Acetabular Component™ and the ...
The most common staging system is the TNM (for tumors/nodes/metastases) system, from the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). The TNM system assigns a number based on three categories. "T" denotes the degree of invasion of the intestinal wall, "N" the degree of lymphatic node involvement, and "M" the degree of metastasis. Possibly, the The overall AJCC stage is a shorter format of the TNM stage, and is usually quoted as a number I, II, III, IV derived from the TNM value grouped by prognosis; a higher number indicates a more advanced cancer and likely a worse outcome. Following is the eighth edition from 2017: ...
In 2001 the Triebel group identified a LAG3-associated protein, called LAP, that seemed to participate in immune system down-regulation.[41] Also in 2001 the Triebel group reported finding LAG3 expression on CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, with this LAG3 contributing to APC activation.[42] In August 2002 the first phenotypic analysis of the murine LAG-3 was reported by a team at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis.[43] Molecular analysis reported by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital team in November 2002 demonstrated that the inhibitory function of LAG-3 is performed via the protein's cytoplasmic domain.[44] In 2003 the Triebel group was able to identify the MHC class II signal transduction pathways in human dendritic cells induced by LAG3.[45] while the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital team showed that the absence of LAG3 caused no defect in T cell function.[16] In May 2004 the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital team showed, through LAG3 ...
In medicine neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is used as a marker of subclinical inflammation. It is calculated by dividing the number of neutrophils by number of lymphocytes, usually from peripheral blood sample, but sometimes also from cells that infiltrate tissue, such as tumor. Higher NLR is independent predictor of mortality in patients undergoing angiography or cardiac revascularization. Increased NLR is associated with poor prognosis of various cancers, such as esophageal cancer or pancreatic cancer. Wang X (Mar 2014). "Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in relation to risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events among patients undergoing angiography or cardiac revascularization : A meta-analysis of observational studies". Atherosclerosis. 234 (1): 206-13. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.03.003. PMID 24681815. Wang J (Jan 2014). "The clinical significance of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and neutrophil-to-CD8+lymphocyte ratio in patients with resectable esophageal squamous ...
MAT usually arises because of an underlying medical condition. Its prevalence has been estimated at about 3 per 1000 in adult hospital inpatients and is much rarer in paediatric practice; it is more common in the elderly, and its management and prognosis are both those of the underlying diagnosis.[3] It is mostly common in patients with lung disorders, but it can occur after acute myocardial infarction and can also occur in the setting of low blood potassium or low blood magnesium.[4] It is sometimes associated with digitalis toxicity in patients with heart disease. It is most commonly associated with hypoxia and COPD. Additionally, it can be caused by theophylline toxicity, a drug with a narrow therapeutic index commonly used to treat COPD. Theophylline can cause a number of different abnormal heart rhythms when in excess, and thus further predisposes COPD patients to MAT. Theophylline toxicity often occurs following acute or chronic overtreatment or factors lowering its clearance from the ...
... , also tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated into a tumor. They include T cells and B cells and are part of the larger category of 'tumor-infiltrating immune cells' which consist of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear immune cells, (i.e., T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, etc.) in variable proportions. Their abundance varies about tumor type and stage and in some cases relate to disease prognosis Tumor-infiltrating immune cells can often be found in the stroma and within the tumour itself. Their functions can dynamically change throughout tumor progression and in response to anticancer therapy TILs are implicated in killing tumor cells. The presence of lymphocytes in tumors is often associated with better clinical outcomes (after surgery or immunotherapy). When TILs are present, the lymphocytes are found between the ...
Staging of carcinoma refers to the process of combining physical/clinical examination, pathological review of cells and tissues, surgical techniques, laboratory tests, and imaging studies in a logical fashion to obtain information about the size of the neoplasm and the extent of its invasion and metastasis. Carcinomas are usually staged with Roman numerals. In most classifications, Stage I and Stage II carcinomas are confirmed when the tumor has been found to be small and/or to have spread to local structures only. Stage III carcinomas typically have been found to have spread to regional lymph nodes, tissues, and/or organ structures, while Stage IV tumors have already metastasized through the blood to distant sites, tissues, or organs. In some types of carcinomas, Stage 0 carcinoma has been used to describe carcinoma in situ, and occult carcinomas detectable only via examination of sputum for malignant cells (in lung carcinomas). In more recent staging systems, substages (a, b, c) are becoming ...
The Gleason grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of men with prostate cancer using samples from a prostate biopsy. Together with other parameters, it is incorporated into a strategy of prostate cancer staging which predicts prognosis and helps guide therapy. A Gleason score is given to prostate cancer based upon its microscopic appearance. Cancers with a higher Gleason score are more aggressive and have a worse prognosis. Pathological scores range from 2 through 10, with higher number indicating greater risks and higher mortality. A total score is calculated based on how cells look under a microscope, with the first half of the score based on the dominant, or most common cell morphology (scored 1-5), and the second half based off the non-dominant cell pattern with the highest grade (scored 1-5). These two numbers are then combined to produce a total score for the cancer. Most often, a urologist or radiologist will remove a cylindrical sample (biopsy) of prostate tissue through ...
In 2010, it was shown that DC-SCRIPT can act as a coregulator of multiple nuclear receptors having opposite effects on type I vs type II NRs. DC-SCRIPT is able to repress ER and PR mediated transcription, whereas it can activate transcription mediated by RAR and PPAR. In the same study, it was shown that breast tumor tissue expresses lower levels of DC-SCRIPT than normal breast tissue from the same patient and that DC-SCRIPT mRNA expression is an independent prognostic factor for good survival of breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor- and/or progesterone receptor-positive tumors.[10] ...
Correct staging is critical because treatment (particularly the need for pre-operative therapy and/or for adjuvant treatment, the extent of surgery) is generally based on this parameter. Thus, incorrect staging would lead to improper treatment.. For some common cancers the staging process is well-defined. For example, in the cases of breast cancer and prostate cancer, doctors routinely can identify that the cancer is early and that it has low risk of metastasis.[1] In such cases, medical specialty professional organizations recommend against the use of PET scans, CT scans, or bone scans because research shows that the risk of getting such procedures outweighs the possible benefits.[1] Some of the problems associated with overtesting include patients receiving invasive procedures, overutilizing medical services, getting unnecessary radiation exposure, and experiencing misdiagnosis.[1]. ...
Marsden 2004. októberében vette el feleségét, Christy Hicks, akitől 2010. februárjában 2 gyereke született.[3] A család jelenleg a tennessee-i Nashville-ben lakik, szomszédjuk Marsden nagy barátja a bírkózókat támogató Jerry Jarrett.[4] ...
ಜನವರಿ 2005ರಲ್ಲಿ, Lasco.A ಎಂದು ಹೆಸರಾದ ಸಂಚಾರಿ ದೂರವಾಣಿ ಜಾಹಿರಾತುರೂಪಿ ವರ್ಮ್‌ವೊಂದು Symbian OS (ಸೀರೀಸ್‌ 60 ವೇದಿಕೆ) ಬಳಸುವ ಸಂಚಾರಿ ದೂರವಾಣಿಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರಿಯಾಗಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಂಡು Bluetooth-ಸಶಕ್ತ ಸಾಧನಗಳನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು ವೃದ್ಧಿಯಾಗತೊಡಗಿದುದಲ್ಲದೇ ಮತ್ತು ಇತರ ಸಾಧನಗಳಿಗೆ ಹರಡತೊಡಗಿತು. ಇದೊಂದು ಸ್ವಯಂ-ಸ್ಥಾಪಕ ವರ್ಮ್‌ ಆಗಿದ್ದು ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಸಂಚಾರಿ ದೂರವಾಣಿ ಬಳಕೆದಾರರು ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಸಾಧನದಿಂದ (ವೆಲಾಸ್ಕೊ.ಸಿಸ್‌) ಕಡತ ವರ್ಗಾವಣೆಗೆ ಒಪ್ಪಿಗೆ ಸೂಚಿಸಿದೊಡನೆ ...
ਓਸਮੀਅਮ (ਯੂਨਾਨੀ ਓਸਮੇ (ὀσμή) ਭਾਵ "ਗੰਧ" ਤੋਂ) ਇੱਕ ਰਸਾਇਣਕ ਤੱਤ ਹੈ ਜਿਹਦਾ ਨਿਸ਼ਾਨ Os ਅਤੇ ਐਟਮੀ ਸੰਖਿਆ 76 ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਪਲੈਟੀਨਮ ਪਰਵਾਰ ਦੀ ਇੱਕ ਸਖ਼ਤ, ਕੁੜਕਵੀਂ, ਨੀਲੀ-ਚਿੱਟੀ ਪਰਿਵਰਤਨ ਧਾਤ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਘਣਾ ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਤੱਤ ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਤੌਰ ਉੱਤੇ ਜ਼ਿਆਦਾਤਰ ਧਾਤ-ਮਿਸ਼ਰਨ ਵਜੋਂ ਪਾਇਆ ਜਾਂ ਦਾ ਹੈ, ਖ਼ਾਸ ਕਰ ਕੇ ਪਲੈਟੀਨਮ ਦੀਆਂ ਕੱਚੀਆਂ ਧਾਤਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ। ...
To compare oncologic outcomes of RFA for different tumor locations, this retrospective study enrolled 194 patients with small ... Univariate and Multivariate Analysis. As shown in Table 2, for rRFS, univariate analysis results showed that only the pHV HCC ... Multivariate analysis was not performed since only one factor was identified in the univariate analysis. ... All variables found significant in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate model. To confirm the result from ...
Univariate and multivariate analyses of preoperative factors influencing symptomatic outcomes of transoral fundoplication. ... Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 158 consecutive patients who underwent TF ... For patients with typical symptoms, univariate analyses revealed 4 preoperative factors predictive of successful outcomes: age ... Age and GERD-HRQL score remained significant predictors by multivariate analysis. For patients with atypical symptoms, only ...
... but treatment outcomes have not been reported. We report treatment outcomes for adult XDR TB patients in KwaZulu-Natal Province ... Initial data were obtained retrospectively, and outcomes were obtained prospectively during 24 months of treatment. A total of ... Culture conversion was a major predictor of survival but was poorly predictive (51%) of successful treatment outcome. ... Univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis†. Hazard ratio (95% CI). p value. Hazard ratio (95% CI). p value. ...
Univariate/multivariate analyses were performed.. RESULTS: A total of 526 treatments were administered (mean, 1.8; range, 1-5 ... Patients with Child-Pugh B disease who had PVT had poor outcomes. TTP and overall survival varied by patient stage at baseline ... We assessed clinical outcomes of patients treated with intra-arterial yttrium-90 microspheres (Y90). ... Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma using Yttrium-90 microspheres: a comprehensive report of long-term outcomes.. ...
Multivariate Cox regression analyses were carried out to exclude confounders. Aggresomes formation was detected in 63.4% (n = ... Aggresomes were non-randomly distributed among different molecular subgroups (P = 0.00002). Multivariate Cox model identified ... and significantly correlated with poor outcome in non-WNT/non-SHH molecular subgroup; OS (P = 0.0002) and EFS (P = 0.0004). ... aggresomes percentage at ≥20% to be significantly correlated with patient outcome in both OS (HR = 3.419; 95% CI, 1.30-8.93; P ...
Multivariate analysis HR (95% CI)a P value. Univariate analysis HR(95% CI). P value. Multivariate analysis HR (95% CI)b P value ... Table 4. Cox analysis for risk factors of HCC among ACLF patients Univariate analysis HR (95% CI). P value. Multivariate ... Long-term Outcomes of Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-related Acute on Chronic Liver Failure. An Observational Cohort Study. ... Background and Aims: The long-term outcomes of patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute on chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF ...
Multivariate meta-analysis should be preferred over univariate meta-analysis for estimating differences between outcome- ... Empirical and simulation-Based comparison of univariate and multivariate meta-analysis for binary outcomes [electronic resource ... Empirical and simulation-Based comparison of univariate and multivariate meta-analysis for binary outcomes [electronic resource ... We aimed to compare separate (univariate) with joint (multivariate) meta-analysis in real examples and in an illustrative ...
5.2.3 Multivariate meta-analysis 193. 5.3 Multilevel models: Univariate continuous outcomes 195 ... This book provides an accessible approach to Bayesian computing and data analysis, with an emphasis on the interpretation of ... 5.2.2 Priors for stage 2 variation in meta-analysis 188. ... 8.3.1 Ecological analysis involving count data 324. 8.4 Spatial ...
... survival analysis, survey data, treatment effects, SEM, and much more. ... Bayesian analysis. thousands of built-in models • univariate and multivariate models • linear and nonlinear models • multilevel ... potential-outcome means (POMs) • continuous, binary, count, fractional, and survival outcomes • more. ... Multivariate methods. factor analysis • principal components • discriminant analysis • rotation • multidimensional scaling • ...
Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate outcomes. Results: Of the 380 patients prospectively followed, ... Comparison of detection between RA and HP was realized with univariate analyses. Results: Among the 652 included patients, 66 ... Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were performed.. Results. In 2012, an estimated 5.4% (1.5 million) Canadians ... Sensitivity analysis revealed that the rate of Fe accumulation and the impact of dietary interventions are highly dependent on ...
... on outcomes in patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In this study, we assessed the influence of PDA on NEC... ... Univariate, multivariate and stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed. ... State-based analysis of necrotizing enterocolitis outcomes. J Surg Res 2009;157:21-29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Mukherjee D, Zhang Y, Chang DC, Vricella LA, Brenner JI, Abdullah F. Outcomes analysis of necrotizing enterocolitis within 11 ...
Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were undertaken. Results. Of the 2768 adolescents who participated in ... Multivariable analysis showed that the factors associated with higher alcohol intake were gender, poor relationships with ... The outcomes of interest were alcohol consumption (any, intoxication and problematic). Health literacy was not directly ... Univariable Analysis. Associations between explanatory variables (SDH, HL, psycho-social factors) and all three outcome ...
Multivariate analysis of data (multivariate regression). Learning Outcomes. Intended Knowledge Outcomes. Learning Outcomes: The ... Univariate analysis of data (measures of central tendency, measures of distribution). Statistical inference. Data visualisation ... Intended Skill Outcomes. Students will improve their numeracy skills. This will include the ability to critique data and ... Both the limitations and advantages of quantitative and qualitative analysis for political research will be understood and ...
Survey methodology was applied to univariate and multivariate analyses. Weighted numbers are presented.Results: There were 6 ... Forty studies met criteria for qualitative analysis and three studies associated patient outcomes with surgical instrument ... For multivariate analysis, multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression was used with random-effect modeling to account for ... Primary outcome measure was SSI, with secondary outcomes including other infection, re-operation, and length of stay. We ...
Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of KAPs.In contrast to White respondents, Non- ... Outcomes of interest included need for abdominal operation and death after operation. Adjusted analyses accounting for survey ... Survey methodology was applied to univariate and multivariate analyses. Weighted numbers are presented.Results: There were 6 ... On multivariate analysis, an intracranial Abbreviated Injury Scale ?4 (odds ratio [OR] = 9.24, 95% CI 1.09-78.26, P = .04) and ...
The associations of pathological features with renal outcomes in adult Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy (IMN) are still ... None of the included nine studies reported all of the HRs from univariate and multivariate analyses of the association of each ... found that interstitial fibrosis was associated with renal sufficiency by univariate analysis [39]. However, multivariate ... the choice of univariate or multivariate analysis, baseline eGFR level (, or ≥ 80 ml/min/1.73 m2), the percentage of patients ...
Potential predictors of employment status were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. ... Employment outcome four years after a severe traumatic brain injury: results of the Paris severe traumatic brain injury study. ... To describe employment outcome four years after a severe traumatic brain injury by the assessment of individual patients ... The results illustrated the multiple determinants of employment outcome and suggested that students who had received a ...
Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Pearsons Chisquare test. A level of significance of 5% was adopted ... Impact of pharmaceutical care on health outcomes in patients with COPD. Int J Clin Pharm. 2012;34(1):53-62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... for all analyses. Main outcomes Number, types and proportion of resolved drug therapy problems. Results Two hundred seventy ... Analysis of pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services in community pharmacies over 7 years. J Manag Care ...
Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors, management, and outcome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992 Nov. 104(5):1456- ... Outcomes of minimally invasive sleeve resection. J Thorac Dis. 2018 Dec. 10 (12):6653-6659. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... Bölükbas S, Bergmann T, Fisseler-Eckhoff A, Schirren J. Short- and long-term outcome of sleeve resections in the elderly. Eur J ... Sleeve lobectomy may provide better outcomes than pneumonectomy for non-small cell lung cancer. A decade in a nationwide study ...
... multivariate analyses included variables for which P , 0.10 in univariate analyses. Outcomes of the regression analysis are ... Box 5 - Univariate and multivariate analysis of the identification of the ethnicity or national background of 1018 patients of ... In the multivariate analysis - adjusted for demographic factors (age, sex) and socio‐economic status, acute severity of illness ... Box 6 - Univariate analysis of the identification by doctors of the ethnicity of 74 Aboriginal patients during their ...
Uni-variate analysis will be carried out for each parameter individually. Any parameter that has achieved statistical ... significance (P =, 0.05) will be included in the multi-variate Cox model.. Secondary Outcome Measures : *Association of ... Uni-variate analysis will be carried out for each parameter individually. Any parameter that has achieved statistical ... with TTP and PFS-6 as assessed using multi-variate Cox model and multi-variate Logistic regression model [ Time Frame: Up to 5 ...
Main outcome measures Clinical end points included the need for intensive care and death. Univariate and multivariate analyses ... Univariate analysis of clinical and laboratory variables associated with the composite outcome of intensive care or death. ... We used univariate analysis to compare patients who reached the end point and those who did not, by using an unpaired Students ... Univariate analysis showed that neutrophilia at any time was associated with a higher incidence of bacterial infections, ...
In multivariate analyses, models were adjusted for all variables with value , 0.1 in univariate analyses, and variables were ... Univariate analyses of baseline characteristics of patients are shown in Table 3. In univariate analyses, every decrease of GFR ... Univariate analyses determined that every decrease of GFR by 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 significantly increased the risk of poor outcome ... Table 4: Multivariate analysis of major outcomes, low GFR (,45) versus control group (GFR ≥ 45). Odds adjusted for all ...
Univariate and multivariate analysis.. We assessed the prognostic role of gene-driven plasmacytic differentiation in a large ... In univariate analysis, response to therapy, XBP1 expression and IRF4 expression were the main predictors of PFS. Response to ... The combination of XBP1 expression and response to therapy further predicts better clinical outcome. Additional analyses are ... XBP1s levels are implicated in the biology and outcome of myeloma mediating different clinical outcomes to thalidomide-based ...
Patients with rectal cancer who underwent reRT to the pelvis between January 2000 and December 2017 were included for analysis ... Patients with rectal cancer who underwent reRT to the pelvis between January 2000 and December 2017 were included for analysis ... This study aimed to analyze the treatment outcomes, particularly infield progression, and severe late toxicity rates after reRT ... This study aimed to analyze the treatment outcomes, particularly infield progression, and severe late toxicity rates after reRT ...
  • RESULTS: We identified 45 pairs or triplets of binary meta-analyses corresponding to 1473 RCTs and 258,675 randomized patients. (utoronto.ca)
  • Summary measures were reported as relative risk (RR) or as mean difference (MD) with 95% CI.Three trials including a total of 287 singleton gestations with threatened PTL between 24 + 0 and 35 + 6 weeks were included in the meta-analysis, of which 145 were randomized to CL screening with knowledge of results and 142 to no knowledge of CL. (stanford.edu)
  • Employment outcome four years after a severe traumatic brain injury: results of the Paris severe traumatic brain injury study. (nih.gov)
  • The results illustrated the multiple determinants of employment outcome and suggested that students who had received a traumatic brain injury were particularly likely to be unemployed, thus we propose that they may require specific support to help them find work. (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that complete feedback information enhances context-dependent outcome encoding. (jneurosci.org)
  • Taken together, our results help build a more comprehensive picture of how the human brain encodes and processes outcome value. (jneurosci.org)
  • In particular, our results suggest that simultaneous presentation of obtained and foregone outcomes promotes relative value representation. (jneurosci.org)
  • RESULTS Of the 166 patients diagnosed with GHD, 53 received RM and 113 CC. After excluding 5 patients in the RM group and 15 in the CC group because of the missing data, 48 patients in RM group and 98 in CC group were taken into final analysis. (mendeley.com)
  • Results At the data-cutoff date for the primary analysis, the estimated rate of progression-free survival at month 20 was 65.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.0 to 76.8) in the (177)Lu-Dotatate group and 10.8% (95% CI, 3.5 to 23.0) in the control group. (cancerindex.org)
  • Results: At the time of analysis, 728 subjects had completed 6-month follow-up. (cdc.gov)
  • Secondary poor/good outcomes were respectively defined to be the higher/lower third of Delta-Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (late minus baseline EDSS). (bmj.com)
  • Individuals with higher insulin resistance and/or low β-cell function at baseline had poor outcome on follow-up. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study aimed to analyze the treatment outcomes, particularly infield progression, and severe late toxicity rates after reRT for recurrent rectal cancer and further identify a subgroup of patients who may optimally benefit from reRT. (frontiersin.org)
  • Treatment outcomes for rectal cancer have considerably improved in recent years owing to advances in multidisciplinary treatments including surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • To compare oncologic outcomes of RFA for different tumor locations, this retrospective study enrolled 194 patients with small HCC who had undertaken RFA. (mdpi.com)
  • We aimed to compare separate (univariate) with joint (multivariate) meta-analysis in real examples and in an illustrative simulation study. (utoronto.ca)
  • In an accompanying simulation study, we compared summary estimates and their standard errors with univariate and multivariate meta-analysis. (utoronto.ca)
  • The primary outcome of this study was incident delirium in the ED or within 24 h of ward admission. (cambridge.org)
  • In this study, we assessed the influence of PDA on NEC outcomes. (springer.com)
  • This study was set to assess the effect of renal dysfunction on outcome of stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). (hindawi.com)
  • The integrated discrimination improvement index was statistically significant when adding TNFR1 concentration to the UK Prospective Diabetes Study outcome equation ( P = 0.031). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A prospective multivariate study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study was to assess whether the impact of ETC on intraoperative aneurysmal rupture (IAR) translates into neurological outcome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we refined a previously identified 111-gene outcome prediction-classifier, revealing FEN1 as the strongest determining factor in ERα-positive patient prognostication. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study offers a systematic investigation of the effect of the amount of feedback information (partial vs complete) on univariate and multivariate outcome value encoding, within multiple regions in mPFC and cingulate cortex that are critical for value-based decisions and behavioral adaptation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used to treat meningiomas, and this study evaluates the outcome of this approach for those located in the posterior fossa. (thejns.org)
  • We used Veterans Affairs administrative data to study male UTI treatment and outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • This study explores the workforce outcomes of one model of such placements - the longitudinal integrated clerkship (LIC) - delivered in year 4, the penultimate year of the medical course, as part of the rural programs delivered by a medical school in Victoria, Australia. (rrh.org.au)
  • Whilst other evidence has already demonstrated positive educational outcomes for doctors who participate in rural LIC placements, this is the first known study of work location outcomes. (rrh.org.au)
  • In the first study, univariate logistic regression showed that Child's (CTP) score ( P =0.0001, OR: 9.9, CI: 3.4 to 28.8) and PPI use ( P =0.0001, OR: 7.8, CI: 3.4 to 18) were significantly higher among the peritonitis patients than in those who did not have peritonitis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Whether aggressive treatment of hypertension and anemia can improve outcomes merits further study. (asnjournals.org)
  • To investigate whether breastfeeding influences short- and long-term postpartum diabetes outcomes, women with GDM ( n = 304) participating in the prospective German GDM study were followed from delivery for up to 19 years postpartum for diabetes development. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Given that Canada's universal healthcare system guarantees accessibility and the fact that our city's hospitals serve as referral centers for about 1.6 million people from an expansive geographic area, this study may be considered a population-based analysis. (ahajournals.org)
  • For the comparison of IHC expression according to medication subgroups, Kruskal-Wallis analysis was performed. (urotoday.com)
  • We find some broad differences in labor market outcomes across key subgroups of the low-wage population, although the differences are smaller than expected (Tables VI.3 and VI.4). (hhs.gov)
  • Epidemiology and outcomes of acute kidney injury in critically ill surgical patients. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis for Epidemiology: A Practical Guide, Second Edition , by Jos W. R. Twisk, provides a practical introduction to the estimation techniques used by epidemiologists for longitudinal data. (stata.com)
  • Patients with rectal cancer who underwent reRT to the pelvis between January 2000 and December 2017 were included for analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The outcome of interest was the main work location in 2017, obtained from the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency's public website. (rrh.org.au)
  • In 2017, the Department of Psychology approved the following student learning outcomes for its undergraduate and graduate programs. (calstatela.edu)
  • They can be approached with separate, independent meta-analyses, or they can be analyzed jointly, in a single model. (utoronto.ca)
  • In our experience, there have been some long-term survivors with residual carcinoma in situ present at bile duct stumps, although patients with a residual invasive ductal lesion always faced a poor outcome. (wiley.com)
  • To a large extent, and not surprisingly, the patterns of subgroup findings for the wage growth analyses are fairly similar to the patterns of subgroup findings for the aggregate analysis. (hhs.gov)
  • This case reinforces the importance of an early suspicion of PPE to avoid diagnostic delay and improve outcomes. (ispub.com)
  • Low counts of CD4 and CD8 cells at presentation were associated with adverse outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • Delayed relaxation (class 1) is common with increasing age, may be associated with disturbed left ventricular (LV) loading and is associated with adverse outcome. (bmj.com)