Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Gravity Sensing: Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).Acoustic Maculae: The sensory areas on the vertical wall of the saccule and in the floor of the utricle. The hair cells in the maculae are innervated by fibers of the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Hair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Head-Down Tilt: Posture while lying with the head lower than the rest of the body. Extended time in this position is associated with temporary physiologic disturbances.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials: Recorded electrical responses from muscles, especially the neck muscles or muscles around the eyes, following stimulation of the EAR VESTIBULE.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.PeptidoglycanRana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Endolymph: The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Stereocilia: Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.Labyrinth Diseases: Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Labyrinth Supporting Cells: Cells forming a framework supporting the sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS in the organ of Corti. Lateral to the medial inner hair cells, there are inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, Deiters cells, Hensens cells, Claudius cells, Boettchers cells, and others.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Hemospermia: Blood in the SEMEN, usually due to INFLAMMATION of the PROSTATE, the SEMINAL VESICLES, or both.Vestibular Function Tests: A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.Thiamine Pyrophosphatase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes thiamine pyrophosphate to thiamine monophosphate plus inorganic phosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Transcription Factor Brn-3C: A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Batrachoidiformes: An order of bottom fishes with short, small, spinous dorsal fins. It is comprised of one family (Batrachoididae) and about 70 species.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Space Motion Sickness: Disorder characterized by nausea, vomiting, and dizziness, possibly in response to vestibular disorientation or fluid shifts associated with space flight. (From Webster's New World Dictionary)Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Diaminopimelic AcidOrgan Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.TurtlesZebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Mice, Inbred CBATissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Pimelic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.Oncorhynchus keta: An anadromous species of SALMON found in the streams of the Pacific coast from Sacramento north, and also common in Japan. It is used frequently in genetic and other medical research.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Meniere Disease: A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Olfactory Marker Protein: A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.APUD Cells: Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.Ear Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Caloric Tests: Elicitation of a rotatory nystagmus by stimulating the semicircular canals with water or air which is above or below body temperature. In warm caloric stimulation a rotatory nystagmus is developed toward the side of the stimulated ear; in cold, away from the stimulated side. Absence of nystagmus indicates the labyrinth is not functioning.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Avicennia: A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The otolith organs include the utricle and the saccule. The otolith organs are beds of sensory cells in the inner ear, ... The utricle serves to measure horizontal accelerations and the saccule responds to vertical accelerations. The reason for this ... In fish, amphibians and reptiles there is also a third otolith organ that is not present in humans, and is called the lagena. ... The utricular macula lie horizontal in the utricle, while the saccular macula lies vertical in the saccule. Every hair cell in ...
"The Otolith Organs: The Utricle and Sacculus". NCBI Bookshelf - Neuroscience. Angelaki DE, Cullen KE (2008). "Vestibular system ... Humans have two otolithic organs on each side, one called the utricle, the other called the saccule. The utricle contains a ... This membrane is weighted down with protein-calcium carbonate granules called otoliths. These otoliths add to the weight and ... Similarly, the saccule contains a patch of hair cells and a macula. Each hair cell of a macula has 40-70 stereocilia and one ...
... the otolith organs, the saccule and utricle, are stimulated by linear accelerations. Stimulation of the semicircular canals ... Stimulation of the otolith organs occurs when gravitational forces or linear accelerations cause movement of the otolith ... An abrupt change from climb to straight-and-level flight can stimulate the otolith organs enough to create the illusion of ... The vestibular system consists of the otolith organs and the semicircular canals. Illusions in aviation are caused when the ...
... and two otolith organs (Saccule and Utricle). Each semicircular canal (SSC) is a thin tube that thickens briefly (2x thin ... Utricle responds to linear accelerations and head-tilts in the horizontal plane (head to shoulder), whereas saccule responds to ... SCC sends adaptive signals, unlike the otolith organs whose signals does not adapt over time. A shift in the otolithic membrane ... Otolithic organs have a thick, heavy gelatin membrane that, due to inertia (like endolymph), lags behind and continues ahead ...
Two otolith organs, the saccule and utricle, are located in each ear and are set at right angles to each other. The utricle ... gravity can also produce stimulation of the utricle and saccule. A response of this type will occur during a vertical take-off ... the net gravitoinertial force sensed primarily by the otolith organs is not aligned with gravity, leading to perceptual ... Good spatial orientation on the ground relies on the use of visual, vestibular (organs of equilibrium located in the inner ear ...
... and the two otolith organs (the utricle and the saccule). This technology has been investigated for both military and ...
The inner ear contains the otolith organs-the utricle and saccule-and the semicircular canals belonging to the vestibular ... macular of the utricle and saccule, and organ of Corti). The nerve begins to form around the 28th day. Molecular regulation ... A central area known as the vestibule contains two small fluid-filled recesses, the utricle and saccule. These connect to the ... The endolymph is situated in two vestibules, the utricle and saccule, and eventually transmits to the cochlea, a spiral-shaped ...
Two types of otolith organs are housed in the vestibule: the saccule, which points vertically and detects vertical acceleration ... and the utricle, which points horizontally and detects horizontal acceleration. The otolith organs together sense the head's ... The saccule and utricle detect different motions, which information the brain receives and integrates to determine where the ... Symptoms in these organs present as vertigo, difficulties walking in low light and darkness, disequilibrium, oscillopsia among ...
... and the otolith organs (the utricle and the saccule), which detect changes in linear acceleration and gravity. Both the ... The inner ear contains the vestibular system, which is also known as the organ of equilibrium. About the size of a pencil ... semicircular canals and the otolith organs provide information to the brain regarding the body's position and movement. A ...
... which are normally found in the utricle and saccule (the otolith organs) and are used to sense movement. If they fall from the ... Two other organs that are part of the vestibular system are the utricle and saccule. These are called the otolithic organs and ... The vestibule is the region of the inner ear where the semicircular canals converge, close to the cochlea (the hearing organ). ... The hair cells of the otolithic organs are blanketed with a jelly-like layer studded with tiny calcium stones called otoconia. ...
... the utricle and the saccule) and the three semicircular canals via the vestibular ganglion. Information from the otolith organs ... Vestibular system Illustration of otolith organs This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of ... the vestibular nerve transmits sensory information transmitted by vestibular hair cells located in the two otolith organs ( ... the superior branch passes through the foramina in the area vestibularis superior and ends in the utricle and in the ampullae ...
The saccule and utricle, in turn, together make the otolith organs. Endolymphatic infillings such as otoliths are structures in ... the saccule and utricle together make the otolith organs. Both statoconia and otoliths are used as gravity, balance, movement, ... most likely the sacculus, due to its anatomical location). In mice lacking the otoconia of the utricle and saccule, this ... Because of their orientation in the head, the utricle is sensitive to a change in horizontal movement, and the saccule gives ...
... along with the saccule, is one of the two otolith organs located in the vertebrate inner ear. The utricle and the saccule are ... The utricle detects linear accelerations and head-tilts in the horizontal plane. The utricle is larger than the saccule and is ... Within the utricle is a small 2 by 3 mm patch of hair cells called the macula of utricle. The macula of utricle, which lies ... Cohen, B; Suzuki, JI; Raphan, T (Oct 3, 1983). "Role of the otolith organs in generation of horizontal nystagmus: effects of ...
Both the utricle and the saccule provide information about acceleration. The difference between them is that the utricle is ... For this reason, the saccule is sometimes called an "otolithic organ." From the posterior wall of the saccule is given off a ... This membrane is weighted with protein-calcium carbonate granules called otoliths, which add to the weight and inertia of the ... The saccule, like the utricle, provides information to the brain about head position when it is not moving. The structures that ...
The utricle and saccule are specialized organs present in the inner ears of all vertebrate animals. They contain otoliths (or ... The experiment was designed to determine whether otolith production and development of otolith-associated receptor cells and ... while some were tested to estimate how space flight affected the gain of the otolith-ocular reflex and measure the otolith ... The pull that gravity exerts on the otoliths is sensed by the hair cells, and information about the gravitational stimulus is ...
The otoliths have two components: the utricle and the saccule. Both are made of the same sensory tissue containing hair cells, ... The vestibular system is composed of inner ear organs forming the "labyrinth": the semicircular canals, the otoliths, and the ... Neurons in the otoliths control not only these signals for control of eye movements, but also signals for head movement ... The abdominal organs also contain receptors that provide geocentric information. "Roll-tilt" tests in which a subject's body is ...
Additionally, there is a degeneration of the ampulla and otolith organs with an increase in age. Persistent onset is commonly ... utricle and saccule), and the vestibular nerve is called "peripheral", "otologic" or "vestibular" vertigo. The most common ...
The kinocilia point toward (in the utricle) or away from (in the saccule) a middle line called the striola. In the cochlea, a ... In the otoliths, the hair cells are topped by small, calcium carbonate crystals called otoconia. Unlike the semicircular ducts ... As acoustic sensors in mammals, stereocilia are lined up in the organ of Corti within the cochlea of the inner ear. In hearing ... In the vestibular system, the stereocilia are located in the otolithic organs and the semicircular canals. Hair cells in the ...
The vestibular nerve also conducts information from the utricle and the saccule, which contain hair-like sensory receptors that ... Flies and butterflies have taste organs on their feet, allowing them to taste anything they land on. Catfish have taste organs ... bend under the weight of otoliths (which are small crystals of calcium carbonate) that provide the inertia needed to detect ... In reptiles the vomeronasal organ is commonly referred to as Jacobsons organ. In mammals, it is often associated with a special ...
They contain the sensory hair cells and otoliths of the macula of utricle and of the saccule, respectively, which respond to ... Reptiles, amphibians, and fish do not have cochleas but hear with simpler auditory organs or vestibular organs, which generally ... otolith) of the saccule and utricle. The human inner ear develops during week 4 of embryonic development from the auditory ... which contain the saccule and utricle, enable the body to detect any deviation from equilibrium. The macula sacculi detects ...
... optic tract ora serrata oral cavity orbicularis oculi muscle orbicularis oris muscle orbit orbitofrontal cortex organ organ of ... saccade saccule sacral ala sacral vertebrae sacral promontory sacroiliac joint sacrum sagittal crest sagittal suture saliva ... of ribs upper motor neuron urachus ureter urethra urinary bladder urogenital system uterine cavity uterine tube uterus utricle ... organelle orifice oropharynx os multangulum minus os penis ossicles ossification osteology osteon ostium otic ganglion otolith ...
The cochlea is a sensory organ with the primary purpose to aid in hearing. The utricle and saccule are sensors for detecting ... The two otolith receptors appear to have differing resonances that may also explain their responses. In addition to the ... There are six receptor organs located in the inner ear: cochlea, utricle, saccule, and the lateral, anterior, and posterior ... is a neurophysiological assessment technique used to determine the function of the otolithic organs (utricle and saccule) of ...
Head position is sensed by the utricle and saccule, whereas head movement is sensed by the semicircular canals. The neural ... Vomeronasal organ[edit]. Many animals (salamanders, reptiles, mammals) have a vomeronasal organ[56] that is connected with the ... which contain hair-like sensory receptors that bend under the weight of otoliths (which are small crystals of calcium carbonate ... Flies and butterflies have taste organs on their feet, allowing them to taste anything they land on. Catfish have taste organs ...
Utricle *macula. *Saccule *macula. *Kinocilium. *Otolith. *Vestibular aqueduct *endolymphatic duct. *endolymphatic sac ...
Static/translations/vestibule/endolymphatic duct: Utricle (Macula) · Saccule (Macula, Endolymphatic sac) · Kinocilium · Otolith ... Organ of Corti: Stereocilia • Tectorial membrane • Sulcus spiralis (externus, internus) • Spiral limbus ...
Utricle *macula. *Saccule *macula. *Kinocilium. *Otolith. *Vestibular aqueduct *endolymphatic duct. *endolymphatic sac ...
Balance / Vestibular system components / Otolith organs. Otolith organs (saccule and utricle). * detect gravity (linear ... à in any position, some hair cells will be depolarized and others hyperpolarized in BOTH otolith organs ... in contrast with the semicircular canals (where directionality is inherent in the structure), in the otolith organs, ... in the UTRICLE, the kinocilia are oriented TOWARD the striola, and in the SACCULE they are oriented AWAY from it. ...
utricle. saccule. each is oriented to be best at detecting acceleration in one of the planes ... motion of the body (particularly the head) will produce motion of the endolymph in the appropriate vestibular organ, bending ... how do we go from activating vestibular organs to sending information to brain ...
The vestibular system, which is the system of balance, consists of 5 distinct end organs: 3 semicircular canals that are ... sensitive to angular accelerations (head rotations) and 2 otolith organs that... ... The otolith organs include the utricle and the saccule. The utricle senses motion in the horizontal plane (eg, forward-backward ... Utricle. The utricle is larger than the saccule and lies posterosuperiorly to it in the elliptical recess of the medial wall of ...
The otolith organs include the utricle and the saccule. The otolith organs are beds of sensory cells in the inner ear, ... The utricle serves to measure horizontal accelerations and the saccule responds to vertical accelerations. The reason for this ... In fish, amphibians and reptiles there is also a third otolith organ that is not present in humans, and is called the lagena. ... The utricular macula lie horizontal in the utricle, while the saccular macula lies vertical in the saccule. Every hair cell in ...
Two otolith organs in each ear are called the saccule and the utricle. The saccule is oriented in a vertical direction when a ... The vestibular apparatus is made up of two types of sensory organs: otolith organs and semicircular canals. The otolith organs ... One suggests that BPPV will occur when the calcium carbonate crystals in the otolith organs (the saccule and the utiricle) are ... The utricle is nearly horizontal when a person is standing, so it best senses horizontal motion of the head. Each organ ...
"The Otolith Organs: The Utricle and Sacculus". NCBI Bookshelf - Neuroscience. Angelaki DE, Cullen KE (2008). "Vestibular system ... Humans have two otolithic organs on each side, one called the utricle, the other called the saccule. The utricle contains a ... This membrane is weighted down with protein-calcium carbonate granules called otoliths. These otoliths add to the weight and ... Similarly, the saccule contains a patch of hair cells and a macula. Each hair cell of a macula has 40-70 stereocilia and one ...
Otoliths[edit]. The otolith organs of both ears are located in two membranous sacs called the utricle and the saccule which ... The otoliths are located at the central part of the labyrinth, also called the vestibule of the ear. Both utricle and saccule ... The otoliths are the human sensory organs for linear acceleration. The utricle (left) is approximately horizontally oriented; ... The utricle is located above the saccule in the elliptical recess of the vestibule, and its macula is oriented roughly ...
The Otolith Organs (Utricle and Saccule) Working together, these two divisions comprise 5 different receptors on each side of ... The otolith organs are designed to respond to linear accelerations in all planes of movement. The utricle senses horizontal ... linear movement (think railroad tracks) while the saccule senses vertical movements (think elevator). ...
The Otolith Organs (Utricle and Saccule) Working together, these two divisions comprise 5 different receptors on each side of ... The otolith organs are designed to respond to linear accelerations in all planes of movement. The utricle senses horizontal ... linear movement (think railroad tracks) while the saccule senses vertical movements (think elevator). ...
There are two other organs called the utricle and saccule that are called otoliths. These detect linear acceleration, or ... This has organs that are responsible for normal balance mechanisms. Normal mechanism of balance. The inner ear contains an ... The inner ear sends signals to the brain that also receives signals from these peripheral organs to given an idea of the ... organ called the labyrinth. The inner ear co-ordinates with the eyes (what they see), as well as the feeling of the bones and ...
Two additional structures found in the inner ear are the utricle and saccule (otolith organs). The utricle and saccule are ... The utricle and saccule contain small calcium carbonate crystals. For unknown reasons, in individuals with BPPV these crystals ... An MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce cross-sectional images of particular organs and bodily tissues such as ... Within the canals, these crystals may stimulate specialized sensing organ of the inner ear tubes that is called the cupula. ...
THE VESTIBULAR SENSORY ORGANS AND THEIR RECEPTORS. The otolith organs. The utricle and the saccule are sensitive to linear ... The vestibular system is comprised of two types of sensors: the two otolith organs (the saccule and utricle), which sense ... Afferents innervating the otolith organs carry information about linear acceleration imposed on the otolith organs. These ... 1 THE VESTIBULAR SENSORY ORGANS AND THEIR RECEPTORS *1.1 The otolith organs ...
The 2 otolith organs-the saccule and utricle. Rotary motion causes flow of endolymph in the semicircular canal oriented in the ... Similar hair cells in the saccule and utricle are embedded in a matrix of Ca carbonate crystals (otoliths). Deflection of the ... As people age, organs involved in balance function less well. For example, seeing in dim light becomes more difficult, inner ... Vertigo associated with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is treated with the Epley maneuver (otolith repositioning) done by ...
Normal examinations that result in abnormal VEMP findings can provide evidence that acoustic trauma may be the basis of otolith ... In Chapter 14 The Otolith Organs: The Utricle and Sacculus.. * Institute of Medicine. Noise and Military Service: Implications ... In cases of noise-induced BPPV, it is deduced that because of the close spatial proximity of the otolith organs to the stapes ... Cervical (saccule) and ocular (utricle) VEMPs, (cVEMP and oVEMP respectively), are easily and quickly completed with a minimal ...
Saccule and utricle of the inner ear make the otolith organs in vertebrates. Thus, otoliths are associated with the sense of ... The otoliths may also be used as an indication of the age of a fish. Counting the annual growth rings on the otoliths may ... In particular, it adheres to the gelatinous membrane of the maculae of the utricle and the saccule. ... The otoliths are also a directional indicator. In higher aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, the otoliths are involved in ...
otolith organs (in the utricle, saccule) for LINEAR ACCELERATION. -semicircular canals for ROTATIONAL ACCELERATION ... otoliths move in response to gravitational forces, perched on the otolith membrane above hair cells that are grouped in maculae ...
... which help the detached particles return to the otolith organs (utricle and saccule). There are different types, or forms, of ... the utricle and the saccule. These ear stones then find their way into the vestibules of the balance organs, causing the ... Doctors believe that a detachment of the otoliths (also known as ear stones or statoliths) from the macular organs (macula - ... causing the otoliths to move incorrectly into the anterior canal instead of the utricle. The posterior form, however, occurs ...
Meaning of utricle. What does utricle mean? Information and translations of utricle in the most comprehensive dictionary ... Definition of utricle in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... along with the saccule is one of the two otolith organs located ... One of two otolith organs located in the vertebrate inner ear (the other being the saccule). ... Utricle. ū′tri-kl, n. a little bag, bladder, or cell.-adjs. Utric′ūlar, Utric′ūlate, containing or furnished with utricles; ...
... hearing organ) and otolith organs (saccule and utricle-organs of balance and motion detection). ... "Jumping mice": Mammalian balance organs detect air-borne low-frequency sound using their otolith organs (saccule & utricle). I ... the organs of balance (called the vestibular organs), consisting of the utricle and saccule (the two otolith or "ear rock" ... in their otolith organs (utricle & saccule). Significantly, these otolith-deficient mice did the extra-large jumps only when ...
Head position (i.e., gravity; also linear acceleration) is sensed by the otolith organs of the saccule and utricle. Head ... Organ of Corti The organ of Corti is an elaborate structure with more named parts than the rest of inner ear. The organ of ... The whole organ of Corti rests on the basilar membrane which supports the basal ends of the hair cells in the organ of Corti. ... In the vestibular system (surrounding the saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals), perilymph simply provides a cushioning ...
2009) Head direction cell activity in mice: robust directional signal depends on intact otolith organs. J Neurosci 29:1061-1076 ... 2009) Response of vestibular nerve afferents innervating utricle and saccule during passive and active translations. J ... Mechanisms of otolith cancellation. Neck proprioceptive input does not directly suppress otolith input. Given that otolith ... In response to passively applied motion, the otolith organs of the vestibular system encode changes in the velocity and ...
Describe the anatomy and physiology of the otolith organs. 2. ... Anatomy of the Otolith Organs: Utricle and Saccule 1. These ... B. Physiology of the Otolith Organs 1. These organs detect linear acceleration and displacement of the head (e.g., tilting). ... N-73 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM 1. Describe the anatomy and physiology of the otolith organs. 2. Describe the ... The otoliths are crystals of calcium carbonate . Head movement causes the otoliths to move due to the force of gravity, which ...
Utricle. The utricle along with the saccule is one of the two otolith organs located in the vertebrate inner ear. ... Organ of Corti. The organ of Corti, or spiral organ, is the organ in the inner ear of mammals that contains auditory sensory ... Golgi tendon organ. The Golgi tendon organ is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that is located at the insertion of ... Otolith. Otoliths are small particles, composed of a combination of a gelatinous matrix and calcium carbonate in the viscous ...
Otolith Organs. The signal from the otolith organs (comprising the utricle and saccule) transduces linear acceleration (and ... the utricle is relatively spared (17). Currently, the implications of otoconia degeneration of otolith organ function are ... The otoconia contained in the utricle and saccule have also been shown to undergo morphological changes and degeneration during ... Decline in posterior semicircular canal function, however, showed no clear trend compared with function of the otolith organs. ...
The membranous labyrinth contains 5 sensory organs: 3 semicircular ducts and 2 otolith organs known as the saccule and utricle ... Otolith Organs. The otolith organs are located in the vestibule.[2] They take the form of two sacs that detect linear ... tissue within the utricle and saccule is known as the macula and is located on the floor and medial wall of each organ, ... The utricle is responsible for sensing horizontal movement (i.e. forward-backward and left-right movement), while the saccule ...
  • In cases of noise-induced BPPV, it is deduced that because of the close spatial proximity of the otolith organs to the stapes bone of the middle ear, 4,5 trauma may cause the stapes to forcibly vibrate beyond its normal operating characteristics, and perhaps physically contacting otolith organs, resulting in damage 6,7 . (vestibular.org)
  • BPPV results when otoconia fragments dislodge from the otolith organs of the inner ear, and cause symptoms of vertigo. (ku.edu)
  • The effect of diabetes on the saccule and utricle of the vestibular system is not clear, and the combined effect of BPPV and diabetes on the otolith organs, has not been studied. (ku.edu)
  • In Chapter 3, our main purpose was to analyze otolith function using vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) tests in people with diabetes and concurrent BPPV, and to examine the relationships between VEMP variables and diabetes-related variables. (ku.edu)
  • Results of this study showed that the frequency of delayed and absent saccule responses was significantly higher in people with T2D, BPPV, and BPPV+DM compared to healthy controls. (ku.edu)
  • Although, BPPV and diabetes independently affected utricle and saccule function, they did not appear to have a distinct cumulative effect. (ku.edu)
  • Chapter 3 revealed otolith dysfunction in people with T2D, BPPV and BPPV+DM. (ku.edu)
  • A neuro-otological workup alone will help to find out if a vertigo patient is suffering from disorders like BPPV, Meniere's Disease, Vestibular Neuritis, Labyrinthitis, Acoustic Neuroma, Otolith Dysfunction, Vestibular Migraine, Central Vestibulopathy or psychogenic disorders. (neuroequilibrium.in)
  • The otolith organs are implicated in BPPV. (ent-surgery.com.au)
  • This test allows healthcare providers a direct assessment of otolith function. (vestibular.org)
  • Though a cVEMP and oVEMP response are dependent on the integrity of the entire reflex pathway (i.e., end organ, afferent pathway, central connections, efferent pathway, end muscle), these tests are typically interpreted as an assessment of otolith end organ function. (vestibologiasicilia.it)
  • The cVEMP measures the integrity of the saccule and its connections through the inferior vestibular nerve.4 Though the end organ origins of the oVEMP in response to air conduction stimuli are still being debated in the literature, the strongest evidence supports the utricle as being responsible for the oVEMP response.5 Thus, the oVEMP is a measure of utricular and superior vestibular nerve function. (vestibologiasicilia.it)
  • Physiologic responses and signals from the otolith organs are known to generate a wide range of brain responses, including dizziness and nausea (seasickness, even without the movement), fear and alerting (startle, wakefulness), and difficulties with visually-based problem-solving. (ontario-wind-resistance.org)
  • Yet, the mechanism underlying the marked cancellation of otolith signals did not affect other characteristics of neuronal responses (i.e., baseline firing rate, tuning ratio, orientation of maximal sensitivity vector). (jneurosci.org)
  • A key question yet to be answered is how does the brain integrate otolith, proprioceptive, and motor-related signals during active self-motion? (jneurosci.org)
  • The hair cells in your balance organ are activated to send signals to your brain when they are moved by this fluid. (menieres.org.uk)
  • To be perfectly balanced, the brain constantly receives signals from the eyes, muscles, and joints and from the inner ear's balance organs. (physiomobility.com)
  • If someone pushes you forward, for example, the otolith & hair sensors would be pulled backwards, creating electrical signals translated from the body's position and movement to your brain and thus allowing precise counter movement being organized in the cerebellum. (treningogrehab.no)
  • Because otolith dysfunction is associated with balance deficits and increased postural sway, in chapter 4, we examined postural sway. (ku.edu)