Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.
Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.
Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.
Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.
Examination of the EAR CANAL and eardrum with an OTOSCOPE.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Inflammation of the honeycomb-like MASTOID BONE in the skull just behind the ear. It is usually a complication of OTITIS MEDIA.
Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
A temporary or persistent opening in the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE). Clinical signs depend on the size, location, and associated pathological condition.
Infections with bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE.
Inflammation of the inner ear (LABYRINTH).
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR. It arises from the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR.
Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.
A rare neoplasm of large B-cells usually presenting as serious effusions without detectable tumor masses. The most common sites of involvement are the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. It is associated with HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 8, most often occurring in the setting of immunodeficiency.
A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.
Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
Instruments designed to inspect or auscultate the ear. They are designed primarily to examine the outer ear canal and tympanic membrane by means of light and air under moderate pressure, as with a pneumatic otoscope. (UMDNS, 1999)
The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the ear or of hearing disorders or demonstration of hearing acuity or loss.
Pain in the ear.
Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Puncture and aspiration of fluid from the PERICARDIUM.
Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.
The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.
Pathological processes involving the NASOPHARYNX.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.
Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.
A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Surgical restoration of a perforated tympanic membrane by grafting. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.
A mobile chain of three small bones (INCUS; MALLEUS; STAPES) in the TYMPANIC CAVITY between the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and the oval window on the wall of INNER EAR. Sound waves are converted to vibration by the tympanic membrane then transmitted via these ear ossicles to the inner ear.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The yellow or brown waxy secretions produced by vestigial apocrine sweat glands in the external ear canal.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.

Middle ear fluid cytokine and inflammatory cell kinetics in the chinchilla otitis media model. (1/256)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microbe causing middle ear infection. The pathophysiology of pneumococcal otitis media has been characterized by measurement of local inflammatory mediators such as inflammatory cells, lysozyme, oxidative metabolic products, and inflammatory cytokines. The role of cytokines in bacterial infection has been elucidated with animal models, and interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) are recognized as being important local mediators in acute inflammation. We characterized middle ear inflammatory responses in the chinchilla otitis media model after injecting a very small number of viable pneumococci into the middle ear, similar to the natural course of infection. Middle ear fluid (MEF) concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha were measured by using anti-human cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reagents. IL-1beta showed the earliest peak, at 6 h after inoculation, whereas IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha concentrations were increasing 72 h after pneumococcal inoculation. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha but not IL-1beta concentrations correlated significantly with total inflammatory cell numbers in MEF, and all four cytokines correlated significantly with MEF neutrophil concentration. Several intercytokine correlations were significant. Cytokines, therefore, participate in the early middle ear inflammatory response to S. pneumoniae.  (+info)

Pneumococcus activation of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway and production of glycoproteins in the middle ear of rats. (2/256)

Pneumococcal otitis media is associated with the production of potent inflammatory mediators (leukotrienes), but the mechanism by which pneumococcus induces production of leukotrienes in the middle ear is poorly understood. In this study, up-regulation of 2 genes that govern the lipoxygenase pathway, cPLA2 and 5-LOX, was observed in rats following inoculation of pneumococcus into the middle ear cavity. Expression of cPLA2 was low, and 5-LOX gene expression was not detected in control animals. Up-regulation of cPLA2 and 5-LOX in middle ear epithelial cells was accompanied by an increase of high-molecular-weight glycoproteins in middle ear fluid and cells. These findings suggest that pneumococcus activates the lipoxygenase pathway by up-regulating expression of the cPLA2 and 5-LOX genes. This, in turn, may stimulate synthesis and secretion of high-molecular-weight glycoproteins that facilitate production of fluid in the middle ear cleft.  (+info)

Interpretation of middle ear fluid concentrations of antibiotics: comparison between ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin. (3/256)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the potential influence of variables such as the cell content in the fluid, and serum levels, on the concentrations of ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin in the middle ear fluid of patients suffering from acute otitis media. METHODS: This randomized, open study compared the penetration of ceftibuten (9 mg kg(-1) 18 patients), cefixime (8 mg kg(-1), 16 patients) and azithromycin (10 mg kg(-1) 16 patients) into the intracellular and extracellular compartments of middle ear fluid of 50 paediatric patients (aged 8-14 years) with acute otitis media. Middle ear fluid was extracted by tympanocentesis 4, 12 and 24 h after dosing and divided into two fractions: with cells (as collected) (C+) and cell-free (C-). Antibiotics were assayed in C+ and C- samples by h.p.l.c. RESULTS: Ceftibuten achieved greater penetration into middle ear fluid than cefixime and azithromycin. Higher concentrations of ceftibuten (CTB) and cefixime (CFX) were found in the C- fraction (CTB: 4h 13.3+/-1.86; 12h 4.7+/-1.18; 24h 0.5+/-0.2. CFX: 4h 3.2+/-1.4; 12h 1.5+/-0.5; 24h>(0.1 mgl(-1)) than in the C+ fraction (CTB:4 h 8.4+/-4.3; 12 h 2.88+/-1.19; 24 h 0.3+/-0.27. CFX: 4 h 1.2+/-0.6; 12 h 0.8+/-0.2; 24 h>0.1 mg l(-1)) at the each time point, while the opposite was true for azithromycin (C-: 4 h 0.11+/-0.04; 12 h 0.12+/-0.08; 24 h 0.23+/-0.12. C+: 4 h 0.38+/-0.24; 12 h 0.9+/-0.03; 24 h 1.05+/-0.3 mg l(-1)). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the penetration of antibiotics into the middle ear fluid is influenced by its serum concentrations as well as by the cell content in the fluid. Ceftibuten achieved higher middle ear fluid concentrations than cefixime in C+ and C- fractions at all time points. Both ceftibuten and cefixime concentrations are negatively influenced by the cell content in the fluid. In contrast the concentration of azithromycin to the middle ear fluid is positively influenced by the cell content in the fluid.  (+info)

Protection against development of otitis media induced by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by both active and passive immunization in a chinchilla model of virus-bacterium superinfection. (4/256)

Three separate studies, two involving active-immunization regimens and one involving a passive-transfer protocol, were conducted to initially screen and ultimately more fully assess several nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane proteins or their derivatives for their relative protective efficacy in chinchilla models of otitis media. Initial screening of these antigens (P5-fimbrin, lipoprotein D, and P6), delivered singly or in combination with either Freund's adjuvant or alum, indicated that augmented bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx, the middle ears, or both anatomical sites could be induced by parenteral immunization with P5-fimbrin combined with lipoprotein D, lipoprotein D alone, or the synthetic chimeric peptide LB1 (derived from P5-fimbrin), respectively. Data from a second study, wherein chinchillas were immunized with LB1 or lipoprotein D, each delivered with alum, again indicated that clearance of nontypeable H. influenzae could be augmented by immunization with either of these immunogens; however, when this adjuvant was used, both antibody titers in serum and efficacy were reduced. A third study was performed to investigate passive delivery of antisera directed against either LB1, lipoprotein D, nonacylated lipoprotein D, or a unique recombinant peptide designated LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3. The last three antiserum pools were generated by using the combined adjuvant of alum plus monophosphoryl lipid A. Passive transfer of sera specific for LB1 or LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3 to adenovirus-compromised chinchillas, prior to intranasal challenge with nontypeable H. influenzae, significantly reduced the severity of signs and incidence of otitis media which developed (P +info)

Complement activation and expression of membrane regulators in the middle ear mucosa in otitis media with effusion. (5/256)

The aetiopathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) in children is not yet fully understood. OME is characterized by metaplasia of the epithelium and accumulation of sticky, glue-like effusion in the middle ear containing different mediators of inflammation, including activation fragments of the complement system. Here we examined whether the fluid phase complement activation is reflected in the middle ear mucosa and how the mucosa is protected against the cytolytic activity of complement. Mucosal biopsies from 18 middle ears of children with a history of chronic OME were taken. The biopsies were analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy after staining for complement fragments iC3b/C3c, C3d and C9, and regulators membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) and protectin (CD59). There was a strong staining for iC3b/C3c, and a weaker one for C3d and C9 on the surface of the middle ear epithelial cells of OME patients but not in controls without OME. MCP was expressed on the hyperplastic three to four outer cell layers of the epithelium, while CD59 was expressed throughout the middle ear mucosa. The results suggest a strong ongoing complement activation and consequent inflammation in the middle ear cavity. Unrestricted complement damage of the epithelial lining is prevented by the strong expression of MCP and CD59.  (+info)

Accumulation of factors influencing children's middle ear disease: risk factor modelling on a large population cohort. (6/256)

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Data were analysed from a large national birth cohort to examine cumulative and interactive prediction from various risk factors for childhood middle ear disease, and to resolve conflicting evidence arising from small and incompletely controlled studies. The large sample size permitted appropriate covariate adjustment to give generality, and permit demographic breakdown of the risk factors. SETTING: A large multi-purpose longitudinal birth cohort study of all births in the UK in one week in 1970, with multiple questionnaire sweeps. PARTICIPANTS: Over 13,000 children were entered into the original cohort. Data on over 12,000 children were available at the five year follow up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For children at 5 years, parent reported data were available on health and social factors including data on two markers for middle ear disease: the occurrence of purulent (nonwax) ear discharge and suspected or confirmed hearing difficulty. MAIN RESULTS: In those children who had ever had reported hearing difficulty (suspected or confirmed), after control for socioeconomic status, three of the classic factors (male sex, mother's smoking habits since birth, and attending day care) were significantly more frequent. In those who had ever had ear discharge reported, only mother's smoking habit since birth was significantly more frequent. However, it showed an orderly dose response relation. In addition, a derived general child health score was found to be significantly associated with both the middle ear disease markers. Control for this variable in the analysis of those having reported hearing difficulty reduced the effect size of mother's smoking habit, but it remained statistically significant. For reported ear discharge, even after control for the general health score and social index, mother's smoking habits and day care attendance were both significant predictors. Mother's (but not father's) smoking habits and day care attendance were found to be significant risk factors for middle ear disease. Breast feeding effects were weak and did not generally survive statistical control. CONCLUSIONS: A child having all three risk factors (attends day care, a mother who smokes, and male sex) is 3.4 times more likely to have problems with hearing than a child who has none, based on cumulative risk. Further studies should focus on preventative risk modification and well specified intervention.  (+info)

Antimicrobial treatment of an experimental otitis media caused by a beta-lactamase positive isolate of Haemophilus influenzae. (7/256)

A gerbil model of otitis media induced by a beta-lactamase producing and non-serotypeable isolate of Haemophilus influenzae was used to assess the in-vivo efficacy of co-amoxiclav and cefuroxime at low (5 mg/kg) and high (20 mg/kg) doses. The MIC of the antibiotics tested against the pathogen was 1 mg/L (1/0.5 mg/L for co-amoxiclav). The organism was inoculated (+/-10(6) cfu) by transbullar challenge directly in the middle ear and antibiotic treatment was commenced 2 h post-inoculation and continued at 8 h intervals for three doses. Only high dose co-amoxiclav significantly reduced the number of culture-positive specimens as compared with untreated animals or with other treatment groups (91.7% as compared with 36.7% for high dose cefuroxime). The results obtained in any treatment group were related to middle ear antibiotic level/MIC. Antibiotic concentrations in the middle ear 90 min after administration were about 10% of serum levels at 15 min, probably related to a slight inflammatory response. Only after high dose co-amoxiclav did the concentration in the middle ear exceed the MIC by a factor of four. In otitis media with effusion, if indicated, antibiotics active in vitro should be administered in high doses and, to avoid side effects, probably in short courses.  (+info)

Middle ear effusion: rate and risk factors in Australian children attending day care. (8/256)

There have been no previous longitudinal studies of otitis media conducted in non-Aboriginal Australian children. This paper describes the rate and risk factors for middle ear effusion (MEE) in children attending day care in Darwin, Australia. A prospective cohort study of 252 children under 4 years was conducted in 9 day care centres over 12 fortnights between 24 March and 15 September 1997. Tympanometry was conducted fortnightly and multivariate analysis used to determine risk factors predicting MEE. The outcome of interest was the rate of type B tympanograms per child detected in either ear at fortnightly examinations. After adjusting for clustering by child, MEE was detected on average 4.4 times in 12 fortnights (37% of all examinations conducted). Risk factors associated with presence of effusion were younger age, a family history of ear infection, previous grommets (tympanostomy tubes), ethnicity and the day care centre attended. A history of wheeze appeared protective. These effects were modest (RR 0.57-1.70). Middle ear effusion is very common in children attending day care in Darwin. This has clinical importance, since MEE during early childhood may affect optimal hearing, learning and speech development. There is little scope for modification for many of the risk factors for MEE predicted by this model. Further study of the day care environment is warranted.  (+info)

Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. It can occur as a result of a cold, respiratory infection, or allergy that causes fluid buildup behind the eardrum. The buildup of fluid can lead to infection and irritation of the middle ear, causing symptoms such as ear pain, hearing loss, and difficulty balancing. There are two types of otitis media: acute otitis media (AOM), which is a short-term infection that can cause fever and severe ear pain, and otitis media with effusion (OME), which is fluid buildup in the middle ear without symptoms of infection. In some cases, otitis media may require medical treatment, including antibiotics or the placement of ear tubes to drain the fluid and relieve pressure on the eardrum.

Otitis media with effusion (OME), also known as serous otitis media or glue ear, is a medical condition characterized by the presence of fluid in the middle ear without signs or symptoms of acute ear infection. The fluid accumulation occurs due to the dysfunction of the Eustachian tube, which results in negative pressure and subsequent accumulation of sterile fluid within the middle ear space.

OME can lead to hearing difficulties, especially in children, as the fluid buildup impairs sound conduction through the ossicles in the middle ear. Symptoms may include mild hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and a sensation of fullness or pressure in the affected ear. In some cases, OME can resolve on its own within a few weeks or months; however, persistent cases might require medical intervention, such as placement of tympanostomy tubes (ear tubes) to drain the fluid and restore hearing.

Pleural effusion is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which is the thin, fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall. This space typically contains a small amount of fluid to allow for smooth movement of the lungs during breathing. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates, it can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.

Pleural effusions can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including pneumonia, heart failure, cancer, pulmonary embolism, and autoimmune disorders. The fluid that accumulates in the pleural space can be transudative or exudative, depending on the cause of the effusion. Transudative effusions are caused by increased pressure in the blood vessels or decreased protein levels in the blood, while exudative effusions are caused by inflammation, infection, or cancer.

Diagnosis of pleural effusion typically involves a physical examination, chest X-ray, and analysis of the fluid in the pleural space. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the effusion and may include medications, drainage of the fluid, or surgery.

Suppurative Otitis Media is a type of inner ear infection that involves the accumulation of pus (suppuration) in the middle ear space. It can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection and often results from a previous episode of acute otitis media, where fluid builds up behind the eardrum (tympanic membrane).

Suppurative Otitis Media can lead to complications such as hearing loss, damage to the inner ear structures, and spread of infection to nearby areas like the mastoid process or the brain. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and sometimes surgical intervention to drain the pus and relieve pressure on the eardrum.

The middle ear is the middle of the three parts of the ear, located between the outer ear and inner ear. It contains three small bones called ossicles (the malleus, incus, and stapes) that transmit and amplify sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The middle ear also contains the Eustachian tube, which helps regulate air pressure in the middle ear and protects against infection by allowing fluid to drain from the middle ear into the back of the throat.

Otitis externa, also known as swimmer's ear, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal (the outermost part of the ear canal leading to the eardrum). It often occurs when water stays in the ear after swimming, creating a moist environment that promotes bacterial growth.

The symptoms of otitis externa may include:
- Redness and swelling of the ear canal
- Pain or discomfort in the ear, especially when moving the jaw or chewing
- Itching in the ear
- Discharge from the ear (pus or clear fluid)
- Hearing loss or difficulty hearing

Otitis externa is typically treated with antibiotic eardrops and sometimes oral antibiotics. Keeping the ear dry during treatment is important to prevent further irritation and promote healing. In severe cases, a healthcare provider may need to clean the ear canal before administering medication.

Pericardial effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space, which is the potential space between the two layers of the pericardium - the fibrous and serous layers. The pericardium is a sac that surrounds the heart to provide protection and lubrication for the heart's movement during each heartbeat. Normally, there is only a small amount of fluid (5-15 mL) in this space to ensure smooth motion of the heart. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates, it can cause increased pressure on the heart, leading to various complications such as decreased cardiac output and even cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Pericardial effusion may result from several causes, including infections (viral, bacterial, or fungal), inflammatory conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or cancer), trauma, heart surgery, kidney failure, or iatrogenic causes. The symptoms of pericardial effusion can vary depending on the rate and amount of fluid accumulation. Slowly developing effusions may not cause any symptoms, while rapid accumulations can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, palpitations, or even hypotension (low blood pressure). Diagnosis is usually confirmed through imaging techniques such as echocardiography, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the effusion, ranging from close monitoring to drainage procedures or medications to address the root cause.

Malignant pleural effusion is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (the area between the lungs and the chest wall) due to the spread of malignant (cancerous) cells from a primary tumor located elsewhere in the body. This type of effusion is typically associated with advanced-stage cancer, and it can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain. The presence of malignant pleural effusion often indicates a poor prognosis, and treatment is generally focused on palliating symptoms and improving quality of life.

Middle ear ventilation refers to the normal process of air movement between the middle ear and the back of the nose (nasopharynx) through the eustachian tube. This tube is a narrow canal that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx and helps to regulate air pressure in the middle ear, preventing its accumulation and subsequent negative pressure or fluid build-up, which can lead to conditions such as otitis media (middle ear infection) or serous otitis media (fluid in the middle ear).

The eustachian tube opens during activities such as swallowing, yawning, or chewing, allowing fresh air to enter the middle ear and any accumulated fluid or gas to be drained out. Abnormalities in middle ear ventilation can result from dysfunction of the eustachian tube, leading to various middle ear disorders.

## I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "chinchilla."

A chinchilla is actually a type of rodent that is native to South America. They have thick, soft fur and are often kept as exotic pets or used in laboratory research. If you're looking for information about chinchillas in a medical context, such as their use in research or any potential health concerns related to keeping them as pets, I would be happy to help you try to find more information on those topics.

The Eustachian tube, also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube, is a narrow canal that connects the middle ear cavity to the back of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose). Its function is to maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrum and to drain any fluid accumulation from the middle ear. The Eustachian tube is lined with mucous membrane and contains tiny hair-like structures called cilia that help to move mucus and fluid out of the middle ear. It opens and closes to regulate air pressure and drainage, which typically occurs during swallowing or yawning.

"Otitis" is a general medical term that refers to inflammation or infection in the ear. It can be further classified into different types depending on the part of the ear affected:

1. Otitis externa, also known as swimmer's ear, affects the outer ear and ear canal.
2. Otitis media is an infection or inflammation of the middle ear.
3. Otitis interna, or labyrinthitis, refers to inflammation of the inner ear.

The symptoms of otitis can vary but often include pain, hearing loss, and discharge. The specific treatment will depend on the type and severity of the otitis.

Otoscopy is a medical examination procedure used to evaluate the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane (eardrum). It involves the use of an otoscope, a tool that consists of a lighted speculum attached to a handle. The speculum is inserted into the ear canal, allowing the healthcare provider to visualize and inspect the eardrum for any abnormalities such as perforations, inflammation, fluid accumulation, or foreign bodies. Otoscopy can help diagnose various conditions including ear infections, middle ear disorders, and hearing loss.

Haemophilus influenzae is a gram-negative, coccobacillary bacterium that can cause a variety of infectious diseases in humans. It is part of the normal respiratory flora but can become pathogenic under certain circumstances. The bacteria are named after their initial discovery in 1892 by Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic, although they are not the causative agent of influenza.

There are six main serotypes (a-f) based on the polysaccharide capsule surrounding the bacterium, with type b (Hib) being the most virulent and invasive. Hib can cause severe invasive diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, and sepsis, particularly in children under 5 years of age. The introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of these invasive diseases.

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strains lack a capsule and are responsible for non-invasive respiratory tract infections, such as otitis media, sinusitis, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NTHi can also cause invasive diseases but at lower frequency compared to Hib.

Proper diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility testing are crucial for effective treatment, as Haemophilus influenzae strains may display resistance to certain antibiotics.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Mastoiditis is a medical condition characterized by an infection and inflammation of the mastoid process, which is the bony prominence located behind the ear. The mastoid process contains air cells that are connected to the middle ear, and an infection in the middle ear (otitis media) can spread to the mastoid process, resulting in mastoiditis.

The symptoms of mastoiditis may include:

* Pain and tenderness behind the ear
* Swelling or redness of the skin behind the ear
* Ear drainage or discharge
* Fever and headache
* Hearing loss or difficulty hearing

Mastoiditis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, as well as possible surgical intervention if the infection does not respond to medication or if it has caused significant damage to the mastoid process. If left untreated, mastoiditis can lead to complications such as meningitis, brain abscess, or even death.

Acoustic impedance tests are diagnostic procedures used to measure the impedance or resistance of various parts of the ear to sound waves. These tests are often used to assess hearing function and diagnose any issues related to the middle ear, such as fluid buildup or problems with the eardrum.

The most common type of acoustic impedance test is tympanometry, which measures the mobility of the eardrum and the middle ear system by creating variations in air pressure within the ear canal. During this test, a small probe is inserted into the ear canal, and sound waves are generated while the pressure is varied. The resulting measurements provide information about the condition of the middle ear and can help identify any issues that may be affecting hearing.

Another type of acoustic impedance test is acoustic reflex testing, which measures the body's natural response to loud sounds. This involves measuring the contraction of the stapedius muscle in the middle ear, which occurs in response to loud noises. By measuring the strength and timing of this reflex, audiologists can gain additional insights into the functioning of the middle ear and identify any abnormalities that may be present.

Overall, acoustic impedance tests are important tools for diagnosing hearing problems and identifying any underlying issues in the middle ear. They are often used in conjunction with other hearing tests to provide a comprehensive assessment of an individual's hearing function.

Haemophilus infections are caused by bacteria named Haemophilus influenzae. Despite its name, this bacterium does not cause the flu, which is caused by a virus. There are several different strains of Haemophilus influenzae, and some are more likely to cause severe illness than others.

Haemophilus infections can affect people of any age, but they are most common in children under 5 years old. The bacteria can cause a range of infections, from mild ear infections to serious conditions such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and pneumonia (infection of the lungs).

The bacterium is spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as handwashing, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccination is also available to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections, which are the most severe and common form of Haemophilus infection.

Pneumococcal infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. This bacterium can infect different parts of the body, including the lungs (pneumonia), blood (bacteremia or sepsis), and the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Pneumococcal infections can also cause ear infections and sinus infections. The bacteria spread through close contact with an infected person, who may spread the bacteria by coughing or sneezing. People with weakened immune systems, children under 2 years of age, adults over 65, and those with certain medical conditions are at increased risk for developing pneumococcal infections.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

The tympanic membrane, also known as the eardrum, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external auditory canal from the middle ear. It serves to transmit sound vibrations from the air to the inner ear, where they are converted into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain as sound. The tympanic membrane is composed of three layers: an outer layer of skin, a middle layer of connective tissue, and an inner layer of mucous membrane. It is held in place by several small bones and muscles and is highly sensitive to changes in pressure.

Exudates and transudates are two types of bodily fluids that can accumulate in various body cavities or tissues as a result of injury, inflammation, or other medical conditions. Here are the medical definitions:

1. Exudates: These are fluids that accumulate due to an active inflammatory process. Exudates contain high levels of protein, white blood cells (such as neutrophils and macrophages), and sometimes other cells like red blood cells or cellular debris. They can be yellow, green, or brown in color and may have a foul odor due to the presence of dead cells and bacteria. Exudates are often seen in conditions such as abscesses, pneumonia, pleurisy, or wound infections.

Examples of exudative fluids include pus, purulent discharge, or inflammatory effusions.

2. Transudates: These are fluids that accumulate due to increased hydrostatic pressure or decreased oncotic pressure within the blood vessels. Transudates contain low levels of protein and cells compared to exudates. They are typically clear and pale yellow in color, with no odor. Transudates can be found in conditions such as congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or nephrotic syndrome.

Examples of transudative fluids include ascites, pleural effusions, or pericardial effusions.

It is essential to differentiate between exudates and transudates because their underlying causes and treatment approaches may differ significantly. Medical professionals often use various tests, such as fluid analysis, to determine whether a fluid sample is an exudate or transudate.

Tympanic membrane perforation, also known as a ruptured eardrum, is a tear or hole in the tympanic membrane, which separates the outer ear canal and the middle ear. The tympanic membrane plays a crucial role in hearing by transmitting sound vibrations from the outer ear to the inner ear. A perforation can result from various causes such as infection, trauma, pressure changes, or explosive blasts, leading to symptoms like hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and ear discharge. The extent and location of the perforation determine the severity of the symptoms and the course of treatment, which may include observation, antibiotics, or surgical repair.

Moraxellaceae is a family of Gram-negative, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment and on the mucosal surfaces of humans and animals. Infections caused by Moraxellaceae are relatively rare but can occur, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Two genera within this family, Moraxella and Acinetobacter, are most commonly associated with human infections. Moraxella catarrhalis is a leading cause of respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis, otitis media (middle ear infection), and sinusitis, particularly in children and the elderly. It can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye) and pneumonia.

Acinetobacter species, on the other hand, are often found in soil and water and can colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans without causing harm. However, they can become opportunistic pathogens in hospital settings, causing a range of infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and meningitis, particularly in critically ill or immunocompromised patients.

Infections caused by Moraxellaceae can be treated with antibiotics, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains is a growing concern. Proper infection control measures, such as hand hygiene and environmental cleaning, are essential to prevent the spread of these infections in healthcare settings.

Labyrinthitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the labyrinth, which is the inner ear's balance- and hearing-sensitive system. It is often caused by an infection, such as a viral or bacterial infection, that spreads to the inner ear. The inflammation can affect the delicate structures of the labyrinth, leading to symptoms such as vertigo (a spinning sensation), dizziness, imbalance, hearing loss, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). Labyrinthitis can be a serious condition that requires medical attention and treatment.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus, is a gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic bacterium frequently found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals. It is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and can also cause other infectious diseases such as otitis media (ear infection), sinusitis, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection). The bacteria are encapsulated, and there are over 90 serotypes based on variations in the capsular polysaccharide. Some serotypes are more virulent or invasive than others, and the polysaccharide composition is crucial for vaccine development. S. pneumoniae infection can be treated with antibiotics, but the emergence of drug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern.

The nasopharynx is the uppermost part of the pharynx (throat), which is located behind the nose. It is a muscular cavity that serves as a passageway for air and food. The nasopharynx extends from the base of the skull to the lower border of the soft palate, where it continues as the oropharynx. Its primary function is to allow air to flow into the respiratory system through the nostrils while also facilitating the drainage of mucus from the nose into the throat. The nasopharynx contains several important structures, including the adenoids and the opening of the Eustachian tubes, which connect the middle ear to the back of the nasopharynx.

Otolaryngology is a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, management, and treatment of disorders related to the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and head and neck region. It's also known as ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat) specialty. Otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management of conditions such as hearing and balance disorders, nasal congestion, sinusitis, allergies, sleep apnea, snoring, swallowing difficulties, voice and speech problems, and head and neck tumors.

The Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination is an antibiotic medication used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. This combination therapy combines the antibiotic amoxicillin with potassium clavulanate, which is a beta-lactamase inhibitor. The addition of potassium clavulanate helps protect amoxicillin from being broken down by certain types of bacteria that produce beta-lactamases, thus increasing the effectiveness of the antibiotic against a broader range of bacterial infections.

Amoxicillin is a type of penicillin antibiotic that works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, ultimately leading to bacterial death. However, some bacteria have developed enzymes called beta-lactamases, which can break down and inactivate certain antibiotics like amoxicillin. Potassium clavulanate is added to the combination to inhibit these beta-lactamase enzymes, allowing amoxicillin to maintain its effectiveness against a wider range of bacteria.

This combination medication is used to treat various infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and dental infections. It's essential to follow the prescribed dosage and duration as directed by a healthcare professional to ensure effective treatment and prevent antibiotic resistance.

Common brand names for this combination include Augmentin and Amoxiclav.

Cholesteatoma, middle ear is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal growth of skin cells (keratinizing squamous epithelium) within the middle ear space. This skin cells accumulation forms a pearly, white, or gray mass that can erode and destroy surrounding structures such as the ossicles (the tiny bones in the middle ear), the mastoid process (a bony prominence behind the ear), and even the inner ear or brain.

Cholesteatomas can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). Acquired cholesteatomas are more common and usually result from repeated middle ear infections that cause a retraction pocket of the eardrum, which then traps skin cells leading to their abnormal growth. Symptoms of cholesteatoma may include hearing loss, ear drainage, ear pain, vertigo, or facial weakness. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cholesteatoma and restoration of any damaged structures.

Pleural Tuberculosis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) that involves the infection and inflammation of the pleura, which are the thin membranes that surround the lungs and line the inside of the chest cavity. This condition is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which can spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

In pleural tuberculosis, the bacteria reach the pleura either through direct extension from a nearby lung infection or via bloodstream dissemination. The infection can cause the pleura to become inflamed and produce excess fluid, leading to pleural effusion. This accumulation of fluid in the pleural space can cause chest pain, coughing, and difficulty breathing.

Diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy, culture, and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis in the pleural fluid or tissue samples.

Treatment of pleural tuberculosis typically involves a standard course of anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT), which includes a combination of multiple antibiotics such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The duration of treatment may vary depending on the severity of the infection and the patient's response to therapy. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain the pleural effusion or remove the infected pleura.

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that typically presents as an effusion (accumulation of fluid) in the pleural, pericardial, or peritoneal cavities without a detectable tumor mass. It is strongly associated with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) and often occurs in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. The malignant cells in PEL are typically large B-cells that secrete fluid, leading to the formation of effusions. This type of lymphoma is aggressive and has a poor prognosis.

Adenoids are a pair of masses of lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx, which is the upper part of the throat behind the nose. They are part of the immune system and help to protect against infection. Adenoids are largest in children and tend to shrink in size as people get older. In some cases, adenoids can become enlarged or infected, leading to problems such as breathing difficulties, ear infections, and sleep disorders. Treatment for enlarged or infected adenoids may include antibiotics, medications to reduce swelling, or surgical removal of the adenoids (adenoidectomy).

Ear diseases are medical conditions that affect the ear and its various components, including the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, such as hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), ear pain, and discharge. Some common ear diseases include:

1. Otitis externa (swimmer's ear) - an infection or inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal.
2. Otitis media - an infection or inflammation of the middle ear, often caused by a cold or flu.
3. Cholesteatoma - a skin growth that develops in the middle ear behind the eardrum.
4. Meniere's disease - a disorder of the inner ear that can cause vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
5. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders - problems with the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, which can cause ear pain and other symptoms.
6. Acoustic neuroma - a noncancerous tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Presbycusis - age-related hearing loss.

Treatment for ear diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medication, surgery, or other therapies. If you are experiencing symptoms of an ear disease, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional, such as an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist).

Amoxicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which is necessary for their growth and survival. By disrupting this process, amoxicillin can kill bacteria and help to clear up infections.

Amoxicillin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available as a tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, or liquid suspension, and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections more difficult to treat in the future.

Tympanoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to reconstruct or repair the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and/or the small bones of the middle ear (ossicles). The primary goal of this surgery is to restore hearing, but it can also help manage chronic middle ear infections, traumatic eardrum perforations, or cholesteatoma (a skin growth in the middle ear).

During the procedure, a surgeon may use various techniques such as grafting tissue from another part of the body to rebuild the eardrum or using prosthetic materials to reconstruct the ossicles. The choice of technique depends on the extent and location of the damage. Tympanoplasty is typically an outpatient procedure, meaning patients can return home on the same day of the surgery.

An otoscope is a medical device used to examine the ear canal and eardrum. It consists of a handle, a speculum (a disposable or reusable attachment that fits on the end of the handle), and a light source. The speculum is inserted into the ear canal, allowing the healthcare provider to visualize the eardrum and assess its condition, as well as check for any foreign objects, wax buildup, or signs of infection in the ear canal. Otoscopes are commonly used by primary care physicians, pediatricians, and specialists such as otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat doctors).

The mastoid is a term used in anatomy and refers to the bony prominence located at the base of the skull, posterior to the ear. More specifically, it's part of the temporal bone, one of the bones that forms the side and base of the skull. The mastoid process provides attachment for various muscles involved in chewing and moving the head.

In a medical context, "mastoid" can also refer to conditions or procedures related to this area. For example, mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid process, while a mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part or all of the mastoid process.

Hearing loss is a partial or total inability to hear sounds in one or both ears. It can occur due to damage to the structures of the ear, including the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, or nerve pathways that transmit sound to the brain. The degree of hearing loss can vary from mild (difficulty hearing soft sounds) to severe (inability to hear even loud sounds). Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent and may be caused by factors such as exposure to loud noises, genetics, aging, infections, trauma, or certain medical conditions. It is important to note that hearing loss can have significant impacts on a person's communication abilities, social interactions, and overall quality of life.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

Sulfisoxazole is an antibacterial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic, short-acting, bacteriostatic antibiotic that inhibits the growth of certain bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, an essential component for their survival. Sulfisoxazole is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.

It's important to note that the use of sulfonamides like sulfisoxazole has declined over time due to the emergence of bacterial resistance and the availability of alternative antibiotics with better safety profiles. Additionally, adverse reactions such as rashes, allergies, and blood disorders have been associated with their use, so they should be prescribed with caution and only when necessary.

Diagnostic techniques in otology refer to the methods and tests used by healthcare professionals to identify and diagnose various conditions related to the ear. These techniques can include:

1. Otoscopy: A visual examination of the external auditory canal and eardrum using an otoscope. This helps to identify any physical abnormalities, such as wax buildup, inflammation, or foreign objects in the ear.
2. Audiometry: A hearing test that measures a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, and volumes. This can help to identify any hearing loss or auditory processing issues.
3. Tympanometry: A test that measures the function of the middle ear by creating variations in air pressure in the ear canal. This can help to identify any issues with the eardrum or middle ear bones.
4. Acoustic reflex testing: A test that measures the body's involuntary response to loud sounds. This can help to identify any damage to the hearing nerves or brainstem.
5. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) testing: A test that measures the sound waves produced by the inner ear in response to stimuli. This can help to identify any issues with the cochlea or hair cells in the inner ear.
6. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing: A test that measures the electrical activity of the hearing nerve and brainstem in response to sound. This can help to identify any issues with the auditory nervous system.
7. Vestibular testing: A series of tests that measure a person's balance and equilibrium. This can help to identify any issues with the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance.

These diagnostic techniques are used to diagnose various otological conditions such as hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, ear infections, and tumors of the ear.

An earache is defined as a pain or discomfort in the ear. It can occur in either the outer, middle, or inner ear. The pain may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent and can vary in intensity from mild to severe. Earaches are often accompanied by other symptoms such as hearing loss, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), and feelings of pressure or fullness in the ear. In some cases, an earache may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as an ear infection, swimmer's ear, or a ruptured eardrum. If you are experiencing an earache that is severe or persistent, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional.

Adenoidectomy is a surgical procedure in which the adenoids are removed. The adenoids are a patch of tissue located behind the nasal cavity, near the roof of the mouth. They help to filter out germs that are breathed in through the nose. However, sometimes the adenoids can become enlarged or infected, leading to problems such as difficulty breathing through the nose, recurrent ear infections, and sleep apnea. In these cases, an adenoidectomy may be recommended to remove the adenoids and alleviate these symptoms.

The procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis, which means that the patient can go home the same day as the surgery. The surgeon will use a special instrument to remove the adenoids through the mouth, without making any external incisions. After the surgery, the patient may experience some discomfort, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing for a few days. However, these symptoms usually resolve within a week or two.

It is important to note that an adenoidectomy is not the same as a tonsillectomy, which is the surgical removal of the tonsils. While the tonsils and adenoids are both part of the immune system and located in the same area of the mouth, they serve different functions and may be removed separately or together depending on the individual's medical needs.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

The ear canal, also known as the external auditory canal, is the tubular passage that extends from the outer ear (pinna) to the eardrum (tympanic membrane). It is lined with skin and tiny hairs, and is responsible for conducting sound waves from the outside environment to the middle and inner ear. The ear canal is typically about 2.5 cm long in adults and has a self-cleaning mechanism that helps to keep it free of debris and wax.

Pericardiocentesis is a medical procedure where a needle or a catheter is inserted into the pericardial sac, the thin fluid-filled space surrounding the heart, to remove excess fluids or air that has accumulated. This buildup can put pressure on the heart and impede its function, leading to various cardiac symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations. The procedure is often guided by echocardiography or fluoroscopy to ensure proper placement and minimize risks. Pericardiocentesis may be performed as an emergency treatment or a scheduled intervention, depending on the patient's condition.

Cardiac tamponade is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is excessive fluid or blood accumulation in the pericardial sac, which surrounds the heart. This accumulation puts pressure on the heart, preventing it from filling properly and reducing its ability to pump blood effectively. As a result, cardiac output decreases, leading to symptoms such as low blood pressure, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a rapid pulse. If left untreated, cardiac tamponade can be life-threatening, requiring emergency medical intervention to drain the fluid and relieve the pressure on the heart.

Pneumococcal vaccines are immunizing agents that protect against infections caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. These vaccines help to prevent several types of diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection).

There are two main types of pneumococcal vaccines available:

1. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV): This vaccine is recommended for children under 2 years old, adults aged 65 and older, and people with certain medical conditions that increase their risk of pneumococcal infections. PCV protects against 13 or 20 serotypes (strains) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, depending on the formulation (PCV13 or PCV20).
2. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine is recommended for adults aged 65 and older, children and adults with specific medical conditions, and smokers. PPSV protects against 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that recognize and fight off the bacteria if an individual comes into contact with it in the future. Both types of pneumococcal vaccines have been proven to be safe and effective in preventing severe pneumococcal diseases.

Neisseriaceae infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the family Neisseriaceae, which includes several genera of gram-negative diplococci. The most common pathogens in this family are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis.

* N. gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection that can affect the genital tract, rectum, and throat. It can also cause conjunctivitis in newborns who contract the bacteria during childbirth.
* N. meningitidis is responsible for meningococcal disease, which can present as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or septicemia (bloodstream infection). Meningococcal disease can be severe and potentially life-threatening, with symptoms including high fever, headache, stiff neck, and a rash.

Other Neisseriaceae species that can cause human infections, though less commonly, include Moraxella catarrhalis (a cause of respiratory tract infections, particularly in children), Kingella kingae (associated with bone and joint infections in young children), and various other Neisseria species (which can cause skin and soft tissue infections, endocarditis, and other invasive diseases).

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

The pleura is the medical term for the double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest cavity. The two layers of the pleura are called the parietal pleura, which lines the chest cavity, and the visceral pleura, which covers the surface of the lungs.

The space between these two layers is called the pleural cavity, which contains a small amount of lubricating fluid that allows the lungs to move smoothly within the chest during breathing. The main function of the pleura is to protect the lungs and facilitate their movement during respiration.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

A hearing test is a procedure used to evaluate a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. It is performed by a hearing healthcare professional in a sound-treated booth or room with calibrated audiometers. The test measures a person's hearing sensitivity at different frequencies and determines the quietest sounds they can hear, known as their hearing thresholds.

There are several types of hearing tests, including:

1. Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA): This is the most common type of hearing test, where the person is presented with pure tones at different frequencies and volumes through headphones or ear inserts. The person indicates when they hear the sound by pressing a button or raising their hand.
2. Speech Audiometry: This test measures a person's ability to understand speech at different volume levels. The person is asked to repeat words presented to them in quiet and in background noise.
3. Tympanometry: This test measures the function of the middle ear by creating variations in air pressure in the ear canal. It can help identify issues such as fluid buildup or a perforated eardrum.
4. Acoustic Reflex Testing: This test measures the body's natural response to loud sounds and can help identify the location of damage in the hearing system.
5. Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs): This test measures the sound that is produced by the inner ear when it is stimulated by a sound. It can help identify cochlear damage or abnormalities.

Hearing tests are important for diagnosing and monitoring hearing loss, as well as identifying any underlying medical conditions that may be causing the hearing problems.

Child day care centers are facilities that provide supervision and care for children for varying lengths of time during the day. These centers may offer early education, recreational activities, and meals, and they cater to children of different age groups, from infants to school-aged children. They are typically licensed and regulated by state authorities and must meet certain standards related to staff qualifications, child-to-staff ratios, and safety. Child day care centers may be operated by non-profit organizations, religious institutions, or for-profit businesses. They can also be referred to as daycare centers, nursery schools, or preschools.

Empyema is a collection of pus in a body cavity. Pleural empyema refers to the presence of pus in the pleural space, which is the thin fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. This condition usually develops as a complication of pneumonia or lung infection, and it can cause symptoms such as chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as drainage of the pus from the pleural space through procedures such as thoracentesis or chest tube placement. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the infected pleura and prevent recurrence.

Sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the skull near the nose. The inflammation can be caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, as well as allergies, structural issues, or autoimmune disorders.

In sinusitis, the mucous membranes lining the sinuses become swollen and may produce excess mucus, leading to symptoms such as nasal congestion, thick green or yellow nasal discharge, facial pain or pressure, reduced sense of smell, cough, fatigue, and fever.

Sinusitis can be classified into acute (lasting less than 4 weeks), subacute (lasting 4-12 weeks), chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks), or recurrent (multiple episodes within a year). Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms, and may include antibiotics, nasal corticosteroids, decongestants, saline irrigation, and in some cases, surgery.

A subdural effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the potential space between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the arachnoid membrane (one of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord) in the subdural space.

Subdural effusions can occur due to various reasons, including head trauma, infection, or complications from neurosurgical procedures. The fluid accumulation may result from bleeding (subdural hematoma), inflammation, or increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Depending on the underlying cause and the amount of fluid accumulated, subdural effusions can cause various symptoms, such as headaches, altered mental status, or neurological deficits.

Subdural effusions are often asymptomatic and may resolve independently; however, in some cases, medical intervention might be necessary to alleviate the pressure on the brain or address the underlying condition. Imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are typically used to diagnose and monitor subdural effusions.

Azithromycin is a widely used antibiotic drug that belongs to the class of macrolides. It works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, which leads to the death of susceptible bacteria. This medication is active against a broad range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, atypical bacteria, and some parasites.

Azithromycin is commonly prescribed to treat various bacterial infections, such as:

1. Respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis
2. Skin and soft tissue infections
3. Sexually transmitted diseases, like chlamydia
4. Otitis media (middle ear infection)
5. Traveler's diarrhea

The drug is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suspension, and intravenous solutions. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 250 mg to 500 mg per day, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Like other antibiotics, azithromycin should be used judiciously to prevent antibiotic resistance. It is essential to complete the full course of treatment as prescribed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before finishing the medication.

Cefaclor is a type of antibiotic known as a second-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria eventually die. Cefaclor is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, making it a broad-spectrum antibiotic.

Cefaclor is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections (such as bronchitis and pneumonia), ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available in both oral and intravenous forms.

Like all antibiotics, cefaclor should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it is not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Overuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can make future infections more difficult to treat. It is important to take cefaclor exactly as directed by a healthcare professional and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

Conductive hearing loss is a type of hearing loss that occurs when there is a problem with the outer or middle ear. Sound waves are not able to transmit efficiently through the ear canal to the eardrum and the small bones in the middle ear, resulting in a reduction of sound that reaches the inner ear. Causes of conductive hearing loss may include earwax buildup, fluid in the middle ear, a middle ear infection, a hole in the eardrum, or problems with the tiny bones in the middle ear. This type of hearing loss can often be treated through medical intervention or surgery.

Pleurodesis is a medical procedure that involves the intentional inflammation and subsequent fusion of the pleural surfaces, which are the thin layers of tissue that separate the lungs from the chest wall. This procedure is typically performed to prevent the recurrence of pneumothorax (a collapsed lung) or pleural effusions (abnormal fluid accumulation in the pleural space).

During the pleurodesis procedure, an irritant such as talc, doxycycline, or silver nitrate is introduced into the pleural space. This causes an inflammatory response, leading to the formation of adhesions between the visceral and parietal pleura. These adhesions obliterate the potential space between the pleural layers, preventing the accumulation of air or fluid within that space.

There are two primary approaches to performing pleurodesis: thoracoscopic (using a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or VATS) and chemical (instilling a sclerosing agent through a chest tube). Both methods aim to achieve the same goal of creating adhesions between the pleural layers.

It is essential to note that, while pleurodesis can be an effective treatment for preventing recurrent pneumothorax or pleural effusions, it is not without risks and potential complications. These may include pain, fever, infection, empyema (pus in the pleural space), or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients should discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Audiometry is the testing of a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. It is typically conducted using an audiometer, a device that emits tones at varying volumes and frequencies. The person being tested wears headphones and indicates when they can hear the tone by pressing a button or raising their hand.

There are two main types of audiometry: pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry. Pure-tone audiometry measures a person's ability to hear different frequencies at varying volumes, while speech audiometry measures a person's ability to understand spoken words at different volumes and in the presence of background noise.

The results of an audiometry test are typically plotted on an audiogram, which shows the quietest sounds that a person can hear at different frequencies. This information can be used to diagnose hearing loss, determine its cause, and develop a treatment plan.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Xylitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sugar substitute in various food and dental products. It has a sweet taste similar to sugar but with fewer calories and less impact on blood sugar levels, making it a popular choice for people with diabetes or those looking to reduce their sugar intake. Xylitol is also known to have dental benefits, as it can help prevent tooth decay by reducing the amount of bacteria in the mouth that cause cavities.

Medically speaking, xylitol is classified as a carbohydrate and has a chemical formula of C5H12O5. It occurs naturally in some fruits and vegetables, but most commercial xylitol is produced from corn cobs or other plant materials through a process called hydrogenation. While generally considered safe for human consumption, it can have a laxative effect in large amounts and may be harmful to dogs, so it's important to keep it out of reach of pets.

Nasopharyngeal diseases refer to conditions that affect the nasopharynx, which is the uppermost part of the pharynx (throat) located behind the nose. The nasopharynx is lined with mucous membrane and contains the opening of the Eustachian tubes, which connect to the middle ear.

There are several types of nasopharyngeal diseases, including:

1. Nasopharyngitis: Also known as a "common cold," this is an inflammation of the nasopharynx caused by a viral infection. Symptoms may include a runny nose, sore throat, cough, and fever.
2. Nasopharyngeal cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the nasopharynx. It is relatively rare but more common in certain populations, such as those of Southeast Asian or Southern Chinese descent. Symptoms may include a lump in the neck, nosebleeds, hearing loss, and difficulty swallowing.
3. Nasopharyngeal stenosis: A narrowing of the nasopharynx that can be congenital or acquired. Acquired stenosis may result from trauma, infection, or inflammation. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing through the nose and snoring.
4. Nasopharyngeal abscess: A collection of pus in the nasopharynx that can be caused by a bacterial infection. Symptoms may include fever, difficulty swallowing, and neck pain or stiffness.
5. Nasopharyngitis allergica: Also known as "hay fever," this is an inflammation of the nasopharynx caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. Symptoms may include a runny nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes.

Treatment for nasopharyngeal diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Ascitic fluid is defined as the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the two layers of the peritoneum, a serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. This buildup of fluid, also known as ascites, can be caused by various medical conditions such as liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, or infection. The fluid itself is typically straw-colored and clear, but it may also contain cells, proteins, and other substances depending on the underlying cause. Analysis of ascitic fluid can help doctors diagnose and manage the underlying condition causing the accumulation of fluid.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mass Media" is not a term that has a medical definition. Mass media refers to the means of communication that reach large numbers of people simultaneously, such as television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet. It may be used in a public health context to discuss how information about health-related topics is disseminated to the general population. However, it is not a term that is typically used within the field of medicine to describe a specific medical concept or condition.

Otologic surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the ear or its related structures. These procedures are typically conducted by otologists, who are specialists trained in diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the ears, balance system, and related nerves. The goal of otologic surgery can vary from repairing damaged bones in the middle ear to managing hearing loss, tumors, or chronic infections. Some common otologic surgical procedures include:

1. Stapedectomy/Stapedotomy: These are procedures used to treat otosclerosis, a condition where the stapes bone in the middle ear becomes fixed and causes conductive hearing loss. The surgeon creates an opening in the stapes footplate (stapedotomy) or removes the entire stapes bone (stapedectomy) and replaces it with a prosthetic device to improve sound conduction.
2. Myringoplasty/Tympanoplasty: These are surgeries aimed at repairing damaged eardrums (tympanic membrane). A myringoplasty involves grafting a piece of tissue over the perforation in the eardrum, while a tympanoplasty includes both eardrum repair and reconstruction of the middle ear bones if necessary.
3. Mastoidectomy: This procedure involves removing the mastoid air cells, which are located in the bony prominence behind the ear. A mastoidectomy is often performed to treat chronic mastoiditis, cholesteatoma, or complications from middle ear infections.
4. Ossiculoplasty: This procedure aims to reconstruct and improve the function of the ossicles (middle ear bones) when they are damaged due to various reasons such as infection, trauma, or congenital conditions. The surgeon uses prosthetic devices made from plastic, metal, or even bone to replace or support the damaged ossicles.
5. Cochlear implantation: This is a surgical procedure that involves placing an electronic device inside the inner ear to help individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The implant consists of an external processor and internal components that directly stimulate the auditory nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells in the cochlea.
6. Labyrinthectomy: This procedure involves removing the balance-sensing structures (vestibular system) inside the inner ear to treat severe vertigo or dizziness caused by conditions like Meniere's disease when other treatments have failed.
7. Acoustic neuroma removal: An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve, which connects the inner ear to the brain. Surgical removal of the tumor is necessary to prevent hearing loss, balance problems, and potential neurological complications.

These are just a few examples of the various surgical procedures performed by otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat specialists) to treat conditions affecting the ear and surrounding structures. Each procedure has its specific indications, benefits, risks, and postoperative care requirements. Patients should consult with their healthcare providers to discuss the most appropriate treatment options for their individual needs.

The pleural cavity is the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura, which are the two membranes that surround the lungs. The visceral pleura covers the outside of the lungs, while the parietal pleura lines the inside of the chest wall. Under normal conditions, these two layers are in contact with each other, and the space between them is virtually nonexistent. However, when air, fluid or inflammation accumulates within this space, it results in the formation of a pleural effusion, which can cause discomfort and difficulty breathing.

Hydrothorax is a medical term that refers to the abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the pleural space, which is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. This condition often results from various underlying pathological processes such as liver cirrhosis, heart failure, or kidney disease, where there is an imbalance in the body's fluid regulation leading to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. The presence of hydrothorax can cause respiratory distress and other symptoms related to lung function impairment.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Myringoplasty is a surgical procedure that involves reconstructing or repairing the tympanic membrane (eardrum) in the middle ear. The eardrum is the thin, delicate tissue that separates the outer ear from the inner ear. It plays a crucial role in hearing by vibrating in response to sound waves and transmitting these vibrations to the bones of the middle ear.

Myringoplasty is typically performed to treat chronic perforations or holes in the eardrum that have not healed on their own or with medical management. These perforations can result from various causes, such as infection, trauma, or congenital defects. By closing the perforation, myringoplasty helps prevent the risk of middle ear infections and improves hearing function.

The procedure involves harvesting a small piece of tissue, often from the patient's own body (such as the fascia surrounding a muscle), to use as a graft to cover the eardrum perforation. The graft is placed through an incision made in the ear canal or, less commonly, via an external approach through the mastoid bone behind the ear.

Myringoplasty is typically performed under general anesthesia and requires a short hospital stay for observation and monitoring. Following surgery, patients may need to avoid water exposure, heavy lifting, and strenuous activities for a few weeks to allow proper healing. The success rate of myringoplasty is generally high, with most patients experiencing improved hearing and reduced symptoms of ear infections.

Paracentesis is a medical procedure in which a thin needle or catheter is inserted through the abdominal wall to remove excess fluid from the peritoneal cavity. This procedure is also known as abdominal tap or paracentesis aspiration. The fluid removed, called ascites, can be analyzed for infection, malignant cells, or other signs of disease. Paracentesis may be performed to relieve symptoms caused by the buildup of excess fluid in the abdomen, such as pain, difficulty breathing, or loss of appetite. It is commonly used to diagnose and manage conditions such as liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, and kidney failure.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pericardium, which is the thin sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart and contains serous fluid to reduce friction during heartbeats. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and sometimes fever.

The pericardium has two layers: the visceral pericardium, which is tightly adhered to the heart's surface, and the parietal pericardium, which lines the inner surface of the chest cavity. Normally, there is a small amount of fluid between these two layers, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the chest cavity.

In pericarditis, the inflammation causes the pericardial layers to become irritated and swollen, leading to an accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial space. This can result in a condition called pericardial effusion, which can further complicate the situation by putting pressure on the heart and impairing its function.

Pericarditis may be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, heart attacks, trauma, or cancer. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, managing symptoms, and reducing inflammation with medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, or corticosteroids. In severe cases, pericardiocentesis (removal of excess fluid from the pericardial space) or surgical intervention may be necessary.

The ear ossicles are the three smallest bones in the human body, which are located in the middle ear. They play a crucial role in the process of hearing by transmitting and amplifying sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The three ear ossicles are:

1. Malleus (hammer): The largest of the three bones, it is shaped like a hammer and connects to the eardrum.
2. Incus (anvil): The middle-sized bone, it looks like an anvil and connects the malleus to the stapes.
3. Stapes (stirrup): The smallest and lightest bone in the human body, it resembles a stirrup and transmits vibrations from the incus to the inner ear.

Together, these tiny bones work to efficiently transfer sound waves from the air to the fluid-filled cochlea of the inner ear, enabling us to hear.

Streptolysins are exotoxins produced by certain strains of Streptococcus bacteria, primarily Group A Streptococcus (GAS). These toxins are classified into two types: streptolysin O (SLO) and streptolysin S (SLS).

1. Streptolysin O (SLO): It is a protein exotoxin that exhibits oxygen-labile hemolytic activity, meaning it can lyse or destroy red blood cells in the presence of oxygen. SLO is capable of entering host cells and causing various cellular damages, including inhibition of phagocytosis, modulation of immune responses, and induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death).

2. Streptolysin S (SLS): It is a non-protein, oxygen-stable hemolysin that can also lyse red blood cells but does so independently of oxygen presence. SLS is more heat-resistant than SLO and has a stronger ability to penetrate host cell membranes.

Both streptolysins contribute to the virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes, which can cause various clinical infections such as pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, scarlet fever, and invasive diseases like necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome.

The detection of streptolysin O antibodies (ASO titer) is often used as a diagnostic marker for past or recent GAS infections, particularly in cases of rheumatic fever, where elevated ASO titers indicate ongoing or previous streptococcal infection.

Chylothorax is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of lymphatic fluid called chyle in the pleural space, which is the space between the lungs and the chest wall. Chyle is a milky-white fluid that contains nutrients, electrolytes, and immune cells, and it is normally transported through the thoracic duct to the bloodstream.

Chylothorax can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma, surgery, tumors, or congenital abnormalities that disrupt the normal flow of chyle. As a result, chyle leaks into the pleural space, causing symptoms such as cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fever.

The diagnosis of chylothorax is usually made through imaging studies such as chest X-ray or CT scan, and confirmed by analyzing the fluid for the presence of chylomicrons, which are lipid particles found in chyle. The treatment options for chylothorax include dietary modifications, such as a low-fat diet with medium-chain triglycerides, chest tube drainage, and surgical interventions such as thoracic duct ligation or pleurodesis.

Cefuroxime is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are unable to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefuroxime is effective against many different types of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. It is often used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bone and joint infections.

Like all antibiotics, cefuroxime should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which are more difficult to treat and can pose a serious threat to public health.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to damage or dysfunction of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). This nerve controls the muscles involved in facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, and closing the eyes. Damage to one side of the facial nerve can cause weakness or paralysis on that side of the face.

Facial paralysis can result from various conditions, including:

1. Bell's palsy - an idiopathic (unknown cause) inflammation of the facial nerve
2. Trauma - skull fractures, facial injuries, or surgical trauma to the facial nerve
3. Infections - Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), HIV/AIDS, or bacterial infections like meningitis
4. Tumors - benign or malignant growths that compress or invade the facial nerve
5. Stroke - damage to the brainstem where the facial nerve originates
6. Congenital conditions - some people are born with facial paralysis due to genetic factors or birth trauma

Symptoms of facial paralysis may include:

* Inability to move one or more parts of the face, such as the eyebrows, eyelids, mouth, or cheeks
* Drooping of the affected side of the face
* Difficulty closing the eye on the affected side
* Changes in saliva and tear production
* Altered sense of taste
* Pain around the ear or jaw
* Speech difficulties due to weakened facial muscles

Treatment for facial paralysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as Bell's palsy, spontaneous recovery may occur within a few weeks to months. However, physical therapy, medications, and surgical interventions might be necessary in other situations to improve function and minimize complications.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a species of parvovirus that primarily infects the human respiratory tract. It was first identified in 2005 and has been found to be associated with respiratory tract infections, particularly in young children. The virus is small, non-enveloped, and contains a single stranded DNA genome. It is named after bovine parvovirus and canine minute virus, which belong to the same genus (Bocaparvovirus) as HBoV. There are four known subtypes of HBoV (HBoV1-4), with HBoV1 being the most commonly detected in humans. Infection with HBoV can cause a range of symptoms, from mild respiratory illness to more severe lower respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis. However, it is also frequently detected in asymptomatic individuals, making its role in respiratory disease somewhat unclear.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Cerumen is the medical term for earwax. It is a natural substance produced by the body to protect and clean the ears. Cerumen helps to keep the ear canal moist, which prevents dry, itchy ears, and also traps dirt, dust, and other particles that could harm the eardrum. The earwax then gradually moves out of the ear canal and falls out or is removed during activities like showering or washing the face. While some people may need to have their earwax removed if it builds up and causes hearing problems or discomfort, in most cases, cerumen does not need to be cleaned or removed.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 8, Human" (HHV-8):

Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV), is a DNA virus from the family of Herpesviridae. It is the causative agent of several malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). HHV-8 is primarily transmitted through saliva, sexual contact, or organ transplantation. In immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, the risk of HHV-8-associated malignancies significantly increases. The virus establishes latency in infected cells and can periodically reactivate, causing inflammation and potentially leading to the development of cancer.

Conditioned culture media refers to a type of growth medium that has been previously used to culture and maintain the cells of an organism. The conditioned media contains factors secreted by those cells, such as hormones, nutrients, and signaling molecules, which can affect the behavior and growth of other cells that are introduced into the media later on.

When the conditioned media is used for culturing a new set of cells, it can provide a more physiologically relevant environment than traditional culture media, as it contains factors that are specific to the original cell type. This can be particularly useful in studies that aim to understand cell-cell interactions and communication, or to mimic the natural microenvironment of cells in the body.

It's important to note that conditioned media should be handled carefully and used promptly after preparation, as the factors it contains can degrade over time and affect the quality of the results.

Ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs within it. This buildup of fluid can cause the belly to swell and become distended. Ascites can be caused by various medical conditions, including liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, and kidney disease. The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity can lead to complications such as infection, reduced mobility, and difficulty breathing. Treatment for ascites depends on the underlying cause and may include diuretics, paracentesis (a procedure to remove excess fluid from the abdomen), or treatment of the underlying medical condition.

"Otitis". Medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 18 March 2023. "Otitis media with effusion". MedlinePlus. National Library of Medicine. ... Otitis media, or middle ear infection, involves the middle ear. In otitis media, the ear is infected or clogged with fluid ... is present due to fluid build up in the middle ear and infection is not present it is considered Otitis media with effusion. It ... Otitis externa can be acute or chronic. It can fungal or bacterial. The most common aetiology of acute otitis externa is ...
American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Otitis Media With Effusion (May 2004). "Otitis media with effusion". Pediatrics ... the most frequent including chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) which is unresponsive to antibiotics, and recurrent otitis ... Chang CW, Yang YW, Fu CY, Shiao AS (January 2012). "Differences between children and adults with otitis media with effusion ... for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): ...
1996). Acute otitis media. Indian Pediatr. 33:832-6. Deka RC. (1994). Middle ear effusion: its management. Indian Pediatr. 31: ... 1975). Chronic otitis media-a clinical and bacteriological study. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon. 54:198-201. Australia, France, USA, ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ramesh C. Deka. http://rameshcdeka.com http://www.aiims.edu/ (Articles with short ...
Pillsbury HC, Grose JH, Hall JW (July 1991). "Otitis media with effusion in children. Binaural hearing before and after ... Recurrent ear infections (otitis media) are the leading cause of temporary auditory deprivation in young children. During ear ... Teele DW, Klein JO, Rosner B (July 1989). "Epidemiology of otitis media during the first seven years of life in children in ... Hall JW, Grose JH, Pillsbury HC (August 1995). "Long-term effects of chronic otitis media on binaural hearing in children". ...
... with effusion (OME), also known as serous otitis media (SOM) or secretory otitis media (SOM), and colloquially ... with recurrent episodes of acute otitis media and those with otitis media with effusion or chronic suppurative otitis media ... It is important to attempt to differentiate between acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion (OME), as antibiotics are ... Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear. One of the two main types is acute otitis media (AOM), an ...
This condition is known as otitis media with effusion. A patulous Eustachian tube is a rare condition in which the Eustachian ... Otitis media, or inflammation of the middle ear, commonly affects the Eustachian tube. Children under 7 are more susceptible to ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eustachian tube. (Webarchive template wayback links, CS1 errors: periodical ignored, CS1 ... which serves as a growth medium for bacteria, causing ear infections. This swelling can be reduced through the use of ...
"Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus in otitis media with effusion". Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck ...
Otitis media with effusion is a very common childhood disease that causes a fluctuating conductive hearing loss, and there was ... Hartley DE, Moore DR (June 2005). "Effects of otitis media with effusion on auditory temporal resolution". International ... In the 1980s and 1990s, there was considerable interest in the role of chronic otitis media (middle ear disease or "glue ear") ... However, this kind of study will have sampling bias because children with otitis media will be more likely to be referred to ...
"Pars tensa and pars flaccida retractions in persistent otitis media with effusion". Otol. Neurotol. 22 (3): 291-8. doi:10.1097/ ... The terms atelectasis or sometimes adhesive otitis media can be used to describe retraction of a large area of the pars tensa. ... Sadé, J; Berco E (1976). "Atelectasis and secretory otitis media". Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 85 (2 Suppl 25 Pt 2): 66-72. doi: ... van den Aardweg, MT; Schilder AG; Herkert E; Boonacker CW; Rovers MM (20 January 2010). "Adenoidectomy for otitis media in ...
... and Late Effects of Otitis Media with Effusion" (PDF). Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 55 (55): 1-5. doi:10.1037/ ... D. S. Grewal; N. L. Hiranandani; A. G. Pusalkar (June 1982). "The middle ear mucosa in chronic suppurative otitis media". ... Charles D. Bluestone; Jerome O. Klein (2007). Otitis Media in Infants and Children. PMPH-USA. pp. 423-. ISBN 978-1-55009-335-3 ...
"Complement-regulator factor H and related proteins in otitis media with effusion". Clin. Immunol. 100 (1): 118-26. doi:10.1006/ ...
Pereira MB, Pereira DR, Costa SS (2005). "Tympanostomy tube sequelae in children with otitis media with effusion: a three-year ... Schilder AG, Zielhuis GA, Haggard MP, van den Broek P (May 1995). "Long-term effects of otitis media with effusion: ... Maw AR (August 1991). "Development of tympanosclerosis in children with otitis media with effusion and ventilation tubes". The ... for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): ...
Neff MJ (June 2004). "AAP, AAFP, AAO-HNS release guideline on diagnosis and management of otitis media with effusion". Am Fam ... Blanshard, JD; Maw, AR; Bawden, R (June 1993). "Conservative treatment of otitis media with effusion by autoinflation of the ... to 11-year-old school children with otitis media with effusion in primary care". Health Technology Assessment. 19 (72): 1-150. ... Autoinflation is a minimally invasive procedure to treat serous non-infectious otitis media, in which a nasal balloon is ...
Rivron RP (March 1989). "Bifid uvula: prevalence and association in otitis media with effusion in children admitted for routine ... specifically otitis media. This is due to the immature development of the different bones and muscles in the ear. Otitis media ... for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): ... In addition, breast milk has been proven to decrease the incidence of otitis media in infants with clefts. There are different ...
"A novel model of spontaneous otitis media with effusion (OME) in the Oxgr1 knock-out mouse". International Journal of Pediatric ... Mice deficient in Gpr99 (i.e. Oxgr1-/- gene knockout mice) develop (82% penetrance) spontaneous Otitis media with many ...
Chronic otitis media with persistent effusion for six months (one ear) or three months (both ears).[citation needed] Persistent ... persistent otitis media with effusion) in both ears, and for preventing ear infections in children who have frequent middle ear ... Grommets should not be inserted in children who have only one episode of otitis media with effusion (OME) that lasts less than ... Guidelines state that tubes are an option in: Recurrent acute otitis media: three ear infections in six months or four ...
However, 500 Hz has been found to identify the auditory impact of otitis media with effusion in children and should be included ... The generally higher prevalence of otitis media with effusion related hearing loss in the earlier school grades. However, ... Hearing loss due to otitis media can be prevented by healthy ear and hearing care practices. It can be suitably dealt with ... a review of the literature and the implications of otitis media. HM Stationery Office. Wilson, J. M. G., & Jungner, G. (1968). ...
Hearing problems, such as otitis media with effusion, and listening problems, auditory processing disorders, can lead to ... Speech at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from ...
... azithromycin and roxithromycin on histamine-induced otitis media with effusion in guinea pigs". J Laryngol Otol. 132 (7): 579- ... Acute otitis media caused by H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis or S. pneumoniae. Azithromycin is not, however, a first-line agent ... Neff MJ (June 2004). "AAP, AAFP release guideline on diagnosis and management of acute otitis media". American Family Physician ...
"Detection of Alloiococcus otitis in mixed bacterial populations from middle-ear effusions of patients with otitis media". The ... Tano K, von Essen R, Eriksson PO, Sjöstedt A (2008). "Alloiococcus otitidis--otitis media pathogen or normal bacterial flora ... "Alloiococcus otitis" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Alloiococcus otitis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... "High Incidence of Alloiococcus otitidis in Children with Otitis Media, Despite Treatment with Antibiotics". Journal of Clinical ...
Ehrlich's biofilm work began with chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) and soon encompassed other chronic respiratory ... Ehrlich's research on the etiology of chronic middle-ear disease (otitis media) in the early 1990s in which he exploited the ... Direct detection of bacterial biofilms on the middle-ear mucosa of children with chronic otitis media. Jama, 296(2), 202-211. ... "Mucosal Biofilm Formation on Middle-Ear Mucosa in the Chinchilla Model of Otitis Media". JAMA. 287 (13): 1710-1715. doi:10.1001 ...
"Association of the FBXO11 gene with chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent otitis media: the Minnesota COME/ROM ... Moreover, haploinsufficient mutant alleles cause otitis media, a disorder that affects approximately 15% of children. GRCh38: ... causes otitis media in the Jeff mouse". Human Molecular Genetics. 15 (22): 3273-9. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddl403. PMID 17035249. ...
Noben-Trauth K, Latoche JR (January 2011). "Ectopic Mineralization in the Middle Ear and Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion ... an enlarged Eustachian tube and a chronic otitis media with effusion. In Drosophila melanogaster, loss-of-function alleles of ...
... chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), and otitis media with effusion (OME). Congenital deafness, excessive urban noise, and ... The SDSL also advocates for more accessibility for sign language users in the media, particularly through the use of qualified ...
... the device's efficacy in the treatment of ear blockage caused by Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion. ... 9 Daniel S. Arick, MD, FACS; Shlomo Silman, PhD: "Nonsurgical home treatment of middle ear effusion and associated hearing loss ...
"A Genome-Wide Association Study of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion and Recurrent Otitis Media Identifies a Novel ...
... "otitis media with effusion"). Compliance measurement indicates how well the eardrum and ossicles (the three ear bones) are ...
This is often the result of otitis media with effusion which occurs in 50-70% and chronic ear infections which occur in 40-60 ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Down syndrome. Wikiquote has quotations related to Down syndrome. Down syndrome at ... Sofía Jirau is a Puerto Rican model with Down syndrome, working with top designers and renowned media outlets such Vogue Mexico ...
... ear effusion conduces to the favorable clinical outcomes of tebipenem pivoxil in pediatric patients with acute otitis media". ...
... developing during childhood is usually due to otitis media with effusion and may present with speech ... Acute or Serous otitis media Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) Perforated eardrum Tympanosclerosis or scarring of the ... A type B tympanogram reveals a flat response, due to fluid in the middle ear (otitis media), or an eardrum perforation. A type ... CT scan is useful in cases of congenital conductive hearing loss, chronic suppurative otitis media or cholesteatoma, ossicular ...
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is thick or sticky fluid behind the eardrum in the middle ear. It occurs without an ear ... OME; Secretory otitis media; Serous otitis media; Silent otitis media; Silent ear infection; Glue ear ... Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Francis HW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: ... Otitis media with effusion (OME) is thick or sticky fluid behind the eardrum in the middle ear. It occurs without an ear ...
... is characterized by a nonpurulent effusion of the middle ear that may be either mucoid or serous (see the image below). ... acute otitis media (AOM), recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM), otitis media with effusion, and chronic otitis media with ... The same flora found in acute otitis media can be isolated in otitis media with effusion. [12] With otitis media with effusion ... See also Otitis Media, Acute Otitis Media, Complications of Otitis Media, Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Emergent Management ...
Data sources: We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register using the terms otitis media; otitis media with effusion; ... Steroids for otitis media with effusion: a systematic review Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001 Jun;155(6):641-7. doi: 10.1001/ ... Background: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common and may cause hearing loss with associated delayed language development ...
The medical terms for glue ear are otitis media with effusion (OME) or secretory otitis media. Glue ear can affect one or both ... Glue ear, or otitis media with effusion, happens when fluid collects in your childs middle ear. The main symptom of glue ear ... Glue ear, or otitis media with effusion, is a common condition in children. Most cases resolve on their own. But fluid buildup ...
Fluid in the space behind the eardrum (middle ear) is called otitis media with effusion. It occurs when a eustachian tube ( ... post a link to Middle ear fluid (otitis media with effusion) information on Facebook. ... post a link to Middle ear fluid (otitis media with effusion) information on Twitter. ... send a link to Middle ear fluid (otitis media with effusion) information by email. ...
Fluid in the space behind the eardrum (middle ear) is called otitis media with effusion. It occurs when a eustachian tube ( ...
Objectives: The aim of this study is to verify the critical role of adenoid hypertrophy and otitis media with effusion in adult ... Read more about What is Critical Diagnostic Role of Adenoid Hypertrophy and Adult-Onset Otitis Media with Effusion in ... What is Critical Diagnostic Role of Adenoid Hypertrophy and Adult-Onset Otitis Media with Effusion in Clinically Asymptomatic ... to diagnose suspected malignity in adult patients with adenoid hypertrophy whit/without synchronous otitis media with effusion ...
Structured Abstract Objectives To compare benefits and harms of strategies currently in use for managing otitis media with ... effusion (OME). Treatment for OME may include single approaches alone or combinations of two or more approaches. We compared ... To compare benefits and harms of strategies currently in use for managing otitis media with effusion (OME). Treatment for OME ... Internet Citation: Systematic Review: Otitis Media With Effusion: Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments. Content last ...
Expression of receptor CD23+ on B lymphocytes in hypertrophied adenoids of children with otitis media with effusion]. Download ... Expression of receptor CD23+ on B lymphocytes in hypertrophied adenoids of children with otitis media with effusion].. ... Expression Bcl-2 protein of lymphocytes T and B in hypertrophied adenoid in children with otitis media with effusion]. ... In the study showed higher significant percentage of lymphocytes CD19+ CD23+ at children in otitis media with effusion (20.08 ...
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the most frequently met pathologies in small children. Long-term persistence of the ... Tympanometry as a predictor factor in the evolution of otitis media with effusion ...
... in children with persistent otitis media with effusion (OME). Design: Secondary analysis of trial data (oral steroids versus ... Main outcome measures: Otitis Media questionnaire (OM8-30) and Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) total and subscale ... The effect of ventilation tube insertion on quality of life in children with persistent otitis media with effusion ... The effect of ventilation tube insertion on quality of life in children with persistent otitis media with effusion ...
Otitis Media with Effusion -- drug therapy ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Otitis Media with Effusion -- drug therapy ... Otitis Media with Effusion -- drug therapy. Anti-Inflammatory Agents -- therapeutic use. Powders -- therapeutic use. Chronic ... Otitis Media with Effusion -- drug therapy. Tympanic Membrane Perforation -- drug therapy. Zinc Sulfate -- therapeutic use. ... Otitis Media with Effusion -- drug therapy. Salicylates -- therapeutic use. Chlorquinaldol -- therapeutic use. Powders -- ...
Topical intranasal corticosteroids in 4-11 year old children with persistent bilateral otitis media with effusion in primary ... Topical intranasal corticosteroids in 4-11 year old children with persistent bilateral otitis media with effusion in primary ...
... is characterized by a nonpurulent effusion of the middle ear that may be either mucoid or serous (see the image below). ... encoded search term (Otitis Media With Effusion) and Otitis Media With Effusion What to Read Next on Medscape ... Use of antibiotics in preventing recurrent acute otitis media and in treating otitis media with effusion. A meta-analytic ... Lack of efficacy of a decongestant-antihistamine combination for otitis media with effusion ("secretory" otitis media) in ...
This is an update of the 1994 clinical practice guideline “Otitis Media With Effusion in Young Children,” which was ... The clinical practice guideline on otitis media with effusion (OME) provides evidence-based recommendations on diagnosing and ... Otitis Media Effusion (Update),’ published as a supplement to the February 2016 issue of Otolaryngology–Head and ... OTO: Otitis Media with Effusion: Clinical Practice Guideline, Part 1. OTO: Otitis Media with Effusion: Clinical Practice ...
Please click here to view the full Myringotomy/Grommets/Otitis Media with Effusion Commissioning Statement. ... You are here: Home , RSS , Referral Support Service , Procedures Not Routinely Commissioned , Myringotomy/grommets/Otitis Media ... CCG will commission myringotomy/grommets for children aged between 3 and 12 years old with bilateral otitis media with effusion ... At least 5 recurrences of acute otitis media in a year (or 3 in 6 months) ...
Please click here to view the full Myringotomy/Grommets/Otitis Media with Effusion Commissioning Statement. ... You are here: Home , RSS , Referral Support Service , Ear, Nose and Throat , Ear , Myringotomy/grommets/Otitis Media with ... CCG will commission myringotomy/grommets for children aged between 3 and 12 years old with bilateral otitis media with effusion ... At least 5 recurrences of acute otitis media in a year (or 3 in 6 months) ...
Surgical treatments for otitis media with effusion: a systematic review[J]. Pediatrics, 2014, 133(2):296-311.. [8] 韩开亮, 孔娟, 宋忠云 ... Treatment for otitis media with effusion with endotoscopic myingotomy and grommet insertion [J]. JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY ... Short-term effect of eustachian tube balloon dilation in the treatment of chronic otitis media with effusion. [J]. JOURNAL OF ... Intratympanic injection of dexamethasone for otitis media with effusion by two different methods LIANG Dongyong, HE Zhongyang, ...
Treatments for Persistent Otitis Media with Effusion THOMAS J. SATRE, JOAN NASHELSKY ... and mucolytics afford no long-term benefit in the treatment of patients with otitis media with effusion (OME). ...
Otitis media with effusion in under 12s: summary of updated NICE guidance ...
Antihistamines and/or decongestants for otitis media with effusion (OME) in children.. Glenn Griffin, Cheryl A Flynn. Cochrane ... 2006.Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common and may cause hearing loss with associated developmental delay. Treatment ... We excluded trials that randomized on the basis of acute otitis media (AOM) even though OME was also studied in follow up.. ... decongestants and antihistamine/decongestant combinations in promoting the resolution of effusions has been assessed by ...
"Otitis". Medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 18 March 2023. "Otitis media with effusion". MedlinePlus. National Library of Medicine. ... Otitis media, or middle ear infection, involves the middle ear. In otitis media, the ear is infected or clogged with fluid ... is present due to fluid build up in the middle ear and infection is not present it is considered Otitis media with effusion. It ... Otitis externa can be acute or chronic. It can fungal or bacterial. The most common aetiology of acute otitis externa is ...
Serum Interleukin-17 level and Serum Reactive Oxygen Species levels among Children experiencing Otitis Media with Effusion. ... Serum Interleukin-17 level and Serum Reactive Oxygen Species levels among Children experiencing Otitis Media with Effusion. Int ...
Recurrent Facial Nerve Paresis in a Child With Chronic Otitis Media With Effusion. / Tampio, Alex J.F.; Chorney, Stephen R.; ... Recurrent Facial Nerve Paresis in a Child With Chronic Otitis Media With Effusion. Ear, Nose and Throat Journal. 2020 Mar 1;99( ... title = "Recurrent Facial Nerve Paresis in a Child With Chronic Otitis Media With Effusion", ... Recurrent Facial Nerve Paresis in a Child With Chronic Otitis Media With Effusion. ...
Otitis media (OM) is the second most common disease of childhood, after upper respiratory infection (URI). OM is also the most ... Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media with Effusion (Update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Feb. 154 (1 Suppl):S1-S41. [ ... encoded search term (Otitis Media) and Otitis Media What to Read Next on Medscape ... Otitis Media With Effusion in Young Children. Clinical practice guideline, Number 12. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care ...
The effect of ventilation tube insertion on quality of life in children with persistent otitis media with effusion Journal ... in children with persistent otitis media with effusion (OME).. Design. Secondary analysis of trial data (oral steroids versus ... Otitis Media questionnaire (OM8‐30) and Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) total and subscale scores, and the Health ...
Characterization of Alloiococcus otitidis strains isolated from children with otitis media with effusion by Pulsed-Field Gel ... 2012) Characterization of Alloiococcus otitidis strains isolated from children with otitis media with effusion by Pulsed-Field ... otitidis is a slow growing organism which has been isolated in a few studies on patients with otitis media with effusion (OME ... Alloiococcus otitidis Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Otitis media middle-ear fluid molecular analysis pathogens ...
2021). Otitis media with effusion.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538293/. ... 2023 Healthline Media LLC. All rights reserved. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only ... 2023 Healthline Media LLC. All rights reserved. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only ... Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. See additional information. See additional ...
... and tympanostomy tubes for otitis media with effusion. These criteria are used (a) to assess patients relative priority for ... and tympanostomy tubes for otitis media with effusion. These criteria incorporate both clinical and social factors. Use of ...
AAO21: Otitis Media with Effusion (OME): Comprehensive Audiometric Evaluation for Chronic OME ≥ 3 months. Quality Measure ... AAO36: Tympanostomy Tubes: Resolution of Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) in Adults and Children+. Quality Measure ... Percentage of patients aged 6 months to 12 years of age with a diagnosis of otitis… ... Percentage of patients aged 6 months through 12 years with a diagnosis of otitis m… ...
  • The medical terms for glue ear are otitis media with effusion (OME) or secretory otitis media. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • ELP enteric soft capsule and grommet insertion for chronic secretory otitis media [J]. J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ, 2013, 27(2):16-17. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • Eustachian tube insertion under endoscope for secretory otitis media[J]. Chin Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2006, 13(10):703-705. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • Tympanic membrane puncture under endoscope in the treatment of secretory otitis media in 80 cases[J]. Chin J Otorhinolaryngol Skull Base Surgery, 2013, 9(2):156-157. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • Endoscopic eustachian tube dilated catheter for chronic secretory otitis media in 13 cases[J]. J Otolaryngol Ophthalmol Shandong Univ, 2013, 27(5):19-21. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • Secretory otitis media is an effusion in the middle ear resulting from incomplete resolution of acute otitis media or obstruction of the eustachian tube without infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diagnosis of secretory otitis media is clinical and uses pneumatic otoscopy, in which an insufflator attached to the otoscope head is used to move the tympanic membrane (fluid in the middle ear, a perforation, or tympanosclerosis inhibits this movement). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Nasopharyngeal malignancy should particularly be suspected in cases of unilateral secretory otitis media. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It is subdivided into the following: Otitis externa, external otitis, involves inflammation (either infectious or non-infectious) of the external auditory canal, sometimes extending to the pinna or tragus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otitis externa can be acute or chronic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common aetiology of acute otitis externa is bacterial infection, while chronic cases are often associated with underlying skin diseases such as eczema or psoriasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third form, malignant otitis externa, or necrotising otitis externa, is a potentially life-threatening, invasive infection of the external auditory canal and skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, this form typically occurs in older people with diabetes mellitus, or immunocompromised people.Otomycosis, is the fungal form of Otitis Externa that is more common in coastal regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For more information, visit "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) . (cdc.gov)
  • When doctors refer to an ear infection, they usually mean otitis media rather than swimmer's ear (or otitis externa ). (kidshealth.org)
  • AOM is diagnosed in symptomatic children with moderate to severe bulging of the tympanic membrane or new-onset otorrhea not caused by acute otitis externa, and in children with mild bulging and either recent-onset ear pain (less than 48 hours) or intense erythema of the tympanic membrane. (aafp.org)
  • AOM should be diagnosed in symptomatic children with moderate to severe bulging of the tympanic membrane ( Figure 1 4 ) or new-onset otorrhea not caused by otitis externa. (aafp.org)
  • Otitis media with effusion (OME) is thick or sticky fluid behind the eardrum in the middle ear. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A tympanic effusion is a collection of non-purulent fluid in the middle ear, more specifically behind the eardrum. (usz.ch)
  • In the case of a tympanic effusion, a sometimes considerable hearing loss and a lack of mobility of the eardrum are shown in the tympanogram. (usz.ch)
  • 0.21%) chronic suppurative otitis media and 2 (0.11%) dry perforation of eardrum. (who.int)
  • Collection of fluid behind the eardrum (otitis media with effusion). (alberta.ca)
  • The patient was diagnosed with bilateral otitis media with effusion . (medscape.com)
  • Another form of chronic ear infection is called chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Treatment of chronic mastoiditis is similar to that of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which is treated with topical antimicrobial therapy. (medscape.com)
  • This test reveals a type B result (flat) in 43% of cases of otitis media with effusion and a type C result (negative pressure) in 47% of cases. (medscape.com)
  • M catarrhalis is estimated to be responsible for 3-4 million cases of otitis media annually, with an associated health care cost (direct and indirect) of $2 billion each year. (medscape.com)
  • Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intratympanic injection of dexamethasone to treat otitis media with effusion (OME) by two different methods, namely, through Eustachian tube under electronic laryngoscope, and auripuncture and intratympanic injection. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • The FDA has approved more than a dozen antibiotics to treat otitis media (OM). (medscape.com)
  • This imaging modality is particularly important in unilateral otitis media with effusion when a nasopharyngeal or eustachian tube mass must be ruled out. (medscape.com)
  • Mechanics of the eustachian tube as it influences susceptibility to and persistence of middle ear effusions in children. (medscape.com)
  • The cause of a tympanic effusion is a narrowed or blocked eustachian tube. (usz.ch)
  • whereas, Middle ear effusion (MEE) or Otitis media with effusion (OME) refers to fluid in the middle ear cavity, which can happen after AOM or if there is dysfunction of the Eustachian tubes. (pediatrix.com)
  • Serous otitis media is a specific type of otitis media with effusion caused by transudate formation as a result of a rapid decrease in middle ear pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure. (medscape.com)
  • The type of otitis affects treatment options. (kidshealth.org)
  • The criterion standard for documentation of a middle ear effusion is myringotomy, which has the advantage of increased exposure and better suctioning relative to tympanocentesis. (medscape.com)
  • Please click here to view the full Myringotomy/Grommets/Otitis Media with Effusion Commissioning Statement. (valeofyorkccg.nhs.uk)
  • Myringotomy and tympanocentesis are primarily used to obtain specimens and relieve discomfort from acute otitis media (AOM). (medscape.com)
  • Understanding the difference between otitis media with effusion and other forms of middle ear infection is important. (medscape.com)
  • Otitis is a general term for inflammation in ear or ear infection, inner ear infection, middle ear infection of the ear, in both humans and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • When inflammation is present due to fluid build up in the middle ear and infection is not present it is considered Otitis media with effusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otitis media, or middle ear infection, involves the middle ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common type of ear infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Middle ear infection (acute otitis media) is an infection in the middle ear. (cdc.gov)
  • When a child has an ear infection (also called otitis media ), the middle ear fills with pus (infected fluid). (kidshealth.org)
  • Circumventing the PCR-related problems seroconversion interval with the next sampling interval of prolonged or recurrent positivity and disclosing the for clinical events indicated that HBoV1 primary infection, association of HBoV1 infection with disease require a more but not secondary immune response, was signifi cantly reliable diagnosis that uses serum for PCR and antibody associated with acute otitis media and respiratory illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Children and Adolescents with confirmed Acute Otitis Media (Ear Infection) Must Be Treated With Antibiotics. (pediatrix.com)
  • Otitis Media (Acute) Acute otitis media is a bacterial or viral infection of the middle ear, usually accompanying an upper respiratory infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Use of antibiotics in preventing recurrent acute otitis media and in treating otitis media with effusion. (medscape.com)
  • Treatments such as antibiotics, steroids, antihistamines/decongestants, and mucolytics afford no long-term benefit in the treatment of patients with otitis media with effusion (OME). (aafp.org)
  • Do not prescribe antibiotics for otitis media in children two to 12 years of age with nonsevere symptoms if the observation option is reasonable. (aafp.org)
  • Because no evidence was found that systemic antibiotics alone improved treatment outcome, if antibiotics do not change the natural course of otitis media, then the main goal of treatment, as in the present study, should be to alleviate the ear pain. (nih.gov)
  • Cite this: Case Challenge: Acute Otitis Media in Children--Best Management Strategies - Medscape - Mar 28, 2018. (medscape.com)
  • Traditionally, laboratory tests have rarely been used in the workup and diagnosis of otitis media with effusion (OME) unless another process is suspected. (medscape.com)
  • Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. (aafp.org)
  • In the past 2 decades, there has been a substantial increase in the diagnosis of otitis media worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • So far the committee has developed criteria for cataract surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting, hip and knee replacement, cholecystectomy, and tympanostomy tubes for otitis media with effusion. (bmj.com)
  • Under the auspices of this project, criteria were developed for cataract extraction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, hip and knee replacement, cholecystectomy, and tympanostomy tubes for otitis media with effusion. (bmj.com)
  • MOMENT -- Management of Otitis Media with Effusion in Cleft Palate: protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey. (medscape.com)
  • The most common associated childhood factors in the meta-analysis were age, cleft palate, adenoid hypertrophy Prevalence of middle ear effusion among children by and allergic rhinitis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tympanic effusion is one of the most common diseases in childhood. (usz.ch)
  • A tympanic effusion usually develops as a result of a ventilation disorder in the middle ear. (usz.ch)
  • A tympanic effusion is rarely painful, but it can affect hearing. (usz.ch)
  • Overview: What is a tympanic effusion? (usz.ch)
  • A thin-bodied tympanic effusion is technically called a serotympanum, while a thick-bodied tympanic effusion is technically called a mucotympanum. (usz.ch)
  • Because mixed forms are common and the nature of the fluid in the ear is difficult to assess, experts also commonly refer to tympanic effusion as seromucotympanum. (usz.ch)
  • A tympanic effusion is most common in childhood. (usz.ch)
  • Overall, about 80 percent of all children develop a tympanic effusion at least once by the age of six. (usz.ch)
  • A tympanic effusion may occur suddenly and be short-lived, recur at intervals, or be chronic. (usz.ch)
  • Since a tympanic effusion is basically not an inflammation but an accumulation of fluid in the ear, a tympanic effusion usually leads to reduced hearing - especially in children. (usz.ch)
  • To get to the bottom of the cause of the tympanic effusion, further investigations may be necessary. (usz.ch)
  • In about 80 percent of all cases, a tympanic effusion heals on its own. (usz.ch)
  • However, the longer the tympanic effusion persists, the lower the chances of self-healing. (usz.ch)
  • A tympanic effusion lasting six to twelve months heals on its own in only about 30% of cases. (usz.ch)
  • Only in rare cases is a tympanic effusion associated with complications. (usz.ch)
  • It is very rare for a tympanic effusion to cause permanent hearing damage. (usz.ch)
  • What is Critical Diagnostic Role of Adenoid Hypertrophy and Adult-Onset Otitis Media with Effusion in Clinically Asymptomatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma? (uwi.edu)
  • We aimed to investigate the validity of performed nasopharyngeal biopsies to diagnose suspected malignity in adult patients with adenoid hypertrophy whit/without synchronous otitis media with effusion in absence of other clinical symptoms and radiologic findings to arouse suspecting malignancy. (uwi.edu)
  • The aim of this study is to verify the critical role of adenoid hypertrophy and otitis media with effusion in adult patients in relation to diagnostic importance for patients with clinically asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (uwi.edu)
  • Budesonide nasal drops in head extension position improve otitis media with effusion in children with adenoid hypertrophy: a case-study of 31 patients [J]. JOURNAL OF SHANDONG UNIVERSITY (OTOLARYNGOLOGY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY), 2018, 32(1): 65-67. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • Objective: Alloiococcus otitidis is a slow growing organism which has been isolated in a few studies on patients with otitis media with effusion (OME). (ac.ir)
  • Patients with chronic otitis media should be referred to an otolaryngologist. (medscape.com)
  • Tympanostomy tube placement is a consideration for patients with major sequelae of otitis media, such as mastoiditis, meningitis, or facial nerve paralysis. (medscape.com)
  • The term otitis media is often used to describe any of a continuum of related diseases: acute otitis media (AOM), recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM), otitis media with effusion, and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME). (medscape.com)
  • Glue ear, or otitis media with effusion, happens when fluid collects in your child's middle ear. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The aim of this study was finding dependence between otitis media with effusion and coexistent hypertrophy adenoids, and percentage of lymphocytes CD19+ with expression of antigen CD23+ in hypertrophy adenoids. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the study showed higher significant percentage of lymphocytes CD19+ CD23+ at children in otitis media with effusion (20.08+/-2.93) with reference to comparative group, which was only hypertrophy adenoid (18.16+/-2.25). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • As regards on different functions of antigen CD23+ the assessment of percentage lymphocytes B with expression of CD23+ can be additional marker in course immunological and inflammatory processes to occur in hypertrophy adenoids at children are sick otitis media with effusion. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • There were no significant between-group differences in patient age or gender, degree of fever, main symptoms, associated symptoms, and severity or laterality of acute otitis media. (nih.gov)
  • Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common and may cause hearing loss with associated delayed language development in children. (nih.gov)
  • Percentage lymphocytes B (CD23+) were the highest (20.01+/-5.81) in children subgroup above 5 years old with otitis media with effusion, and lowest (17.36+/-2.78) in children comparative subgroup above 5 years old. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Yilmaz T, Koçan EG, Besler HT, Yilmaz G, Gürsel B. The role of oxidants and antioxidants in otitis media with effusion in children. (medscape.com)
  • Erdivanli OC, Coskun ZO, Kazikdas KC, Demirci M. Prevalence of Otitis Media with Effusion among Primary School Children in Eastern Black Sea, in Turkey and the Effect of Smoking in the Development of Otitis Media with Effusion. (medscape.com)
  • Determinants of chronic otitis media with effusion in preschool children: a case-control study. (medscape.com)
  • Evidence assessment of the accuracy of methods of diagnosing middle ear effusion in children with otitis media with effusion. (medscape.com)
  • Effect of nasal balloon autoinflation in children with otitis media with effusion in primary care: an open randomized controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • Simpson SA, Lewis R, van der Voort J, Butler CC. Oral or topical nasal steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children. (medscape.com)
  • The clinical practice guideline on otitis media with effusion (OME) provides evidence-based recommendations on diagnosing and managing OME in children. (libsyn.com)
  • This is an update of the 1994 clinical practice guideline "Otitis Media With Effusion in Young Children," which was developed by the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research (now the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). (libsyn.com)
  • Antihistamines and/or decongestants for otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. (qxmd.com)
  • Otitis media with effusion (OME) usually occurs in children. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If the effusion in the ear persists for a longer period of time, the hearing loss in babies and young children can lead to impairments in speech and hearing development. (usz.ch)
  • Acute otitis media (AOM) is commonly diagnosed in children in primary care offices. (aafp.org)
  • Otitis media is 1 of the most frequent diseases of early infancy and childhood and 1 of the most common reasons for children to visit a physician. (nih.gov)
  • In the United States, 93% of all children have had at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by 7 years of age. (nih.gov)
  • A bone conduction (BC) headset and microphone kit combined with a free phone app has proved to be an effective approach to remotely manage children with glue ear (otitis media with effusion [OME]), the results of a new study suggest. (medscape.com)
  • M catarrhalis is the third most common cause of otitis media and sinusitis in children (after Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae ). (medscape.com)
  • The most significant infections caused by M catarrhalis are upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) such as otitis media and sinusitis in children and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in adults. (medscape.com)
  • Prevalence of among primary school children[1-3] but there are two peaks of incidence, at 6 middle ear effusion among children with months-2 years and 5-6 years. (bvsalud.org)
  • Glue ear (known medically as otitis media with effusion, or OME) occurs when a thick or sticky glue-like fluid builds up in the middle ear, which is the space behind the ear drum that normally contains air. (southerncross.co.nz)
  • Middle Ear Effusion occurs in both otitis media with effusion and AOM. (pediatrix.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scanning is important in attempting to rule out potential complications of otitis media (eg, mastoiditis, sigmoid sinus thrombosis, erosion of bone with intracranial extension) or unusual lesions (eg, cholesteatoma). (medscape.com)
  • Effectiveness of intratympanic dexamethasone in otitis media with effusion resistant to conventional therapy[J]. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2013, 65(3):461-467. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • 4] Cutler J L, Wall M, Labadie R F. Effects of ototopic steroid and NSAIDS in clearing middle ear effusion in an animal model[J]. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2006, 135(4):585-589. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • This podcast discusses the implications for otolaryngologists of 'Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media Effusion (Update),' published as a supplement to the February 2016 issue of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery , the official journal of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) Foundation. (libsyn.com)
  • The aetiology of otitis media with effusion: a review. (medscape.com)
  • AOM should not be diagnosed without evidence of middle ear effusion on pneumatic otoscopy or tympanometry. (aafp.org)
  • After most ear infections have been treated, fluid (an effusion) remains in the middle ear for a few days or weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Effect of Ventilation Tubes on Language Development in Infants With Otitis Media With Effusion: A Randomized Trial. (bvsalud.org)
  • [ 3 ] Otitis media is a generic term defined as an inflammation of the middle ear without reference to a specific etiology or pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • The effusion may be sterile or (more commonly) contain pathogenic bacteria sometimes as a biofilm, although inflammation is not observed. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Effectiveness of corticosteroids in otitis media with effusion: an experimental study[J]. Laryngol Otol, 2008, 122(1):25-30. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is especially useful in the workup for soft-tissue masses that may be contributing to middle ear effusions (MEE) because of its superior ability to delineate borders within soft tissues and to help determine the extent of potential intracranial extension (often helpful in nasopharyngeal masses). (medscape.com)
  • Surgical treatments for otitis media with effusion: a systematic review[J]. Pediatrics, 2014, 133(2):296-311. (sdu.edu.cn)
  • Tympanometry is perhaps the most useful of all tests in association with otitis media with effusion (OME). (medscape.com)
  • Intranasal beclomethasone as an adjunct to treatment of chronic middle ear effusion. (medscape.com)
  • The predominant age group was 3-4 otitis media with effusion and associated factors in Africa years accounting for 46% and the least affected age was 9 found a prevalence of 6% in Africa and 2% in East Africa. (bvsalud.org)
  • The effectiveness of antihistamines, decongestants and antihistamine/decongestant combinations in promoting the resolution of effusions has been assessed by randomized controlled trials. (qxmd.com)
  • Tympanocentesis involves the aspiration of effusion from the middle ear. (medscape.com)
  • Pichichero ME, Poole MD. Assessing diagnostic accuracy and tympanocentesis skills in the management of otitis media. (medscape.com)
  • Otitis media with effusion (OME) is characterized by a nonpurulent effusion of the middle ear that may be either mucoid or serous. (medscape.com)