Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.
Breaks in bones.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Diseases of BONES.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
'Jaw diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint, jawbones, or the surrounding muscles, including but not limited to dental disorders, jaw fractures, tumors, infections, and developmental abnormalities.
Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
Thiophenes are aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds containing a five-membered ring with four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom, which are found in various natural substances and synthesized for use in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
LDL-receptor related protein that combines with FRIZZLED RECEPTORS at the cell surface to form receptors that bind WNT PROTEINS. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY in OSTEOBLASTS and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
Fractures of the femur.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
'Spinal diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that affect the structural integrity, function, or health of the spinal column, including degenerative disorders, infections, inflammatory processes, traumatic injuries, neoplasms, and congenital abnormalities.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population. (1/3580)

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

Cyclical etidronate increases bone density in the spine and hip of postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study. (2/3580)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of cyclic etidronate in secondary prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis. METHODS: A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study comparing cyclic etidronate and placebo during two years in 37 postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment, mainly for polymyalgia rheumatica (40% of the patients) and rheumatoid arthritis (30%). Bone density was measured in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and femoral trochanter. RESULTS: After two years of treatment there was a significant difference between the groups in mean per cent change from baseline in bone density in the spine in favour of etidronate (p = 0.003). The estimated treatment difference (mean (SD)) was 9.3 (2.1)%. Etidronate increased bone density in the spine (4.9 (2.1)%, p < 0.05) whereas the placebo group lost bone (-2.4 (1.6)%). At the femoral neck there was an estimated difference of 5.3 (2.6)% between the groups (etidronate: 3.6% (1.4)%, p < 0.05, placebo: -2.4 (2.1)%). The estimated difference at the trochanter was 8.2 (3.0) (etidronate: 9.0 (1.5)%, p < 0.0001, placebo: 0.5 (2.3)%). No significant bone loss occurred in the hip in placebo treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic etidronate is an effective treatment for postmenopausal women receiving corticosteroid treatment and is well tolerated.  (+info)

Dietary isoflavones: biological effects and relevance to human health. (3/3580)

Substantial evidence indicates that diets high in plant-based foods may explain the epidemiologic variance of many hormone-dependent diseases that are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Western populations. There is now an increased awareness that plants contain many phytoprotectants. Lignans and isoflavones represent two of the main classes of phytoestrogens of current interest in clinical nutrition. Although ubiquitous in their occurrence in the plant kingdom, these bioactive nonnutrients are found in particularly high concentrations in flaxseeds and soybeans and have been found to have a wide range of hormonal and nonhormonal activities that serve to provide plausible mechanisms for the potential health benefits of diets rich in phytoestrogens. Data from animal and in vitro studies provide convincing evidence for the potential of phytoestrogens in influencing hormone-dependent states; although the clinical application of diets rich in these estrogen mimics is in its infancy, data from preliminary studies suggest beneficial effects of importance to health. This review focuses on the more recent studies pertinent to this field and includes, where appropriate, the landmark and historical literature that has led to the exponential increase in interest in phytoestrogens from a clinical nutrition perspective.  (+info)

Walker 256/S carcinosarcoma causes osteoporosis-like changes through ectopical secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. (4/3580)

We have shown that Walker 256/S mammary carcinoma caused osteoporosis-like changes in young female rats, accompanied by low serum estradiol and hypercalciuria without changes in the serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. In this study, we investigated the cause of bone loss after Walker 256/S inoculation into female 6-week-old Wistar Imamichi rats, focusing on the sex hormone balance in the host animal. Walker 256/S-bearing rats showed characteristic osteoporosis, with a significant increase in spleen weight and a significant decrease in uterine weight by 14 days after s.c. tumor inoculation. In the in vitro bone marrow culture, mineralized nodule formation ability decreased according to the time after tumor inoculation, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cell formation increased at 7 days after tumor inoculation, but it began to decrease at 14 days after tumor inoculation. This indicates that after inoculation with Walker 256/S tumor, the progenitors of osteoblasts and ostroclasts lost their balance in the bone turnover, resulting in bone resorption. On the other hand, Walker 256/S carcinoma expressed luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) mRNA, and in Walker 256/S-bearing rats, the serum LH-RH level increased significantly from 3 days after tumor inoculation, whereas in the healthy control rats, this level was very low. Consequently, the serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and progesterone were significantly lower in the tumor-bearing rats than in the healthy control rats. Because the LH-RH gene is located in the long prolactin release-inhibiting factor (PIF) gene and mRNA amplified by reverse transcription-PCR in this study contained whole LH-RH and a part of PIF, the Walker 256/S tumor is thought to express PIF. Indeed, the serum prolactin level decreased in tumor-bearing rats. The serum level of growth hormone, one of the other pituitary hormones, was not changed. Moreover, the level of an osteolytic cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, increased in the serum of Walker 256/S-bearing rats, although this may be a result of the immune response of the host animal to tumor growth as well as an enlarged spleen. In conclusion, the Walker 256/S tumor lowers estrogen secretion through ectopical oversecretion of LH-RH, and then osteolytic cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, increase in tumor-bearing rats, escape the control of estrogen, and activate osteoclasts, resulting in bone loss in a short period.  (+info)

A high incidence of vertebral fracture in women with breast cancer. (5/3580)

Because treatment for breast cancer may adversely affect skeletal metabolism, we investigated vertebral fracture risk in women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The prevalence of vertebral fracture was similar in women at the time of first diagnosis to that in an age-matched sample of the general population. The incidence of vertebral fracture, however, was nearly five times greater than normal in women from the time of first diagnosis [odds ratio (OR), 4.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.3-9.9], and 20-fold higher in women with soft-tissue metastases without evidence of skeletal metastases (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 9.1-57.1). We conclude that vertebral fracture risk is markedly increased in women with breast cancer.  (+info)

Bone densitometry at a district general hospital: evaluation of service by doctors and patients. (6/3580)

OBJECTIVE: To assess doctors' and patients' views about a district general hospital bone densitometry service and to examine existing practice to influence future provision. DESIGN: Three postal surveys: (a) of doctors potentially using the service, (b) of patients undergoing a bone densitometry test during a six month period, and (c) of the referring doctors of the patients undergoing the test. SETTING: Bone densitometry service at South Cleveland Hospital, Middlesbrough and two district health authorities: South Tees and Northallerton. SUBJECTS: All general practitioners (n=201) and hospital consultants in general medicine, rheumatology, obstetrics and gynaecology, orthopaedics, radio therapy and oncology, haematology, and radiology (n=61); all patients undergoing an initial bone densitometry test (n=309) during a six month period; and their referring doctors. MAIN MEASURES: Service awareness and use, knowledge of clinical indications, test results, influence of test results on patient management, satisfaction with the service and its future provision. RESULTS: The overall response rates for the three surveys were 87%, 70%, and 61%. There was a high awareness of the service among doctors and patients; 219(84%) doctors were aware and 155 of them (71%) had used it, and patients often (40%) suggested the test to their doctor. The test was used for a range of reasons including screening although the general use was consistent with current guidelines. Two hundred (65%) bone densitometry measurements were normal, 71(23%) were low normal, and 38(12%) were low. Although doctors reported that management of patients had been influenced by the test results, the algorithm for decision making was unclear. Patients and doctors were satisfied with the service and most (n=146, 68%) doctors wanted referral guidelines for the service. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high awareness of, use of, and satisfaction with the service. Patients were being referred for a range of reasons and a few of these could not be justified, many tests were normal, and clinical decision making was not always influenced by the test result. It is concluded that bone densitometry services should be provided but only for patients whose management will be influenced by test results and subject to guidelines to ensure appropriate use of the technology.  (+info)

Osteoporosis: review of guidelines and consensus statements. (7/3580)

This activity is designed for physicians, pharmacists, nurses, health planners, directors of managed care organizations, and payers of health services. GOAL: To understand current guidelines and consensus statements regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: List four national or international organizations involved in the development of consensus statements regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. 2. Discuss the significant differences among different countries regarding the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. 3. List the major risk factors for osteoporosis. 4. Describe the differences in the application of bone mineral density scans, biochemical markers, and ultrasound in evaluating patients with suspected osteopenia and osteoporosis. 5. Distinguish between and briefly discuss therapeutic modalities used in primary prevention, secondary prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. 6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of estrogen/hormone replacement therapy. 7. Describe alternatives to estrogen/hormone replacement therapy.  (+info)

Development and validation of a simple questionnaire to facilitate identification of women likely to have low bone density. (8/3580)

The relationship between low bone mass and risk of fracture is well documented. Although bone densitometry is the method of choice for detecting low bone mass, its use may be limited by the availability of equipment, cost, and reimbursement issues. Improved patient selection for bone densitometry might increase the cost-effectiveness of screening for osteoporosis, a goal we sought to achieve by developing and validating a questionnaire based solely on patient-derived data. Responses to the questionnaire were used to assign postmenopausal women to one of two groups: (1) those unlikely to have low bone mineral density (defined as 2 standard deviations or more below the mean bone mass at the femoral neck in young, healthy white women) and therefore probably not currently candidates for bone densitometry; and (2) those likely to have low bone mineral density and therefore probably candidates for bone densitometry. We asked community-dwelling perimenopausal and postmenopausal women attending one of 106 participating multispecialty centers (both academic and community based) to complete a self-administered questionnaire and undergo bone density measurement using dual x-ray absorptiometry. We used regression modeling to identify factors most predictive of low bone density at the femoral neck in the postmenopausal group. A simple additive scoring system was developed based on the regression model. Results were validated in a separate cohort of postmenopausal women. Data were collected from 1279 postmenopausal women in the development cohort. Using only six questions (age, weight, race, fracture history, rheumatoid arthritis history, and estrogen use), we achieved a target of 89% sensitivity and 50% specificity. The likelihood ratio was 1.78. Validation in a separate group of 207 postmenopausal women yielded 91% sensitivity and 40% specificity. Assuming population characteristics similar to those of our development cohort, use of our questionnaire could decrease the use of bone densitometry by approximately 30%. Sensitivity and specificity can be varied by changing the level for referral for densitometry to provide the most cost-effective use within a particular healthcare setting. Thus use of our questionnaire, an inexpensive prescreening tool, in conjunction with physician assessment can optimize the use of bone densitometry and may lead to substantial savings in many healthcare settings where large numbers of women require evaluation for low bone mass.  (+info)

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a specific type of osteoporosis that occurs in women after they have gone through menopause. It is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures. In this condition, the decline in estrogen levels that occurs during menopause accelerates bone loss, resulting in a decrease in bone density and quality, which can lead to fragility fractures, particularly in the hips, wrists, and spine.

It's important to note that while postmenopausal osteoporosis is more common in women, men can also develop osteoporosis due to other factors such as aging, lifestyle choices, and medical conditions.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Bone density conservation agents, also known as anti-resorptive agents or bone-sparing drugs, are a class of medications that help to prevent the loss of bone mass and reduce the risk of fractures. They work by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down and reabsorbing bone tissue during the natural remodeling process.

Examples of bone density conservation agents include:

1. Bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, zoledronic acid) - These are the most commonly prescribed class of bone density conservation agents. They bind to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone tissue and inhibit osteoclast activity, thereby reducing bone resorption.
2. Denosumab (Prolia) - This is a monoclonal antibody that targets RANKL (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand), a key signaling molecule involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. By inhibiting RANKL, denosumab reduces osteoclast activity and bone resorption.
3. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) (e.g., raloxifene) - These medications act as estrogen agonists or antagonists in different tissues. In bone tissue, SERMs mimic the bone-preserving effects of estrogen by inhibiting osteoclast activity and reducing bone resorption.
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) - Estrogen hormone replacement therapy has been shown to preserve bone density in postmenopausal women; however, its use is limited due to increased risks of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and thromboembolic events.
5. Calcitonin - This hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland, inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces bone resorption. However, it has largely been replaced by other more effective bone density conservation agents.

These medications are often prescribed for individuals at high risk of fractures due to conditions such as osteoporosis or metabolic disorders that affect bone health. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and administration guidelines to maximize their benefits while minimizing potential side effects. Regular monitoring of bone density, blood calcium levels, and other relevant parameters is also necessary during treatment with these medications.

Osteoporotic fractures are breaks or cracks in bones that occur as a result of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Osteoporosis causes bones to lose density and strength, making them more susceptible to fractures, even from minor injuries or falls.

The most common types of osteoporotic fractures are:

1. Hip fractures: These occur when the upper part of the thigh bone (femur) breaks, often due to a fall. Hip fractures can be serious and may require surgery and hospitalization.
2. Vertebral compression fractures: These occur when the bones in the spine (vertebrae) collapse, causing height loss, back pain, and deformity. They are often caused by everyday activities, such as bending or lifting.
3. Wrist fractures: These occur when the bones in the wrist break, often due to a fall. Wrist fractures are common in older adults with osteoporosis.
4. Other fractures: Osteoporotic fractures can also occur in other bones, such as the pelvis, ribs, and humerus (upper arm bone).

Prevention is key in managing osteoporosis and reducing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. This includes getting enough calcium and vitamin D, engaging in regular weight-bearing exercise, avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and taking medications as prescribed by a healthcare provider.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

Diphosphonates are a class of medications that are used to treat bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease. They work by binding to the surface of bones and inhibiting the activity of bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts. This helps to slow down the breakdown and loss of bone tissue, which can help to reduce the risk of fractures.

Diphosphonates are typically taken orally in the form of tablets, but some forms may be given by injection. Commonly prescribed diphosphonates include alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), and ibandronate (Boniva). Side effects of diphosphonates can include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, heartburn, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, they may also cause esophageal ulcers or osteonecrosis of the jaw.

It is important to follow the instructions for taking diphosphonates carefully, as they must be taken on an empty stomach with a full glass of water and the patient must remain upright for at least 30 minutes after taking the medication to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation. Regular monitoring of bone density and kidney function is also recommended while taking these medications.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

Spontaneous fractures are bone breaks that occur without any identifiable trauma or injury. They are typically caused by underlying medical conditions that weaken the bones, making them more susceptible to breaking under normal stress or weight. The most common cause of spontaneous fractures is osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Other potential causes include various bone diseases, certain cancers, long-term use of corticosteroids, and genetic disorders affecting bone strength.

It's important to note that while the term "spontaneous" implies that the fracture occurred without any apparent cause, it is usually the result of an underlying medical condition. Therefore, if you experience a spontaneous fracture, seeking medical attention is crucial to diagnose and manage the underlying cause to prevent future fractures and related complications.

Alendronate is a medication that falls under the class of bisphosphonates. It is commonly used in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men, as well as in the management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone.

Alendronate works by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which are cells responsible for breaking down and reabsorbing bone tissue. By reducing the activity of osteoclasts, alendronate helps to slow down bone loss and increase bone density, thereby reducing the risk of fractures.

The medication is available in several forms, including tablets and oral solutions, and is typically taken once a week for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully, as improper administration can reduce the drug's effectiveness or increase the risk of side effects. Common side effects of alendronate include gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn, stomach pain, and nausea.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

Teriparatide is a synthetic form of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is a natural hormone produced by the parathyroid glands in the body. The medication contains the active fragment of PTH, known as 1-34 PTH, and it is used in medical treatment to stimulate new bone formation and increase bone density.

Teriparatide is primarily prescribed for the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men with a high risk of fractures who have not responded well to other osteoporosis therapies, such as bisphosphonates. It is administered via subcutaneous injection, typically once daily.

By increasing bone formation and reducing bone resorption, teriparatide helps improve bone strength and structure, ultimately decreasing the risk of fractures in treated individuals. The medication's effects on bone metabolism can lead to improvements in bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitecture, making it an essential tool for managing severe osteoporosis and reducing fracture risk.

A spinal fracture, also known as a vertebral compression fracture, is a break in one or more bones (vertebrae) of the spine. This type of fracture often occurs due to weakened bones caused by osteoporosis, but it can also result from trauma such as a car accident or a fall.

In a spinal fracture, the front part of the vertebra collapses, causing the height of the vertebra to decrease, while the back part of the vertebra remains intact. This results in a wedge-shaped deformity of the vertebra. Multiple fractures can lead to a hunched forward posture known as kyphosis or dowager's hump.

Spinal fractures can cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms, depending on the location and severity of the fracture. In some cases, spinal cord compression may occur, leading to more severe symptoms such as paralysis or loss of bladder and bowel control.

Etidronic acid is a type of medication known as a bisphosphonate. It is used to treat conditions such as Paget's disease, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer that have spread to the bones.

Etidronic acid works by inhibiting the activity of cells called osteoclasts, which are responsible for breaking down bone tissue. This helps to slow down the process of bone loss and can increase bone density, making bones stronger and less likely to break.

The medication is available in the form of a solution that is given intravenously (through a vein) in a hospital or clinic setting. It may be given as a single dose or as multiple doses over a period of time, depending on the condition being treated and the individual patient's needs.

As with any medication, etidronic acid can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone pain. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of this medication with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

The "femur neck" is the narrow, upper part of the femur (thigh bone) where it connects to the pelvis. It is the region through which the femoral head articulates with the acetabulum to form the hip joint. The femur neck is a common site for fractures, especially in older adults with osteoporosis.

The lumbar vertebrae are the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the human spine, located in the lower back region. They are responsible for bearing most of the body's weight and providing stability during movement. The lumbar vertebrae have a characteristic shape, with a large body in the front, which serves as the main weight-bearing structure, and a bony ring in the back, formed by the pedicles, laminae, and processes. This ring encloses and protects the spinal cord and nerves. The lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5, starting from the uppermost one. They allow for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation movements of the trunk.

A hip fracture is a medical condition referring to a break in the upper part of the femur (thigh) bone, which forms the hip joint. The majority of hip fractures occur due to falls or direct trauma to the area. They are more common in older adults, particularly those with osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones and makes them more prone to breaking. Hip fractures can significantly impact mobility and quality of life, often requiring surgical intervention and rehabilitation.

Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It works by mimicking the effects of estrogen on some tissues, such as bones, while blocking its effects on others, such as breast tissue. This can help to reduce the risk of fractures and breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

Raloxifene is available in tablet form and is typically taken once a day. Common side effects include hot flashes, leg cramps, and sweating. It may also increase the risk of blood clots, so it is important to discuss any history of blood clots or other medical conditions with your healthcare provider before starting treatment with raloxifene.

It's important to note that Raloxifene should not be used in premenopausal women or in men, and it should not be taken during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. It is also important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider before taking this medication.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are primarily responsible for bone resorption, a process in which they break down and dissolve the mineralized matrix of bones. They are derived from monocyte-macrophage precursor cells of hematopoietic origin and play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by balancing bone formation and bone resorption.

Osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface and create an isolated microenvironment, called the "resorption lacuna," between their cell membrane and the bone surface. Here, they release hydrogen ions into the lacuna through a process called proton pumping, which lowers the pH and dissolves the mineral component of the bone matrix. Additionally, osteoclasts secrete proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsin K, that degrade the organic components, like collagen, in the bone matrix.

An imbalance in osteoclast activity can lead to various bone diseases, including osteoporosis and Paget's disease, where excessive bone resorption results in weakened and fragile bones.

The calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone in the human foot, and it is commonly known as the heel bone. It articulates with the cuboid bone anteriorly, the talus bone superiorly, and several tendons and ligaments that help to form the posterior portion of the foot's skeletal structure. The calcaneus plays a crucial role in weight-bearing and movement, as it forms the lower part of the leg's ankle joint and helps to absorb shock during walking or running.

Dietary calcium is a type of calcium that is obtained through food sources. Calcium is an essential mineral that is necessary for many bodily functions, including bone formation and maintenance, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

The recommended daily intake of dietary calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, the recommended daily intake for adults aged 19-50 is 1000 mg, while women over 50 and men over 70 require 1200 mg per day.

Good dietary sources of calcium include dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt; leafy green vegetables like broccoli and kale; fortified cereals and juices; and certain types of fish, such as salmon and sardines. It is important to note that some foods can inhibit the absorption of calcium, including oxalates found in spinach and rhubarb, and phytates found in whole grains and legumes.

If a person is unable to get enough calcium through their diet, they may need to take calcium supplements. However, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, as excessive intake of calcium can lead to negative health effects.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that is crucial for the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body, which are essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It can be synthesized by the human body when skin is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight, or it can be obtained through dietary sources such as fatty fish, fortified dairy products, and supplements. There are two major forms of vitamin D: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), which is found in some plants and fungi, and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), which is produced in the skin or obtained from animal-derived foods. Both forms need to undergo two hydroxylations in the body to become biologically active as calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), the hormonally active form of vitamin D. This activated form exerts its effects by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) found in various tissues, including the small intestine, bone, kidney, and immune cells, thereby influencing numerous physiological processes such as calcium homeostasis, bone metabolism, cell growth, and immune function.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of medications that act as either agonists or antagonists on the estrogen receptors in different tissues of the body. They selectively bind to estrogen receptors and can have opposite effects depending on the target tissue. In some tissues, such as bone and liver, SERMs behave like estrogens and stimulate estrogen receptors, promoting bone formation and reducing cholesterol levels. In contrast, in other tissues, such as breast and uterus, SERMs block the effects of estrogen, acting as estrogen antagonists and preventing the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors.

Examples of SERMs include:

* Tamoxifen: used for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer in both pre- and postmenopausal women.
* Raloxifene: used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, as well as for reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.
* Toremifene: used for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive tumors.
* Lasofoxifene: used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, as well as reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

It is important to note that SERMs can have side effects, including hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and an increased risk of blood clots. The choice of a specific SERM depends on the individual patient's needs, medical history, and potential risks.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

The spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a complex structure in the human body that is part of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 33 individual vertebrae (except in some people where there are fewer due to fusion of certain vertebrae), intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

The spine has several important functions:

1. Protection: The spine protects the spinal cord, which is a major component of the nervous system, by enclosing it within a bony canal.
2. Support: The spine supports the head and upper body, allowing us to maintain an upright posture and facilitating movement of the trunk and head.
3. Movement: The spine enables various movements such as flexion (bending forward), extension (bending backward), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and rotation (twisting).
4. Weight-bearing: The spine helps distribute weight and pressure evenly across the body, reducing stress on individual vertebrae and other structures.
5. Blood vessel and nerve protection: The spine protects vital blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, including the aorta, vena cava, and spinal nerves.

The spine is divided into five regions: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae, also known as the tailbone). Each region has unique characteristics that allow for specific functions and adaptations to the body's needs.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced and released by the parafollicular cells (also known as C cells) of the thyroid gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating calcium homeostasis in the body. Specifically, it helps to lower elevated levels of calcium in the blood by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which are bone cells that break down bone tissue and release calcium into the bloodstream. Calcitonin also promotes the uptake of calcium in the bones and increases the excretion of calcium in the urine.

Calcitonin is typically released in response to high levels of calcium in the blood, and its effects help to bring calcium levels back into balance. In addition to its role in calcium regulation, calcitonin may also have other functions in the body, such as modulating immune function and reducing inflammation.

Clinically, synthetic forms of calcitonin are sometimes used as a medication to treat conditions related to abnormal calcium levels, such as hypercalcemia (high blood calcium) or osteoporosis. Calcitonin can be administered as an injection, nasal spray, or oral tablet, depending on the specific formulation and intended use.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Osteocalcin is a protein that is produced by osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. It is one of the most abundant non-collagenous proteins found in bones and plays a crucial role in the regulation of bone metabolism. Osteocalcin contains a high affinity for calcium ions, making it essential for the mineralization of the bone matrix.

Once synthesized, osteocalcin is secreted into the extracellular matrix, where it binds to hydroxyapatite crystals, helping to regulate their growth and contributing to the overall strength and integrity of the bones. Osteocalcin also has been found to play a role in other physiological processes outside of bone metabolism, such as modulating insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and male fertility.

In summary, osteocalcin is a protein produced by osteoblasts that plays a critical role in bone formation, mineralization, and turnover, and has been implicated in various other physiological processes.

In medical terms, the hip is a ball-and-socket joint where the rounded head of the femur (thigh bone) fits into the cup-shaped socket, also known as the acetabulum, of the pelvis. This joint allows for a wide range of movement in the lower extremities and supports the weight of the upper body during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The hip joint is surrounded by strong ligaments, muscles, and tendons that provide stability and enable proper functioning.

REceptor Activator of NF-kB (RANK) Ligand is a type of protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system and bone metabolism. It belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and is primarily produced by osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

RANK Ligand binds to its receptor RANK, which is found on the surface of osteoclasts, a type of cell involved in bone resorption or breakdown. The binding of RANK Ligand to RANK activates signaling pathways that promote the differentiation, activation, and survival of osteoclasts, thereby increasing bone resorption.

Abnormalities in the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway have been implicated in various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain types of cancer that metastasize to bones. Therefore, targeting this pathway with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) is a medical treatment in which estrogen hormones are administered to replace the estrogen that is naturally produced by the ovaries but declines, especially during menopause. This therapy is often used to help manage symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness. It can also help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. ERT typically involves the use of estrogen alone, but in some cases, a combination of estrogen and progestin may be prescribed for women with a uterus to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. However, ERT is associated with certain risks, including an increased risk of breast cancer, blood clots, and stroke, so it's important for women to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before starting this therapy.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble decoy receptor for the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). It is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily and plays a crucial role in regulating bone metabolism. By binding to RANKL, OPG prevents it from interacting with its signaling receptor RANK on the surface of osteoclast precursor cells, thereby inhibiting osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. This results in reduced bone resorption and increased bone mass.

In addition to its role in bone homeostasis, OPG has also been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, including immune regulation, cancer progression, and cardiovascular disease.

Densitometry is a medical technique used to measure the density or degree of opacity of various structures, particularly bones and tissues. It is often used in the diagnosis and monitoring of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Bone densitometry measures the amount of calcium and other minerals in a segment of bone to determine its strength and density. This information can help doctors assess a patient's risk of fractures and make treatment recommendations. Densitometry is also used in other medical fields, such as mammography, where it is used to measure the density of breast tissue to detect abnormalities and potential signs of cancer.

The ilium is the largest and broadest of the three parts that make up the hip bone or coxal bone. It is the uppermost portion of the pelvis and forms the side of the waist. The ilium has a curved, fan-like shape and articulates with the sacrum at the back to form the sacroiliac joint. The large, concave surface on the top of the ilium is called the iliac crest, which can be felt as a prominent ridge extending from the front of the hip to the lower back. This region is significant in orthopedics and physical examinations for its use in assessing various medical conditions and performing certain maneuvers during the physical examination.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

An accidental fall is an unplanned, unexpected event in which a person suddenly and involuntarily comes to rest on the ground or other lower level, excluding intentional changes in position (e.g., jumping to catch a ball) and landings that are part of a planned activity (e.g., diving into a pool). Accidental falls can occur for various reasons, such as environmental hazards, muscle weakness, balance problems, visual impairment, or certain medical conditions. They are a significant health concern, particularly among older adults, as they can lead to serious injuries, loss of independence, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality.

Postmenopause is a stage in a woman's life that follows 12 months after her last menstrual period (menopause) has occurred. During this stage, the ovaries no longer release eggs and produce lower levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones. The reduced levels of these hormones can lead to various physical changes and symptoms, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes. Postmenopause is also associated with an increased risk of certain health conditions, including osteoporosis and heart disease. It's important for women in postmenopause to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and routine medical check-ups to monitor their overall health and manage any potential risks.

The radius is one of the two bones in the forearm in humans and other vertebrates. In humans, it runs from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. It is responsible for rotation of the forearm and articulates with the humerus at the elbow and the carpals at the wrist. Any medical condition or injury that affects the radius can impact the movement and function of the forearm and hand.

Collagen Type I is the most abundant form of collagen in the human body, found in various connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. It is a structural protein that provides strength and integrity to these tissues. Collagen Type I is composed of three alpha chains, two alpha-1(I) chains, and one alpha-2(I) chain, arranged in a triple helix structure. This type of collagen is often used in medical research and clinical applications, such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

Spinal injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur to the vertebral column, which houses and protects the spinal cord. These injuries can be caused by various factors such as trauma from accidents (motor vehicle, sports-related, falls, etc.), violence, or degenerative conditions like arthritis, disc herniation, or spinal stenosis.

Spinal injuries can result in bruising, fractures, dislocations, or compression of the vertebrae, which may then cause damage to the spinal cord and its surrounding tissues, nerves, and blood vessels. The severity of a spinal injury can range from mild, with temporary symptoms, to severe, resulting in permanent impairment or paralysis below the level of injury.

Symptoms of spinal injuries may include:
- Pain or stiffness in the neck or back
- Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the limbs
- Loss of bladder or bowel control
- Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
- Paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury
- In severe cases, respiratory problems and difficulty in breathing

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal injuries to prevent further damage and ensure proper treatment. Treatment options may include immobilization, surgery, medication, rehabilitation, and physical therapy.

Osteomalacia is a medical condition characterized by the softening of bones due to defective bone mineralization, resulting from inadequate vitamin D, phosphate, or calcium. It mainly affects adults and is different from rickets, which occurs in children. The primary symptom is bone pain, but muscle weakness can also occur. Prolonged osteomalacia may lead to skeletal deformities and an increased risk of fractures. Treatment typically involves supplementation with vitamin D, calcium, and sometimes phosphate.

The metacarpus is the medical term for the part of the hand located between the carpus (wrist) and the digits (fingers). It consists of five bones, known as the metacarpal bones, which are numbered 1 to 5 from the thumb side to the little finger side. Each metacarpal bone has a base, a shaft, and a head. The bases of the metacarpal bones articulate with the carpal bones to form the wrist joint, while the heads of the metacarpal bones form the knuckles at the back of the hand.

The metacarpus plays an essential role in hand function as it provides stability and support for the movement of the fingers and thumb. Injuries or conditions affecting the metacarpus can significantly impact hand function, causing pain, stiffness, weakness, or deformity.

Jaw diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the surrounding muscles, as well as dental disorders that can impact the jaw. Some common examples include:

1. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD): These are problems with the TMJ and the muscles that control jaw movement. Symptoms may include pain, clicking or popping sounds, and limited movement of the jaw.

2. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: This is a condition where bone in the jaw dies due to lack of blood supply. It can be caused by radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or certain medications.

3. Dental Cavities: These are holes in the teeth caused by bacteria. If left untreated, they can cause pain, infection, and damage to the jawbone.

4. Periodontal Disease: This is an infection of the gums and bones that support the teeth. Advanced periodontal disease can lead to loss of teeth and damage to the jawbone.

5. Jaw Fractures: These are breaks in the jawbone, often caused by trauma.

6. Oral Cancer: This is a type of cancer that starts in the mouth or throat. If not treated early, it can spread to the jaw and other parts of the body.

7. Cysts and Tumors: These are abnormal growths in the jawbone or surrounding tissues. While some are benign (non-cancerous), others can be malignant (cancerous).

8. Osteomyelitis: This is an infection of the bone, often occurring in the lower jaw. It can cause pain, swelling, and fever.

9. Oral Thrush: This is a fungal infection that causes white patches on the inside of the mouth. If left untreated, it can spread to the jaw and other parts of the body.

10. Sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinuses can sometimes cause pain in the upper jaw.

Forearm injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the anatomy and function of the forearm, which is the area between the elbow and wrist. This region consists of two long bones (the radius and ulna) and several muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels that enable movements such as flexion, extension, pronation, and supination of the hand and wrist.

Common forearm injuries include:

1. Fractures: Breaks in the radius or ulna bones can occur due to high-energy trauma, falls, or sports accidents. These fractures may be simple (stable) or compound (displaced), and might require immobilization, casting, or surgical intervention depending on their severity and location.

2. Sprains and Strains: Overstretching or tearing of the ligaments connecting the bones in the forearm or the muscles and tendons responsible for movement can lead to sprains and strains. These injuries often cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility.

3. Dislocations: In some cases, forceful trauma might result in the dislocation of the radioulnar joint, where the ends of the radius and ulna meet. This injury can be extremely painful and may necessitate immediate medical attention to realign the bones and stabilize the joint.

4. Tendonitis: Repetitive motions or overuse can cause inflammation and irritation of the tendons in the forearm, resulting in a condition known as tendonitis. This injury typically presents with localized pain, swelling, and stiffness that worsen with activity.

5. Nerve Injuries: Direct trauma, compression, or stretching can damage nerves in the forearm, leading to numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the hand and fingers. Common nerve injuries include radial nerve neuropathy and ulnar nerve entrapment.

6. Compartment Syndrome: Forearm compartment syndrome occurs when increased pressure within one of the forearm's fascial compartments restricts blood flow to the muscles, nerves, and tissues inside. This condition can result from trauma, bleeding, or swelling and requires immediate medical intervention to prevent permanent damage.

Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing forearm injuries and ensuring optimal recovery. Patients should consult with a healthcare professional if they experience persistent pain, swelling, stiffness, weakness, or numbness in their forearms or hands.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Menopause is a natural biological process that typically occurs in women in their mid-40s to mid-50s. It marks the end of menstrual cycles and fertility, defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 consecutive months. This transition period can last several years and is often accompanied by various physical and emotional symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness. The hormonal fluctuations during this time, particularly the decrease in estrogen levels, contribute to these symptoms. It's essential to monitor and manage these symptoms to maintain overall health and well-being during this phase of life.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

A femoral neck fracture is a type of hip fracture that occurs in the narrow, vertical section of bone just below the ball of the femur (thigh bone) that connects to the hip socket. This area is called the femoral neck. Femoral neck fractures can be categorized into different types based on their location and the direction of the fractured bone.

These fractures are typically caused by high-energy trauma, such as car accidents or falls from significant heights, in younger individuals. However, in older adults, particularly those with osteoporosis, femoral neck fractures can also result from low-energy trauma, like a simple fall from standing height.

Femoral neck fractures are often serious and require prompt medical attention. Treatment usually involves surgery to realign and stabilize the broken bone fragments, followed by rehabilitation to help regain mobility and strength. Potential complications of femoral neck fractures include avascular necrosis (loss of blood flow to the femoral head), nonunion or malunion (improper healing), and osteoarthritis in the hip joint.

In the context of nutrition and health, minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for various bodily functions, such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and bone structure. They are required in small amounts compared to macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and are obtained from food and water.

Some of the major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride, while trace minerals or microminerals are required in even smaller amounts and include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, and fluoride.

It's worth noting that the term "minerals" can also refer to geological substances found in the earth, but in medical terminology, it specifically refers to the essential inorganic elements required for human health.

A compression fracture is a type of bone fracture that occurs when there is a collapse of a vertebra in the spine. This type of fracture is most commonly seen in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine. Compression fractures are often caused by weakened bones due to osteoporosis, but they can also result from trauma or tumors that weaken the bone.

In a compression fracture, the front part (anterior) of the vertebra collapses, while the back part (posterior) remains intact, causing the height of the vertebra to decrease. This can lead to pain, deformity, and decreased mobility. In severe cases, multiple compression fractures can result in a condition called kyphosis, which is an abnormal curvature of the spine that leads to a hunchback appearance.

Compression fractures are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment may include pain medication, bracing, physical therapy, or in some cases, surgery. Preventive measures such as maintaining a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and taking medications to prevent or treat osteoporosis can help reduce the risk of compression fractures.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Cathepsin K is a proteolytic enzyme, which belongs to the family of papain-like cysteine proteases. It is primarily produced by osteoclasts, which are specialized cells responsible for bone resorption. Cathepsin K plays a crucial role in the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, particularly in bone tissue.

This enzyme is capable of breaking down various proteins, including collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans, which are major components of the bone matrix. By doing so, cathepsin K helps osteoclasts to dissolve and remove mineralized and non-mineralized bone matrix during the process of bone resorption.

Apart from its function in bone metabolism, cathepsin K has also been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and tumor metastasis to bones. Inhibitors of cathepsin K are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these disorders.

"Men" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It generally refers to adult male human beings. If you are looking for a medical definition related to males, there are several terms that could potentially fit based on the context. Here are some examples:

* Male: A person who is biologically determined to be male, typically having XY chromosomes, testes, and certain physical characteristics such as greater muscle mass and body hair compared to females.
* Men's health: Refers to the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical conditions that are more common or specific to males, such as prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and erectile dysfunction.
* Menopause: A natural biological process that occurs in women, typically in their 40s or 50s, when their ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods cease. Although not directly related to males, it is worth noting that some men may experience symptoms similar to those of menopause due to a decline in testosterone levels as they age (a condition known as andropause).

I hope this helps clarify! Let me know if you have any further questions or need more information.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

The thoracic vertebrae are the 12 vertebrae in the thoracic region of the spine, which is the portion between the cervical and lumbar regions. These vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12, with T1 being closest to the skull and T12 connecting to the lumbar region.

The main function of the thoracic vertebrae is to provide stability and support for the chest region, including protection for the vital organs within, such as the heart and lungs. Each thoracic vertebra has costal facets on its sides, which articulate with the heads of the ribs, forming the costovertebral joints. This connection between the spine and the ribcage allows for a range of movements while maintaining stability.

The thoracic vertebrae have a unique structure compared to other regions of the spine. They are characterized by having long, narrow bodies, small bony processes, and prominent spinous processes that point downwards. This particular shape and orientation of the thoracic vertebrae contribute to their role in limiting excessive spinal movement and providing overall trunk stability.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a medical treatment that involves the use of hormones to replace or supplement those that the body is no longer producing or no longer producing in sufficient quantities. It is most commonly used to help manage symptoms associated with menopause and conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

In women, HRT typically involves the use of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood changes that can occur during menopause. In some cases, testosterone may also be prescribed to help improve energy levels, sex drive, and overall sense of well-being.

In men, HRT is often used to treat low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) and related symptoms such as fatigue, decreased muscle mass, and reduced sex drive.

It's important to note that while HRT can be effective in managing certain symptoms, it also carries potential risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, breast cancer (in women), and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the decision to undergo HRT should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Anabolic agents are a class of drugs that promote anabolism, the building up of body tissues. These agents are often used medically to help people with certain medical conditions such as muscle wasting diseases, osteoporosis, and delayed puberty. Anabolic steroids are one type of anabolic agent. They mimic the effects of testosterone, the male sex hormone, leading to increased muscle mass and strength. However, anabolic steroids also have significant side effects and can be addictive. Therefore, their use is regulated and they are only available by prescription in many countries. Abuse of anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes, such as to improve athletic performance or appearance, is illegal and can lead to serious health consequences.

Osteonecrosis is a medical condition characterized by the death of bone tissue due to the disruption of blood supply. Also known as avascular necrosis, this process can lead to the collapse of the bone and adjacent joint surfaces, resulting in pain, limited mobility, and potential deformity if left untreated. Osteonecrosis most commonly affects the hips, shoulders, and knees, but it can occur in any bone. The condition may be caused by trauma, corticosteroid use, alcohol abuse, certain medical conditions (like sickle cell disease or lupus), or for no apparent reason (idiopathic).

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. It plays a crucial role in regulating various functions in the body, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Endocrine system diseases or disorders occur when there is a problem with the production or regulation of hormones. This can result from:

1. Overproduction or underproduction of hormones by the endocrine glands.
2. Impaired response of target cells to hormones.
3. Disruption in the feedback mechanisms that regulate hormone production.

Examples of endocrine system diseases include:

1. Diabetes Mellitus - a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin deficiency or resistance.
2. Hypothyroidism - underactive thyroid gland leading to slow metabolism, weight gain, fatigue, and depression.
3. Hyperthyroidism - overactive thyroid gland causing rapid heartbeat, anxiety, weight loss, and heat intolerance.
4. Cushing's Syndrome - excess cortisol production resulting in obesity, high blood pressure, and weak muscles.
5. Addison's Disease - insufficient adrenal hormone production leading to weakness, fatigue, and low blood pressure.
6. Acromegaly - overproduction of growth hormone after puberty causing enlargement of bones, organs, and soft tissues.
7. Gigantism - similar to acromegaly but occurs before puberty resulting in excessive height and body size.
8. Hypopituitarism - underactive pituitary gland leading to deficiencies in various hormones.
9. Hyperparathyroidism - overactivity of the parathyroid glands causing calcium imbalances and kidney stones.
10. Precocious Puberty - early onset of puberty due to premature activation of the pituitary gland.

Treatment for endocrine system diseases varies depending on the specific disorder and may involve medication, surgery, lifestyle changes, or a combination of these approaches.

Microradiography is a radiographic technique that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of small specimens, such as microscopic slides or individual cells. In this process, the specimen is placed in close contact with a high-resolution photographic emulsion, and then exposed to X-rays. The resulting image shows the distribution of radiopaque materials within the specimen, providing information about its internal structure and composition at a microscopic level.

Microradiography can be used for various applications in medical research and diagnosis, including the study of bone and tooth microstructure, the analysis of tissue pathology, and the examination of mineralized tissues such as calcifications or osteogenic lesions. The technique offers high resolution and contrast, making it a valuable tool for researchers and clinicians seeking to understand the complex structures and processes that occur at the microscopic level in living organisms.

Thiophenes are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring made up of four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom. The structure of thiophene is similar to benzene, with the benzene ring being replaced by a thiophene ring. Thiophenes are aromatic compounds, which means they have a stable, planar ring structure and delocalized electrons.

Thiophenes can be found in various natural sources such as coal tar, crude oil, and some foods like onions and garlic. They also occur in certain medications, dyes, and pesticides. Some thiophene derivatives have been synthesized and studied for their potential therapeutic uses, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antitumor activities.

In the medical field, thiophenes are used in some pharmaceuticals as building blocks to create drugs with various therapeutic effects. For example, tipepidine, a cough suppressant, contains a thiophene ring. Additionally, some anesthetics and antipsychotic medications also contain thiophene moieties.

It is important to note that while thiophenes themselves are not typically considered medical terms, they play a role in the chemistry of various pharmaceuticals and other medical-related compounds.

The hip joint, also known as the coxal joint, is a ball-and-socket type synovial joint that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the pelvis. The "ball" is the head of the femur, while the "socket" is the acetabulum, a concave surface on the pelvic bone.

The hip joint is surrounded by a strong fibrous capsule and is reinforced by several ligaments, including the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments. The joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction movements, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body.

The hip joint is also supported by various muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, and other hip flexors and extensors. These muscles provide stability and strength to the joint, allowing for weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

Vitamin D deficiency is a condition characterized by insufficient levels of vitamin D in the body, typically defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 20 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or 50 nanomoles per liter (nmol/L). Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy bones and teeth by regulating the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It also has various other functions in the body, including modulation of cell growth, immune function, and neuromuscular activity.

Vitamin D can be obtained through dietary sources such as fatty fish, fortified dairy products, and supplements, but the majority of vitamin D is produced in the skin upon exposure to sunlight. Deficiency can occur due to inadequate dietary intake, insufficient sun exposure, or impaired absorption or metabolism of vitamin D.

Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency include older age, darker skin tone, obesity, malabsorption syndromes, liver or kidney disease, and certain medications. Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency can be subtle and nonspecific, such as fatigue, bone pain, muscle weakness, and mood changes. However, prolonged deficiency can lead to more severe health consequences, including osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and increased risk of fractures.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 5 (LRP5) is a gene that encodes a single transmembrane protein, which belongs to the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. This protein plays crucial roles in various biological processes such as bone formation, vascular biology, and cancer progression. It functions as a co-receptor for Wnt signaling pathways that regulate gene expression involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

In the context of lipid metabolism, LRP5 has been shown to modulate lipoprotein particle uptake and cholesterol homeostasis through its interaction with LDL receptors. Mutations in the LRP5 gene have been associated with several diseases, including osteoporosis, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, and adiposity-associated disorders.

In summary, Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 5 is a multifunctional receptor involved in various physiological processes, including bone formation, lipid metabolism, and cell signaling.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Pathologic bone demineralization is a condition characterized by the loss of minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, from the bones. This process makes the bones more porous, weaker, and more susceptible to fractures. It can occur due to various medical conditions, including osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, Paget's disease of bone, and cancer that has spread to the bones (metastatic cancer).

In a healthy individual, the body constantly remodels the bones by removing old bone tissue (resorption) and replacing it with new tissue. This process is regulated by two types of cells: osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption, and osteoblasts, which produce new bone tissue. In pathologic bone demineralization, there is an imbalance between the activity of these two cell types, with excessive resorption and inadequate formation of new bone tissue.

Pathologic bone demineralization can lead to a range of symptoms, including bone pain, fractures, loss of height, and a decreased ability to perform daily activities. Treatment for this condition depends on the underlying cause but may include medications that slow down bone resorption or promote bone formation, as well as lifestyle changes such as exercise and dietary modifications.

A femoral fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. The femur extends from the hip joint to the knee joint and is responsible for supporting the weight of the upper body and allowing movement of the lower extremity. Femoral fractures can occur due to various reasons such as high-energy trauma, low-energy trauma in individuals with weak bones (osteoporosis), or as a result of a direct blow to the thigh.

Femoral fractures can be classified into different types based on their location, pattern, and severity. Some common types of femoral fractures include:

1. Transverse fracture: A break that occurs straight across the bone.
2. Oblique fracture: A break that occurs at an angle across the bone.
3. Spiral fracture: A break that occurs in a helical pattern around the bone.
4. Comminuted fracture: A break that results in multiple fragments of the bone.
5. Open or compound fracture: A break in which the bone pierces through the skin.
6. Closed or simple fracture: A break in which the bone does not pierce through the skin.

Femoral fractures can cause severe pain, swelling, bruising, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected leg. Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment may involve surgical intervention, including the use of metal rods, plates, or screws to stabilize the bone, followed by rehabilitation and physical therapy to restore mobility and strength.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

X-ray microtomography, often referred to as micro-CT, is a non-destructive imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the internal structure of objects with high spatial resolution. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT), where multiple X-ray images are acquired at different angles and then reconstructed into cross-sectional slices using specialized software. These slices can be further processed to create 3D visualizations, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the internal structure and composition of samples in great detail. Micro-CT is widely used in materials science, biology, medicine, and engineering for various applications such as material characterization, bone analysis, and defect inspection.

Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in mature bone tissue. They are star-shaped cells that are located inside the mineralized matrix of bones, with their processes extending into small spaces called lacunae and canaliculi. Osteocytes are derived from osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that become trapped within the matrix they produce.

Osteocytes play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by regulating bone remodeling, sensing mechanical stress, and modulating mineralization. They communicate with each other and with osteoblasts and osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells) through a network of interconnected processes and via the release of signaling molecules. Osteocytes can also respond to changes in their environment, such as hormonal signals or mechanical loading, by altering their gene expression and releasing factors that regulate bone metabolism.

Dysfunction of osteocytes has been implicated in various bone diseases, including osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Kyphosis is a medical term used to describe an excessive curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane, leading to a rounded or humped back appearance. This condition often affects the thoracic region of the spine and can result from various factors such as age-related degenerative changes, congenital disorders, Scheuermann's disease, osteoporosis, or traumatic injuries. Mild kyphosis may not cause any significant symptoms; however, severe cases can lead to pain, respiratory difficulties, and decreased quality of life. Treatment options typically include physical therapy, bracing, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by the inability of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) to produce sufficient amounts of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. This can lead to various symptoms including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction in men, irregular menstrual periods in women, and reduced fertility in both sexes. Hypogonadism may be caused by genetic factors, aging, injury to the gonads, or certain medical conditions such as pituitary disorders. It can be treated with hormone replacement therapy.

Spinal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the spinal column, which is made up of vertebrae (bones), intervertebral discs, facet joints, nerves, ligaments, and muscles. These diseases can cause pain, discomfort, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or even paralysis, depending on the severity and location of the condition. Here are some examples of spinal diseases:

1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the intervertebral discs lose their elasticity and height, leading to stiffness, pain, and decreased mobility.
2. Herniated disc: This occurs when the inner material of the intervertebral disc bulges or herniates out through a tear in the outer layer, causing pressure on the spinal nerves and resulting in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal or the neural foramen (the openings where the spinal nerves exit the spinal column), which can cause pressure on the spinal cord or nerves and result in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can occur in children or adults, leading to an abnormal posture, back pain, and decreased lung function.
5. Osteoarthritis: This is a degenerative joint disease that affects the facet joints in the spine, causing pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility.
6. Ankylosing spondylitis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and fusion of the vertebrae.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, causing pain, neurological symptoms, or even paralysis.
8. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can affect the spine, leading to pain, fever, and other systemic symptoms.
9. Trauma: Fractures, dislocations, or sprains of the spine can occur due to accidents, falls, or sports injuries, causing pain, neurological deficits, or even paralysis.

Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (RANK) is a type I transmembrane protein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of bone metabolism through the activation of osteoclasts, which are cells responsible for bone resorption.

When RANK binds to its ligand, RANKL (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B Ligand), it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts. This process is essential for maintaining bone homeostasis, as excessive osteoclast activity can result in bone loss and diseases such as osteoporosis.

In addition to its role in bone metabolism, RANK has also been implicated in the regulation of immune responses, as it is involved in the activation and differentiation of dendritic cells and T cells. Dysregulation of RANK signaling has been associated with various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer.

Minority Health is a term used to describe the health status and disparities that affect racial, ethnic, sexual, and gender minority populations. According to the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD), minority health refers to "the study of differences in health status or events and access to health care across racial and ethnic groups."

Minority health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among minorities and other population groups. These disparities are often related to social, economic, and environmental factors, such as poverty, lack of access to quality healthcare, discrimination, and limited educational opportunities.

Minority Health is an important field of study because it helps to identify and address the health needs and challenges faced by marginalized populations. By understanding and addressing these disparities, healthcare providers can develop more effective strategies to improve the health outcomes of minority populations and reduce health inequities.

Cholecalciferol is the chemical name for Vitamin D3. It is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body, which helps to maintain healthy bones and teeth. Cholecalciferol can be synthesized by the skin upon exposure to sunlight or obtained through dietary sources such as fatty fish, liver, and fortified foods. It is also available as a dietary supplement.

Hydroxycholecalciferols are metabolites of vitamin D that are formed in the liver and kidneys. They are important for maintaining calcium homeostasis in the body by promoting the absorption of calcium from the gut and reabsorption of calcium from the kidneys.

The two main forms of hydroxycholecalciferols are 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). 25-hydroxyvitamin D is the major circulating form of vitamin D in the body and is used as a clinical measure of vitamin D status. It is converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidneys by the enzyme 1α-hydroxylase, which is activated in response to low serum calcium or high phosphate levels.

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is the biologically active form of vitamin D and plays a critical role in regulating calcium homeostasis by increasing intestinal calcium absorption and promoting bone health. Deficiency in hydroxycholecalciferols can lead to rickets in children and osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults, characterized by weakened bones and increased risk of fractures.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

The term "established osteoporosis" is used when a broken bone due to osteoporosis has occurred. Osteoporosis is a part of ... Osteoporosis - US National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Osteoporosis - l NIH Osteoporosis and ... frequency of severe osteoporosis and osteoporosis related fractures is higher. The human vulnerability to osteoporosis is an ... The word "osteoporosis" is from the Greek terms for "porous bones". Osteoporosis has no symptoms and the person usually does ...
It is an official journal of the International Osteoporosis Foundation and the National Osteoporosis Foundation. The journal is ... "Osteoporosis International , IOF Publications". Homepage. International Osteoporosis Foundation. Retrieved 2011-04-22. "Web of ... Osteoporosis international (eJournal/eMagazine, 1990). WorldCat. OCLC 45478450 - via "Osteoporosis International ... Osteoporosis International is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal was ...
... is osteoporosis in children and adolescents. Osteoporosis is rare in children and adolescents. When it ... Juvenile Osteoporosis - NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center v t e (Articles with short ... In some cases, there is no known cause and it is called idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis. Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis ... Manoj R. Kandol (2005). "Ch.14 Juvenile Osteoporosis". Clinical Aspects in Osteoporosis. Jaypee Brothers Publishers. pp. 427-. ...
... cranii refers to a highly circumscribed (focal) lytic lesion of the skull bone as seen on X-ray in ... Rosen, Clifford J. (1996), Osteoporosis: diagnostic and therapeutic principles, Humana Press, p. 11, ISBN 978-0-89603-374-0 ( ...
Though secondary osteoporosis is a separate category when it comes to osteoporosis diagnosis, it can still be a contributing ... While senile osteoporosis is categorized as an involuntary, Type II, and primary osteoporosis, which affects both men and women ... and early intervention when it comes to osteoporosis. Because senile osteoporosis is caused by the loss of bone mass due to ... are also factors that contributes to a diagnosis of osteoporosis type II. While senile osteoporosis (type II) is mainly ...
"Royal Osteoporosis Society". Retrieved 10 May 2019. "Osteoporosis, What Is Osteoporosis? , National Osteoporosis Society". nos. ... "Osteoporosis, What Is Osteoporosis? , National Osteoporosis Society". Retrieved 15 January 2018. "Osteoporosis, ... The Osteoporosis and Bone Research Academy is the first dedicated academy for osteoporosis. It is a collaborative venture with ... The Royal Osteoporosis Society (ROS), formerly the National Osteoporosis Society, established in 1986, is the only UK-wide ...
... International Osteoporosis Foundation International Osteoporosis Foundation in Hindi (Infobox holiday ... World Osteoporosis Day was launched on October 20, 1996, by the United Kingdom's National Osteoporosis Society and supported by ... "World Osteoporosis Day Global Activities". 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-17. "World Osteoporosis Day 2016 theme announced". 2016. " ... Organized by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), the World Osteoporosis Day campaign is accompanied by community ...
... is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. It was established in ... Journal homepage Official website National Osteoporosis Foundation (Articles with short description, Short description is ... 2006 and is an official journal of the International Osteoporosis Foundation and the United States' National Osteoporosis ... as well as clinical aspects of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. The current co-editors-in-chief are John Kanis and Felicia ...
... is osteoporosis arising from the use of glucocorticoids (a class of steroid hormones) analogous to ... To prevent steroid-induced osteoporosis, the steroid dose and duration should be as low and as short as possible. All patients ... The International Osteoporosis Foundation and the European Calcified Tissue Society recommend pharmacological therapy for ... It is also known as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Mechanisms of SIOP include: Direct inhibition of osteoblast function ...
"Orphanet: Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome". Retrieved 2022-07-12. "Osteoporosis Pseudoglioma Syndrome OPPG , ... "Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome: MedlinePlus Genetics". Retrieved 2022-07-12. "Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma ... Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma Syndrome: a pediatric case of primary osteoporosis]". Archivos Argentinos de Pediatria. 118 (3): e300 ... Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome or OPGG is a rare genetic condition which is characterized by early-onset blindness and ...
"Progress in Osteoporosis". Orthopedics. International Osteoporosis Foundation. Archived from the original on 2011-07-04. ... "Osteoporosis International". Orthopedics. Springer. Retrieved 2011-04-08. "Archives of Osteoporosis". Orthopedics. Springer. ... and muscle field Progress in Osteoporosis The International Osteoporosis Foundation organises the annual World Osteoporosis Day ... The International Osteoporosis Foundation was established in 1998 with the merger of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis ( ...
Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO; also known as pregnancy-related osteoporosis) is a rare early ... 1995). "Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis". Q J Med. 88 (12): 865-887. PMID 8593546. Dunne F.; et al. (1993). "Pregnancy ... 2018). "Subsequent fracture risk of women with pregnancy and lactation associated osteoporosis after a median of 6 years of ... Qian, Ying; Wang, Lei; Yu, Lili; Huang, Weimin (2021-11-03). "Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis with vertebral ...
ISBN 978-0-323-55596-8. Marcus R, Feldman D, Nelson D, Rosen CJ (8 November 2007). Osteoporosis. Academic Press. pp. 1354-. ... osteoporosis, pathological fractures, decrease of muscle mass and tone, progressive anaemia, asthenia, and depression) (Tyrrell ... in rat models of osteoporosis". Biol. Pharm. Bull. 26 (11): 1563-9. doi:10.1248/bpb.26.1563. PMID 14600402. Nagata N, Miyakawa ...
Nieves JW (2013). "Alternative Therapy through Nutrients and Nutraceuticals". Osteoporosis. pp. 1739-1749. doi:10.1016/B978-0- ... and osteoporosis. Bickhart DM, Koch LM, Smith TP, Riday H, Sullivan ML (2022-02-18). "Chromosome-scale assembly of the highly ...
"Our People , Osteoporosis". Retrieved 27 March 2019. "ANZBMS - Office Bearers and Council". ... "Our People". Osteoporosis. Retrieved 2 March 2018. "Staff". Retrieved 2 March 2018. "Documents The Lens - Free & ... Osteoporosis New Zealand Australia and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society International Society of Bone Morphometry ...
"Osteoporosis". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 27 August 2021. El-Najjar M and Robertson Jr AL. 1976. Spongy ... Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Osteopenia Osteopetrosis Osteoporosis Porotic hyperostosis Primary ...
... osteoporosis; marfanoid habitus; and scoliosis, kyphosis, or both (kyphoscoliosis). Distinctive facial features include a cleft ...
ISBN 978-1-84214-263-9. Robert Marcus; David W. Dempster; Jane A. Cauley; David Feldman (13 June 2013). Osteoporosis. Academic ...
... most commonly occurs bilaterally as a result of spinal osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a condition ... The most common fractures that occur due to osteoporosis is in the hip or vertebrae, resulting in a loss of space between the ... It is estimated that osteoporosis can cause 25% of females over 50 years of age within the United States to have at least one ... It may occur unilaterally due to conditions such as scoliosis, or bilaterally due to conditions such as osteoporosis and ...
Marcus R, Feldman D, Nelson D, Rosen CJ (8 November 2007). Osteoporosis. Academic Press. pp. 1354-. ISBN 978-0-08-055347-4. ... Feldman D, Marcus R, Nelson D, Rosen CJ (8 November 2007). Osteoporosis. Academic Press. pp. 1354-. ISBN 978-0-08-055347-4. ...
70-. ISBN 978-81-250-0910-8. Campbell G, Compston J, Crisp A (25 November 1993). "Osteoporosis". The Management of Common ...
"Osteoporosis". National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. August 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015. ... Bonjour, J. -Ph; Theintz, G; Law, F; Slosman, D; Rizzoli, R (1994). "Peak bone mass". Osteoporosis International. 4: 7-13. doi: ... this time males typically undergo a longer bone maturation period than women which is why women are more prone to osteoporosis ...
Osteoporosis is defined by the National Institutes of Health as ''a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone ... Osteoporosis. 2006. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved on 2007-10-24. Ott, Susan. 2007. Estrogen: Mechanism of Bone ... Patients with RED-S get osteoporosis due to hypoestrogenemia, or low estrogen levels. With estrogen deficiency, the osteoclasts ... Low energy availability with or without eating disorders, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, alone or in ...
Marcus R, Feldman D, Nelson D, Rosen CJ (8 November 2007). Osteoporosis. Academic Press. pp. 1354-. ISBN 978-0-08-055347-4. ... bicalutamide monotherapy is not associated with decreased bone mineral density or osteoporosis. Conversely, bicalutamide ...
However, osteoporosis is essentially the result of a lack of new bone formation in combination with bone resorption in reactive ... With oral osteoporosis, the emphasis should be on good nutrient absorption and metabolic wastes elimination through a healthy ... Heavy metals such as lead and cadmium have been implicated in osteoporosis. Cadmium and lead promotes the synthesis of ... In cases of advanced oral ischaemic osteoporosis and/or ONJ that are not bisphosphonates related, clinical evidence has shown ...
Cooks, A. M. (1955). "Osteoporosis". The Lancet. 265 (6871): 929-937. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(55)90963-6. PMID 14368910. Jones, ...
"Osteoporosis". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 27 August 2021. staff, familydoctor org editorial. "What Is ... osteoporosis osteopenia osteomalacia brown tumor should be considered as the top-line diagnosis if a mass-forming lesion is ...
Szulc P, Seeman E, Delmas PD (2000). "Biochemical measurements of bone turnover in children and adolescents". Osteoporosis ... Value of the study of total alkaline phosphatases and bone isoenzyme in a population of subjects with osteoporosis]". Annales ... Biliary obstruction Bone conditions Osteoblastic bone tumors Osteomalacia Osteoporosis Hepatitis Cirrhosis Acute cholecystitis ...
"Genome-wide copy number variation association study suggested VPS13B gene for osteoporosis in Caucasians". Osteoporosis ... Studies have also linked mutations in the VPS13B gene to osteoporosis. An association between an increase of the VPS13B copy ...
In addition, bone density measurement may be performed to evaluate for osteoporosis. When a tumor is suspected as the ... Compression fractures which develop gradually, such as in osteoporosis, may initially not cause any symptoms, but will later ... 2011). "Balloon kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty in the management of vertebral compression fractures". Osteoporosis ... Osteoporosis International. 16 (10): 1281-90. doi:10.1007/s00198-004-1798-8. PMID 15614441. S2CID 34208503. Taylor, Rod S.; ...
Percent of men 50 years of age and over with osteoporosis of the femur neck or lumbar spine: 4.2% ... Percent of women 50 years of age and over with osteoporosis of the femur neck or lumbar spine: 18.8% ... Source: Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass in Older Adults: United States, 2017-2018 ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Osteoporosis. *National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin ...
Learn about the risk factors linked to Osteoporosis. ... Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones and makes them ... Test Your Osteoporosis Knowledge (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Whats Your Osteoporosis Risk? (Medical Encyclopedia) ... Osteoporosis Treatment (Endocrine Society) * Osteoporosis Treatment: Medications Can Help (Mayo Foundation for Medical ... Juvenile primary osteoporosis: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome: ...
Review osteoporosis treatments including osteoporosis medications, drugs, and exercises, and osteoporosis preventative measures ... Osteoporosis : Review in-depth clinical information, latest medical news, and guidelines on osteoporosis. ...
The term "established osteoporosis" is used when a broken bone due to osteoporosis has occurred. Osteoporosis is a part of ... Osteoporosis - US National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Osteoporosis - l NIH Osteoporosis and ... frequency of severe osteoporosis and osteoporosis related fractures is higher. The human vulnerability to osteoporosis is an ... The word "osteoporosis" is from the Greek terms for "porous bones". Osteoporosis has no symptoms and the person usually does ...
Osteoporosis Health: A Review for Fitness Professionals. Namju Lee, Ph.D, Doyeon Kim, MS. and Len Kravitz, PhD.. Introduction: ... How is Osteoporosis Measured?. OP can be measured by various techniques. It is widely accepted that BMD measurements provide ... Study of osteoporosis fractures research group. American Journal of Medicine, 103(4), 274-280.. Feskanich, D., Willett, W., & ... Osteoporosis International, 11, 721-724.. Iwamoto, J., Takeda, T., & Sato, Y. (2005). Intervention to prevent bone loss in ...
You cant change many of the things that raise your chances of developing osteoporosis, like your genes, your age, and your sex ... You cant change many of the things that raise your chances of developing osteoporosis, like your genes, your age, and your sex ...
While some exercises can be helpful to people with osteoporosis, some are unsuitable due to their health and safety. Learn more ... Spine osteoporosis: Causes and treatment. Spine osteoporosis causes bones in the spine to lose density and strength. Treatment ... Osteoporosis. (2022). *. Osteoporosis fast facts. (n.d.). https://www. ... ...
If one of your parents has had a broken bone, especially a broken hip, you may need to be screened earlier for osteoporosis. ... Talk to your doctor about your family health history of osteoporosis. ... How can osteoporosis affect my health?. People with osteoporosis are more likely to break bones, most often in the hip, forearm ... How can I find out if I have osteoporosis?. Osteoporosis is more common in women. It affects almost 20% (1 in 5) of women aged ...
... defines osteoporosis as a bone density (or bone mass) at least 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (defined as the ... see the Osteoporosis Health Center and What Is Juvenile Osteoporosis?, as well as the slideshow A Visual Guide to Osteoporosis. ... Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis (IJO) is another rare form of primary osteoporosis and is a diagnosis of exclusion. IJO ... Highly powered studies do not exist for pediatric osteoporosis; thus, the data on the prevalence of pediatric osteoporosis are ...
Here, learn how having low estrogen, possibly due to menopause, can lead to osteoporosis. ... This can lead to osteoporosis.. Below, learn how estrogen influences osteoporosis, how to prevent the condition, and what the ... Osteoporosis. (2017).. *. Prevention - osteoporosis. (2019).. ... *. Cauley, J. A. (2015). Estrogen and ...
Ever treated for osteoporosis. English Text: {Were you/Was SP} treated for osteoporosis?. Target: Both males and females 20 ... Ever told had osteoporosis/brittle bones. English Text: Has a doctor ever told {you/SP} that {you/s/he} had osteoporosis, ... Whether the participant has ever been diagnosed as having osteoporosis *If diagnosed with osteoporosis, whether s/he has been ... Osteoporosis (OSQ_B) Data File: OSQ_B.xpt First Published: July 2006. Last Revised: NA ...
This hormone may have a role in the treatment of osteoporosis. ... Melatonin and Osteoporosis This hormone may have a role in the ... "anti-osteoporosis" role (Li et al.) and even "holds the potential to be a standalone anti-osteoporosis therapy" (Zhao et al., ... Osteoporosis, with its "insidious loss of bone" (Sandyk et al.), is a progressive, chronic "systemic skeletal disease" (Liu et ... Osteopenia and osteoporosis, diagnosed by degrees of low bone mass and bone tissue deterioration, lead to substantial morbidity ...
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease of the bones that causes bones to become weak and break easily. ... What is osteoporosis?. Osteoporosis is a disease of the bones. People with osteoporosis have bones that are weak and break ... Who gets osteoporosis?. Osteoporosis affects more women than men. Of the estimated 10 million Americans with osteoporosis, more ... What causes osteoporosis?. Osteoporosis is caused by bone loss. Most often, the reason for bone loss is very low levels of the ...
A generous benefactor has pledged $1 million and challenged us to raise an additional $250,000. Help us reach our goal!. ...
Scientists have developed a molecular model that may provide a new framework for improving the design of osteoporosis ... Roadmap to aid osteoporosis treatment development. Date:. October 13, 2017. Source:. Scripps Research Institute. Summary:. ... Roadmap to aid osteoporosis treatment development." ScienceDaily. /. releases. /. 2017. /. 10. /. ... New Model Can Predict Best Drug Combinations for Osteoporosis. Aug. 9, 2022 Scientists have developed a new mathematical model ...
... USA - English * Latin America - español ... Osteoporosis is more common in women than men and is more common in whites than any other racial group. For all demographic ... Osteoporosis, a condition that occurs when bone tissue thins or develops small holes, can cause pain, broken bones and loss of ... Osteoporosis screening involves a measurement of bone density, which is currently covered by Medicare. The most commonly used ...
... a staggering 4.74 million people over 50 years of age have osteoporosis, osteopenia otherwise known as poor bone health. ... ... Triggering the development of osteoporosis.. What you can Do!. Keep your Diet Simple yet Healthy:. First thing in the morning: ... Women being more prone to osteoporosis than men due to the rapid decline in oestrogen levels during menopause.. It has been ... It has been found that in Australia alone, a staggering 4.74 million people over 50 years of age have osteoporosis, osteopenia ...
The National Osteoporosis Society suggests that getting around 10 minutes of sunshine (a bit longer if you are Black or Asian) ... Osteoporosis. People living with HIV have more incidences of bone mineral density loss and fragility fractures. ... What are osteopenia and osteoporosis?. Text. These are conditions that cause bones to become weaker and more brittle. ... Osteopenia can be a precursor to osteoporosis and with treatment can be prevented from getting worse. Not everyone with a ...
Osteoporosis based on femoral neck, hip or spine BMD (T-Score ,-2.5). *Evaluate for Osteoporosis Secondary Causes prior to ... Management: Osteoporosis Treatments for high risk patients *Indications: High risk Osteoporosis patients. *History of ... Management: Osteoporosis Treatments considered effective * General. *See Indications as above. *See general measures for all ... Endocrinology (or Osteoporosis expert) Consultation Indications. *T Score ,-3.0. *New fragility Fracture (esp. with normal BMD) ...
Women who are not osteopenic before treatment do not develop osteoporosis, however. ... Five patients with osteopenia at baseline developed osteoporosis by the end of the follow-up period, he said.. On the basis of ... "It was interesting that women with a normal BMD at baseline did not develop osteoporosis," said Stephen Y. Chui, MD, who was ... For women with normal BMD at baseline, however, taking anastrozole for 5 years is unlikely to cause osteoporosis, said ...
Osteoporosis, a disease that effects bone health, can happen to anyone. Risk increases with age, and certain genetic factors ... What to Know About Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is a type of osteoporosis caused by ... Osteoporosis can affect anyone.. However, certain groups have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis. Most health data categorizes ... Osteoporosis. (2017). *. Osteoporosis. (n.d.). ...
Through integrated analysis, we identified the most common SE-targeted and osteoporosis-related osteogenic gene, ZBTB16. ZBTB16 ... The present study demonstrated that SEs were indispensable for MSC osteogenesis and involved in osteoporosis development. ... positively regulated by SEs, promoted MSC osteogenesis but was expressed at lower levels in osteoporosis. Mechanistically, SEs ... which provides an attractive focus and therapeutic target for osteoporosis. ...
Osteoporosis Canada is providing strategies, new ideas and recipes to help you get the bone building nutrients needed for bone ... Calcium, vitamin D and protein are essential nutrients for proper bone health and whenever possible Osteoporosis Canada ... is a key component for strengthening and maintaining healthy bones as well as in the prevention and management of osteoporosis ...
Osteoporosis is a disease that affects your bones. It means you have bones that are thin and brittle, with lots of holes inside ... What causes osteoporosis?. Osteoporosis is caused by a lack of bone strength or bone density. As you age, your bones get ... What is osteoporosis?. Osteoporosis is a disease that affects your bones. It means you have bones that are thin and brittle, ... Osteoporosis Canada recommends that all men age 65 and older routinely have a bone density test to screen for osteoporosis. ...
The use of PPIs is a risk factor for development of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, as the direct ... Proton pump inhibitors and osteoporosis Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2016 Jul;28(4):420-5. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000291. ... Summary: The use of PPIs is a risk factor for development of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, as the direct ... Recent findings: New studies have further strengthened existing evidence linking use of PPIs to osteoporosis. Short-term use ...
... osteoporosis - Featured Topics from the National Center for Health Statistics ... A new NCHS Health E-Stat provides information on the percentage of U.S. adults aged 65 and over with osteoporosis and low bone ... Percentage of Adults Aged 65 and Over With Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine: United States, 2005 ... During 2017-2018, the age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis among adults aged 50 years or older was 12.6%. A lower percentage ...
Category: Osteoporosis. Stanford Medicine magazine: Solving for healths social hurdles Achieving more equitable health ...
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disorder in which bones become thinner and lose their strength. Individuals with osteoporosis ... Treating osteoporosis. Osteoporosis can be treated several ways. If it is mild, daily weight-bearing exercise can help build ... Diagnosing osteoporosis. Sometimes osteoporosis is diagnosed during a regular physical exam when you turn out to have lost some ... Preventing osteoporosis is far better than trying to treat it. You can help prevent osteoporosis by ...
Arthritis and osteoporosis are chronic conditions that affect bones. These conditions are similar but require different ... Osteoporosis involves the loss of bone density and mass. You can have both arthritis and osteoporosis at the same time. ... Osteoporosis: Is It an Autoimmune Disease?. Autoimmune conditions may play a role in the body developing osteoporosis. Find out ... Osteoporosis symptoms. Unlike arthritis, osteoporosis is considered an "invisible" or "silent" illness in the early stages. You ...
Based on this finding, a prototype for a new drug to prevent osteoporosis (loss of bone density) without any psychoactive side ... As they aged, these CB2-deprived mice developed severe osteoporosis, similar to that which appears in humans. Osteoporosis is ... Pot-like substances help fight osteoporosis. January 5, 2006. Substances produced in the body that act like ... Based on this finding, a prototype for a new drug to prevent osteoporosis (loss of bone density) without any psychoactive side ...
  • Those with low bone density or a family history of osteoporosis are also at a higher risk of developing this condition. (
  • If you have a family history of osteoporosis, you're more at risk of developing it. (
  • Ask your provider about a bone density test if you're over 65 or have a family history of osteoporosis. (
  • Anyone can develop osteoporosis, but it is more common in older women. (
  • Screening also can show if you have low bone mass, meaning your bones are weaker than normal, and are likely to develop osteoporosis. (
  • Not everyone with a diagnosis of osteopenia will go on to develop osteoporosis. (
  • Many older people develop osteoporosis. (
  • It was interesting that women with a normal BMD at baseline did not develop osteoporosis," said Stephen Y. Chui, MD, who was not involved in the study. (
  • Anyone can develop osteoporosis, although there are key risk factors. (
  • Many people who develop osteoporosis have few of the risk factors - a fact we are trying to understand through research into the causes of osteoporosis. (
  • Anyone can develop osteoporosis. (
  • Efforts to prevent broken bones in those with osteoporosis include a good diet, exercise, and fall prevention. (
  • Bisphosphonate medications are useful to decrease future broken bones in those with previous broken bones due to osteoporosis. (
  • In those with osteoporosis but no previous broken bones, they are less effective. (
  • Osteoporosis is a disease that thins and weakens the bones. (
  • Because osteoporosis weakens bones, even a minor fall could lead to serious injury. (
  • People with osteoporosis are more likely to break bones, most often in the hip, forearm, wrist, and spine. (
  • While most broken bones are caused by falls, osteoporosis can weaken bones to the point that a break can occur more easily, for example by coughing or bumping into something. (
  • Osteoporosis can cause the bones in the spine to break and begin to collapse, so that some people with it get shorter and are not able to stand up straight. (
  • Low estrogen levels can lead to porous, weakened bones and osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis is a disease of the bones that causes bones to become weak and break easily. (
  • Broken bones from osteoporosis cause serious health problems and disability in older women. (
  • Osteoporosis is a disease of the bones. (
  • People with osteoporosis have bones that are weak and break easily. (
  • Using a technology known as HDX, which the Griffin lab has propelled into mainstream protein analysis, the scientists delivered the first dynamic snapshots of a prime target for osteoporosis treatments: a receptor that regulates calcium levels to maintain healthy bones. (
  • Osteoporosis, a condition that occurs when bone tissue thins or develops small holes, can cause pain, broken bones and loss of body height. (
  • Nutrition is a key component for strengthening and maintaining healthy bones as well as in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis is a disease that affects your bones. (
  • Osteoporosis can lead to broken bones (fractures) in the hip, spine, and wrist. (
  • Osteoporosis is a disorder in which bones become thinner and lose their strength. (
  • Individuals with osteoporosis are at higher risk for breaking bones. (
  • Arthritis and osteoporosis are both chronic, long-term conditions that affect your bones. (
  • Arthritis and osteoporosis both affect your bones, but they do not develop or present in the same way. (
  • If you are at increased risk for broken bones caused by osteoporosis, routine testing should start sooner. (
  • Osteoporosis silently weakens your bones, which can make you more likely to experience a bone fracture (broken bone). (
  • If you have osteoporosis your bones are much more fragile and weaker than they should be. (
  • People with osteoporosis are much more likely to experience broken bones ( bone fractures ). (
  • Even though osteoporosis doesn't directly cause symptoms, you might notice a few changes in your body that can mean your bones are losing strength or density. (
  • Osteoporosis happens as you get older and your bones lose their ability to regrow and reform themselves. (
  • There is no cure for osteoporosis, but the Strong Bones Program can help you be your strongest self. (
  • Osteoporosis is a disorder of the bones in which the bones become brittle, weak, and easily damaged or broken. (
  • A decrease in the mineralization and strength of the bones over time causes osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis is a public health issue in the U.S. because the disease contributes to two million fractures (broken bones), including 300,000 hip fractures, annually. (
  • Vertebral (spinal) compression fractures are broken bones in the back that are due to weak bones caused by osteoporosis. (
  • People with osteoporosis are more prone to stress fractures because of the weakness of their bones. (
  • Having strong, healthy bones makes you less susceptible to osteoporosis, a disease that occurs when your body loses too much bone or makes too little of it. (
  • To help strengthen your bones and prevent osteoporosis, take the following steps. (
  • This can lead to reduced bone mass (namely, osteopenia or osteoporosis) that makes bones brittle and fragile. (
  • In humans, the highest concentration of boron is found in the bones of healthy individuals, indicating one of boron's potential benefits, the ability to protect us from osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and more susceptible to breaking. (
  • Osteoporosis begins when there is too much bone being broken down and not enough being rebuilt making the bones more porous and brittle. (
  • Years before the symptoms appear, osteoporosis can affect your bones without any visible signs and thus it is imperative to take care of your bones from a young age. (
  • Years before these symptoms appear, osteoporosis can affect your bones without any visible signs and thus it is imperative to take care of your bones from a young age by consuming diet rich calcium, Vitamin D , protein, phosphorous and magnesium. (
  • Prevention of osteoporosis includes a proper diet during childhood, hormone replacement therapy for menopausal women, and efforts to avoid medications that increase the rate of bone loss. (
  • The primary goals of the management of pediatric osteoporosis are prevention of fractures, including vertebral fractures, and scoliosis and improvement in function, mobility, and pain. (
  • Osteoporosis affects mostly older women, but prevention starts when you are younger. (
  • Bisphosphonates for treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. (
  • Calcium and vitamin D for treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. (
  • It also appears to be one of the most effective substances yet found for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and other bone-related conditions. (
  • The delicate balance between calcium and phosphorous is necessary for proper bone density and prevention of osteoporosis. (
  • The relationship of alkalinity to bone development warrants further discussion because it plays a major role in the prevention and reversal of osteoporosis. (
  • It has even been suggested that plasma melatonin levels around menopause could be used as a "marker of potential susceptibility" for the development of osteoporosis after menopause or even as "prophylaxis" to treat women at risk (Sandyk et al. (
  • Triggering the development of osteoporosis. (
  • The use of PPIs is a risk factor for development of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. (
  • Indeed, the Hebrew University researchers have developed a new synthetic compound, HU-308, which activates CB2 and slows the development of osteoporosis in mice. (
  • Type I osteoporosis (postmenopausal osteoporosis) generally develops in women after menopause when the amount of estrogen in the body decreases. (
  • Major risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis (as defined by bone mineral density) include advanced age, genetics, lifestyle factors (such as low calcium and vitamin D intake, smoking), thinness, and menopause status. (
  • Fast Five Quiz: Osteoporosis Myths vs Facts - Medscape - Aug 19, 2022. (
  • Since osteoporosis does not usually have obvious symptoms early on, screening and timely diagnosis are important to help prevent related bone fractures. (
  • Talking with a doctor about your symptoms is the first step in getting a diagnosis for either arthritis or osteoporosis. (
  • The diagnosis of osteoporosis in children and adolescents should not be made on the basis of densitometric criteria alone. (
  • In the absence of vertebral compression (crush) fractures, the diagnosis of osteoporosis is indicated by the presence of both a clinically significant fracture history and BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0. (
  • The most common osteoporosis-related fractures occur in the wrist, hip and spine. (
  • A new NCHS Health E-Stat provides information on the percentage of U.S. adults aged 65 and over with osteoporosis and low bone mass at the femur neck or lumbar spine, using data from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (
  • Because osteoporosis is a systemic disease, it is not possible to spot-treat the spine. (
  • The researchers observed that men with a low zinc intake and plasma concentration were significantly more likely to have osteoporosis of the hip and spine. (
  • Osteoporosis is defined as a bone mineral density of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for a young woman at either the femur neck or the lumbar spine, or both locations, as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. (
  • A key 2003 study of Icelandic patients with osteoporosis identified a region on Chromosome 20 which "contains a gene or genes that appear to be a major risk factor for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. (
  • The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. (
  • Postmenopausal women with self-reported severe osteoporosis, defined as having suffered at least one osteoporotic fracture and reporting a T-score of ≤− 2.5, were asked to evaluate their health status, osteoporosis management, and disease-related physical, emotional, and financial burden. (
  • Given the health implications of osteoporotic fractures, the primary goal of osteoporosis therapy is to prevent fractures, which is accomplished by slowing or stopping bone loss, maintaining bone strength, and minimizing or eliminating factors that may contribute to fractures. (
  • Osteoporosis has no symptoms and the person usually does not know that they have osteoporosis until a bone is broken. (
  • Some exercises can reduce the risk of osteoporosis or the severity of symptoms. (
  • Some forms of exercise can worsen osteoporosis symptoms or increase the risk of falling. (
  • Osteoporosis does not typically cause symptoms, and a person may not realize that they have it until they fracture a bone. (
  • Risk factors for osteoporosis or symptoms that suggest osteoporosis. (
  • What are osteoporosis symptoms? (
  • Osteoporosis doesn't have symptoms the way lots of other health conditions do. (
  • Osteoporosis is a silent disease with no symptoms, yet it can have a huge impact on your health. (
  • Osteoporosis is a silent disease, because there are no symptoms until a bone breaks. (
  • Osteoporosis may not cause any apparent symptoms. (
  • The authors concluded that multicomponent tools aimed at doctors and patients may support clinical decision making in the management of osteoporosis. (
  • To update the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in 2006 regarding the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. (
  • Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. (
  • Cite this: Management of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women - Medscape - Mar 01, 2010. (
  • Suspected osteoporosis is most often evaluated using an imaging technology called Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA). (
  • If your doctor thinks you're at risk for osteoporosis, they may recommend a DEXA screening as early as age 50 . (
  • A dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) scan can be used as a screening test for osteopenia (bone loss that precedes osteoporosis). (
  • Osteoporosis can be diagnosed through a bone density test (DEXA scan). (
  • If you're interested in learning more about osteoporosis or scheduling a DEXA scan, talk to your personal doctor. (
  • Many people with osteoporosis do not know they have it until they break a bone. (
  • Most people with osteoporosis don't know they have it until they have a bone density test or break a bone. (
  • Many people don't realize they have osteoporosis until they break a bone. (
  • Most people don't know they have osteoporosis until it causes them to break a bone. (
  • Patients often find out they have osteoporosis only after they break a bone. (
  • To detect bone loss early, the National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends contacting a doctor about a bone density test. (
  • ROCKVILLE, Md. , Jan. 17, 2011 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- In an update to its 2002 recommendation, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) now recommends that all women ages 65 and older be routinely screened for osteoporosis. (
  • The USPSTF also recommends that younger women with increased risk factors for osteoporosis be screened if their fracture risk is equal to or greater than that of a 65-year-old white woman who has no additional risk factors. (
  • The USPSTF recommends screening for osteoporosis in women ages 65 and older and in younger women whose fracture risk is equal to or greater than that of a 65-year-old white woman who has no additional risk factors (B recommendation). (
  • Calcium, vitamin D and protein are essential nutrients for proper bone health and whenever possible Osteoporosis Canada recommends trying to get calcium and protein through food. (
  • Osteoporosis Canada recommends drinking no more than 2 alcohol drinks a day. (
  • Osteoporosis Canada recommends that all men age 65 and older routinely have a bone density test to screen for osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis Canada also recommends that you and your doctor check your fracture risk using a tool such as CAROC (Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada) Risk Assessment or FRAX (Fracture Risk Assessment) starting at age 50. (
  • Osteoporosis Canada recommends combining the results of BMD testing with some very important clinical risk factors. (
  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that all women age 65 and older routinely have a bone density test to check for osteoporosis. (
  • footnote 1 The USPSTF recommends that you and your doctor check your fracture risk using a tool such as FRAX to help decide whether you should be screened for osteoporosis. (
  • The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends a comprehensive approach to diagnosing osteoporosis including a detailed history and physical, medication assessment, and use of the Fracture Risk Assessment tool (FRAX). (
  • It has been found that Chronic Acidosis to be the cause of osteoporosis along with many other health related conditions. (
  • Blood and urine tests may be recommended to identify a cause of osteoporosis, such as a thyroid problem. (
  • For most people, however, there is no clear cause of osteoporosis other than aging. (
  • A history of axial skeletal fractures or multiple fractures from low biomechanical force may indicate skeletal fragility and should raise concern for osteoporosis. (
  • BMD testing is not usually recommended in younger men or women (under age 50) unless there is a medical condition predisposing them to osteoporosis or when there are unexplained fragility fractures . (
  • Osteoporosis is a condition in which bone density and quality are reduced, resulting in bone fragility. (
  • Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass, micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to bone sterility, and consequent increase in fracture risk. (
  • Monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD) during the 5 years of treatment in women with osteoporosis is not advised, as evidence suggests that fracture risk may be reduced regardless of BMD changes. (
  • Patients identified as at risk for osteoporosis (including children and adolescents) should undergo preventive measures, including adequate calcium intake, vitamin D intake, and exercise. (
  • Not getting enough calcium and vitamin D may be a reason osteoporosis starts and progresses. (
  • 9 Contrary to popular belief, the available published evidence suggests that osteoporosis is not primarily due to deficiencies of either calcium or oestrogen but is related to deficiencies of key nutrients. (
  • Dietary calcium with Vitamin D prevents osteoporosis, which in India is now seen 20 years earlier than their western counterparts. (
  • Even more insane is the fact that although research has shown that taking more calcium and drinking more milk actually contribute to osteoporosis and make it worse, our doctors don't just tell people to continue doing these things - they tell us that it's not working because we're not doing enough. (
  • In postmenopausal women who have no prior fractures caused by osteoporosis, the USPSTF found convincing evidence that drug therapies (including bisphosphonates, parathyroid hormone, raloxifene and estrogen) reduce the risk for osteoporosis-related fractures. (
  • With changes in hormonal levels, women after menopause are particularly vulnerable to developing osteopenia and ultimately full-blown osteoporosis (Munmum and Witt-Enderby. (
  • Women being more prone to osteoporosis than men due to the rapid decline in oestrogen levels during menopause. (
  • Osteoporosis is more common in women than in men, largely because of hormonal changes that occur during menopause. (
  • Women tend to be diagnosed with osteoporosis more often than men because once they reach menopause, estrogen levels decrease. (
  • Osteoporosis (OP) is a skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to increased susceptibility to fractures (World Health Organization, 1994). (
  • At the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference, osteoporosis was defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk of fracture. (
  • As defined by the World Health Organization, osteoporosis is a generalized skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of the bone and deterioration in its architecture, causing susceptibility to fracture. (
  • ERT was once the only approved osteoporosis treatment. (
  • This hormone may have a role in the treatment of osteoporosis. (
  • The main goals of treatment of pediatric osteoporosis are to prevent fractures and scoliosis, to improve function and mobility, and to alleviate pain. (
  • As the number of people over the age of 65 in the United States increases, osteoporosis screening continues to be important in detecting women at risk who will benefit from treatment to prevent fractures," said Task Force Chair Ned Calonge , M.D., who is also the president and CEO of The Colorado Trust. (
  • Osteopenia can be a precursor to osteoporosis and with treatment can be prevented from getting worse. (
  • June 12, 2006 (Atlanta) - Women with breast cancer who are treated with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole ( Arimidex , AstraZeneca) for 5 years can lose 6% to 7% in bone-mineral density (BMD), enough to trigger a progression to osteoporosis in those who are already osteopenic when treatment begins, according to a group of investigators that reported these findings here at the 42nd annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. (
  • Treatment for osteoporosis may include adopting healthy habits and taking medicine to reduce bone loss and to build bone thickness. (
  • This study aims to find out more about the causes of Pregnancy Associated Osteoporosis, the natural history of the disease and its response to treatment. (
  • A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians on treatment to prevent fractures in men and women with low bone density or osteoporosis includes six recommendations: two strong recommendations, based on high- or moderate-quality evidence, and four weak ones, based on low-quality evidence. (
  • In postmenopausal women, estrogen or estrogen plus progestogen or raloxifene should not be used for the treatment of osteoporosis. (
  • A 2009 study indicated that the use of a case manager for the treatment of patients with hip fractures can lead to more frequent use of appropriate osteoporosis treatment and may result in fewer fractures, increased life expectancy, and significant health-care cost savings. (
  • Currently, no treatment can completely reverse established osteoporosis. (
  • If secondary osteoporosis is present, treatment for the primary disorder should be provided. (
  • Most experts recommend that the decision to test younger women be made on an individual basis, depending on the risk of osteoporosis and whether the test results will help with treatment decisions. (
  • 3D printing is described in terms of its adjunctive function in various stages of spinal surgery and assistance in osteoporosis treatment. (
  • If you have osteoporosis, treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise. (
  • Appropriate physical exercise is an important compliment to current preventative treatment strategies for osteoporosis. (
  • Bisphosphonates have been widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis in women, whereas until now there have been few data on their use in men. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 3-year alendronate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in men with primary osteoporosis. (
  • The objectives of this study were to elicit self-reported health status, quantify osteoporosis-related burden, and understand preferences for treatment attributes among postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis in Greece. (
  • Treatment for osteoporosis is related to drug discovery alternative to hormone therapy estrogen offset the disadvantages of this therapy. (
  • The aims of this review were report the effect of the osteoporosis on the alveolar bone and demonstrate the efficacy of the therapies currently used for treatment of this disease, emphasizing studies on the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and the sodium fluoride. (
  • The review was divided into 3 topics: (1) Bone metabolism, (2) Effects of the osteoporosis on the alveola bone, (3) Therapies used for treatment of the osteoporosis. (
  • This study shows it's possible to develop a drug that can alter certain aspects of the complex to avoid problematic activation of TRPV6 -- and the study points to novel ways to design potential therapeutics to treat osteoporosis safely and more effectively," Griffin noted. (
  • It also helps to prevent and treat osteoporosis. (
  • According to 2021 statistics from the CDC, around 12.6 percent of adults over age 50 have osteoporosis. (
  • This meeting served as an opportunity for key stakeholders to provide input on the most important priorities for The Surgeon General's Report on Osteoporosis and Bone Health , to be released in 2004. (
  • But some things can make you more likely to have the severe bone thinning of osteoporosis. (
  • Bone density, even in severe osteoporosis, generally can be stabilized or improved. (
  • As they aged, these CB2-deprived mice developed severe osteoporosis, similar to that which appears in humans. (
  • In more severe cases of osteoporosis, fractures can occur after even small things, such as sneezing or minor bumps. (
  • Approximately one third (31%) of the 186 participants who responded to the survey in full had been living with severe osteoporosis for more than 10 years. (
  • Our study revealed that osteoporosis placed a considerable burden on QoL for postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis in Greece. (
  • This study aimed to describe patient-reported health status and quality of life in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis in Greece, and to understand patient preferences for osteoporosis therapies. (
  • Postmenopausal women with self-reported severe osteoporosis evaluated their health status, osteoporosis management, and disease-related physical, emotional, and financial burden. (
  • The best way to prevent spinal osteoporosis and vertebral fractures is to prevent general osteoporosis through nutrition and performing weight-bearing exercises. (
  • Preventing bone loss and avoiding fractures are the most effective therapies for osteoporosis. (
  • Research is now revealing that acid base regulation or balance are of vital importance to reducing and or preventing the incidence and progression of osteoporosis and osteopenia. (
  • Preventing osteoporosis is far better than trying to treat it. (
  • As you get older, you are more likely to have osteoporosis and recovering from a broken bone becomes harder. (
  • People with osteopenia have early signs of osteoporosis. (
  • Physicians can detect early signs of osteoporosis with a simple, painless bone density test call bone densitometry. (
  • Screening is important to find these people before this happens, so they can take steps to decrease the effects of osteoporosis. (
  • Currently, screening for osteoporosis is recommended for women who are 65 years old or older and for women who are 50 to 64 and have certain risk factors, which include having a parent who has broken a hip. (
  • Screening for osteoporosis is commonly done using a type of low level x-rays called dual/energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (
  • The USPSTF also looked at whether to recommend screening men for osteoporosis but found insufficient evidence to make a recommendation at this time. (
  • Osteoporosis screening involves a measurement of bone density, which is currently covered by Medicare. (
  • We'll explain how genes contribute to your risk of developing osteoporosis, why screening is important, and preventive measures you can take right now. (
  • Ultrasound is sometimes offered at events such as health fairs as a quick screening for osteoporosis. (
  • 2018). Screening for osteoporosis to prevent fractures: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. (
  • People with osteoporosis may develop muscle weakness, posture issues, or spinal curvature. (
  • According to a 2018 review , situps can increase the risk of spinal fractures for people with osteoporosis. (
  • Exercises, such as the chest press, involve spinal compression, which can increase the risk of spinal fractures in people with osteoporosis. (
  • According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), more than half of U.S. adults over age 50 either have osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia). (
  • The FRAX tool can help predict your risk of having a fracture related to osteoporosis in the next 10 years. (
  • A 2018 study of over 420,000 people with osteoporosis, then followed with experiments on mice, suggested the DAAM2 gene was associated with decreased bone strength. (
  • (, accessed 27 September 2018). (
  • Below, learn how estrogen influences osteoporosis, how to prevent the condition, and what the treatments entail. (
  • Some people use estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) to prevent or reverse osteoporosis. (
  • Alkalizing your Body to Prevent Osteoporosis! (
  • Taking preventive measures can prevent osteoporosis from developing. (
  • Based on this finding, a prototype for a new drug to prevent osteoporosis (loss of bone density) without any psychoactive side effects has already been developed. (
  • A BMD test can tell you whether or not you have osteoporosis and how likely you are to develop it in the future, and can help you to make decisions that may prevent fractures or further bone loss. (
  • Early intervention can prevent osteoporosis in most people. (
  • Osteoporosis may also occur due to a number of diseases or treatments, including alcoholism, anorexia, hyperthyroidism, kidney disease, and surgical removal of the ovaries. (
  • Fractures from osteoporosis may occur spontaneously or from seemingly minor accidents and falls. (
  • At the present time, the majority of hip fractures (the major danger from osteoporosis) occur in Europe and North America. (
  • There's no cure for osteoporosis once you have it, although treatments help improve bone health and lessen the chance of fractures. (
  • For all demographic groups, the rates of osteoporosis rise with increasing age. (
  • Countries with the highest rates of osteoporosis, such as the United States, England, and Sweden, consume the most milk. (
  • China and Japan, where people eat much less protein and dairy food, have low rates of osteoporosis. (
  • While the effects of osteoporosis are often seen in the elderly, the disorder usually starts progressing from middle age on. (
  • Researchers, for example, found melatonin levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were significantly lower than in young women with normal bone mass and suggested that melatonin levels could serve as an "auxiliary diagnostic index" for osteoporosis (Cao et al. (
  • Further, growing evidence suggests that inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to osteoporosis and its imbalance between bone formation and resorption (Guan et al. (
  • Low bone mineral mass or bone mineral density' is the phrase that is recommended for low BMC or aBMD in the absence of a fracture history suggestive of osteoporosis rather than osteopenia or osteoporosis. (
  • How can osteoporosis affect my health? (
  • How can I improve my bone health if I have osteoporosis? (
  • [ 3 ] The World Health Organization (WHO) defines osteoporosis in adults as a bone mineral density (BMD) at least 2.5 standard deviations (SD) below peak (defined as the BMD achieved by healthy young adults of the same race and gender aged 18-30 years). (
  • It has been found that in Australia alone, a staggering 4.74 million people over 50 years of age have osteoporosis, osteopenia otherwise known as poor bone health. (
  • Osteoporosis is a common, chronic health condition that affects bone health. (
  • Diet and lifestyle can also contribute to poor bone health, and increase your chance of developing osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis Canada is providing strategies, new ideas and recipes to help you get the bone building nutrients needed for bone health. (
  • The research study involves gathering information about the risk factors for Pregnancy Associated Osteoporosis, potential risk factors for the disease, how the condition presents and the impact that it has on physical and mental health of people affected. (
  • Why Is Osteoporosis an Important Public Health Issue? (
  • Osteoporosis is a serious health issue and can lead to permanent pain. (
  • A core component of this campaign was the Surgeon General's Workshop on Osteoporosis and Bone Health, held December 12th and 13th of 2002 in Washington, DC. (
  • Osteoporosis has been recognized as a major public health problem for only the last 20 years. (
  • Although it is a preventable disease, osteoporosis affects an estimated 25 million people worldwide, leading to 1 million fractures, 40 000 annual deaths and health costs of billions of dollars [4-6]. (
  • Risk factors for osteoporosis include tobacco use, alcohol use, low body mass and parental history of fractures. (
  • Other genes associated with BMD and osteoporosis include the genes VDR , ESR1 and ESR2 , COL1A1 , and STAT1 . (
  • Other factors that increase your risk for osteoporosis include the following. (
  • The term "established osteoporosis" is used when a broken bone due to osteoporosis has occurred. (
  • If one of your parents has had a broken bone, especially a broken hip, you may need to be screened earlier for osteoporosis. (
  • A broken bone (fracture) from a minor injury and the fracture may have been caused by osteoporosis. (
  • In the United States, millions of people either already have osteoporosis or are at high risk due to low bone mass. (
  • Around 10 million people in the United States currently live with osteoporosis . (
  • As such, golfing may not be an appropriate hobby for people with osteoporosis. (
  • People can speak with a physical therapist to learn more about safe abdominal exercises for osteoporosis. (
  • Yoga is a beneficial exercise for increasing flexibility and muscular strength, but certain yoga positions may be dangerous for people with osteoporosis. (
  • People with osteoporosis need to avoid transitions such as jumping out of downward-facing dog. (
  • Although strength training is important for people with osteoporosis, certain weightlifting exercises can be harmful . (
  • Although certain exercises are unsuitable for people with osteoporosis, many safe exercise options exist. (
  • These exercises may be especially beneficial for people with osteoporosis. (
  • People with mild osteoporosis may enjoy a brisk jog or a friendly game of tennis. (
  • One 2020 review notes that regular swimming may increase bone strength in people with osteoporosis. (
  • Other traditional risk factors for osteoporosis - like smoking, low body weight, drinking alcohol and low levels of testosterone - tend to be more common in people living with HIV. (
  • While some people have a genetic predisposition to developing osteoporosis, there are several other risk factors that contribute. (
  • People of European and Asian background are most likely to get osteoporosis. (
  • The outlook for people with osteoporosis is good, especially if the problem is detected and treated early. (
  • More than 50 million people in the U.S. live with osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis is common in people over 50. (
  • Experts estimate that half of all people assigned female at birth and 1 in 4 people assigned male at birth over 50 have osteoporosis. (
  • People with a family history (if someone in your biological family has osteoporosis). (
  • In the United States, 10 million people have osteoporosis (80% of those are women), and 44 million are at risk for developing the disease due to low bone density. (
  • People may not know they have osteoporosis until they break (fracture) a bone. (
  • Hip fractures are common among people with osteoporosis. (
  • According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation , an estimated 10 million people in the United States have osteoporosis. (
  • ABSTRACT Although osteoporosis is a preventable disease affecting millions of people, public awareness remains low. (