A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.
Neoplasms composed of connective tissue, including elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective tissue.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A tumor composed of spindle cells with a rich vascular network, which apparently arises from pericytes, cells of smooth muscle origin that lie around small vessels. Benign and malignant hemangiopericytomas exist, and the rarity of these lesions has led to considerable confusion in distinguishing between benign and malignant variants. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1364)
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
A hereditary disorder characterized by HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA; RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; renal defects in phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism; and growth retardation. Autosomal and X-linked dominant and recessive variants have been reported.
A hereditary or acquired form of generalized dysfunction of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE without primary involvement of the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS. It is usually characterized by the tubular wasting of nutrients and salts (GLUCOSE; AMINO ACIDS; PHOSPHATES; and BICARBONATES) resulting in HYPOKALEMIA; ACIDOSIS; HYPERCALCIURIA; and PROTEINURIA.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
A fibrous degeneration, cyst formation, and the presence of fibrous nodules in bone, usually due to HYPERPARATHYROIDISM.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
Diseases of BONES.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.
A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex by fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Dilatation of the intestinal lymphatic system usually caused by an obstruction in the intestinal wall. It may be congenital or acquired and is characterized by DIARRHEA; HYPOPROTEINEMIA; peripheral and/or abdominal EDEMA; and PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHIES.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
A non-electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is found primarily in apical membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Fractures of the lower jaw.
A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.
A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.
Necrotic jaws or other maxillofacial skeleton necrosis associated with bisphosphonate use (see BISPHOSPHONATES). Injury, dental procedures, and trauma can trigger the necrotic process.
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
Maxillary diseases refer to various medical conditions primarily affecting the maxilla (upper jaw) bone, including inflammatory processes, tumors, cysts, or traumatic injuries, which may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or functional impairment.
The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Purplish or brownish red discoloration of the skin associated with increase in circulating polyclonal globulins, usually GAMMA-GLOBULINS. This syndrome often occurs on the legs of women aged 20 to 40 years.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
'Mandibular diseases' refer to various medical conditions that primarily affect the structure, function, or health of the mandible (lower jawbone), including but not limited to infections, tumors, developmental disorders, and degenerative diseases.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Saudi Arabia" is a country located in the western portion of the Asian continent and is not a medical term or concept. It does not have a medical definition.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Creatinine is a waste product that's generated from muscle metabolism, typically filtered through the kidneys and released in urine, with increased levels in blood indicating impaired kidney function.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

Biochemical indices of osteomalacia in pregnant Asian immigrants in Britain. (1/293)

Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium excretion were examined during the second trimester of uncomplicated normal pregnancy in Asian immigrants to Britain and in local Caucasians. The mean serum calcium was significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians, and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in Asians. The geometric mean of the urinary calcium excretion was highly significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The variances of the serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urine calcium excretion did not differ significantly in the two populations. This indicates that there is a shift in values of immigrant Asians as a group compared with Caucasians. A comparison with figures obtained on normal nonpregnant persons of both suggests that the shift is not an inherent feature of the Asian population.  (+info)

Use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of osteomalacia: preliminary results on experimental osteomalacia in the rat. (2/293)

This study was performed to investigate the ability of ultrasonographic technique to distinguish osteomalacia from normal bone with the same mineral content. Ten rats with experimentally induced osteomalacia (group A) and 12 control rats having similar body size and weight (group B) were studied. Histomorphometric analysis confirmed the presence of osteomalacia in two rats from group A and showed normally mineralized bone in two rats from group B. Whole body bone mineral density, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, was similar in the two groups (86 +/- 6 mg/cm2 in group A and 89 +/- 4 mg/cm2 in group B). The velocity of the ultrasound beam in bone was measured by densitometer at the first caudal vertebra of each rat. The velocity was measured when the first peak of the waveform reached a predetermined minimum amplitude value (amplitude-dependent speed of sound) as well as at the lowest point of this curve before it reaches the predetermined minimum amplitude (first minimum speed of sound). Although the amplitude-dependent speed of sound was similar in the two groups (1381.9 +/- 11.8 m/s in group A and 1390.9 +/- 17.8 m/s in group B), the first minimum speed of sound was clearly different (1446.1 +/- 8.9 m/s in group A and 1503.3 +/- 10.9 m/s in group B; P < 0.001). This study shows that ultrasonography could be used to identify alterations in bone quality, such as osteomalacia, but further studies need to be carried out before this method can be introduced into clinical practice.  (+info)

Bone histology in patients with nephrotic syndrome and normal renal function. (3/293)

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic bone disease in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) at normal level of renal function remains uncertain. METHODS: To address this issue, we studied 30 patients (20 men and 10 women, mean age 27.3 +/- 11.7 years) with NS who had normal renal function (mean creatinine clearance 103 +/- 4 ml/min). We evaluated their serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), vitamin D metabolites, urinary calcium, and skeletal survey. The extent of bone mineralization was analyzed by histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsy specimens in all patients. The findings on bone histology were correlated with biochemical parameters. RESULTS: The mean duration of NS was 35.5 +/- 26.9 months, with a protein excretion of 7.3 +/- 3.2 g/24 hr and a serum albumin of 2.2 +/- 0.8 g/dl. Total serum calcium was 7.8 +/- 0.8 mg/dl, whereas ionized calcium was 5.7 +/- 0.7 mg/dl, phosphorus 3.2 +/- 1.2 mg/dl, and alkaline phosphatase 149 +/- 48.6 U/liter. Serum iPTH levels were normal in all except two patients. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level was 3.9 +/- 1.2 ng/ml (normal 15 to 30 ng/ml), whereas 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was 24 +/- 4.7 pg/ml (normal 16 to 65). There was an inverse correlation between serum levels of 25(OH)D and the magnitude of proteinuria (r = -0.42, P < 0.05). The mean 24-hour urinary calcium excretion was 82 +/- 21 mg/day. The skeletal survey was normal in all patients. Bone histology was normal in 33.3% of the patients, whereas 56.7% had isolated osteomalacia (OSM), and 10% had an increased bone resorption in association with defective mineralization. The severity of OSM measured by mineralization lag time correlated linearly with the duration (r = 0.94, P < 0.0001) and the amount (r = 0.97, P < 0.0001) of proteinuria. All patients with NS for more than three years had histological changes. Patients with OSM had lower 25(OH)D and serum albumin as compared with those with normal histology (P < 0.005). Bone mineralization had no significant correlation with serum iPTH, divalent ions, or vitamin D levels. CONCLUSIONS: OSM is a frequent finding in adult patients with NS, even at a normal level of renal function. Its severity correlates with the amount and duration of proteinuria.  (+info)

Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. (4/293)

For adults, the 5-microg (200 IU) vitamin D recommended dietary allowance may prevent osteomalacia in the absence of sunlight, but more is needed to help prevent osteoporosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other benefits of vitamin D supplementation are implicated epidemiologically: prevention of some cancers, osteoarthritis progression, multiple sclerosis, and hypertension. Total-body sun exposure easily provides the equivalent of 250 microg (10000 IU) vitamin D/d, suggesting that this is a physiologic limit. Sailors in US submarines are deprived of environmentally acquired vitamin D equivalent to 20-50 microg (800-2000 IU)/d. The assembled data from many vitamin D supplementation studies reveal a curve for vitamin D dose versus serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] response that is surprisingly flat up to 250 microg (10000 IU) vitamin D/d. To ensure that serum 25(OH)D concentrations exceed 100 nmol/L, a total vitamin D supply of 100 microg (4000 IU)/d is required. Except in those with conditions causing hypersensitivity, there is no evidence of adverse effects with serum 25(OH)D concentrations <140 nmol/L, which require a total vitamin D supply of 250 microg (10000 IU)/d to attain. Published cases of vitamin D toxicity with hypercalcemia, for which the 25(OH)D concentration and vitamin D dose are known, all involve intake of > or = 1000 microg (40000 IU)/d. Because vitamin D is potentially toxic, intake of >25 microg (1000 IU)/d has been avoided even though the weight of evidence shows that the currently accepted, no observed adverse effect limit of 50 microg (2000 IU)/d is too low by at least 5-fold.  (+info)

Is low plasma 25-(OH)vitamin D a major risk factor for hyperparathyroidism and Looser's zones independent of calcitriol? (5/293)

BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that calcitriol might not be the sole active metabolite of vitamin D and that plasma concentrations of 25-(OH)vitamin D (25OHD) are often abnormally low in hemodialysis patients. We have therefore evaluated plasma 25OHD as a risk factor for parathyroid hormone (PTH) hypersecretion and radiological bone disease. We carried out a cross-sectional study during the month of September in an Algerian dialysis center of 113 patients who were not taking supplements of alphacalcidol or calcitriol. METHODS: Plasma 25OHD, calcitriol, PTH, calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, and aluminum were measured, and x-rays of the hands and pelvis were obtained for evaluation of subperiosteal resorption and Looser's zones. RESULTS: The median plasma 25OHD was 47.5 nmol/liter (range 2.5 to 170.0). Univariate analysis showed that plasma PTH was correlated positively with months on maintenance dialysis and negatively with plasma 25OHD, calcitriol, calcium, bicarbonate and aluminum, but not with that of phosphate. plasma 25OHD was positively correlated with calcium and calcitriol. Using multiple regression analysis, only plasma 25OHD (negative) and the duration on maintenance dialysis (positive) were independently linked to plasma PTH. The prevalence of isolated subperiosteal resorption (ISR) was 34%, and that of the combination of resorption with Looser's zones (CRLZ) was 9%; thus, only 57% of the patients had a normal x-ray appearance. These groups were comparable with regards to age, gender, and duration on dialysis. When the biochemical measurements of the patients with CRLZ were compared with those from patients without radiological lesions, plasma 25OHD was the only parameter to show a statistically significant difference, being significantly lower in the CRLZ group (26 +/- 18 vs. 57 nmol/liter, ANOVA, P < 0.004). Plasma 25OHD was also significantly lower in the ISR group (44, P < 0.05) than in the normal x-ray group, and plasma Ca (P < 0.003) and bicarbonate (P < 0.02) were lower. Logistical analysis showed that the presence of resorption was independently linked only with plasma PTH. Looser's zones and subperiosteal resorption were not seen in patients with plasma 25OHD of more than 40 (Looser's zones) and more than 100 nmol/liter (subperiosteal resorption). The optimal range for intact PTH in hemodialysis patients with mild aluminum overload is 10 to 25 pmol/liter. We found that plasma PTH was inappropriately high only when plasma 25OHD was less than 100 nmol/liter. With a plasma 25OHD of between 100 and 170 nmol/liter, hypercalcemia was present with a plasma PTH of less than 10 pmol/liter in only one case. CONCLUSIONS: This cross sectional study shows that low plasma 25OHD is a major risk factor for hyperparathyroidism and Looser's zones. In dialysis patients, we suggest that the plasma levels of 25OHD are maintained around the upper limit of the reference range of sunny countries.  (+info)

Bone scintigraphy in renal osteodystrophy. (6/293)

Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m HEDP was performed in 30 patients on maintenance hemodialysis, and the results of quantitative analysis were compared with those of a normal group. To permit this comparison, elevated background activity due to the absence of renal radiotracer excretion was reduced by hemodialysis to levels found in the normals. Histologic proof of renal osteodystrophy had been obtained in all patients. The incidence of radiographic abnormalities was 46%, whereas abnormal scans were found in 25 patients (83%); skeletal lesions were also more pronounced and detected earlier. However, even when the scans appeared normal, the quantitative analysis showed increased skeletal activity in all patients. The total skeletal activity proved to be a good index of the severity of renal osteodystrophy and appeared dependent on both osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. These findings show that bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method to detect skeletal involvement in renal osteodystrophy.  (+info)

Increased bone strontium levels in hemodialysis patients with osteomalacia. (7/293)

BACKGROUND: In this study, we report on the association between increased bone strontium levels and the presence of osteomalacia in end-stage renal failure patients treated by hemodialysis. METHODS: We performed a histologic examination and determined the strontium content and strontium/calcium ratios in bone biopsies of 100 hemodialysis patients recruited from various centers all over the world. Aside from the bone strontium concentration, the bone aluminum content was assessed. The bone zinc concentration, a nonrelevant element for bone toxicity, was also measured. RESULTS: Bone strontium levels and bone strontium/calcium ratios were increased in subjects with osteomalacia when compared with those with the other types of renal osteodystrophy. Bone strontium and bone calcium levels correlated with each other. The slope of the linear regression curve correlating these parameters was much steeper in the osteomalacic group (Y = 2.22X - 120) as compared with the other types of renal osteodystrophy (Y = 0.52X - 5.7). Within the group of patients with osteomalacia, bone strontium levels also significantly correlated with the bone aluminum content (r = 0.72, P = 0.018). No such correlation was found for the other types of renal osteodystrophy. The bone zinc concentration of subjects with normal renal function did not differ significantly from the values noted for the various types of renal osteodystrophy taken as separate groups, nor could increased bone zinc concentrations be associated with a particular bone lesion. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate an association between osteomalacia and increased bone strontium concentrations in dialysis patients. Further studies are warranted to establish whether strontium plays either a primary, secondary, or contributive role in the development of the latter type of renal osteodystrophy.  (+info)

Use of quantitative ultrasonography in differentiating osteomalacia from osteoporosis: preliminary study. (8/293)

The aim of this work was to use ultrasonographic technology to differentiate osteoporosis from osteomalacia on the basis of different patterns of the graphic trace. Three patients with osteomalacia and three with osteoporosis, all with the same lumbar spine bone mineral density, were studied. The velocity of the ultrasound beam in bone was measured by a DBM Sonic 1,200/I densitometer at the proximal phalanges of the hands in all the patients. The ultrasound beam velocity was measured when the first peak of the waveform reached a predetermined minimum amplitude value (amplitude-dependent speed of sound) as well as at the lowest point prior to the first and second peaks, before they reached the predetermined minimum amplitude value (first and second minimum speeds of sound). The graphic traces were further analyzed by Fourier analysis, and both the main frequency (f0) and the width of the peak centered in the f0 (full width at half maximum) were measured. The first and second minimum speeds of sound were significantly lower in the patients with osteomalacia than in the osteoporosis group. The first minimum speed of sound was 2,169 +/- 73 m/s in osteoporosis and 1,983 +/- 61 m/s in osteomalacia (P < 0.0001); the second minimum peak speed of sound was 1,895 +/-59 m/s in osteoporosis and 1,748 +/- 38 m/s in osteomalacia (P < 0.0001). The f0 was similar in the two groups (osteoporosis, 0.85 +/- 0.14 MHz; osteomalacia, 0.9 +/- 0.22 MHz; P = 0.72), and the full width at half maximum was significantly higher in the osteomalacia patients (0.52 +/- 0.14 MHz) than in the osteoporosis patients (0.37 +/- 0.15 MHz) (P = 0.022). This study confirms that ultrasonography is a promising, noninvasive method that could be used to differentiate osteoporosis from osteomalacia, but further studies should be carried out before this method can be introduced into clinical practice.  (+info)

Hypophosphatemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally low levels of phosphate (phosphorus) in the blood, specifically below 2.5 mg/dL. Phosphate is an essential electrolyte that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions such as energy production, bone formation, and maintaining acid-base balance.

Hypophosphatemia can result from several factors, including malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, alcoholism, hormonal imbalances, and certain medications. Symptoms of hypophosphatemia may include muscle weakness, fatigue, bone pain, confusion, and respiratory failure in severe cases. Treatment typically involves correcting the underlying cause and administering phosphate supplements to restore normal levels.

Neoplasms of connective tissue are abnormal growths or tumors that develop from the cells that form the body's supportive framework, including bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size.

There are several types of connective tissue neoplasms, including:

1. Fibroma: A benign tumor that arises from fibrous connective tissue.
2. Fibrosarcoma: A malignant tumor that develops from fibrous connective tissue.
3. Lipoma: A benign tumor that arises from fat cells.
4. Liposarcoma: A malignant tumor that develops from fat cells.
5. Chondroma: A benign tumor that arises from cartilage.
6. Chondrosarcoma: A malignant tumor that develops from cartilage.
7. Osteoma: A benign tumor that arises from bone.
8. Osteosarcoma: A malignant tumor that develops from bone.
9. Giant cell tumors: Benign or malignant tumors that contain many giant cells, which are large, multinucleated cells.
10. Synovial sarcoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the synovial tissue that lines joints and tendons.

Connective tissue neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size. For example, a benign lipoma may cause a painless lump under the skin, while a malignant osteosarcoma may cause bone pain, swelling, and fractures. Treatment options for connective tissue neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Familial Hypophosphatemia is a genetic disorder characterized by low levels of phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia) due to impaired absorption of phosphates in the gut. This condition results from mutations in the SLC34A3 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called NaPi-IIc, responsible for reabsorbing phosphates from the filtrate in the kidney tubules back into the bloodstream.

In familial hypophosphatemia, the impaired function of NaPi-IIc leads to excessive loss of phosphate through urine, resulting in hypophosphatemia. This condition can cause rickets (a softening and weakening of bones) in children and osteomalacia (softening of bones) in adults. Symptoms may include bowed legs, bone pain, muscle weakness, and short stature.

Familial Hypophosphatemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition.

Rickets is a medical condition characterized by the softening and weakening of bones in children, primarily caused by deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It leads to skeletal deformities, bone pain, and growth retardation. Prolonged lack of sunlight exposure, inadequate intake of vitamin D-rich foods, or impaired absorption or utilization of vitamin D can contribute to the development of rickets.

Mesenchymoma is a very rare type of tumor that contains a mixture of different types of mesenchymal tissues, such as muscle, fat, bone, cartilage, or fibrous tissue. It typically occurs in children and young adults, and can be found in various parts of the body, including the head, neck, retroperitoneum (the area behind the abdominal cavity), and the limbs.

Mesenchymomas are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms until they reach a large size. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, but radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also be used in some cases. The prognosis for mesenchymoma depends on several factors, including the location and size of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the specific types of tissue that are present in the tumor.

Hydroxycholecalciferols are metabolites of vitamin D that are formed in the liver and kidneys. They are important for maintaining calcium homeostasis in the body by promoting the absorption of calcium from the gut and reabsorption of calcium from the kidneys.

The two main forms of hydroxycholecalciferols are 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). 25-hydroxyvitamin D is the major circulating form of vitamin D in the body and is used as a clinical measure of vitamin D status. It is converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidneys by the enzyme 1α-hydroxylase, which is activated in response to low serum calcium or high phosphate levels.

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is the biologically active form of vitamin D and plays a critical role in regulating calcium homeostasis by increasing intestinal calcium absorption and promoting bone health. Deficiency in hydroxycholecalciferols can lead to rickets in children and osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults, characterized by weakened bones and increased risk of fractures.

Hemangiopericytoma is a rare type of soft tissue sarcoma, which is a cancer that develops from the cells that surround blood vessels. It specifically arises from the pericytes, which are cells that help regulate blood flow in capillaries. Hemangiopericytomas typically form in the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges), but they can also occur in other parts of the body such as the lungs, abdomen, or extremities.

These tumors usually grow slowly, but they can become aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness, or numbness in the arms or legs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like MRI or CT scans, followed by a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment usually consists of surgical removal of the tumor, often accompanied by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to help prevent recurrence or spread of the disease.

Paraneoplastic syndromes refer to a group of rare disorders that are caused by an abnormal immune system response to a cancerous (malignant) tumor. These syndromes are characterized by symptoms or signs that do not result directly from the growth of the tumor itself, but rather from substances produced by the tumor or the body's immune system in response to the tumor.

Paraneoplastic syndromes can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the nervous system, endocrine system, skin, and joints. Examples of paraneoplastic syndromes include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), which affects nerve function and causes muscle weakness; cerebellar degeneration, which can cause difficulty with coordination and balance; and dermatomyositis, which is an inflammatory condition that affects the skin and muscles.

Paraneoplastic syndromes can occur in association with a variety of different types of cancer, including lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and lymphoma. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cancer, as well as managing the symptoms of the paraneoplastic syndrome.

Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets (FHR) is a genetic disorder characterized by impaired reabsorption of phosphate in the kidneys, leading to low levels of phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia). This condition results in defective mineralization of bones and teeth, causing rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.

FHR is typically caused by mutations in the PHEX gene, which encodes a protein that helps regulate phosphate levels in the body. In FHR, the mutation leads to an overproduction of a hormone called fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which increases phosphate excretion in the urine and decreases the activation of vitamin D, further contributing to hypophosphatemia.

Symptoms of FHR may include bowing of the legs, bone pain, muscle weakness, short stature, dental abnormalities, and skeletal deformities. Treatment typically involves oral phosphate supplements and active forms of vitamin D to correct the hypophosphatemia and improve bone mineralization. Regular monitoring of blood phosphate levels, kidney function, and bone health is essential for effective management of this condition.

Fanconi syndrome is a medical condition that affects the proximal tubules of the kidneys. These tubules are responsible for reabsorbing various substances, such as glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes, back into the bloodstream after they have been filtered through the kidneys.

In Fanconi syndrome, there is a defect in the reabsorption process, causing these substances to be lost in the urine instead. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including:

* Polyuria (excessive urination)
* Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
* Dehydration
* Metabolic acidosis (an imbalance of acid and base in the body)
* Hypokalemia (low potassium levels)
* Hypophosphatemia (low phosphate levels)
* Vitamin D deficiency
* Rickets (softening and weakening of bones in children) or osteomalacia (softening of bones in adults)

Fanconi syndrome can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, including genetic disorders, kidney diseases, drug toxicity, and heavy metal poisoning. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, as well as managing symptoms such as electrolyte imbalances and acid-base disturbances.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

Renal osteodystrophy is a bone disease that occurs in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is characterized by abnormalities in the bones' structure and mineral composition due to disturbances in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. These metabolic disturbances result from the kidneys' decreased ability to maintain balance in the levels of these minerals and hormones.

Renal osteodystrophy can manifest as several bone disorders, including:

1. Osteitis fibrosa cystica: Increased bone turnover due to excessive parathyroid hormone (PTH) production, leading to high levels of alkaline phosphatase and increased resorption of bones.
2. Adynamic bone disease: Decreased bone turnover due to reduced PTH levels, resulting in low bone formation rates and increased fracture risk.
3. Mixed uremic osteodystrophy: A combination of high and low bone turnover, with varying degrees of mineralization defects.
4. Osteomalacia: Defective mineralization of bones due to vitamin D deficiency or resistance, leading to soft and weak bones.

Symptoms of renal osteodystrophy may include bone pain, muscle weakness, fractures, deformities, and growth retardation in children. Diagnosis typically involves laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone biopsies. Treatment focuses on correcting the metabolic imbalances through dietary modifications, medications (such as phosphate binders, vitamin D analogs, and calcimimetics), and addressing any secondary hyperparathyroidism if present.

Osteitis fibrosa cystica is a medical condition that refers to the abnormal bone remodeling process characterized by increased bone resorption and formation, leading to bone thickening and weakening. It is also known as "von Recklinghausen's disease of bone" or "monostotic fibrous dysplasia."

This condition is typically caused by excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) due to a benign or malignant tumor of the parathyroid gland, known as hyperparathyroidism. The overproduction of PTH leads to an imbalance in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, resulting in increased bone resorption and fibrous tissue deposition within the bone marrow.

The clinical features of osteitis fibrosa cystica include bone pain, fractures, bone deformities, and elevated levels of calcium and alkaline phosphatase in the blood. Radiographic findings may show characteristic "rugger jersey" or "salt and pepper" patterns of alternating areas of increased and decreased bone density.

Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the abnormal parathyroid gland tissue, followed by medical management to prevent further bone loss and promote healing.

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that is crucial for the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body, which are essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It can be synthesized by the human body when skin is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight, or it can be obtained through dietary sources such as fatty fish, fortified dairy products, and supplements. There are two major forms of vitamin D: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), which is found in some plants and fungi, and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), which is produced in the skin or obtained from animal-derived foods. Both forms need to undergo two hydroxylations in the body to become biologically active as calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), the hormonally active form of vitamin D. This activated form exerts its effects by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) found in various tissues, including the small intestine, bone, kidney, and immune cells, thereby influencing numerous physiological processes such as calcium homeostasis, bone metabolism, cell growth, and immune function.

Hypophosphatasia is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by defective bone mineralization due to deficiency of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme that is crucial for the formation of strong and healthy bones. This results in skeletal abnormalities, including softening and weakening of the bones (rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults), premature loss of teeth, and an increased risk of fractures.

The disorder can vary widely in severity, from mild cases with few symptoms to severe forms that can lead to disability or even be life-threatening in infancy. Hypophosphatasia is caused by mutations in the ALPL gene, which provides instructions for making the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) enzyme. Inheritance is autosomal recessive, meaning an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to have the condition.

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

The ilium is the largest and broadest of the three parts that make up the hip bone or coxal bone. It is the uppermost portion of the pelvis and forms the side of the waist. The ilium has a curved, fan-like shape and articulates with the sacrum at the back to form the sacroiliac joint. The large, concave surface on the top of the ilium is called the iliac crest, which can be felt as a prominent ridge extending from the front of the hip to the lower back. This region is significant in orthopedics and physical examinations for its use in assessing various medical conditions and performing certain maneuvers during the physical examination.

Vitamin D deficiency is a condition characterized by insufficient levels of vitamin D in the body, typically defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 20 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or 50 nanomoles per liter (nmol/L). Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy bones and teeth by regulating the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. It also has various other functions in the body, including modulation of cell growth, immune function, and neuromuscular activity.

Vitamin D can be obtained through dietary sources such as fatty fish, fortified dairy products, and supplements, but the majority of vitamin D is produced in the skin upon exposure to sunlight. Deficiency can occur due to inadequate dietary intake, insufficient sun exposure, or impaired absorption or metabolism of vitamin D.

Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency include older age, darker skin tone, obesity, malabsorption syndromes, liver or kidney disease, and certain medications. Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency can be subtle and nonspecific, such as fatigue, bone pain, muscle weakness, and mood changes. However, prolonged deficiency can lead to more severe health consequences, including osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and increased risk of fractures.

Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are a family of growth factors that play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. They bind to specific tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs) on the cell surface, leading to intracellular signaling cascades that regulate gene expression and downstream cellular responses. FGFs are involved in embryonic development, tissue repair, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). There are at least 22 distinct FGFs identified in humans, each with unique functions and patterns of expression. Some FGFs, like FGF1 and FGF2, have mitogenic effects on fibroblasts and other cell types, while others, such as FGF7 and FGF10, are essential for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during organ development. Dysregulation of FGF signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, fibrosis, and developmental disorders.

Dihydroxycholecalciferols are a form of calcifediol, which is a type of secosteroid hormone that is produced in the body as a result of the exposure to sunlight and the dietary intake of vitamin D. The term "dihydroxycholecalciferols" specifically refers to the compounds 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. These compounds are produced in the body through a series of chemical reactions involving enzymes that convert vitamin D into its active forms.

Calcitriol is the biologically active form of vitamin D and plays an important role in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood, as well as promoting the absorption of these minerals from the gut. It also has other functions, such as modulating cell growth and immune function.

24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol is a less active form of vitamin D that is produced in larger quantities than calcitriol. Its exact role in the body is not well understood, but it is thought to have some effects on calcium metabolism and may play a role in regulating the levels of other hormones in the body.

Dihydroxycholecalciferols are typically measured in the blood as part of an evaluation for vitamin D deficiency or to monitor treatment with vitamin D supplements. Low levels of these compounds can indicate a deficiency, while high levels may indicate excessive intake or impaired metabolism.

Primidone is an anticonvulsant medication primarily used in the treatment of seizure disorders. It is a barbiturate derivative that has sedative and muscle relaxant properties. Primidone is metabolized in the body into two other anticonvulsants, phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA). Together, these active metabolites help to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.

Primidone is used primarily for generalized tonic-clonic seizures and complex partial seizures. It may also be considered for use in absence seizures, although other medications are typically preferred for this type of seizure. The medication works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which helps to prevent or reduce the occurrence of seizures.

Like all anticonvulsant medications, primidone carries a risk of side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and unsteady gait. It may also cause rash, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite in some individuals. In rare cases, primidone can cause more serious side effects such as blood disorders, liver damage, or suicidal thoughts.

It is important for patients taking primidone to be closely monitored by their healthcare provider to ensure that the medication is working effectively and to monitor for any potential side effects. Dosages of primidone may need to be adjusted over time based on the patient's response to treatment and any adverse reactions that occur.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

Glucaric acid, also known as saccharic acid, is not a medication or a medical treatment. It is an organic compound that occurs naturally in various fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, apples, and corn. Glucaric acid is a type of dicarboxylic acid, which means it contains two carboxyl groups.

In the human body, glucaric acid is produced as a byproduct of glucose metabolism and can be found in small amounts in urine. It is also produced synthetically for industrial uses, such as in the production of cleaning products, textiles, and plastics.

There has been some research on the potential health benefits of glucaric acid, including its role in detoxification and cancer prevention. However, more studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended intake levels or dosages. Therefore, it is not currently considered a medical treatment for any specific condition.

Ergocalciferols are a form of vitamin D, specifically vitamin D2, that is found in some plants. They are not produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Ergocalciferols can be converted into an active form of vitamin D in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy bones and calcium levels. However, vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), which is produced by the body in response to sunlight exposure, is generally considered to be more effective at raising and maintaining vitamin D levels in the body than ergocalciferols.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). There are four small parathyroid glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. They release PTH into the bloodstream to help regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

In hyperparathyroidism, overproduction of PTH can lead to an imbalance in these minerals, causing high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia) and low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). This can result in various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive issues.

There are two types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is a problem with one or more of the parathyroid glands, causing them to become overactive and produce too much PTH. Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops as a response to low calcium levels in the body due to conditions like vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, or malabsorption syndromes.

Treatment for hyperparathyroidism depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In primary hyperparathyroidism, surgery to remove the overactive parathyroid gland(s) is often recommended. For secondary hyperparathyroidism, treating the underlying condition and managing calcium levels with medications or dietary changes may be sufficient.

PHEX (Phosphate Regulating Endopeptidase Homolog, X-Linked) is a gene that encodes for an enzyme called phosphate regulating neutral endopeptidase. This enzyme is primarily expressed in osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

The main function of the PHEX protein is to regulate the levels of a hormone called fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) by breaking it down. FGF23 plays an essential role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by regulating its reabsorption in the kidneys and its absorption from the gut.

Inactivating mutations in the PHEX gene can lead to X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), a genetic disorder characterized by low levels of phosphate in the blood, impaired bone mineralization, and rickets. In XLH, the production of FGF23 is increased due to the lack of regulation by PHEX, leading to excessive excretion of phosphate in the urine and decreased absorption from the gut. This results in hypophosphatemia, impaired bone mineralization, and other skeletal abnormalities.

Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone is a rare, benign bone disorder that is characterized by the replacement of normal bone tissue with fibrous (scar-like) and immature bone tissue. This results in weakened bones that are prone to fractures, deformities, and pain. The condition can affect any bone in the body but most commonly involves the long bones of the legs, arms, and skull. It can occur as an isolated finding or as part of a genetic disorder called McCune-Albright syndrome. The exact cause of fibrous dysplasia is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a genetic mutation that occurs during early bone development. There is no cure for fibrous dysplasia, and treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications.

Calcitriol is the active form of vitamin D, also known as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. It is a steroid hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the body to maintain healthy bones. Calcitriol is produced in the kidneys from its precursor, calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D), which is derived from dietary sources or synthesized in the skin upon exposure to sunlight.

Calcitriol promotes calcium absorption in the intestines, helps regulate calcium and phosphate levels in the kidneys, and stimulates bone cells (osteoblasts) to form new bone tissue while inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which resorb bone. This hormone is essential for normal bone mineralization and growth, as well as for preventing hypocalcemia (low calcium levels).

In addition to its role in bone health, calcitriol has various other physiological functions, including modulating immune responses, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Calcitriol deficiency or resistance can lead to conditions such as rickets in children and osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults.

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a medical condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to properly excrete acid into the urine, leading to an accumulation of acid in the bloodstream. This results in a state of metabolic acidosis.

There are several types of RTA, but renal tubular acidosis type 1 (also known as distal RTA) is characterized by a defect in the ability of the distal tubules to acidify the urine, leading to an inability to lower the pH of the urine below 5.5, even in the face of metabolic acidosis. This results in a persistently alkaline urine, which can lead to calcium phosphate stones and bone demineralization.

Type 1 RTA is often caused by inherited genetic defects, but it can also be acquired due to various kidney diseases, drugs, or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of type 1 RTA may include fatigue, weakness, muscle cramps, decreased appetite, and vomiting. Treatment typically involves alkali therapy to correct the acidosis and prevent complications.

A femoral neck fracture is a type of hip fracture that occurs in the narrow, vertical section of bone just below the ball of the femur (thigh bone) that connects to the hip socket. This area is called the femoral neck. Femoral neck fractures can be categorized into different types based on their location and the direction of the fractured bone.

These fractures are typically caused by high-energy trauma, such as car accidents or falls from significant heights, in younger individuals. However, in older adults, particularly those with osteoporosis, femoral neck fractures can also result from low-energy trauma, like a simple fall from standing height.

Femoral neck fractures are often serious and require prompt medical attention. Treatment usually involves surgery to realign and stabilize the broken bone fragments, followed by rehabilitation to help regain mobility and strength. Potential complications of femoral neck fractures include avascular necrosis (loss of blood flow to the femoral head), nonunion or malunion (improper healing), and osteoarthritis in the hip joint.

Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant drug, primarily used in the treatment of seizures and prevention of seizure recurrence. It works by reducing the spread of seizure activity in the brain and stabilizing the electrical activity of neurons. Phenytoin is also known to have anti-arrhythmic properties and is occasionally used in the management of certain cardiac arrhythmias.

The drug is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and a liquid formulation. Common side effects of phenytoin include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and unsteady gait. Regular monitoring of blood levels is necessary to ensure that the drug remains within the therapeutic range, as both low and high levels can lead to adverse effects.

It's important to note that phenytoin has several potential drug-drug interactions, particularly with other anticonvulsant medications, certain antibiotics, and oral contraceptives. Therefore, it is crucial to inform healthcare providers about all the medications being taken to minimize the risk of interactions and optimize treatment outcomes.

X-linked genetic diseases refer to a group of disorders caused by mutations in genes located on the X chromosome. These conditions primarily affect males since they have only one X chromosome and therefore don't have a second normal copy of the gene to compensate for the mutated one. Females, who have two X chromosomes, are typically less affected because they usually have one normal copy of the gene on their other X chromosome.

Examples of X-linked genetic diseases include Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy, hemophilia A and B, color blindness, and fragile X syndrome. Symptoms and severity can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the nature of the genetic mutation involved. Treatment options depend on the particular disease but may include physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, gene therapy.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

Strontium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Sr and atomic number 38. It is a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. In the medical field, strontium ranelate is a medication used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It works by increasing the formation of new bone and decreasing bone resorption (breakdown).

It is important to note that strontium ranelate has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, such as heart attack and stroke, so it is not recommended for people with a history of these conditions. Additionally, the use of strontium supplements in high doses can be toxic and should be avoided.

Intestinal lymphangiectasis is a rare condition characterized by the dilation and dysfunction of the lacteals (lymphatic vessels) within the intestinal villi. This results in the leakage of lymphatic fluid into the gastrointestinal lumen, leading to chronic protein loss, malabsorption of nutrients, and various other complications.

The condition can be primary (congenital), which is usually caused by genetic mutations affecting lymphatic development, or secondary, resulting from acquired conditions that obstruct or damage the intestinal lymphatics. Secondary intestinal lymphangiectasis may occur due to various causes such as abdominal surgeries, radiation therapy, inflammatory bowel disease, or tumors compressing the lymphatic vessels.

Symptoms of intestinal lymphangiectasis include diarrhea, steatorrhea (fatty stools), weight loss, edema (swelling), and hypoproteinemia (low protein levels in the blood). The diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like lymphangiography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the dilated lymphatic vessels. Treatment often focuses on dietary modifications, such as a low-fat, high-protein, and medium-chain triglyceride diet, along with managing any underlying conditions contributing to the development of the disease. In some cases, medications or surgical interventions may be necessary to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life.

Hypocalcemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood. Calcium is a vital mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and bone formation. Normal calcium levels in the blood usually range from 8.5 to 10.2 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Hypocalcemia is typically defined as a serum calcium level below 8.5 mg/dL or, when adjusted for albumin (a protein that binds to calcium), below 8.4 mg/dL (ionized calcium).

Hypocalcemia can result from several factors, such as vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism (underactive parathyroid glands), kidney dysfunction, certain medications, and severe magnesium deficiency. Symptoms of hypocalcemia may include numbness or tingling in the fingers, toes, or lips; muscle cramps or spasms; seizures; and, in severe cases, cognitive impairment or cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment typically involves correcting the underlying cause and administering calcium and vitamin D supplements to restore normal calcium levels in the blood.

Spontaneous fractures are bone breaks that occur without any identifiable trauma or injury. They are typically caused by underlying medical conditions that weaken the bones, making them more susceptible to breaking under normal stress or weight. The most common cause of spontaneous fractures is osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Other potential causes include various bone diseases, certain cancers, long-term use of corticosteroids, and genetic disorders affecting bone strength.

It's important to note that while the term "spontaneous" implies that the fracture occurred without any apparent cause, it is usually the result of an underlying medical condition. Therefore, if you experience a spontaneous fracture, seeking medical attention is crucial to diagnose and manage the underlying cause to prevent future fractures and related complications.

Cholecalciferol is the chemical name for Vitamin D3. It is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body, which helps to maintain healthy bones and teeth. Cholecalciferol can be synthesized by the skin upon exposure to sunlight or obtained through dietary sources such as fatty fish, liver, and fortified foods. It is also available as a dietary supplement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sunlight" is not a term with a specific medical definition. However, sunlight does have various implications in the field of medicine. It is the light that comes from the sun, which is a star at the center of our solar system. Sunlight is essential for the production of vitamin D in humans, and it can also have effects on mood and sleep patterns due to its influence on circadian rhythms.

In a medical context, sunlight is often discussed in relation to its potential health benefits and risks. For instance, moderate sun exposure can help increase vitamin D levels, which are important for bone health, immune function, and other bodily processes. However, excessive sun exposure can lead to harmful effects, such as sunburn, premature skin aging, and an increased risk of skin cancer.

It's essential to balance the benefits and risks of sunlight exposure by practicing safe sun habits, such as wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, seeking shade during peak sunlight hours, and avoiding intentional tanning.

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

Calcifediol is the medical term for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, which is a form of vitamin D that is produced in the liver when it processes vitamin D from sunlight or from dietary sources. It is an important precursor to the active form of vitamin D, calcitriol, and is often used as a supplement for people who have low levels of vitamin D. Calcifediol is converted to calcitriol in the kidneys, where it plays a role in regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the body, which are important for maintaining healthy bones and teeth.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

A chondroma is a benign, slow-growing tumor that develops in the cartilage. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue found in various parts of the body, including the joints, ribcage, and nose. Chondromas are most commonly found in the hands and feet.

Chondromas are typically small, measuring less than 2 centimeters in diameter, and they usually do not cause any symptoms. However, if a chondroma grows large enough to press on nearby nerves or blood vessels, it may cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the affected area.

Chondromas are usually diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. If a chondroma is suspected based on these tests, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other types of tumors.

Treatment for chondromas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor. In most cases, this can be done using minimally invasive techniques that allow for quicker recovery times. After surgery, patients will need to follow up with their healthcare provider to ensure that the tumor has been completely removed and to monitor for any signs of recurrence.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a condition characterized by an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands due to hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood). This condition is usually a result of chronic kidney disease, where the kidneys fail to convert vitamin D into its active form, leading to decreased absorption of calcium in the intestines. The body responds by increasing PTH production to maintain normal calcium levels, but over time, this results in high PTH levels and associated complications such as bone disease, kidney stones, and cardiovascular calcification.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

Sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins, type IIc (NPTIIc), are a subtype of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters that play a crucial role in the regulation of phosphate homeostasis within the body. They are located primarily in the kidney's proximal tubule cells and intestinal epithelial cells.

NPTIIc proteins facilitate the active transport of inorganic phosphate (Pi) ions across the cell membrane, in conjunction with sodium ions (Na+). This symport mechanism allows for the movement of Pi against its concentration gradient, from areas of low concentration to high concentration. The energy required for this process is derived from the electrochemical gradient of sodium ions.

These transporters are essential for maintaining normal phosphate levels in the body, as they help reabsorb a significant portion of filtered phosphate in the kidneys and absorb dietary phosphate in the intestines. Dysregulation of NPTIIc proteins can lead to various disorders related to phosphate homeostasis, such as hypophosphatemia (low serum phosphate levels) or hyperphosphatemia (high serum phosphate levels), which can have detrimental effects on bone health, mineral metabolism, and overall body function.

A Gastrectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of all or part of the stomach. This procedure can be total (complete resection of the stomach), partial (removal of a portion of the stomach), or sleeve (removal of a portion of the stomach to create a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch).

Gastrectomies are typically performed to treat conditions such as gastric cancer, benign tumors, severe peptic ulcers, and in some cases, for weight loss in individuals with morbid obesity. The type of gastrectomy performed depends on the patient's medical condition and the extent of the disease.

Following a gastrectomy, patients may require adjustments to their diet and lifestyle, as well as potential supplementation of vitamins and minerals that would normally be absorbed in the stomach. In some cases, further reconstructive surgery might be necessary to reestablish gastrointestinal continuity.

A mandibular fracture is a break or crack in the lower jaw (mandible) bone. It can occur at any point along the mandible, but common sites include the condyle (the rounded end near the ear), the angle (the curved part of the jaw), and the symphysis (the area where the two halves of the jaw meet in the front). Mandibular fractures are typically caused by trauma, such as a direct blow to the face or a fall. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty chewing or speaking, and malocclusion (misalignment) of the teeth. Treatment usually involves immobilization with wires or screws to allow the bone to heal properly.

Glutethimide is a sedative-hypnotic drug that was previously used for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety disorders. It belongs to the class of drugs known as non-barbiturate hypnotics. Glutethimide works by depressing the central nervous system (CNS), producing a calming effect on the brain.

Due to its potential for abuse, addiction, and its narrow therapeutic index, glutethimide is no longer commonly used in clinical practice. It has been replaced by safer and more effective sleep aids with fewer side effects and lower potential for misuse.

It's important to note that the use of glutethimide should be under the strict supervision of a healthcare professional, and it should only be taken as prescribed. Misuse or overuse of this medication can lead to serious health consequences, including respiratory depression, coma, and even death.

Bone matrix refers to the non-cellular component of bone that provides structural support and functions as a reservoir for minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. It is made up of organic and inorganic components. The organic component consists mainly of type I collagen fibers, which provide flexibility and tensile strength to the bone. The inorganic component is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals, which give bone its hardness and compressive strength. Bone matrix also contains other proteins, growth factors, and signaling molecules that regulate bone formation, remodeling, and repair.

Mandibular neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the mandible, which is the lower jawbone. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and may metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

Mandibular neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic mutations, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and infection with certain viruses. The symptoms of mandibular neoplasms may include swelling or pain in the jaw, difficulty chewing or speaking, numbness in the lower lip or chin, loose teeth, and/or a lump or mass in the mouth or neck.

The diagnosis of mandibular neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, and sometimes a biopsy to confirm the type and extent of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis.

Refractory anemia is a type of anemia that does not respond to typical treatments, such as iron supplements or hormonal therapy. It is often associated with various bone marrow disorders, including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a group of conditions characterized by abnormal blood cell production in the bone marrow.

In refractory anemia, the bone marrow fails to produce enough healthy red blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and pale skin. The condition can be difficult to treat, and treatment options may include more aggressive therapies such as immunosuppressive drugs, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

It is important to note that the term "refractory" in this context refers specifically to the lack of response to initial treatments, rather than a specific severity or type of anemia.

Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BAONJ) is a medical condition characterized by the death of bone tissue in the jaw due to the use of bisphosphonate medications. Bisphosphonates are commonly prescribed for the treatment and prevention of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and metastatic cancer that has spread to the bones.

BAONJ typically occurs after a dental procedure, such as tooth extraction or oral surgery, that causes trauma to the jawbone. The use of bisphosphonates can interfere with the body's ability to heal from this trauma, leading to the death of bone tissue in the jaw. Symptoms of BAONJ may include pain, swelling, numbness, and exposed bone in the mouth.

The risk of developing BAONJ is low but increases with higher doses and longer durations of bisphosphonate use. Dental care before starting bisphosphonate therapy and regular dental check-ups during treatment are recommended to reduce the risk of developing BAONJ. If BAONJ does develop, treatment may include antibiotics, pain management, and surgical debridement or removal of necrotic bone tissue.

Calcium metabolism disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the body's ability to properly regulate the levels of calcium in the blood and tissues. Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle contraction, nerve function, and blood clotting.

There are several types of calcium metabolism disorders, including:

1. Hypocalcemia: This is a condition characterized by low levels of calcium in the blood. It can be caused by various factors such as vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and certain medications. Symptoms may include muscle cramps, spasms, and tingling sensations in the fingers and toes.
2. Hypercalcemia: This is a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood. It can be caused by various factors such as hyperparathyroidism, cancer, and certain medications. Symptoms may include fatigue, weakness, confusion, and kidney stones.
3. Osteoporosis: This is a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones due to low calcium levels in the bones. It can be caused by various factors such as aging, menopause, vitamin D deficiency, and certain medications. Symptoms may include bone fractures and loss of height.
4. Paget's disease: This is a condition characterized by abnormal bone growth and deformities due to disordered calcium metabolism. It can be caused by various factors such as genetics, age, and certain medications. Symptoms may include bone pain, fractures, and deformities.

Treatment for calcium metabolism disorders depends on the underlying cause of the condition. It may involve supplements, medication, dietary changes, or surgery. Proper diagnosis and management are essential to prevent complications such as kidney stones, bone fractures, and neurological damage.

Maxillary diseases refer to conditions that affect the maxilla, which is the upper bone of the jaw. This bone plays an essential role in functions such as biting, chewing, and speaking, and also forms the upper part of the oral cavity, houses the upper teeth, and supports the nose and the eyes.

Maxillary diseases can be caused by various factors, including infections, trauma, tumors, congenital abnormalities, or systemic conditions. Some common maxillary diseases include:

1. Maxillary sinusitis: Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the maxilla, can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, facial pain, and headaches.
2. Periodontal disease: Infection and inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth, including the gums and the alveolar bone (which is part of the maxilla), can lead to tooth loss and other complications.
3. Maxillary fractures: Trauma to the face can result in fractures of the maxilla, which can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty breathing or speaking.
4. Maxillary cysts and tumors: Abnormal growths in the maxilla can be benign or malignant and may require surgical intervention.
5. Oral cancer: Cancerous lesions in the oral cavity, including the maxilla, can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing or speaking.

Treatment for maxillary diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent many maxillary diseases.

Whole Body Imaging (WBI) is a diagnostic technique that involves obtaining images of the entire body or significant portions of it, typically for the purpose of detecting abnormalities such as tumors, fractures, infections, or other diseases. This can be achieved through various imaging modalities including:

1. Whole Body Computed Tomography (WBCT): This is a series of CT scans taken from head to toe to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body. It's often used in trauma situations to identify internal injuries.

2. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WBMRI): This uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the body's internal structures. It's particularly useful for detecting soft tissue abnormalities.

3. Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET-CT): This combines PET and CT scans to create detailed, 3D images of the body's functional processes, such as metabolism or blood flow. It's often used in cancer diagnosis and staging.

4. Whole Body Bone Scan: This uses a small amount of radioactive material to highlight areas of increased bone turnover, which can indicate conditions like fractures, tumors, or infections.

5. Whole Body PET: Similar to WBMRI, this uses positron emission tomography to create detailed images of the body's metabolic processes, but it doesn't provide the same level of anatomical detail as PET-CT.

It's important to note that while WBI can be a powerful diagnostic tool, it also involves higher doses of radiation (in the case of WBCT and Whole Body Bone Scan) and greater costs compared to single or limited area imaging studies. Therefore, its use is typically reserved for specific clinical scenarios where the benefits outweigh the risks and costs.

In the context of nutrition and health, minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for various bodily functions, such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and bone structure. They are required in small amounts compared to macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and are obtained from food and water.

Some of the major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride, while trace minerals or microminerals are required in even smaller amounts and include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, and fluoride.

It's worth noting that the term "minerals" can also refer to geological substances found in the earth, but in medical terminology, it specifically refers to the essential inorganic elements required for human health.

Malabsorption syndromes refer to a group of disorders in which the small intestine is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, leading to various gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms. This can result from a variety of underlying conditions, including:

1. Mucosal damage: Conditions such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or bacterial overgrowth that cause damage to the lining of the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
2. Pancreatic insufficiency: A lack of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas can lead to poor breakdown and absorption of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Examples include chronic pancreatitis or cystic fibrosis.
3. Bile acid deficiency: Insufficient bile acids, which are necessary for fat emulsification and absorption, can result in steatorrhea (fatty stools) and malabsorption. This may occur due to liver dysfunction, gallbladder removal, or ileal resection.
4. Motility disorders: Abnormalities in small intestine motility can affect nutrient absorption, as seen in conditions like gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, or scleroderma.
5. Structural abnormalities: Congenital or acquired structural defects of the small intestine, such as short bowel syndrome, may lead to malabsorption.
6. Infections: Certain bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections can cause transient malabsorption by damaging the intestinal mucosa or altering gut flora.

Symptoms of malabsorption syndromes may include diarrhea, steatorrhea, bloating, abdominal cramps, weight loss, and nutrient deficiencies. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, radiologic imaging, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to identify the underlying cause. Treatment is focused on addressing the specific etiology and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Hyperglobulinemic purpura is a medical condition characterized by the presence of purple-colored spots on the skin (purpura) due to bleeding under the skin caused by an abnormal increase in certain types of proteins called globulins in the blood. This condition is often associated with various underlying diseases, such as autoimmune disorders, infections, or cancer, that can lead to excessive production of these proteins.

The increased levels of globulins can cause damage to the walls of small blood vessels (capillaries), leading to leakage of red blood cells and plasma into the surrounding tissues. This results in the characteristic purpuric lesions on the skin, which may vary in size and distribution. In addition to skin manifestations, hyperglobulinemic purpura can also affect other organs, such as the kidneys, leading to further complications.

It is important to note that hyperglobulinemic purpura is a relatively rare condition, and its diagnosis typically requires a thorough evaluation of the patient's medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies to identify the underlying cause and determine appropriate treatment.

Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in mature bone tissue. They are star-shaped cells that are located inside the mineralized matrix of bones, with their processes extending into small spaces called lacunae and canaliculi. Osteocytes are derived from osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that become trapped within the matrix they produce.

Osteocytes play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by regulating bone remodeling, sensing mechanical stress, and modulating mineralization. They communicate with each other and with osteoblasts and osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells) through a network of interconnected processes and via the release of signaling molecules. Osteocytes can also respond to changes in their environment, such as hormonal signals or mechanical loading, by altering their gene expression and releasing factors that regulate bone metabolism.

Dysfunction of osteocytes has been implicated in various bone diseases, including osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Muscular diseases, also known as myopathies, refer to a group of conditions that affect the functionality and health of muscle tissue. These diseases can be inherited or acquired and may result from inflammation, infection, injury, or degenerative processes. They can cause symptoms such as weakness, stiffness, cramping, spasms, wasting, and loss of muscle function.

Examples of muscular diseases include:

1. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): A genetic disorder that results in progressive muscle weakness and degeneration due to a lack of dystrophin protein.
2. Myasthenia Gravis: An autoimmune disease that causes muscle weakness and fatigue, typically affecting the eyes and face, throat, and limbs.
3. Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM): A progressive muscle disorder characterized by muscle inflammation and wasting, typically affecting older adults.
4. Polymyositis: An inflammatory myopathy that causes muscle weakness and inflammation throughout the body.
5. Metabolic Myopathies: A group of inherited disorders that affect muscle metabolism, leading to exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and other symptoms.
6. Muscular Dystonias: Involuntary muscle contractions and spasms that can cause abnormal postures or movements.

It is important to note that muscular diseases can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, mobility, and overall health. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial for managing symptoms and improving outcomes.

Mandibular diseases refer to conditions that affect the mandible, or lower jawbone. These diseases can be classified as congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing after birth). They can also be categorized based on the tissues involved, such as bone, muscle, or cartilage. Some examples of mandibular diseases include:

1. Mandibular fractures: These are breaks in the lower jawbone that can result from trauma or injury.
2. Osteomyelitis: This is an infection of the bone and surrounding tissues, which can affect the mandible.
3. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: These are conditions that affect the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, causing pain and limited movement.
4. Mandibular tumors: These are abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, and can develop in any of the tissues of the mandible.
5. Osteonecrosis: This is a condition where the bone tissue dies due to lack of blood supply, which can affect the mandible.
6. Cleft lip and palate: This is a congenital deformity that affects the development of the face and mouth, including the lower jawbone.
7. Mandibular hypoplasia: This is a condition where the lower jawbone does not develop properly, leading to a small or recessed chin.
8. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the growth and development of the mandible, such as condylar hyperplasia or hemifacial microsomia.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Renal dialysis is a medical procedure that is used to artificially remove waste products, toxins, and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This process is also known as hemodialysis.

During renal dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special machine called a dialyzer or an artificial kidney, which contains a semi-permeable membrane that filters out waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Renal dialysis is typically recommended for patients with advanced kidney disease or kidney failure, such as those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is a life-sustaining treatment that helps to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, prevent the buildup of waste products and toxins, and control blood pressure.

There are two main types of renal dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is the most common type and involves using a dialyzer to filter the blood outside the body. Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, involves placing a catheter in the abdomen and using the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the body.

Overall, renal dialysis is an essential treatment option for patients with kidney failure, helping them to maintain their quality of life and prolong their survival.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

The parathyroid glands are four small endocrine glands located in the neck, usually near or behind the thyroid gland. They secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which plays a critical role in regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the blood and bones. PTH helps maintain the balance of these minerals by increasing the absorption of calcium from food in the intestines, promoting reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys, and stimulating the release of calcium from bones when needed. Additionally, PTH decreases the excretion of calcium through urine and reduces phosphate reabsorption in the kidneys, leading to increased phosphate excretion. Disorders of the parathyroid glands can result in conditions such as hyperparathyroidism (overactive glands) or hypoparathyroidism (underactive glands), which can have significant impacts on calcium and phosphate homeostasis and overall health.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Uremia is not a disease itself, but rather it's a condition that results from the buildup of waste products in the blood due to kidney failure. The term "uremia" comes from the word "urea," which is one of the waste products that accumulate when the kidneys are not functioning properly.

In uremia, the kidneys are unable to effectively filter waste and excess fluids from the blood, leading to a variety of symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, itching, mental confusion, and ultimately, if left untreated, can lead to coma and death. It is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention, often involving dialysis or a kidney transplant to manage the underlying kidney dysfunction.

Bone density conservation agents, also known as anti-resorptive agents or bone-sparing drugs, are a class of medications that help to prevent the loss of bone mass and reduce the risk of fractures. They work by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down and reabsorbing bone tissue during the natural remodeling process.

Examples of bone density conservation agents include:

1. Bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, zoledronic acid) - These are the most commonly prescribed class of bone density conservation agents. They bind to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone tissue and inhibit osteoclast activity, thereby reducing bone resorption.
2. Denosumab (Prolia) - This is a monoclonal antibody that targets RANKL (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand), a key signaling molecule involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. By inhibiting RANKL, denosumab reduces osteoclast activity and bone resorption.
3. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) (e.g., raloxifene) - These medications act as estrogen agonists or antagonists in different tissues. In bone tissue, SERMs mimic the bone-preserving effects of estrogen by inhibiting osteoclast activity and reducing bone resorption.
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) - Estrogen hormone replacement therapy has been shown to preserve bone density in postmenopausal women; however, its use is limited due to increased risks of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and thromboembolic events.
5. Calcitonin - This hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland, inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces bone resorption. However, it has largely been replaced by other more effective bone density conservation agents.

These medications are often prescribed for individuals at high risk of fractures due to conditions such as osteoporosis or metabolic disorders that affect bone health. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and administration guidelines to maximize their benefits while minimizing potential side effects. Regular monitoring of bone density, blood calcium levels, and other relevant parameters is also necessary during treatment with these medications.

Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disorder in which the consumption of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, leads to damage in the small intestine. In people with celiac disease, their immune system reacts to gluten by attacking the lining of the small intestine, leading to inflammation and destruction of the villi - finger-like projections that help absorb nutrients from food.

This damage can result in various symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating, fatigue, anemia, and malnutrition. Over time, if left untreated, celiac disease can lead to serious health complications, including osteoporosis, infertility, neurological disorders, and even certain types of cancer.

The only treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet, which involves avoiding all foods, beverages, and products that contain gluten. With proper management, individuals with celiac disease can lead healthy lives and prevent further intestinal damage and related health complications.

Anticonvulsants are a class of drugs used primarily to treat seizure disorders, also known as epilepsy. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to their use in treating epilepsy, anticonvulsants are sometimes also prescribed for other conditions, such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, and migraine headaches.

Anticonvulsants can work in different ways to reduce seizure activity. Some medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, work by blocking sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes and prevent excessive electrical activity. Other medications, such as valproic acid and gabapentin, increase the levels of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which has a calming effect on nerve cells and helps to reduce seizure activity.

While anticonvulsants are generally effective at reducing seizure frequency and severity, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, these side effects may be managed by adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication. It is important for individuals taking anticonvulsants to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and make any necessary adjustments.

Parathyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the parathyroid glands, which are small endocrine glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parathyroid neoplasms are typically called parathyroid adenomas and are the most common type of parathyroid disorder. They result in overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to a condition known as primary hyperparathyroidism. Symptoms may include kidney stones, osteoporosis, fatigue, depression, and abdominal pain.

Malignant parathyroid neoplasms are called parathyroid carcinomas. They are rare but more aggressive than adenomas, with a higher risk of recurrence and metastasis. Symptoms are similar to those of benign neoplasms but may also include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.

It is important to note that parathyroid neoplasms can only be definitively diagnosed through biopsy or surgical removal and subsequent histopathological examination.

Biliary cirrhosis is a specific type of liver cirrhosis that results from chronic inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to impaired bile flow, liver damage, and fibrosis. It can be further classified into primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and secondary biliary cirrhosis. PBC is an autoimmune disease, while secondary biliary cirrhosis is often associated with chronic gallstones, biliary tract obstruction, or recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. Symptoms may include fatigue, itching, jaundice, and abdominal discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves blood tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsy. Treatment focuses on managing symptoms, slowing disease progression, and preventing complications.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Soft tissue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the soft tissues of the body. Soft tissues include muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and synovial membranes (the thin layer of cells that line joints and tendons). Neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their behavior and potential for spread depend on the specific type of neoplasm.

Benign soft tissue neoplasms are typically slow-growing, well-circumscribed, and rarely spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically with a low risk of recurrence. Examples of benign soft tissue neoplasms include lipomas (fat tumors), schwannomas (nerve sheath tumors), and hemangiomas (blood vessel tumors).

Malignant soft tissue neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow rapidly, invade surrounding tissues, and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. They are often more difficult to treat than benign neoplasms and require a multidisciplinary approach, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Examples of malignant soft tissue neoplasms include sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma (arising from skeletal muscle), leiomyosarcoma (arising from smooth muscle), and angiosarcoma (arising from blood vessels).

It is important to note that soft tissue neoplasms can occur in any part of the body, and their diagnosis and treatment require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional with expertise in this area.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Dietary calcium is a type of calcium that is obtained through food sources. Calcium is an essential mineral that is necessary for many bodily functions, including bone formation and maintenance, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

The recommended daily intake of dietary calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, the recommended daily intake for adults aged 19-50 is 1000 mg, while women over 50 and men over 70 require 1200 mg per day.

Good dietary sources of calcium include dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt; leafy green vegetables like broccoli and kale; fortified cereals and juices; and certain types of fish, such as salmon and sardines. It is important to note that some foods can inhibit the absorption of calcium, including oxalates found in spinach and rhubarb, and phytates found in whole grains and legumes.

If a person is unable to get enough calcium through their diet, they may need to take calcium supplements. However, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, as excessive intake of calcium can lead to negative health effects.

Phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for the treatment of seizures and convulsions. It works by suppressing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to its anticonvulsant properties, phenobarbital also has sedative and hypnotic effects, which can be useful for treating anxiety, insomnia, and agitation.

Phenobarbital is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and elixirs, and it is typically taken orally. The medication works by binding to specific receptors in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which help to regulate nerve impulses in the brain. By increasing the activity of GABA, phenobarbital can help to reduce excessive neural activity and prevent seizures.

While phenobarbital is an effective medication for treating seizures and other conditions, it can also be habit-forming and carries a risk of dependence and addiction. Long-term use of the medication can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses may be needed to achieve the same effects. Abruptly stopping the medication can also lead to withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety, restlessness, and seizures.

Like all medications, phenobarbital can have side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired coordination. It can also interact with other medications, such as certain antidepressants and sedatives, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting phenobarbital.

In summary, phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication used primarily for the treatment of seizures and convulsions. It works by binding to GABA receptors in the brain and increasing their activity, which helps to reduce excessive neural activity and prevent seizures. While phenobarbital can be effective, it carries a risk of dependence and addiction and can have side effects and drug interactions.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Ferric compounds are inorganic compounds that contain the iron(III) cation, Fe3+. Iron(III) is a transition metal and can form stable compounds with various anions. Ferric compounds are often colored due to the d-d transitions of the iron ion. Examples of ferric compounds include ferric chloride (FeCl3), ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3). Ferric compounds have a variety of uses, including as catalysts, in dye production, and in medical applications.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. These seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which can result in a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or behaviors. Epilepsy can have many different causes, including genetic factors, brain injury, infection, or stroke. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.

There are many different types of seizures that can occur in people with epilepsy, and the specific type of seizure will depend on the location and extent of the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Some people may experience only one type of seizure, while others may have several different types. Seizures can vary in frequency, from a few per year to dozens or even hundreds per day.

Epilepsy is typically diagnosed based on the patient's history of recurrent seizures and the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical activity in the brain. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to help identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be contributing to the seizures.

While there is no cure for epilepsy, it can often be effectively managed with medication. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain responsible for the seizures. With proper treatment and management, many people with epilepsy are able to lead normal, productive lives.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

Osteomalacia is a medical condition characterized by the softening of bones due to defective bone mineralization, resulting from inadequate vitamin D, phosphate, or calcium. It mainly affects adults and is different from rickets, which occurs in children. The primary symptom is bone pain, but muscle weakness can also occur. Prolonged osteomalacia may lead to skeletal deformities and an increased risk of fractures. Treatment typically involves supplementation with vitamin D, calcium, and sometimes phosphate.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Saudi Arabia" is a country, not a medical term or concept. It is located in the Asian continent, and it is known as the birthplace of Islam and home to its two holiest cities, Mecca and Medina. The country's political structure is a monarchy, and it has the largest oil reserves in the world. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a group of structural and functional molecules that provide support, organization, and regulation to the cells in tissues and organs. The ECM is composed of a complex network of proteins, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates that are secreted by the cells and deposited outside of them.

ECM proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, including:

1. Collagens: These are the most abundant ECM proteins and provide strength and stability to tissues. They form fibrils that can withstand high tensile forces.
2. Proteoglycans: These are complex molecules made up of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. The GAG chains attract water, making proteoglycans important for maintaining tissue hydration and resilience.
3. Elastin: This is an elastic protein that allows tissues to stretch and recoil, such as in the lungs and blood vessels.
4. Fibronectins: These are large glycoproteins that bind to cells and ECM components, providing adhesion, migration, and signaling functions.
5. Laminins: These are large proteins found in basement membranes, which provide structural support for epithelial and endothelial cells.
6. Tenascins: These are large glycoproteins that modulate cell adhesion and migration, and regulate ECM assembly and remodeling.

Together, these ECM proteins create a microenvironment that influences cell behavior, differentiation, and function. Dysregulation of ECM proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative disorders.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, refers to any functional or structural damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to filter blood, regulate electrolytes, produce hormones, and maintain fluid balance. This damage can result from a wide range of causes, including diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, infections, drugs, toxins, and congenital or inherited disorders.

Depending on the severity and progression of the kidney damage, kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and often reversible loss of kidney function that occurs over hours to days, while CKD is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function that develops over months or years.

Symptoms of kidney diseases may include edema, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, anemia, and decreased urine output. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications, dietary modifications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

Creatinine is a waste product that's produced by your muscles and removed from your body by your kidneys. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, a compound found in meat and fish, as well as in the muscles of vertebrates, including humans.

In healthy individuals, the kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and eliminate it through urine. However, when the kidneys are not functioning properly, creatinine levels in the blood can rise. Therefore, measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood or urine is a common way to test how well the kidneys are working. High creatinine levels in the blood may indicate kidney damage or kidney disease.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

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Osteomalacia in children is known as rickets, and because of this, use of the term "osteomalacia" is often restricted to the ... Osteomalacia is a generalized bone condition in which there is inadequate mineralization of the bone. Many of the effects of ... Osteomalacia is derived from Greek: osteo- which means "bone", and malacia which means "softness". In the past, the disease was ... Osteomalacia is a disease characterized by the softening of the bones caused by impaired bone metabolism primarily due to ...
Osteomalacia is softening of the bones. It most often occurs because of a problem with vitamin D, which helps your body absorb ... Osteomalacia is softening of the bones. It most often occurs because of a problem with vitamin D, which helps your body absorb ... Osteomalacia is softening of the bones. It most often occurs because of a problem with vitamin D, which helps your body absorb ... Rickets and osteomalacia. In Melmed S, Auchus RJ, Goldfine AB, Koenig RJ, Rosen CJ, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. ...
Osteomalacia may be part of the spectrum of osseous abnormalities that can be observed in patients with chronic renal ... Osteomalacia is characterized by incomplete mineralization of normal osteoid tissue following closure of the growth plates. ... encoded search term (Osteomalacia and Renal Osteodystrophy Imaging) and Osteomalacia and Renal Osteodystrophy Imaging What to ... Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO). Oncogenic (tumor-induced) osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome associated ...
Five patients with the osteomalacia of chronic renal failure were given 50-100 nmol of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 intravenously per ... The Effect of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D3 in the Osteomalacia of Chronic Renal Failure J. B. Eastwood; J. B. Eastwood ... 1. Five patients with the osteomalacia of chronic renal failure were given 50-100 nmol of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 intravenously ... The Effect of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D3 in the Osteomalacia of Chronic Renal Failure. Clin Sci Mol Med 1 May 1977; 52 (5): 499-508 ...
"Osteomalacia" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Oncogenic osteomalacia associated with a meningeal phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1996 Feb; 84(2): ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Osteomalacia" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Bone disease in primary biliary cirrhosis: reversal of osteomalacia with oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Gastroenterology. 1980 Mar; ...
... in adult Osteomalacia. Treatment is easy and rewarding ... What is Osteomalacia?. May 31, 2020. by Dr. Arpan Bhattacharyya ... Osteomalacia. Image Credit nih.gov. What is the treatment?. Treatment is Vitamin D, can be given orally or by injection. Now a ... What are the clinical features of Osteomalacia?. *It is a disease with a slow onset of aches and pains in the lumbar (lower ... Osteomalacia is a defect in mineralization of bone. The defective mineralization is mainly caused by lack in vitamin D. ...
Osteomalacia IllustrationSephirus team2018-11-07T15:01:22-08:00 Project Description. ...
... tumor-induced osteomalacia, hypophosphatasia, McCune-Albright syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta with mineralization defect ... Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia. Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome with hypophosphatemia secondary to ... FGF-23 causes renal phosphate wasting in tumor-induced osteomalacia. Treatment is surgical removal of the tumor (if it can be ... 6] A down-regulation of 25-hydroxylation by phenobarbital may explain, at least in part, the increased risk of osteomalacia, ...
Does osteomalacia have anything to do with osteoporosis? Fortunately, no! Find out what their differences are and the prognosis ... Can osteomalacia affect any age? Yes, osteomalacia can develop at any stage of youth, adulthood, or old age. Its prognosis is ... Can osteomalacia be prevented? Osteomalacia can be prevented with simple changes in dietary habits and lifestyle. Include foods ... What specialist can treat osteomalacia? As a musculoskeletal condition, osteomalacia can be treated by an orthopedic specialist ...
Osteomalacia ntawm cov nyuj mis nyuj yog cov kab mob kev zom zaub mov tsis zoo, uas yog tshwm sim los ntawm kev tsis muaj cov ... Tom ntej no, cia peb paub: etiology ntawm osteomalacia hauv nyuj nyuj, cov tsos mob ntawm osteomalacia hauv nyuj nyuj thiab tiv ... Osteomalacia ntawm cov nyuj mis nyuj yog cov khoom noj khoom haus ntev cov kab mob metabolic, uas yog tshwm sim los ntawm qhov ... Yuav kho tus mob osteomalacia hauv nyuj nyuj li cas?. Muab lo rau Lub yim hli ntuj 9, 2019, Kho los ntawm Eleanor, Qeb Nyuj Kab ...
Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) or oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare condition associated with small tumor that secretes one of ... N2 - Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) or oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare condition associated with small tumor that secretes ... AB - Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) or oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare condition associated with small tumor that secretes ... abstract = "Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) or oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare condition associated with small tumor that ...
Osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia in adults. Osteomalacia is a condtion that causes the weakening or ... Osteomalacia causes a progressive loss of bone minerals which can lead to bone pain and the weakening and softening of bones. ... Not all doses, though, are effective for all conditions, such as rickets or osteomalacia. Generally, in such cases, it is ... For instance, ten minutes of sun exposure is sufficient enough to prevent most deficiencies such as rickets or osteomalacia. In ...
osteomalacia,. *possibly hypertension,. *prostatic cancer, and. *proteinuria.. Chronic cadmium exposure has been reported to ...
Other - Nausea and vomiting; headache, osteomalacia.. The following adverse reactions and their incidence were compiled from ...
Tumor-induced Osteomalacia: A Systematic Review and Individual Patients Data Analysis. Tumor-induced Osteomalacia: A ... hypophosphatemia; oncogenic osteomalacia; phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors; renal phosphate leak; tumor induced osteomalacia ... "tumor induced osteomalacia," "oncogenic osteomalacia," "hypophosphatemia." There were no language restrictions. This review was ... Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Assunto principal: Osteomalacia / ...
Osteomalacia may occur due to hypophosphatemia or due to aluminum accumulation in bone. Osteomalacia due to hypophosphatemia is ... contributing to osteomalacia. These patients generally require phosphorus replacement therapy. Symptoms of osteomalacia may ... Osteomalacia due to aluminum deposition in bone is generally only seen in patients with chronic renal failure. Bone formation ... Osteomalacia due to aluminum deposition may present in a similar fashion and occurs predominately in patients with chronic ...
In adult hypophosphatasia, there is limited experience in treating osteomalacia with teriparatide. ... and osteomalacia; internal fixation for pseudofractures and stress fractures. ... type and emerging experience with ERT in treating osteomalacia in adults. ...
Osteomalacia is the softening of bone tissue. Uremia is an excess of urea and other nitrogen products in the blood. ...
Also, osteomalacia and long bone deformations were observed in mice exposed to 5,000 mg SrR/kg bw per day for 52 weeks or 600 ... Osteomalacia, abnormal bone mineralization, and osteoid accumulation were induced in ovariectomized rats administered 425 mg Sr ... In summary, strontium supplementation has been shown to be beneficial to bone; however, rickets, osteomalacia, and non-severe ... rickets and osteomalacia, abnormal and reduced bone mineralization plus osteoid accumulation) in animal studies (concentrations ...
Christiansen, C., Rodbro, P., and Lund, M. Incidence of anticonvulsant osteomalacia and effect of vitamin D: controlled ... Christiansen, C., Rodbro, P., and Nielsen, C. T. Iatrogenic osteomalacia in epileptic children. A controlled therapeutic trial ...
Categories: Osteomalacia Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1 ...
Free, official information about 2011 (and also 2012-2015) ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 266.1, including coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion.
Free, official information about 2010 (and also 2011-2015) ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 269.3, including coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion.
Florenzano, Pablo; Gafni, Rachel I.; Collins, Michael T. (2017). "Tumor-induced osteomalacia". Bone Reports. 7: 90-97. doi: ...
... vitamin D deficiency may result in a bone disorder called rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults. In osteomalacia, the ... Occasionally, the deficiency is severe enough to cause osteomalacia in the woman. Vitamin D deficiency makes osteoporosis ... The diagnosis of rickets or osteomalacia due to vitamin D deficiency is based on symptoms, the characteristic appearance of ...
Musculoskeletal: Arthropathies, including arthralgia and arthritis; bone fracture; osteomalacia. Hematology: Rare reports of ...
... osteomalacia, protein-calorie malnutrition, and, most of all, micronutrient deficiencies (22). Dietitians can also help prevent ...
Osteomalacia, rickets, and vitamin D insufficiency. Pagets disease of bone. Hypercalcemia. Hyperparathyroidism. Hypercalcemia ...
So, theyre at risk for developing osteomalacia as well. Supplementing vitamin D, taking adequate amounts of calcium so that ...
  • Osteomalacia in children is known as rickets, and because of this, use of the term "osteomalacia" is often restricted to the milder, adult form of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rickets and osteomalacia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Findings of rickets and osteomalacia occur in children, and findings of osteomalacia and secondary hyperparathyroidism occur in adults. (medscape.com)
  • Clinically, osteomalacia is subtler than rickets , particularly in mild or moderate disease. (medscape.com)
  • Rickets and osteomalacia are different manifestations of the same underlying pathologic process, depending on whether the patient is a child or an adult, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • Osteomalacia can occur at any age, with the difference that it is known as rickets in children. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • Because not enough calcium and phosphate are available to maintain healthy bones, vitamin D deficiency may result in a bone disorder called rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A severe enough deficiency can give you osteomalacia, which you probably know better by the childhood version's name: rickets. (popsci.com)
  • American countries is characterized by the increase (kwashiokor, nutritional marasmus) or specific lacks in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a (hipovitaminosis A, scurvy, beriberi, rickets, reduction in the prevalence of under-weight, a deficit osteomalacia, pellagra, anemia), constituting in stature still persisting in high proportions3-7. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) or oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare condition associated with small tumor that secretes one of the phosphaturic hormones, i.e., fibroblast growth factor 23, resulting in abnormal phosphate metabolism. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Tumor-induced Osteomalacia: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient's Data Analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONTEXT Tumor -induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome , usually caused by small, benign, and slow-growing phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors . (bvsalud.org)
  • EVIDENCE ACQUISITION On June 26, 2021, a systematic search was performed in Medline , Google Scholar, Google book , and Cochrane Library using the terms " tumor induced osteomalacia ," "oncogenic osteomalacia ," " hypophosphatemia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Oncogenic osteomalacia associated with a meningeal phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. (uchicago.edu)
  • Osteomalacia is a disease characterized by the softening of the bones caused by impaired bone metabolism primarily due to inadequate levels of available phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, or because of resorption of calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D and calcium supplements are measures that can be used to prevent and treat osteomalacia. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] There are two main causes of osteomalacia: insufficient calcium absorption from the intestine because of lack of dietary calcium or a deficiency of, or resistance to, the action of vitamin D, or due to undiagnosed celiac disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eating a diet rich in vitamin D and calcium and getting sufficient exposure to sunlight can help prevent osteomalacia due to vitamin D deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Osteomalacia is a condition that causes the bones to not harden as they should, resulting in bone softening attributed to a lack of vitamin D. Vitamin D is necessary for calcium absorption in the body, and calcium is an essential mineral for maintaining the strength and hardness of all bone structures. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • Osteomalacia ntawm cov nyuj mis nyuj yog cov khoom noj khoom haus ntev cov kab mob metabolic , uas yog tshwm sim los ntawm qhov tsis muaj calcium, phosphorus lossis qhov tsis tsim nyog sib piv ntawm ob qho khoom noj, ua rau muaj kev tsis sib xws ntawm cov tshuaj calcium thiab phosphorus metabolism thiab kev txiav txim siab pob txha. (ballyabio.com)
  • In osteomalacia, the body does not incorporate enough calcium and other minerals into bones, resulting in weak bones. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Calcium deficiency also is related to osteomalacia and may also be an important factor in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as hypertension and colon cancer. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Stenciling Principle for mineralization is particularly relevant to the osteomalacia and odontomalacia observed in hypophosphatasia (HPP) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). (wikipedia.org)
  • The causes of adult osteomalacia are varied, but ultimately result in a vitamin D deficiency: Insufficient nutritional quantities or faulty metabolism of vitamin D or phosphorus Renal tubular acidosis Malnutrition during pregnancy Malabsorption syndrome Hypophosphatemia Chronic kidney failure Tumor-induced osteomalacia (Oncogenic osteomalacia) Long-term anticonvulsant therapy Celiac disease Cadmium poisoning, itai-itai disease Biochemical features are similar to those of rickets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically, TIO is characterized by renal phosphate leak, causing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Osteomalacia may occur due to hypophosphatemia or due to aluminum accumulation in bone. (drugs.com)
  • Osteomalacia due to hypophosphatemia is often accompanied by malaise, bone pain, muscular weakness, and bone fractures. (drugs.com)
  • In addition to low systemic levels of circulating mineral ions (for example, caused by vitamin D deficiency or renal phosphate wasting) that result in decreased bone and tooth mineralization, accumulation of mineralization-inhibiting proteins and peptides (such as osteopontin and ASARM peptides), and small inhibitory molecules (such as pyrophosphate), can occur in the extracellular matrix of bones and teeth, contributing locally to cause matrix hypomineralization (osteomalacia/odontomalacia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteomalacia is a generalized bone condition in which there is inadequate mineralization of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteomalacia is characterized by incomplete mineralization of normal osteoid tissue following closure of the growth plates. (medscape.com)
  • Osteomalacia is a defect in mineralization of bone. (diabetesendocrinology.in)
  • Symptoms: Diffuse joint and bone pain (especially of spine, pelvis, and legs) Muscle weakness Difficulty walking, often with a waddling gait Hypocalcemia (positive Chvostek sign) Compressed vertebrae and diminished stature Pelvic flattening Weak, soft bones Easy fracturing Bending of bones Osteomalacia in adults starts insidiously as aches and pains in the lumbar (lower back) region and thighs before spreading to the arms and ribs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adults may present with findings of osteomalacia, while children typically show growth retardation. (medscape.com)
  • Renal osteodystrophy causes rachitic and some osteomalacic changes in the child and osteomalacia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in adults. (medscape.com)
  • There is growing experience with ERT in individuals with the perinatal (severe) type and emerging experience with ERT in treating osteomalacia in adults. (nih.gov)
  • 11(4) children and osteomalacia in adults. (who.int)
  • The small sized tumor and unexpected location make the identification of tumor difficult even after diagnosis of osteogenic osteomalacia. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • In adult hypophosphatasia, there is limited experience in treating osteomalacia with teriparatide. (nih.gov)
  • More importantly, osteomalacia can look like weakening of the bones from osteoporosis on bone density testing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What few people know is that there is also osteomalacia, a completely preventable bone disorder that everyone should be aware of in order to differentiate it from osteoporosis. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • rhGH is known to have an osteoanabolic effect and has been used with some success to treat osteoporosis and a specific type of osteomalacia. (medscape.com)
  • If a person does not receive timely and appropriate treatment, there is a risk that osteomalacia symptoms worsen and recurrent pseudofractures and/or bone fractures may occur. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • 1. Five patients with the osteomalacia of chronic renal failure were given 50-100 nmol of 25-hydroxy vitamin D 3 intravenously per day for 24-28 days. (portlandpress.com)
  • Osteomalacia due to aluminum deposition may present in a similar fashion and occurs predominately in patients with chronic renal failure . (drugs.com)
  • As a musculoskeletal condition, osteomalacia can be treated by an orthopedic specialist, a traumatologist, or even a rheumatologist. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • Musculoskeletal side effects have included osteomalacia, due to aluminum hydroxide, which may occur by two different mechanisms. (drugs.com)
  • The histopathologic findings of renal osteodystrophy are commonly used to further classify the condition into high bone turnover states, such as osteitis fibrosa and hyperparathyroidism, and low bone turnover states, such as adynamic bone disease or heavy metal-induced osteomalacia. (medscape.com)
  • The most common cause of osteomalacia is a deficiency of vitamin D, which is normally derived from sunlight exposure and, to a lesser extent, from the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less common causes of osteomalacia can include hereditary deficiencies of vitamin D or phosphate (which would typically be identified in childhood) or malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D metabolism and osteomalacia in cystic fibrosis. (uchicago.edu)
  • First described in 1950, FIO is an adult-onset, progressive disease that can be mistaken for axial osteomalacia. (medscape.com)
  • Osteomalacia" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • Contact your health care provider if you have symptoms of osteomalacia, or if you think that you may be at risk for this disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some cases, people may be unaware of the presence of osteomalacia due to a lack of symptoms. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • In individuals with osteomalacia, the formation of this shield is incomplete, leaving the bone partially vulnerable. (drcarlosrebollon.com)
  • Bone disease in primary biliary cirrhosis: reversal of osteomalacia with oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Gastroenterology. (uchicago.edu)
  • 8. Uncontrolled hyperthyroidism, history of Paget's disease, osteomalacia, or fracture within 4 weeks of Screening. (who.int)
  • Blumenthal NC, Posner AS (1984) In vitro model of aluminum-induced osteomalacia: Inhibition of hydroxyapatite formation and growth. (fluoridealert.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Osteomalacia" by people in this website by year, and whether "Osteomalacia" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Osteomalacia" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)