Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus not accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Diseases of BONES.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Heterodimeric transcription factors containing a DNA-binding alpha subunits, (CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS), along with a non-DNA-binding beta subunits, CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT. Core Binding Factor regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.

Diurnal variation and age differences in the biochemical markers of bone turnover in horses. (1/1409)

Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide sensitive, rapid, and noninvasive monitoring of bone resorption and formation. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) reflect rates of bone formation, and urinary concentrations of the pyridinium crosslinks pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) are specific and sensitive markers of bone resorption. These markers are age-dependent and are used to detect and monitor changes in the rates of bone turnover in a variety of orthopedic diseases in humans and may prove to have similar application in horses. This study examined age differences and diurnal variation in OC, Pyd, and Dpd in eight adult geldings and seven weanling colts. Blood and urine were collected at regular intervals over 24 h. Serum OC and cortisol, and urinary Pyd and Dpd were analyzed. Mean 24-h concentrations of cortisol and all three markers were higher (P<.003) in weanlings than adults. Significant 24-h variation was observed in adult gelding OC, Pyd, and Dpd concentrations (P< .02). Adult OC concentrations were highest between 2400 and 0900; Pyd and Dpd peaked between 0200 and 0800. Similar patterns of bone turnover were observed in weanling values, but they were not significant (P>.17) owing to greater variability between individuals. Cortisol secretion varied (P<.001) over 24 h in both adults and weanlings and, thus, did not seem to be responsible for greater variability in markers of bone turnover between weanlings. These data demonstrate that diurnal rhythms exist for serum OC and urinary Pyd and Dpd in adult horses, as reported in humans, and that sample timing is an important consideration in future equine studies using these markers.  (+info)

Biochemical markers of bone turnover in breast cancer patients with bone metastases: a preliminary report. (2/1409)

BACKGROUND: Some biochemical markers of bone turnover are expected to reflect the disease activity of metastatic bone tumor. In the present study six biochemical markers were evaluated to determine appropriate markers for the detection of metastatic bone tumors from breast cancer (BC). METHODS: A panel of bone turnover markers was assessed in 11 normocalcemic patients with bone metastases from BC and in 19 BC patients without clinical evidence of bone metastases. Bone formation was investigated by measuring serum bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC) and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP): Bone resorption was investigated by measuring serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), fasting urinary pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr). RESULTS: PICP was influenced by age and menopausal status. Significant correlations were observed between each of bone turnover markers except between BALP and OC. The mean levels of the six bone turnover markers were higher in patients with bone metastases than in those without them and significance was observed except for OC. The best diagnostic efficiency by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was provided by ICTP followed by Pyr or D-Pyr, BALP, PICP and OC and significance was observed between ICTP and OC. Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted by age revealed that the only significant marker related to bone metastases was ICTP. CONCLUSIONS: Serum ICTP appears to be the leading marker of bone metastases from BC. However, to reveal the clinical usefulness of these markers, further examination will be needed to account for the ease and cost-effectiveness of the measurements.  (+info)

The associations of bone mineral density and bone turnover markers with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in pre- and perimenopausal women. (3/1409)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Caucasian women ages 28-48 years with newly defined osteoarthritis (OA) would have greater bone mineral density (BMD) and less bone turnover over time than would women without OA. METHODS: Data were derived from the longitudinal Michigan Bone Health Study. Period prevalence and 3-year incidence of OA were based on radiographs of the dominant hand and both knees, scored with the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) scale. OA scores were related to BMD, which was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and to serum osteocalcin levels, which were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The period prevalence of OA (K/L grade > or =2 in the knees or the dominant hand) was 15.3% (92 of 601), with 8.7% for the knees and 6.7% for the hand. The 3-year incidence of knee OA was 1.9% (9 of 482) and of hand OA was 3.3% (16 of 482). Women with incident knee OA had greater average BMD (z-scores 0.3-0.8 higher for the 3 BMD sites) than women without knee OA (P < 0.04 at the femoral neck). Women with incident knee OA had less change in their average BMD z-scores over the 3-year study period. Average BMD z-scores for women with prevalent knee OA were greater (0.4-0.7 higher) than for women without knee OA (P < 0.002 at all sites). There was no difference in average BMD z-scores or their change in women with and without hand OA. Average serum osteocalcin levels were lower in incident cases of hand OA (>60%; P = 0.02) or knee OA (20%; P not significant). The average change in absolute serum osteocalcin levels was not as great in women with incident hand OA or knee OA as in women without OA (P < 0.02 and P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Women with radiographically defined knee OA have greater BMD than do women without knee OA and are less likely to lose that higher level of BMD. There was less bone turnover among women with hand OA and/or knee OA. These findings suggest that bone-forming cells might show a differential response in OA of the hand and knee, and may suggest a different pathogenesis of hand OA and knee OA.  (+info)

Acute fasting diminishes the circadian rhythm of biochemical markers of bone resorption. (4/1409)

OBJECTIVE: Biochemical markers of bone turnover exhibit circadian rhythms with the peak during the night/early morning and the nadir in the late afternoon. The nocturnal increase in bone resorption could theoretically be caused by the absence of food consumption which brings about a decrease in net calcium absorption and an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH), followed by increased bone resorption in response to the body's demand for calcium. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of a 33-h fast on the circadian variation in biochemical markers of bone turnover. DESIGN: Eleven healthy premenopausal women (age: 24+/-5 years) participated in a randomised, cross-over study consisting of two periods: either 33h of fasting (fasting) followed 1 week later by a 33-h period with regular meals eaten at 0800-0830h, 1130-1230h and 1800-1900h (control) or vice versa. METHODS: Urinary CrossLaps (U-CL/Cr) corrected with creatinine, as a marker of bone resorption; serum osteocalcin (sOC) as a marker of bone formation; serum intact PTH (iPTH); serum phosphate; and serum calcium corrected with albumin. RESULTS: Both the fasting and the control periods showed a significant circadian rhythm in U-CL/Cr (P<0.001), but the decrease was significantly less pronounced in the morning hours during the fasting period. Fasting resulted in a significant decrease in serum iPTH (throughout the study period) as compared with the control period (P<0.05-0.001). No change was observed in sOC by fasting. CONCLUSION: Food consumption has a small influence on the circadian variation in bone resorption, independent of PTH. The fall in iPTH during fasting may be secondary to an increased bone resorption produced by fasting.  (+info)

Immunoradiometric assay for intact human osteocalcin(1-49) without cross-reactivity to breakdown products. (5/1409)

BACKGROUND: Osteocalcin (Oc), a serum marker of bone turnover, circulates in several forms. We developed an assay for intact human Oc and investigated its clinical features. METHODS: We generated goat antibodies and N- and C-terminal Oc. The former was used on solid phase (polystyrene beads), and the latter was used as the tracer in an IRMA. RESULTS: The assay was linear with no cross-reactivity to Oc(1-43), total imprecision (CV) of <10%, and recovery of 100% +/- 10%. Assay values for intact Oc in EDTA plasma samples were unchanged at 18-25 degrees C for 6 h. Values for intact Oc in serum, EDTA plasma, and heparin plasma samples did not change after storage on ice for 8 h. Serum samples from patients with various conditions were stored at -70 or -135 degrees C for up to 5 years and yielded z-scores comparable to an Oc(1-43) IRMA for all conditions except for renal failure. In renal failure, the Oc(1-43) assay values were increased, whereas the intact assay values were in the reference interval. CONCLUSION: Decreases in Oc assay values are inhibited by calcium chelation, and slowed by reduced temperatures. The described assay for intact Oc allows improved specificity for bone compared with an assay for Oc(1-43).  (+info)

Structure-function studies of new C-20 epimer pairs of vitamin D3 analogs. (6/1409)

A growing number of calcitriol (1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) analogs have become available in recent years. Many of these analogs exhibit lower calcemic effects than calcitriol and inhibit cell proliferation and enhance cell differentation more efficiently than calcitriol. We have compared structure-function relationships of a series of new C-20 epimer (20-epi) vitamin D3 analogs with their natural C-20 counterparts. In human MG-63 osteosarcoma cells, quantification of cellular osteocalcin mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis and osteocalcin biosynthesis by radioimmunoassay indicated that most studied analogs at a concentration of 10 nm induced osteocalcin gene expression more efficiently than the parent compound, calcitriol. Interestingly, when the biological responses were compared with the binding affinities of the analogs to in-vitro translated human vitamin D receptor and with their ability to protect the receptor against partial proteolytic digestion, significant correlations were not observed. Further, molecular modelling of the compounds by energy minimization did not reveal marked differences in the three-dimensional structures of the analogs. These results suggest that higher than normal ligand binding affinity or 'natural' conformation of the ligand-receptor complex are not necessarily required for the 'superagonist' transactivation activity. The mechanism of action of the efficient analogs may involve stabilization and/or differential binding of transcriptional coactivators or transcription intermediary factors to the hVDR during transactivation.  (+info)

A WW domain-containing yes-associated protein (YAP) is a novel transcriptional co-activator. (7/1409)

A protein module called the WW domain recognizes and binds to a short oligopeptide called the PY motif, PPxY, to mediate protein-protein interactions. The PY motif is present in the transcription activation domains of a wide range of transcription factors including c-Jun, AP-2, NF-E2, C/EBPalpha and PEBP2/CBF, suggesting that it plays an important role in transcriptional activation. We show here that mutation of the PY motif in the subregion of the activation domain of the DNA-binding subunit of PEBP2, PEBP2alpha, abolishes its transactivation function. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we demonstrate that Yes-associated protein (YAP) binds to the PY motif of PEBP2alpha through its WW domain. The C-terminal region of YAP fused to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 showed transactivation as strong as that of GAL4-VP16. Exogenously expressed YAP conferred transcription-stimulating activity on the PY motif fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain as well as to native PEBP2alpha. The osteocalcin promoter was stimulated by exogenous PEBP2alphaA and a dominant negative form of YAP strongly inhibited this activity, suggesting YAP involvement in this promoter activity in vivo. These results indicate that the PY motif is a novel transcription activation domain that functions by recruiting YAP as a strong transcription activator to target genes.  (+info)

Inhibition of osteoblastic cell differentiation by lipopolysaccharide extract from Porphyromonas gingivalis. (8/1409)

Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P-LPS), an important pathogenic bacterium, is closely associated with inflammatory destruction of periodontal tissues. P-LPS induces the release of cytokines and local factors from inflammatory cells, stimulates osteoclastic-cell differentiation, and causes alveolar bone resorption. However, the effect of P-LPS on osteoblastic-cell differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of P-LPS extract prepared by the hot-phenol-water method, on the differentiation of primary fetal rat calvaria (RC) cells, which contain a subpopulation of osteoprogenitor cells, into osteoblastic cells. P-LPS extract significantly inhibited bone nodule (BN) formation and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALPase), an osteoblastic marker, in a dose-dependent manner (0 to 100 ng of P-LPS extract per ml). P-LPS extract (100 ng/ml) significantly decreased BN formation to 27% of the control value and inhibited ALPase activity to approximately 60% of the control level on days 10 to 21 but did not affect RC cell proliferation and viability. P-LPS extract time-dependently suppressed the expression of ALPase mRNA, with an inhibitory pattern similar to that of enzyme activity. The expression of mRNAs for osteocalcin and osteopontin, matrix proteins related to bone metabolism, was markedly suppressed by P-LPS extract. Furthermore, P-LPS extract increased the expression of mRNAs for CD14, LPS receptor, and interleukin-1beta in RC cells. These results indicate that P-LPS inhibits osteoblastic-cell differentiation and suggest that LPS-induced bone resorption in periodontal disease may be mediated by effects on osteoblastic as well as osteoclastic cells.  (+info)

To study the correlations between serum osteocalcin and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes, 66 cases were collected to determine total osteocalcin, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and HbA1c. Osteocalcin concentrations were compared between groups of different levels of HbA1c, and parameters of glucose metabolism were compared between groups of different levels of total osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. The relationship between osteocalcin and parameters of glucose metabolism was also analyzed. We found that the total osteocalcin concentration of high-HbA1c group was significantly lower than that of low-HbA1c group. The fasting blood glucose of low-total-osteocalcin group was significantly higher than that of high-total-osteocalcin group in male participants, while the fasting blood glucose of low-undercarboxylated-osteocalcin group was significantly higher than that of high-undercarboxylated-osteocalcin group in all participants and in
Monoclonal Anti-Bovine Osteocalcin Antibody (Clones OC4-30,OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4) is raised against bovine osteocalcin and recognizes both bovine and human osteocalcins. Clone OC4-30 is specific for position 17 gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin and does not recognize decarboxylated osteocalcin. Osteocalcin epitopes used to generate Clones OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4 are amino acids 45-49, amino acids 21-31 and amino acids 4-9, respectively. This collection of osteocalcin antibody clones facilitates osteocalcin immunohistochemistry studies which can also be performed on paraffin-embedded tissues (as described in the Resources). In addition to cross-reactivity with bovine and human osteocalcin, clones OCG4-30, OCG3 and OCG4 are also capable of recognizing osteocalcin in several other species as listed. For species-specific osteocalcin detection, Takara Bio offers additional osteocalcin antibody products. ...
Monoclonal Anti-Bovine Osteocalcin Antibody (Clones OC4-30,OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4) is raised against bovine osteocalcin and recognizes both bovine and human osteocalcins. Clone OC4-30 is specific for position 17 gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin and does not recognize decarboxylated osteocalcin. Osteocalcin epitopes used to generate Clones OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4 are amino acids 45-49, amino acids 21-31 and amino acids 4-9, respectively. This collection of osteocalcin antibody clones facilitates osteocalcin immunohistochemistry studies which can also be performed on paraffin-embedded tissues (as described in the Resources). In addition to cross-reactivity with bovine and human osteocalcin, clones OCG4-30, OCG3 and OCG4 are also capable of recognizing osteocalcin in several other species as listed. For species-specific osteocalcin detection, Takara Bio offers additional osteocalcin antibody products. ...
The skeletal system is considered an endocrine organ today. Associations between bone Gla proteins, body mass index and insulin resistance are intriguing novel field due to being possible explanations for the interactions between bone and endocrine system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between insulin resistance and body mass index (BMI) with plasma osteocalcin, phylloquinone levels and dietary vitamin K intakes in healthy non-obese adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 77 healthy non-obese adults. Anthropometric measurements and 24-hour food consumption record were taken from each individual. Blood glucose, insulin, osteocalcin (OC), undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), vitamin K levels were analyzed. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value was calculated. Multiple linear regression models were performed using the backward method in order to determine the significant predictors of BMI and HOMA-IR. Mean age and ...
Evidences indicate that skeleton works not only as a structural scaffold but also as an endocrine organ. Many bioactive factors secreted from bone, such as osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin, have a regulatory role in energy metabolism [21, 22]. Recent studies have suggested a potentially important role for osteocalcin in regulating the function of vascular endothelial cells, and the cardiovascular system [23, 24]. This suggests osteocalcin could be involved in the development of CAD. Several studies have investigated the association between osteocalcin and atherosclerosis, but results have not been consistent. Some studies suggest osteocalcin may actually be protective against early atherosclerosis. For example, a study from Korea demonstrated an independent effect of osteocalcin on vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that osteocalcin could have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis [25]. Our previous study in high fat diet animals indicate that osteocalcin has an endothelial-protective effect ...
Abstract Aim: Serum osteocalcin was shown in a previous study on first trimester pregnant women to correlate with bone density and to distinguish between fast and slow bone losers. The objective of the present study is to examine whether serum osteocalcin is related to vitamin D receptor (VDR) BsmI polymorphism in pregnant women. Study design: We determined osteocalcin serum levels and VDR BsmI genotype in 97 healthy first trimester pregnant women consecutively recruited during six months. Results: BB (21%), Bb (38%) and bb (41%) genotypes showed similar osteocalcin serum levels. However, in primigravidas (ns38) the BB genotype was significantly associated with higher mean osteocalcin level (9.67 ng/mL) than the Bb (8.07 ng/mL) and the bb genotype (8.14 ng/mL), respectively (P-0.05). The VDR genotype was the only independent parameter to correlate with serum osteocalcin (P-0.05). Conclusion: Only primigravidas show in the first trimester a relation between the bone formation parameter serum ...
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In a high-profile, 2019 study published in Cell Metabolism, researchers measured significant increases in serum Osteocalcin levels in both humans and mice, in response to an acute stressor, with evidence to indicate Osteocalcins direct contribution to the bodys fight or flight response. This study demonstrated that the increased release of osteocalcin from bones in response to acute stress lead to receptor mediated downstream signaling of post-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons to inhibit their cholinergic activity (1). The study identified the bone as a stress organ and osteocalcin as a stress hormone capable of evolutionarily conferring a survival advantage to bony vertebrates. Increased Osteocalcin levels have been observed within minutes of the application of a stressor in both mice and humans in several studies prior to this one, and its role in stress is well documented (15-16).. In conjunction with exercise, osteocalcin may be a vital catalyst for the increase of interleukin-6 which is ...
Circulatory osteocalcin (OC) has been widely used as a biomarker to indicate bone turnover status in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). However, the change of serum OC (sOC) level in PMO cases compared to postmenopausal controls remains controversial. We searched the online database of PubMed and Cochrane Library. A meta-analysis of case-control studies was performed to compare the pooled sOC level between PMO patients and postmenopausal controls. Subgroup analysis according to potential confounding factors (different OC molecules and regions of the study population) was also performed. Ten case-control studies with 1577 postmenopausal women were included in this meta analysis. We found no significant difference in the pooled sOC level [mean difference (MD) = 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): (− 1.49, 5.16), p = 0.28] between PMO patients and controls. Subgroup analysis also revealed no significant difference in intact OC [MD = 1.76, 95%CI: (− 1.71, 5.23), p = 0.32] or N-terminal mid-fragment of
Osteocalcin, also known as bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP), is a noncollagenous protein hormone found in bone and dentin. Because it has gla domains, its synthesis is vitamin K dependent. In humans, the osteocalcin is encoded by the BGLAP gene. Its receptor is GPRC6A. Osteocalcin is secreted solely by osteoblasts and thought to play a role in the bodys metabolic regulation and is pro-osteoblastic, or bone-building, by nature. It is also implicated in bone mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis. Osteocalcin acts as a hormone in the body, causing beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin, and at the same time directing fat cells to release the hormone adiponectin, which increases sensitivity to insulin. Osteocalcin acts on Leydig cells of the testis to stimulate testosterone biosynthesis and therefore affect male fertility. Osteocalcin also acts on myocytes to promote energy availability and utilization and in this manner favors exercise capacity. As ...
In this study we used a mouse model system to compare the in vivo effects of parathyroid hormone(1-34) [PTH(1-34)] with that of PTH(1-31) or PTH(2-34) analogs. Daily subcutaneous administration of PTH(1-34) for 15 days caused a dose-dependent increase in the serum osteocalcin level and bone extract alkaline phosphatase activity, markers of bone formation. PTH(2-34) was much less potent, whereas PTH(1-31) was equipotent in stimulating bone formation parameters in mice. PTH(1-34) caused significant increases in serum calcium (after 4 h) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in bone extract (after 4 h), whereas PTH(2-34) and PTH(1-31) were less potent. Because PTH(1-31) caused a smaller increase in bone resorption parameters compared to PTH(1-34), despite similar effects on bone formation parameters, we evaluated the long-term anabolic effects of PTH(1-31) and PTH(1-34) in mice. Weekly evaluations of serum osteocalcin levels demonstrated that daily injections of PTH(1-34) and PTH(1-31) ...
The purpose of this study was to examine if the reduction in glucose post-exercise is mediated by undercarboxylated osteocalcin (unOC). Obese men were randomly assigned to do aerobic or power exercise
This study aimed to investigate the relationships among osteocalcin, leptin and metabolic health outcomes in children ages 9-13 years. This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 161 boys and 157 girls (ages 9-13 years) who previously participated in a double-blinded randomized placebo controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation. Relationships among fasting serum total osteocalcin (tOC), undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), leptin, and metabolic health outcomes were analyzed. Approximately 52% of study participants were obese based on percent body fat cutoffs (|25% for boys and |32% for girls) and about 5% had fasting serum glucose within the prediabetic range (i.e. 100 to 125 mg/dL). Serum tOC was not correlated with leptin, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, or HOMA-β after adjusting for percent body fat. However, serum ucOC negatively correlated with leptin (partial r = −0.16; p = 0.04) and glucose (partial r = −0.16; p = 0.04) after adjustment for percent body fat. Leptin was a
TY - JOUR. T1 - The dichotomy in the effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in serum and bone in vitamin D-deficient rats. AU - Wientroub, Shlomo. AU - Price, Paul A.. AU - Reddi, A Hari. PY - 1987/5. Y1 - 1987/5. N2 - Vitamin D-deficient, second generation, rachitic rats showed significant decrease in bone Gla protein (BGP) levels in circulation and in the skeleton. 1,25 dehydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 (OH)2D3) exhibited the most potent influence on serum BGP levels in a dose-dependent manner. At a dose 25 ng/100 g body weight 1,25 (OH)2D3 showed a cumulative effect, i.e., the longer the treatment, the more circulating BGP was detected 24,25 dehydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) at the same doses did not show similar effect on the serum BGP levels, regardless of the serum calcium levels. Bone BGP levels assayed at various sites representing endochondral and intramenbranous ossification demonstrated an opposite pattern. ...
In order to compare the induced time of osteoporosis between ovariectomized and neurectomized models in ddY mice. Experimental groups were divided into Sham, ovariectomized (OVX group) and neurectomized (NX group) group. The changes of body weight, tibia weight and histomorphometry of epiphyseal regions of tibia that were generally used as criteria index in osteoporosis, were evaluated at 2 and 4 weeks after operations with other generally used index-changes of serum osteocalcin. Also, calcium and phosphorus levels in the ash tibia were demonstrated with their ratio (Ca/P ratio). From the result of this study, evidences which reflect osteoporotic states of animals such as decrease of absolute and relative tibia weight, histomorphometrical index of epiphyseal region of tibia including trabecular bone volume %, and calcium and phosphorous contents in tibia, were generally detected from 4 weeks after ovariectomy and 2 weeks after neurectomy with increase of serum osteocalcin levels. In conclusion, it
and Thomasset M. (1990) Endocrinology 127:580-587). The bone-oriented assays include: 1) assessment of bone resorption as determined via the release of Ca2+ from bone in vivo (in animals fed a zero Ca2+diet) (Hibberd K.A. and Norman A.W. (1969) Biochem. Pharmacol 18:2347-2355; Hurwitz S. etal (1967)7. Nutr. 91:319-323), or from bone explants in vitro (Bouillon R. et al (1992) J. Biol Chem. 267:3044-3051), 2) measurement of serum osteocalcin levels [osteocalcin is an osteoblast-specific protein that after its synthesis is largely incorporated into the bone matrix, but partially released into the circulation (or tissue culture medium) and thus represents a good market of bone formation or turnover] (Bouillon R. et al (1992) Clin. Chem. 38:2055-2060), or 3) bone ash content (Norman A.W. and Wong R.G. (1972) J. Nutr. 102:1709-1718). Only one kidney-oriented assay has been employed. In this assay, urinary Ca2+ excretion is determined (Hartenbower D.L. et al (1977) Walter de Gruyter, Berlin pp ...
The accessibility of regulatory elements in chromatin represents a principal rate-limiting parameter of gene transcription and is modulated by enzymatic transcriptional co-factors that alter the topology of chromatin or covalently modify histones (e.g. by acetylation). The bone-specific activation and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) enhancement of osteocalcin (OC) gene transcription are both functionally linked to modifications in nucleosomal organization. The initiation of tissue-specific basal transcription is accompanied by the induction of two DNase I hypersensitive sites, and this chromatin remodeling event requires binding of the key osteogenic factor RUNX2/CBFA1 to the OC promoter. Here, we analyzed the acetylation status of histones H3 and H4 when the OC gene is active (in osteoblastic ROS17/2.8 cells) or inactive (in fibroblastic ROS24/1 cells) using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We find that acetylated histone H3 and H4 proteins are associated with the OC promoter only when the gene is
Background Many studies have identified smoking like a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is usually unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis. rats and in control rats. Outcomes 57420-46-9 manufacture BMD of lumbar femur and backbone was low in 4-month smoke-exposed feminine rats than that in handles. However, there is no factor in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed controls and rats. Considerably more affordable b-ALP and larger TRACP 5b were within the 4-month or 3-month smoke-exposed rats in comparison to controls. Subsequent analysis demonstrated that b-ALP favorably correlated with BMD from the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027) and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002) in 4-month smoke-exposed feminine rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b amounts adversely correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005) and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046) in 4-month smoke-exposed feminine rats. Bottom ...
Application value of serum osteocalcin and bone mineral density detection in middle-aged and elderly healthy physical examination - Minerva Medica 2020 Jun 26 - Minerva Medica - Journals
Low total osteocalcin levels are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Researchers are exploring this protein in their search for new therapies for type 2 diabetes.
Immunostaining for osteocalcin in the aortic valve in Older mice.In vehicle-treated mice (A,C), osteocalcin (dark brown) is abundant near the cusp base (arrows)
Results Sixteen patients (50% women) with a mean age of 56.1±12.8 years, disease duration 18.7±11.4 years, median BASDAI score 4.2 range (1.3-8.1) and BASMI 4.4 (1.0-6.6) were included. Five patients dropped out during the 2 years. No severe adverse events occurred. BMD increased by 9.9±5.7% (p=0.003) in lumbar spine, 3.0±3.3% (p=0.016) in total hip and by 4.2±13.5% (NS) in distal radius. During the 2-year trial serum levels of Wnt3a decreased from median 3.88 range (2.93-6.21) ng/ml to 1.74 (1.08-2.84) ng/ml (p,0.001), OPG decreased from 4.07 (2.08-7.78) pmol/l to 3.06 (1.35-4.54) (p,0.001), CTX-I decreased from 0.50 (0.16-1.34) ng/ml to 0.18 (0.07-0.41) ng/ml (p,0.001) and osteocalcin decreased from 20.11 (11.55-59.78) ng/ml to 7.94 (5.63-14.13) ng/ml (p,0.001). The other biomarkers did not change significantly during the 2-year follow-up.. ...
Secondary outcome measure- Bone Turnover as assessed by the biochemical markers (serum CTX, P1NP, BALP, carboxylated and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (OC), OPG). These markers will be measured at the same time point during each clinic visit ...
Free Online Library: The Role of Osteocalcin and Alkaline Phosphatase Immunohistochemistry in Osteosarcoma Diagnosis.(Research Article) by Pathology Research International; Health, general EDTA Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid Phosphatases
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PMF1-BGLAP, 0.5 mg. This locus represents naturally occurring read-through transcription between the neighboring PMF1 (polyamine-modulated factor 1) and BGLAP (bone gamma-carboxyglutamate Gla protein) genes on chromosome 1.
We have brought together our full range of anti-osteocalcin antibodies in one place, making it easier for you to find exactly what you need.
Этот документ предоставляет пример конфигурации с помощью IPv6, который помогает вам настраивать BGP Prefix-Based Outbound Route Filtering. Эта функция использует фильтр маршрута исходящего потока (ORF) BGP, передают и получают возможности, которые минимизируют количество Обновлений BGP, передаваемых между равными маршрутизаторами. Настройка эта функция может помочь в отфильтровывании нежелательных обновлений маршрута в источнике.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bone-specific transcription factor Runx2 interacts with the 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor to up-regulate rat osteocalcin gene expression in osteoblastic cells. AU - Paredes, Roberto. AU - Arriagada, Gloria. AU - Cruzat, Fernando. AU - Villagra, Alejandro. AU - Olate, Juan. AU - Zaidi, Kaleem. AU - Van Wijnen, Andre. AU - Lian, Jane B.. AU - Stein, Gary S.. AU - Stein, Janet L.. AU - Montecino, Martin. PY - 2004/10. Y1 - 2004/10. N2 - Bone-specific transcription of the osteocalcin (OC) gene is regulated principally by the Runx2 transcription factor and is further stimulated in response to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 via its specific receptor (VDR). The rat OC gene promoter contains three recognition sites for Runx2 (sites A, B, and C). Mutation of sites A and B, which flank the 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-responsive element (VDRE), abolishes 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-dependent enhancement of OC transcription, indicating a tight functional relationship between the VDR and ...
Genetic studies show that Msx2 and Dlx5 homeodomain (HD) proteins support skeletal development, but null mutation of the closely related Dlx3 gene results in early embryonic lethality. Here we find that expression of Dlx3 in the mouse embryo is associated with new bone formation and regulation of osteoblast differentiation. Dlx3 is expressed in osteoblasts, and overexpression of Dlx3 in osteoprogenitor cells promotes, while specific knock-down of Dlx3 by RNA interference inhibits, induction of osteogenic markers. We characterized gene regulation by Dlx3 in relation to that of Msx2 and Dlx5 during osteoblast differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed a molecular switch in HD protein association with the bone-specific osteocalcin (OC) gene. The transcriptionally repressed OC gene was occupied by Msx2 in proliferating osteoblasts, while Dlx3, Dlx5, and Runx2 were recruited postproliferatively to initiate transcription. Dlx5 occupancy increased over Dlx3 in mature osteoblasts at the
PURPOSE: Cranberry juice (CJ) contains a remarkably high concentration of polyphenols, considered to be beneficial for cardiovascular and bone health. The current double-blind, randomized study was designed to test whether daily consumption of double-strength Ocean Spray light CJ (2 x 230 ml) over 4 months has beneficial effects on vascular function and on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) carrying the osteoblastic marker osteocalcin in particular. METHODS: A total of 84 participants (49.5 +/- 16.2 years) with peripheral endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial (69 completed the 4-month protocol-32 in the CJ group and 37 in the placebo group, respectively). Vascular responses to reactive hyperemia were measured non-invasively by peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained for EPC markers, as well as osteocalcin, and counted by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Baseline ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of the osteocalcin gene cluster on mouse Chromosome 3. AU - Desbois, C.. AU - Seldin, Michael F. AU - Karsenty, G.. PY - 1994/5. Y1 - 1994/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028427906&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028427906&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00389550. DO - 10.1007/BF00389550. M3 - Article. C2 - 7915557. AN - SCOPUS:0028427906. VL - 5. SP - 321. EP - 322. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 5. ER - ...
PAA471Ra01, Polyclonal Antibody to Osteocalcin (OC), 骨钙素(OC)多克隆抗体, BGLAP; OT; BGP; Bone Gla Protein; Bone Gamma-Carboxyglutamate Protein; Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
The aims of the present study are to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on bone turnover, bone mass, bone structure, glucose metabolism, and arteriosclerosis.. Osteoporosis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease are common diseases that affect large groups of people in the Western world.. Our hypotheses is that vitamin K2 (MK-7) reduces undercarboxylated osteocalcin in postmenopausal women and reduces bone turnover and increases bone mineral density; increases insulin sensitivity and decreases indices of arterial calcification. ...
XRCC5_HUMAN] Single stranded DNA-dependent ATP-dependent helicase. Has a role in chromosome translocation. The DNA helicase II complex binds preferentially to fork-like ends of double-stranded DNA in a cell cycle-dependent manner. It works in the 3-5 direction. Binding to DNA may be mediated by XRCC6. Involved in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. The XRCC5/6 dimer acts as regulatory subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex DNA-PK by increasing the affinity of the catalytic subunit PRKDC to DNA by 100-fold. The XRCC5/6 dimer is probably involved in stabilizing broken DNA ends and bringing them together. The assembly of the DNA-PK complex to DNA ends is required for the NHEJ ligation step. In association with NAA15, the XRCC5/6 dimer binds to the osteocalcin promoter and activates osteocalcin expression. The XRCC5/6 dimer probably also acts as a 5-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (5-dRP lyase), by catalyzing the ...
Osteocytes have been proposed to be the cells primarily responsible for sensing the effects of mechanical loading in bone. Osteocytes respond to loading in vivo, and have been shown to express osteotropic agents and their receptors, and cell/matrix adhesion molecules in vitro, but the functional significance of such findings is not clear. One obstacle to increased understanding of the role of osteocytes in the regulation of bone mass is that the cells are not easily accessible for study. In situ studies are difficult, and although it is possible to extract and culture osteocytes from neonatal bones, the responses of such cells might be very different from those in older bones in situ. We have developed a technique to investigate osteocyte gene expression in vivo, using the reverse transcriptase linked polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and have shown that they express mRNA for β-actin (β-ACT), osteocalcin (OC), connexin-43 (Cx43), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), c-fos, and c-jun, but not ...
Currently, no model is available to study the cellular and molecular events associated with bone metastases of prostate cancer. This study shows that MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b cells induce a specific and reproducible increase in osteoblast differentiation and proliferation when the cells share the medium during coculturing. Osteoblast differentiation in this system was associated with up-regulation of the osteoblast-specific transcriptor factor Cbfa1. Moreover, up-regulation of Cbfa1 and Osteocalcin expression was also induced in PMOs by CM produced by MDA PCa 2b cells, suggesting that soluble factors produced by prostate cancer cells promote osteoblast differentiation and that Cbfa1 mediates this effect. To our knowledge, this is the first in vitro model of bone metastasis from prostate cancer that recapitulates the osteoblastic phenotype typical of the disease. These results confirmed in vivo and at the molecular level, suggest that the pathophysiology of osteoblastic bone metastases from ...
Medical definition of osteocalcin: a protein that is found in the extracellular matrix of bone and in the serum of circulating blood, is produced by …
A specific oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), ODN MT01, was found to have positive effects on the proliferation and activation of the osteoblast-like cell line MG 63. In this study, the detailed signaling pathways in which ODN MT01 promoted the differentiation of osteoblasts were systematically examined. ODN MT01 enhanced the expression of osteogenic marker genes, such as osteocalcin and type I collagen. Furthermore, ODN MT01 activated Runx2 phosphorylation via ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38 MAPK. Consistently, ODN MT01 induced up-regulation of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and type I collagen, which was inhibited by pre-treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and the p38 inhibitor SB203580. These results suggest that the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways, as well as Runx2 activation, are involved in ODN MT01-induced up-regulation of osteocalcin, type I collagen and the activity of ALP in MG 63 cells.
The aim of the GH-2000 project is to develop a method for detecting GH doping among athletes. Previous papers in the GH-2000 project have proposed that a forthcoming method to detect GH doping will need specific components from the GH/IGF-I axis and bone markers because these specific variables seem more sensitive to exogenous GH than to exercise. The present study examined the responses of the serum concentrations of these specific variables to a maximum exercise test in elite athletes from selected sports. A total of 117 elite athletes (84 males and 33 females; mean age, 25 yr; range, 18-53 yr) from Denmark, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Sweden participated in the study. The serum concentrations of total GH, GH22 kDa, IGF-I, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2, IGFBP-3, acid-labile subunit, procollagen type III (P-III-P), and the bone markers osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen were measured. The ...
BSAP can be mildly elevated in patients with fractures. In addition, patients with hyperparathyroidism, Paget disease, or osteomalacia can have elevations of BSAP. Serum OC levels, if high, indicate a... more
Evidence-based information including studies, news articles etc. about the role of nutrition, diets, foods, nutrients and supplements, in the prevention and complementary treatment of diseases.
Bone-related diseases and dysfunctions are heavy burdens on our increasingly aged society. One important strategy to relieve this problem is through early detection and treatment of bone-related diseases. Towards this goal, there has been constant interest in developing novel bone-specific materials for imag
Order monoclonal and polyclonal Osteocalcin antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Osteocalcin antibodies.
Today while trying to do some lab on BGP, I came across a situation where in I was not able to create BGP peer. I was getting % Create the peer-group first although this was not necessary at all I guess. I have shown the exact result here: R3#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per…
Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is reported to function as an endocrine hormone, affecting glucose metabolism in mice (1,2). Vitamin K, which converts ucOC to carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC), has been suggested to regulate glucose metabolism by modulating osteocalcin and/or proinflammatory pathway (3-5).. We studied whether modulation of ucOC via vitamin K2 supplementation for 4 weeks affects β-cell function and/or insulin sensitivity in healthy young male subjects. Forty-two healthy young male volunteers received vitamin K2 (menatetrenone; 30 mg; Eisai Co., Japan) or placebo t.i.d. for 4 weeks. Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to determine insulin sensitivity index (Si), acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), and disposition index (DI) before and after treatment. Adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), ucOC, and cOC were measured before and after treatment.. After excluding frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test ...
Results By comparing gene expression profiles in RNA from mice treated with corticosterone or placebo, we found that corticosterone specifically regulated 391 genes. To further investigate the genes targeted by corticosterone treatment we performed gene ontology analysis with the aid of heat maps. We found that the expression of genes implicated in osteoblast differentiation and the regulation of bone remodelling was downregulated in mice treated with corticosterone compared to placebo. We observed a downregulation of the osteoblast markers Runx2, Colα1, osteocalcin and sclerostin in corticosterone-treated mice compared to placebo. In addition BMP4 and BMP7 followed the same pattern. Genes that were most profoundly downregulated in the array analysis were validated by qRT-PCR.. Consistent with mRNA levels, osteocalcin serum levels were suppressed to almost undetectable levels.. ...
ビタミンK依存性Gla化蛋白オステオカルシンはテリパラチドの骨治癒促進効果に影響する. The effect of Vitamin K-dependent Gla protein osteocalcin to accelerate bone repair ...
We know muscle function & decline can lead to increased mortality [its called sarcopenia] particularly in HIV & several studies report leg muscle strength improves brain & cognition function in a study of older long duration athletes ...
Assayed, liquid human serum based control for Intact PTH, Anti-Tg, Anti-TPO, 25-OH Vitamin D, IGF-I, C-Peptide, Osteocalcin, and EPO; level 2 of 4 (6 x 5 mL)
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Males. ,2 years: 25-221 mcg/L. 2-9 years: 27-148 mcg/L. 10-13 years: 35-169 mcg/L. 14-17 years: 13-111 mcg/L. Adults: ≤20 mcg/L. Females. ,2 years: 28-187 mcg/L. 2-9 years: 31-152 mcg/L. 10-13 years: 29-177 mcg/L. 14-17 years: 7-41 mcg/L. Adults. Premenopausal: ≤14 mcg/L. Postmenopausal: ≤22 mcg/L. ...
Fr. Chris Metropulos, Executive Director of the Orthodox Christian Network (OCN), is reminding Orthodox Christians that November is themed Morality and Popular Culture month on OCN.
Brand: Fesser Source: Performance-PCs Purchase Date: 9/24/2011 Color:White Transparent? (y/n): N Liquid / Additives: Distilled water Kill Coil (y/n): N PH Balance:...
Osteocalcin. This non-collagenous protein is secreted by osteoblasts and plays an essential role in the formation of mineral in ... but there does not seem to be enough vitamin K2 for the carboxylation of osteocalcin in bone and MGP in the vascular system. ... and gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin concentration in normal individuals". Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. 18 (4): 216-22 ... and reduced bone quality due to reduction of active osteocalcin. OAC might lead to an increased incidence of fractures, reduced ...
... is typically used to treat hypothyroidism,[9] and is the treatment of choice for people with hypothyroidism,[10] who often require lifelong thyroid hormone therapy.[11] It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered goiter-inducing.[12][13] Levothyroxine is also used as interventional therapy in people with nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer to suppress thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion.[14] A subset of people with hypothyroidism treated with an appropriate dose of levothyroxine will describe continuing symptoms despite TSH levels in the normal range.[11] In these people, further laboratory and clinical evaluation is warranted as they may have another cause for their symptoms.[11] Furthermore, it is important to review their medications and possible dietary supplements as several medications can affect thyroid hormone levels.[11] Levothyroxine is also used to treat subclinical ...
The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11.[7][8] Structurally, BDNF transcription is controlled by 8 different promoters, each leading to different transcripts containing one of 8 untranslated 5' exons (I to VIII) spliced to the 3' encoding exon. Promoter IV activity, leading to the translation of exon IV-containing mRNA, is strongly stimulated by calcium and is primarily under the control of a Cre regulatory component, suggesting a putative role for the transcription factor CREB and the source of BDNF's activity-dependent effects .[32] There are multiple mechanisms through neuronal activity can increase BDNF exon IV specific expression.[32] Stimulus-mediated neuronal excitation can lead to NMDA receptor activation, triggering a calcium influx. Through a protein signaling cascade requiring Erk, CaM KII/IV, PI3K, and PLC, NMDA receptor activation is capable of triggering BDNF exon IV transcription. BDNF exon IV expression also seems capable ...
In humans, the IGF2 gene is located on chromosome 11p15.5, a region which contains numerous imprinted genes. In mice this homologous region is found at distal chromosome 7. In both organisms, Igf2 is imprinted, with expression resulting favourably from the paternally inherited allele. However, in some human brain regions a loss of imprinting occurs resulting in both IGF2 and H19 being transcribed from both parental alleles.[6] The protein CTCF is involved in repressing expression of the gene, by binding to the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) along with Differentially-methylated Region-1 (DMR1) and Matrix Attachment Region −3 (MAR3). These three DNA sequences bind to CTCF in a way that limits downstream enhancer access to the Igf2 region. The mechanism in which CTCF binds to these regions is currently unknown, but could include either a direct DNA-CTCF interaction or it could possibly be mediated by other proteins. In mammals (mice, humans, pigs), only the allele for insulin-like growth ...
ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands. ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex. The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor.[7] Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes conformation changes that stimulate the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP[8] and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ACTH influences steroid hormone secretion by both rapid short-term mechanisms that take place within minutes and slower long-term actions. The rapid actions of ACTH include stimulation of cholesterol delivery to the mitochondria where the P450scc enzyme is located. P450scc catalyzes the first step of steroidogenesis that is cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol. ACTH also stimulates lipoprotein uptake into cortical cells. This increases the ...
EGF, via binding to its cognate receptor, results in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival.[9] Salivary EGF, which seems to be regulated by dietary inorganic iodine, also plays an important physiological role in the maintenance of oro-esophageal and gastric tissue integrity. The biological effects of salivary EGF include healing of oral and gastroesophageal ulcers, inhibition of gastric acid secretion, stimulation of DNA synthesis as well as mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious factors such as gastric acid, bile acids, pepsin, and trypsin and to physical, chemical and bacterial agents.[7] ...
... is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amide (Cys - Tyr - Ile - Gln - Asn - Cys - Pro - Leu - Gly - NH2, or CYIQNCPLG-NH2); its C-terminus has been converted to a primary amide and a disulfide bridge joins the cysteine moieties.[116] Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 Da, and one international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 μg of pure peptide. While the structure of oxytocin is highly conserved in placental mammals, a novel structure of oxytocin was recently reported in marmosets, tamarins, and other new world primates. Genomic sequencing of the gene for oxytocin revealed a single in-frame mutation (thymine for cytosine) which results in a single amino acid substitution at the 8-position (proline for leucine).[117] Since this original Lee et al. paper, two other laboratories have confirmed Pro8-OT and documented additional oxytocin structural variants in ...
... s (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.. The covalent chemical bonds are formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond, followed by tripeptides, tetrapeptides, etc. A polypeptide is a long, continuous, and unbranched peptide chain. Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of biological oligomers and polymers, alongside nucleic acids, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, etc.. Peptides are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, and as an arbitrary benchmark can be understood to contain approximately 50 or fewer amino acids.[1][2] Proteins consist of one or more polypeptides arranged in a biologically functional way, often bound to ligands such as coenzymes and cofactors, or to another protein or ...
Levels of estradiol in premenopausal women are highly variable throughout the menstrual cycle and reference ranges widely vary from source to source.[59] Estradiol levels are minimal and according to most laboratories range from 20 to 80 pg/mL during the early to mid follicular phase (or the first week of the menstrual cycle, also known as menses).[60][61] Levels of estradiol gradually increase during this time and through the mid to late follicular phase (or the second week of the menstrual cycle) until the pre-ovulatory phase.[59][60] At the time of pre-ovulation (a period of about 24 to 48 hours), estradiol levels briefly surge and reach their highest concentrations of any other time during the menstrual cycle.[59] Circulating levels are typically between 130 and 200 pg/mL at this time, but in some women may be as high as 300 to 400 pg/mL, and the upper limit of the reference range of some laboratories are even greater (for instance, 750 pg/mL).[59][60][62][63][64] Following ovulation (or ...
... regulates pancreatic secretion activities by both endocrine and exocrine tissues. It also affects hepatic glycogen levels and gastrointestinal secretions. Its secretion in humans is increased after a protein meal, fasting, exercise, and acute hypoglycaemia, and is decreased by somatostatin and intravenous glucose. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide has been shown to be reduced in conditions associated with increased food intake and elevated in anorexia nervosa. In addition, peripheral administration of polypeptide has been shown to decrease food intake in rodents.[5] Pancreatic polypeptide inhibits pancreatic secretion of fluid, bicarbonate, and digestive enzymes.[3] It also stimulates gastric acid secretion.[3] It is the antagonist of cholecystokinin and opposes pancreatic secretion stimulated by cholecystokinin.[3] It may stimulate the migrating motor complex, synergistic with motilin.[3] On fasting, pancreatic polypeptide concentration is 80 pg/ml; after the meal, it rises ...
Today most patients are treated with levothyroxine, or a similar synthetic thyroid hormone.[7][8][9] Different polymorphs of the compound have different solubilities and potencies.[10] Additionally, natural thyroid hormone supplements from the dried thyroids of animals are still available.[9][11][12] Levothyroxine contains T4 only and is therefore largely ineffective for patients unable to convert T4 to T3.[13] These patients may choose to take natural thyroid hormone, as it contains a mixture of T4 and T3,[9][14][15][16][17] or alternatively supplement with a synthetic T3 treatment.[18] In these cases, synthetic liothyronine is preferred due to the potential differences between the natural thyroid products. Some studies show that the mixed therapy is beneficial to all patients, but the addition of lyothyronine contains additional side effects and the medication should be evaluated on an individual basis.[19] Some natural thyroid hormone brands are FDA approved, but some are not.[20][21][22] ...
Off-label prescription of HGH is controversial and may be illegal.[46] Claims for GH as an anti-aging treatment date back to 1990 when the New England Journal of Medicine published a study wherein GH was used to treat 12 men over 60.[47] At the conclusion of the study, all the men showed statistically significant increases in lean body mass and bone mineral density, while the control group did not. The authors of the study noted that these improvements were the opposite of the changes that would normally occur over a 10- to 20-year aging period. Despite the fact the authors at no time claimed that GH had reversed the aging process itself, their results were misinterpreted as indicating that GH is an effective anti-aging agent.[48][49][50] This has led to organizations such as the controversial American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine promoting the use of this hormone as an "anti-aging agent".[51] A Stanford University School of Medicine meta-analysis of clinical studies on the subject published ...
The primary control of cortisol is the pituitary gland peptide, ACTH, which probably controls cortisol by controlling the movement of calcium into the cortisol-secreting target cells.[55] ACTH is in turn controlled by the hypothalamic peptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is under nervous control. CRH acts synergistically with arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II, and epinephrine.[56] (In swine, which do not produce arginine vasopressin, lysine vasopressin acts synergistically with CRH.[57]) When activated macrophages start to secrete IL-1, which synergistically with CRH increases ACTH,[10] T-cells also secrete glucosteroid response modifying factor (GRMF), as well as IL-1; both increase the amount of cortisol required to inhibit almost all the immune cells.[11] Immune cells then assume their own regulation, but at a higher cortisol setpoint. The increase in cortisol in diarrheic calves is minimal over healthy calves, however, and falls over time.[58] The cells do not lose all ...
Many kinds of peptides are known. They have been classified or categorized according to their sources and function. According to the Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, some groups of peptides include plant peptides, bacterial/antibiotic peptides, fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides , immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, cardiovascular peptides, renal peptides, respiratory peptides, opiate peptides, neurotrophic peptides, and blood-brain peptides.[5] Some ribosomal peptides are subject to proteolysis. These function, typically in higher organisms, as hormones and signaling molecules. Some organisms produce peptides as antibiotics, such as microcins.[6] Peptides frequently have posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, hydroxylation, sulfonation, palmitoylation, glycosylation and disulfide formation. In general, ...
ProIAPP has been linked to Type 2 diabetes and the loss of islet β-cells.[24] Islet amyloid formation, initiated by the aggregation of proIAPP, may contribute to this progressive loss of islet β-cells. It is thought that proIAPP forms the first granules that allow for IAPP to aggregate and form amyloid which may lead to amyloid-induced apoptosis of β-cells. IAPP is cosecreted with insulin. Insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes produces a greater demand for insulin production which results in the secretion of proinsulin.[25] ProIAPP is secreted simultaneously, however, the enzymes that convert these precursor molecules into insulin and IAPP, respectively, are not able to keep up with the high levels of secretion, ultimately leading to the accumulation of proIAPP. In particular, the impaired processing of proIAPP that occurs at the N-terminal cleavage site is a key factor in the initiation of amyloid.[25] Post-translational modification of proIAPP occurs at both the carboxy terminus and the ...
GHRH binding to GHRHR results in increased GH production mainly by the cAMP-dependent pathway,[5] but also by the phospholipase C pathway (IP3/DAG pathway),[1] and other minor pathways.[1]. The cAMP-dependent pathway is initiated by the binding of GHRH to its receptor, causing receptor conformation that activates Gs alpha subunit of the closely associated G-Protein complex on the intracellular side. This results in stimulation of membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase and increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP binds to and activates the regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA), allowing the free catalytic subunits to translocate to the nucleus and phosphorylate the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Phosphorylated CREB, together with its coactivators, p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) enhances the transcription of GH by binding to CREs cAMP-response elements in the promoter region of the GH gene. It also increases transcription of the ...
... may play a role in suppressing binge eating. Hormone replacement therapy using estrogen may be a possible treatment for binge eating behaviors in females. Estrogen replacement has been shown to suppress binge eating behaviors in female mice.[53] The mechanism by which estrogen replacement inhibits binge-like eating involves the replacement of serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Women exhibiting binge eating behaviors are found to have increased brain uptake of neuron 5-HT, and therefore less of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the cerebrospinal fluid.[54] Estrogen works to activate 5-HT neurons, leading to suppression of binge like eating behaviors.[53] It is also suggested that there is an interaction between hormone levels and eating at different points in the female menstrual cycle. Research has predicted increased emotional eating during hormonal flux, which is characterized by high progesterone and estradiol levels that occur during the mid-luteal phase. It is hypothesized that these ...
In order to hydroxylate L-tryptophan, the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (THB) must first react with oxygen and the active site iron of tryptophan hydroxylase. This mechanism is not well understood, but two mechanisms have been proposed: 1. A slow transfer of one electron from the THB to O2 could produce a superoxide which could recombine with the THB radical to give 4a-peroxypterin. 4a-peroxypterin could then react with the active site iron (II) to form an iron-peroxypterin intermediate or directly transfer an oxygen atom to the iron. 2. O2 could react with the active site iron (II) first, producing iron (III) superoxide which could then react with the THB to form an iron-peroxypterin intermediate. Iron (IV) oxide from the iron-peroxypterin intermediate is selectively attacked by a double bond to give a carbocation at the C5 position of the indole ring. A 1,2-shift of the hydrogen and then a loss of one of the two hydrogen atoms on C5 reestablishes aromaticity to furnish ...
In the case of female patients who want to be treated with HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl:[30] a) Since infertile female patients who undergo medically assisted reproduction (especially those who need in vitro fertilization), are known to often be suffering from tubal abnormalities, after a treatment with this drug they might experience many more ectopic pregnancies. This is why early ultrasound confirmation at the beginning of a pregnancy (to see whether the pregnancy is intrauterine or not) is crucial. Pregnancies that have occurred after a treatment with this medicine are submitted to a higher risk of multiplets. Female patients who have thrombosis, severe obesity, or thrombophilia should not be prescribed this medicine as they have a higher risk of arterial or venous thromboembolic events after or during a treatment with HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl. b)Female patients who have been treated with this medicine are usually more prone to pregnancy losses. In the case of male patients: A prolonged treatment with ...
The vasopressins are peptides consisting of nine amino acids (nonapeptides). (NB: the value in the table above of 164 amino acids is that obtained before the hormone is activated by cleavage.) The amino acid sequence of arginine vasopressin (argipressin) is Cys-Tyr-Phe-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Arg-Gly-NH2, with the cysteine residues forming a disulfide bond and the C-terminus of the sequence converted to a primary amide.[27] Lysine vasopressin (lypressin) has a lysine in place of the arginine as the eighth amino acid, and is found in pigs and some related animals, whereas arginine vasopressin is found in humans.[28] The structure of oxytocin is very similar to that of the vasopressins: It is also a nonapeptide with a disulfide bridge and its amino acid sequence differs at only two positions (see table below). The two genes are located on the same chromosome separated by a relatively small distance of less than 15,000 bases in most species. The magnocellular neurons that secrete vasopressin are adjacent ...
... is a participant in regulating the complex process of energy homeostasis which adjusts both energy input - by adjusting hunger signals - and energy output - by adjusting the proportion of energy going to ATP production, fat storage, glycogen storage, and short-term heat loss. The net result of these processes is reflected in body weight, and is under continuous monitoring and adjustment based on metabolic signals and needs. At any given moment in time, it may be in equilibrium or disequilibrium. Gastric-brain communication is an essential part of energy homeostasis, and several communication pathways are probable, including the gastric intracellular mTOR/S6K1 pathway mediating the interaction among ghrelin, nesfatin and endocannabinoid gastric systems,[31] and both afferent and efferent vagal signals. Ghrelin and synthetic ghrelin mimetics (growth hormone secretagogues) increase body weight and fat mass[32][33][34] by triggering receptors in the arcuate nucleus[35][36] that include the ...
... prevents or reduces neuronal degeneration in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases and these encouraging results in animals have led to several clinical trials in humans.[25] NGF promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in rats.[26] The expression of NGF is increased in inflammatory diseases where it suppresses inflammation.[27] NGF appears to promote myelin repair.[28] Hence NGF may be useful for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.[29] NGF could also be involved in various psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, depression, schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa.[30] Dysregulation of NGF signaling has also been linked to Alzheimer's disease.[31][32][33][34][35][36] Connective tissue cells genetically engineered to synthesize and secrete NGF and implanted in patients' basal forebrains reliably pumped out NGF, which enhanced the cells' size and their ability to sprout new neural fibers. The treatment also rescued vulnerable cells, ...
... receptors are embedded in the surface of the target cell membranes and coupled to the G-protein system. Signals triggered by binding to the receptor are relayed within the cells by the cyclic AMP second messenger system. Gonadotropins are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The gonads - testes and ovaries - are the primary target organs for LH and FSH. The gonadotropins affect multiple cell types and elicit multiple responses from the target organs. As a simplified generalization, LH stimulates the Leydig cells of the testes and the theca cells of the ovaries to produce testosterone (and indirectly estradiol), whereas FSH stimulates the spermatogenic tissue of the testes and the granulosa cells of ovarian follicles, as well as stimulating production of estrogen by the ovaries. Although gonadotropins are secreted in a pulsatile manner (as a result of pulsatile GnRH release), unlike the ...
American researchers Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis in 1914[12] discovered a substance in cod liver oil which later was called "vitamin A". British doctor Edward Mellanby noticed dogs that were fed cod liver oil did not develop rickets and concluded vitamin A, or a closely associated factor, could prevent the disease. In 1922, Elmer McCollum tested modified cod liver oil in which the vitamin A had been destroyed.[12] The modified oil cured the sick dogs, so McCollum concluded the factor in cod liver oil which cured rickets was distinct from vitamin A. He called it vitamin D because it was the fourth vitamin to be named.[188][189] It was not initially realized that, unlike other vitamins, vitamin D can be synthesised by humans through exposure to UV light. In 1925,[12] it was established that when 7-dehydrocholesterol is irradiated with light, a form of a fat-soluble vitamin is produced (now known as D3). Alfred Fabian Hess stated: "Light equals vitamin D."[190] Adolf Windaus, at the ...
Diseases of the endocrine system are common,[8] including conditions such as diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, and obesity. Endocrine disease is characterized by misregulated hormone release (a productive pituitary adenoma), inappropriate response to signaling (hypothyroidism), lack of a gland (diabetes mellitus type 1, diminished erythropoiesis in chronic kidney failure), or structural enlargement in a critical site such as the thyroid (toxic multinodular goitre). Hypofunction of endocrine glands can occur as a result of loss of reserve, hyposecretion, agenesis, atrophy, or active destruction. Hyperfunction can occur as a result of hypersecretion, loss of suppression, hyperplastic or neoplastic change, or hyperstimulation. Endocrinopathies are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary. Primary endocrine disease inhibits the action of downstream glands. Secondary endocrine disease is indicative of a problem with the pituitary gland. Tertiary endocrine disease is associated with dysfunction ...
August - Osteocalcin first identified in animal bone. September 6 - Production of the first genetically engineered synthetic " ...
The hormone osteocalcin might also play a part. This response is recognised as the first stage of the general adaptation ...
Trypsin, a digestive enzyme, uses the first method; osteocalcin, a bone matrix protein, uses the third. Some other bone matrix ...
برخی از سلول‌های تیرویید به نام سلولهای C یا سلولهای پارافولیکولار، هورمونی پروتئینی به نام کلسی تونین را ترشح می‌کنند که برخلاف هورمون پاراتیروئید (PTH) غلظت خونی کلسیم را کاهش می‌دهد. البته تاثیر این هورمون بر متابولیسم کلسیم در بدن انسان خیلی زیاد نیست.کلسی تونین در روده (کاهش جذب کلسیم)، استخوان (مهار فعالیت سلول اسبتئوکلست و فعال کردن سلول استئوبلاست)، کلیه (افزایش دفع کلسیم و دفع فسفر) تاثیرگذار است. هورمون پاراتورمون از غده پاراتیرویید ترشح می‌شود و موجب اقزایش کلسیم خون می شود. هورمون کلسی تونین از غده تیرویید ترشح می‌شود و با کاهش تجزیه و ...
فاکتور رشد شبه انسولین ۱ (انگلیسی: Insulin-like growth factor 1) یا به‌اختصار IGF-1 که با نامِ سوماتومدین سی هم شناخته می‌شود، یک پروتئین است که در انسان، توسط ژن «IGF1» کُدگذاری می‌شود.[۲][۳] این پروتئین به «فاکتور سولفوره‌کننده» نیز شهرت دارد[۴] و هورمونی است که به‌لحاظ ساختار مولکولی به انسولین شباهت دارد و دوران کودکی، نقش مهمی در رشد ایفا می‌کند و در بزرگسالی نیز، اثرات آنابولیک دارد. آنالوگ صناعی این هورمون به نامِ مکاسرمین، جهت درمان اختلال رشد کودک تجویز می‌شود.[۵] فاکتور رشد شبه انسولین ۱ دارای ۷۰ اسید آمینه در یک زنجیرهٔ واحد است که ۳ پیوند دی‌سولفید ...
Because osteocalcin has gla domains, its synthesis is vitamin K dependent. In humans, osteocalcin is encoded by the BGLAP gene ... Injections of high levels of osteocalcin alone can trigger an ASR in the presence of adrenal insufficiency. As osteocalcin is ... In the pancreas, osteocalcin acts on beta cells, causing beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin. In fat cells, ... osteocalcin triggers the release of the hormone adiponectin, which increases sensitivity to insulin. In muscle, osteocalcin ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader ... Osteocalcin ELISA Test. 2. Osteocalcin IRMA Test. 3. Access Immunoassay System. 4. Access 2 Immunoassay System. 5. ADVIA ...
Low total osteocalcin levels are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Researchers are ... Osteocalcin deficiency in γ-carboxyl groups, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, was found to improve insulin secretion and ... Higher carboxylated osteocalcin level at baseline predicted less change in IR at 3 years, lower % ucOC predicted greater ... Osteocalcin as a Novel Regulator of Insulin Secretion & Insulin Sensitivity. *Associations of TOC with Diabetes & ...
Human-, mouse-, rat- and pig-specific osteocalcin assays. ... osteocalcin in biological samples and cultured cells. Gla-OC ... Osteocalcin EIA Kits analyze the role that osteocalcin (OC) plays in bone metabolism, glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome ... Osteocalcin EIA kits that quantify either carboxylated (cOC) or under-carboxylated (ucOC) ... Osteocalcin EIA Kits for Bone and Endocrine Research. Takaras Osteocalcin EIA Kits may be used to study the role that ...
Buy our Human Osteocalcin peptide. Ab42234 is a blocking peptide for ab14173 and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides free ... Belongs to the osteocalcin/matrix Gla protein family.. Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain. ...
This kit is intended for research use only in the determination of mouse osteocalcin levels in serum, plasma or cell culture ... The Mouse Osteocalcin ELISA Kit is a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of osteocalcin in ... Mouse osteocalcin, a 46 amino acid peptide, is the major noncollagen protein found in mouse bone. It contains three gamma- ... The exact biological function of osteocalcin is not known but the three gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues confer on it a very ...
2007 August news vitamin K vitamin_K vitamin K2 vitamin_K2 diabetes insulin osteocalcin obesity bone health insulin_resistance ... 2007 November study research epidemiological humans vitamin K vitamin_K phylloquinone undercarboxylated osteocalcin ... The vitamin K dependant protein osteocalcin may have a positive effect on reducing obesity and diabetes, suggests a new study ... The vitamin K dependant protein osteocalcin may have a positive effect on reducing obesity and diabetes, suggests a new study ...
OCBP stands for Osteocalcin Box Binding Protein (biochemistry). OCBP is defined as Osteocalcin Box Binding Protein ( ... How is Osteocalcin Box Binding Protein (biochemistry) abbreviated? ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2019). Retrieved June 24 2019 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Osteocalcin-Box-Binding-Protein-( ... S.v. "OCBP." Retrieved June 24 2019 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Osteocalcin-Box-Binding-Protein-(biochemistry)-(OCBP). ...
The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA tumor samples from 15 cancer types) and therefore potentially oncogenic missense mutations (click on Show Cancer Mutations). The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. ...
Osteocalcin-/-, n = 8; Gprc6a-/-, n = 6) (5 UI, twice a week), or osteocalcin (WT, n = 6; Osteocalcin-/-, n = 6; Gprc6a-/-, n ... we asked whether osteocalcin regulates Lh expression and/or whether LH regulates Osteocalcin expression. For Osteocalcin to ... The fact that osteocalcin injections cannot rescue the sterility of Lhb-/- male mice while it can do so in Osteocalcin-/- mice ... Analysis of Osteocalcin-/- male mouse fertility after hCG or osteocalcin injection. Sperm count (A); testis (B), epididymal (C ...
Osteocalcin regulates murine and human fertility through a pancreas-bone-testis axis. ... Osteocalcin regulates murine and human fertility through a pancreas-bone-testis axis. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Osteocalcin Antibody (190125) cited in 23 publications. Validated: IHC, CyTOF-ready, Flow, ICC/IF. Tested ... Blogs on Osteocalcin. There are no specific blogs for Osteocalcin, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Osteocalcin was detected in immersion fixed MG‑63 human osteosarcoma cell line using Mouse Anti-Human/Rat Osteocalcin ... Osteocalcin was detected in human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into osteocytes using Mouse Anti-Human/Rat Osteocalcin ...
Osteocalcin is distinguished by its content of three gamm … ... Osteocalcin is an abundant Ca2+-binding protein indigenous to ... Osteocalcin: the vitamin K-dependent Ca2+-binding protein of bone matrix Haemostasis. 1986;16(3-4):258-72. doi: 10.1159/ ... Osteocalcin is an abundant Ca2+-binding protein indigenous to the organic matrix of bone, dentin, and possibly other ... Osteocalcin is distinguished by its content of three gamma-carboxyglutamic (Gla) residues. The vitamin-K-dependent biosynthesis ...
This study extends the endocrine role of osteocalcin to the developmental period and establishes osteocalcin/Gprc6a signaling ... Osteocalcin promotes β-cell proliferation during development and adulthood through Gprc6a.. Jianwen Wei, Timothy Hanna, Nina ... Osteocalcin promotes β-cell proliferation during development and adulthood through Gprc6a.. Jianwen Wei, Timothy Hanna, Nina ... Osteocalcin promotes β-cell proliferation during development and adulthood through Gprc6a.. Jianwen Wei, Timothy Hanna, Nina ...
Gprc6a Mediates Osteocalcin Signaling in β-Cells. We next asked whether Gprc6a is the receptor for osteocalcin in β-cells using ... This study extends the endocrine role of osteocalcin to the developmental period and establishes osteocalcin/Gprc6a signaling ... osteocalcin has a role during development. This is in agreement with the presence of circulating active osteocalcin in embryos ... Osteocalcin Promotes β-Cell Proliferation During Development and Adulthood Through Gprc6a. Jianwen Wei, Timothy Hanna, Nina ...
The skeletal hormone osteocalcin also, boosts testosterone production to support the survival of the germ cells that go on to ... The newly identified osteocalcin receptor is already known to be expressed in human testes but not ovaries. Osteocalcin has ... The skeletal hormone osteocalcin also, boosts testosterone production to support the survival of the germ cells that go on to ... Osteocalcin produced by the bone-building cells known as osteoblasts induces testosterone production by the testes, but fails ...
Order monoclonal and polyclonal Osteocalcin antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Osteocalcin ... Osteocalcin (BGLAP) Antigen Profile Protein Summary Constitutes 1-2% of the total bone protein. It binds strongly to apatite ... osteocalcin preproprotein , hypothetical protein LOC792433 , bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein osteocalcin , Bone Gla protein ... anti-Osteocalcin antibody (Bone gamma-Carboxyglutamate (Gla) Protein) (AA 14-95) , Synonym: polyamine-modulated factor 1 Rabbit ...
Osteocalcin, a major inorganic component of bone matrix and marker of bone formation, is also involved in regulation of glucose ... Significant association between body composition phenotypes and the osteocalcin genomic region in normative human population.. ... Significant association between body composition phenotypes and the osteocalcin genomic region in normative human population ... Significant association between body composition phenotypes and the osteocalcin genomic region in normative human population ...
The human osteocalcin promoter directs bone-specific vitamin D-regulatable gene expression in transgenic mice.. Kesterson RA1, ... Osteocalcin is a major noncollagenous protein of bone regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] and is believed to ... We introduced a 3.9-kilobase human osteocalcin gene promoter (hOCP)-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion gene into ...
Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is reported to function as an endocrine hormone, affecting glucose metabolism in mice (1,2 ... Osteocalcin differentially regulates beta cell and adipocyte gene expression and affects the development of metabolic diseases ... Vitamin K2 Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity via Osteocalcin Metabolism: A Placebo-Controlled Trial. ... Vitamin K2 Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity via Osteocalcin Metabolism: A Placebo-Controlled Trial ...
Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is reported to function as an endocrine hormone, affecting glucose metabolism in mice (1,2 ... Osteocalcin differentially regulates beta cell and adipocyte gene expression and affects the development of metabolic diseases ... Vitamin K2 Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity via Osteocalcin Metabolism: A Placebo-Controlled Trial. Hyung Jin Choi ... Vitamin K, which converts ucOC to carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC), has been suggested to regulate glucose metabolism by ...
Recent findings suggest that Osteocalcin may also be a key factor in the bodys acute response to stress. Osteocalcin has also ... APPROVED SALIVARY OSTEOCALCIN COLLECTION METHODS. SalivaBio Passive Drool Method Adults, Children 6+ ... research has shown that Osteocalcin may regulate proper brain development and cognitive function (2,4). Osteocalcin has also ... References & Salivary Osteocalcin Research. * *Berger, Julian Meyer, et al. (2019) Mediation of the Acute Stress Response by ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Osteocalcin Antibody (8H12F9H10) [DyLight 680]. Validated: ELISA. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% ... Blogs on Osteocalcin. There are no specific blogs for Osteocalcin, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Reviews for Osteocalcin Antibody (NB100-62805FR) (0) There are no reviews for Osteocalcin Antibody (NB100-62805FR). By ... Publications for Osteocalcin Antibody (NB100-62805FR) (0). There are no publications for Osteocalcin Antibody (NB100-62805FR). ...
The Role of Osteocalcin and Alkaline Phosphatase Immunohistochemistry in Osteosarcoma Diagnosis.(Research Article) by ... Osteocalcin was expressed in the cytoplasm of OSA and OPBT tumour cells (Figure 1) and also on the osteoid. As shown in Table 2 ... Osteocalcin (OCN) is known to be abone tissue-specific protein [5, 6]. Studies have shown that OCN immunohistochemistry may be ... 17] Y. T. Tsao, Y. J. Huang, H. H. Wu, Y. A. Liu, Y. S. Liu, and O. K. Lee, "Osteocalcin Mediates Biomineralization during ...
The purpose of this study was to examine if the reduction in glucose post-exercise is mediated by undercarboxylated osteocalcin ... Osteocalcin (OC) in its undercarboxylated (unOC) form may contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis. As exercise ... The purpose of this study was to examine if the reduction in glucose post-exercise is mediated by undercarboxylated osteocalcin ... Shiraki M, Yamazaki Y, Shiraki Y, Hosoi T, Tsugawa N, Okano T (2010) High level of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin in ...
Osteocalcin, an osteoblast derived protein, exists in two forms, carboxylated and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. ... Whether osteocalcin acts as a mediator or a marker of vascular calcification is currently unclear. As such, further studies ... Total osteocalcin is frequently associated with vascular calcification, an association that may occur as a result of vascular ... Undercarboxylated osteocalcin has been linked to the regulation of metabolic functions, including glucose and lipid metabolism ...
Anti-Osteocalcin pAb (GTX39513) is tested in Human, Dog, Monkey, Elk, Bovine samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Osteocalcin antibody (bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein) for IHC-Fr. ...
Osteocalcin gene expression by DEX in mouse bone cells. The effect of DEX in the osteocalcin gene expression of primary ... Dexamethasone Down-regulates Osteocalcin in Bone Cells through Leptin Pathway Shu-Mei Chen1,2, Yi-Jen Peng3, Chih-Chien Wang4, ... Dexamethasone Down-regulates Osteocalcin in Bone Cells through Leptin Pathway. Int J Med Sci 2018; 15(5):507-516. doi:10.7150/ ... Osteocalcin gene expression levels in bone cells from the db/db and wild type mice (n=3 each) treated with either DEX or ...
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
Anti-Osteocalcin mAb (GTX13420) is tested in Human, Dog, Pig, Rat, Goat, Rabbit, Sheep, Bovine samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Osteocalcin antibody [OCG2] for IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB. ... Osteocalcin belongs to the osteocalcin / matrix Gla-protein ... Storage Conditions: Osteocalcin antibody [OCG2]. Storage Buffer. Preservative: 0.1% Sodium Azide; Constituents: 1% BSA, 10mM ...
  • Osteocalcin, also known as bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP), is a small (49-amino-acid) noncollagenous protein hormone found in bone and dentin, first identified as a calcium-binding protein in chick bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion of the gene for the osteoblast-derived protein, osteocalcin, leads to insulin resistance in mice, while the addition of osteocalcin increases insulin secretion from β-cells and adiponectin expression in adipocytes. (medscape.com)
  • Belongs to the osteocalcin/matrix Gla protein family. (abcam.com)
  • Mouse osteocalcin, a 46 amino acid peptide, is the major noncollagen protein found in mouse bone. (quidel.com)
  • Osteocalcin is an abundant Ca2+-binding protein indigenous to the organic matrix of bone, dentin, and possibly other mineralized tissues. (nih.gov)
  • The vitamin-K-dependent biosynthesis of osteocalcin occurs in bone, and the protein is not homologous to the Gla-containing regions of known vitamin-K-dependent blood coagulation proteins. (nih.gov)
  • This latter function of osteocalcin is mediated by Gprc6a, a G-protein-coupled receptor expressed in Leydig cells of the testis ( 29 , 30 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Osteocalcin is a major noncollagenous protein of bone regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] and is believed to be expressed only by differentiated osteoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • Osteocalcin (also known as OCN, OC, and Bone-Gla-Protein (BGP) or bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP)), is a bone-derived hormone protein released solely by osteoblasts during bone remodeling in vertebrates. (salimetrics.com)
  • Osteocalcin (Bone Gla Protein) is a 49 amino acid single chain vitamin K dependent protein (MW 5.8 kDa), made by osteoblasts that is a major component of the non-collagenous bone matrix. (novusbio.com)
  • Osteocalcin (OCN) is known to be abone tissue-specific protein [5, 6]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The current literature suggests that undercarboxylated osteocalcin stimulates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway to upregulate nitric oxide and nuclear factor kappa β (NF-кβ) in vascular cells, possibly protecting endothelial function and preventing atherogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Osteocalcin belongs to the osteocalcin / matrix Gla-protein family and constitutes 1-2% of the total bone protein. (genetex.com)
  • Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (an osteoblast-specific protein reflecting bone turnover) were measured by a radioimmunoassay. (diva-portal.org)
  • In a population-based study, cardiovascular risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteocalcin, CrossLaps, alkaline phosphatase, and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the proximal femur were measured in 382 Iranian postmenopausal women. (springer.com)
  • Osteocalcin is a protein formed by osteoblasts and can enter the bloodstream. (labce.com)
  • Influence of low-level laser irradiation on osteocalcin protein and. (isaude.net)
  • Abstract Purpose: To evaluate osteocalcin gene and protein expression in vitro and in an in vivo model of ostectomy. (isaude.net)
  • Conclusion: Low-level laser irradiation did not alter osteocalcin protein and gene expression in vivo and in vitro in the studied period but it may have been expressed them in an earlier period. (isaude.net)
  • Osteocalcin (OC) or bone Gla protein is the most abundant non-collagenous protein found in bone and is produced by osteoblasts. (sas-centre.org)
  • Osteocalcin (OC) is a relatively small protein (5.8Kda) produced by bone osteoblasts and is regulated at transcription level by 1,25 dihyroxy-vitamin D3. (sas-centre.org)
  • Two different immunological assays were used to identify the remains of a bone matrix protein, osteocalcin (OC), in the bones of dinosaurs and other fossil vertebrates. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Osteocalcin is a noncollagenous, 49 amino acid glutamate-rich polypeptide bone matrix protein with a molecular weight of about 5800Da. (qedbio.com)
  • Although osteocalcin is the most abundant noncollagenous protein in bone, its role remains undefined. (garvan.org.au)
  • Osteocalcin, also known as Bone-Gla-Protein (BGP), is a single chain (Mr=5800) vitamin K dependent protein produced by osteoblasts and found in high concentrations in bone (1-4). (haemtech.com)
  • The purified protein is supplied 50 % (vol/vol) glycerol/0.01 M Tris, 0.075 M NaCl, pH 7.4, and should be stored at -20°C. Human osteocalcin is prepared from extracts of acid-demineralized bone, using immunoaffinity chromatography. (haemtech.com)
  • Osteocalcin and matrix GLA protein in developing teleost teeth: identification of sites of mRNA and protein accumulation at single cell resolution. (ualg.pt)
  • In this study, the tissue distribution and accumulation of osteocalcin or bone Gla protein (BGP) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) were determined during tooth development in a teleost fish, Argyrosomus regius. (ualg.pt)
  • Osteocalcin (the 6,000 dalton Mr gamma-carboxyglutamate-containing protein of bone) has been detected in acid extracts of bones of the extinct class of New Zealand ratite birds, the moas, using a radioimmunoassay for sheep osteocalcin. (mysciencework.com)
  • Osteocalcin (OC), also known as the bone Gla protein (BGP), is a 5.8 kDa, hydroxyapatite-binding protein that could be synthesized by osteoblasts, odontoblasts and hypertrophic chondrocytes [ 4 ] and is the most abundant non-collagenous protein found in bone matrix. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On account of this it might be reasonable to produce recombinant osteocalcin as a fusion protein and subsequently use it as an immunogen for the development of new osteocalcin assays based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). (hytest.fi)
  • It is a 49-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of approximately … Osteocalcin is a small protein (49 amino acids) synthesized by mature osteoblasts, odontoblasts, and hypertrophic chondrocytes. (chezbebeny.com)
  • Osteocalcin, the most important noncollagen protein in bone matrix, accounts for approximately 1% of the total protein in human bone. (chezbebeny.com)
  • The glucose levels and homeostasis model assessment insulin resis-tance values varied inversely with the osteocalcin … Osteocalcin is a vitamin K-dependent protein that our bones produce. (chezbebeny.com)
  • Osteocalcin or bone Gla protein (B.G.P) is the major non-collagen protein of the bone matrix. (diasource-diagnostics.com)
  • A bone-derived protein, osteocalcin, has raised much attention as a hormone regulating glucose metabolism and fat mass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Osteocalcin is a protein found in bone and dentin and is secreted by osteoblasts and is thought to be an important part in the bone mineralization and calcium ion exchange process. (wlsvitagarten.com)
  • We have used the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction to demonstrate that protein occupancy of the VDRE within the intact cell correlates with increased synthesis of osteocalcin transcripts. (elsevier.com)
  • Vitamin K plays an important role in coagulation and bone homeostasis as a coenzyme that mediates γ-carboxylation of glutamate residues into γ-carboxylated proteins such as coagulation factors, osteocalcin, and matrix Gla-protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The precise role of osteocalcin is not known, but it is known that γ-carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC) is a bone protein that attracts Ca 2+ and incorporates it into hydroxyapatite crystals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of these proteins, osteopontin (uropontin) and osteocalcin (or osteocalcin-related gene/protein) were prominent constituents of the calcium oxalate-associated crystal 'ghosts' found in the nuclei, lamellae, and striations of the organic matrix of lumenal renal calculi in the rat and of small crystal ghosts found within epithelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on these data, it is proposed that during urolithiasis, secretion of osteopontin (uropontin) and osteocalcin (or osteocalcin-related gene/protein), and the subsequent incorporation of these proteins into kidney stone matrix, may influence the nucleation, growth processes, aggregation, and/or tubular adhesion of renal calculi in mammalian kidneys. (elsevier.com)
  • Osteocalcin is an important protein that is important for strong bones. (selfdecode.com)
  • Osteocalcin is a protein hormone produced by osteoblasts, the cells that build bones. (selfdecode.com)
  • Osteocalcin is a protein hormone produced by the bones. (selfdecode.com)
  • Determination of bone Gla protein (osteocalcin) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Osteocalcin or bone Gla protein (BGP) is a vitamin K-dependent, low-molecular-mass (5800 Da), 49 amino acid peptide synthesized by osteoblasts [1, 2]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • OPG also attenuated accumulation of the bone matrix-specific protein, osteocalcin, in the aortic valve of Older mice by about 80% (Figure 5). (nih.gov)
  • Osteocalcin (OC) is the most abundant noncollagenous protein of extracellular matrix in the bone. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results showed that blocking miR-31 led to an increase in osterix protein in both cell types at day 7, with an increase in osteocalcin at day 21, suggesting MSC osteogenesis. (unl.pt)
  • Osteocalcin is secreted solely by osteoblasts and thought to play a role in the body's metabolic regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As osteocalcin is produced by osteoblasts, it is often used as a marker for the bone formation process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteocalcin produced by the bone-building cells known as osteoblasts induces testosterone production by the testes, but fails to influence estrogen production by ovaries, the researchers report. (science20.com)
  • To study the effects and importance of fluoride on FBs in the development of extraperiosteal calcification and the ossification of skeletal fluorosis, the presence of the osteogenic phenotype, which is indicated by the expression of core-binding factor a1 (Cbfa1) and osteocalcin (OCN), in an FB cell line (L929) and in osteoblasts (OBs) exposed to fluoride was determined. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The level of osteocalcin in the blood reflects the rate of bone formation, thus it is a useful indicator of the function of osteoblasts. (labce.com)
  • During bone synthesis, osteocalcin is produced by the osteoblasts. (sas-centre.org)
  • Its production is dependent upon vitamin K and is stimulated by vitamin D3.After release from osteoblasts, osteocalcin is not only assimilated into bone matrix but also secreted into the bloodstream. (sas-centre.org)
  • Osteocalcin in produced by osteoblasts during the bone remodeling process. (seniordirectory.com)
  • Osteoblasts produce osteocalcin and incorporate it into the bone matrix. (qedbio.com)
  • Bone forming cells called osteoblasts secrete osteocalcin, a hormone with wide-ranging effects in multiple tissues that follows a circadian rhythm. (hackyourgut.com)
  • Given that osteocalcin is secreted by bone-forming osteoblasts, maintaining bone and muscle mass are crucial to a healthy osteocalcin circadian rhythm. (hackyourgut.com)
  • FoxO1 expression in osteoblasts regulates glucose homeostasis through regulation of osteocalcin in mice. (harvard.edu)
  • Reduced CpG methylation is associated with transcriptional activation of the bone-specific rat osteocalcin gene in osteoblasts. (umassmed.edu)
  • Indeed, in mice, osteocalcin (OC), a molecule produced by osteoblasts has been found to increase both the secretion and sensitivity of insulin, in addition to increasing the number of insulin-producing cells and reducing stores of fat. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Osteocalcin is synthesized in the bone by the osteoblasts. (diasource-diagnostics.com)
  • Osteocalcin is synthesized primarily by osteoblasts. (wlsvitagarten.com)
  • In osteoblasts, sympathetic tone stimulates expression of Esp , a gene inhibiting the activity of osteocalcin, which is an insulin secretagogue. (elsevier.com)
  • The Osteocalcin EIA Kits use a sandwich-type format, with an osteocalcin-specific antibody as a capture-antibody on a solid-phase plate. (clontech.com)
  • An enzyme-labeled antibody specific to either Gla-OC or Glu-OC is used as the detection antibody, allowing detection of either Gla- or Glu-osteocalcin with very high sensitivity. (clontech.com)
  • Osteocalcin was detected in human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into osteocytes using Mouse Anti-Human/Rat Osteocalcin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1419) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. (novusbio.com)
  • Osteocalcin was detected in immersion fixed MG‑63 human osteosarcoma cell line using Mouse Anti-Human/Rat Osteocalcin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1419) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. (novusbio.com)
  • There are currently no images for Osteocalcin Antibody (NB100-62805FR). (novusbio.com)
  • Subsequently, a mixture of biotinylated human osteocalcin N-terminal region specific polyclonal antibody and a peroxidase labeled human osteocalcin 20 - 43 region specific monoclonal antibody is added to each well. (ibl-international.com)
  • After the first incubation period, a "sandwich" of "biotinylated antibody - human osteocalcin - HRP-monoclonal antibody" is formed and this immunocomplex is also captured to the wall of microtiter plate via a streptavidin-biotin affinity binding. (ibl-international.com)
  • This antibody is not cross-reacting with bovine, rat, mouse, rabbit or pig Osteocalcin. (arigobio.com)
  • Mouse anti Bovine Osteocalcin antibody, clone 3H8H12D2A12F12 recognizes intact human and bovine osteocalcin in a "2 site" assay and reacts with osteocalcin fragments corresponding to amino acids 15-31 and 20-43 of the native molecule. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • This study extends the endocrine role of osteocalcin to the developmental period and establishes osteocalcin/Gprc6a signaling as a major regulator of β-cell endowment that can become a potential target for β-cell proliferative therapies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Role of Osteocalcin and Alkaline Phosphatase Immunohistochemistry in Osteosarcoma Diagnosis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the evidence for a role of osteocalcin in atherosclerosis development and progression, and in particular endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. (mdpi.com)
  • A possible role of osteocalcin in the regulation of insulin secretion: human in vivo evidence? (bioscientifica.com)
  • In humans, osteocalcin is encoded by the BGLAP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human osteocalcin promoter directs bone-specific vitamin D-regulatable gene expression in transgenic mice. (nih.gov)
  • We introduced a 3.9-kilobase human osteocalcin gene promoter (hOCP)-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion gene into the germ line of mice. (nih.gov)
  • M. Ferron, E. Hinoi, G. Karsenty, and P. Ducy, "Osteocalcin differentially regulates β cell and adipocyte gene expression and affects the development of metabolic diseases in wild-type mice," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 105, no. 13, pp. 5266-5270, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • To investigate on the gene-relationship between NGF, BDNF, and Osteocalcin we compared by RT-PCR the transcript levels of Ngf, Bdnf and Osteocalcin as well as of their receptors p75NTR/NTRK1, NTRK2 , and Gprc6a in brain, bone, white/brown adipose tissue (WAT/BAT) and reproductive organs of 3 months old female and male mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found Osteocalcin gene expressed in brain in both genders, but Gprc6a expression is low in brain and BAT/WAT. (frontiersin.org)
  • Direct comparison of the regulation of both the endogenous mouse osteocalcin gene (mOC) and a human osteocalcin promoter-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (hOC-CAT) reporter as integrated templates was undertaken in primary osteoblastic cultures from OSCAT transgenic mice. (garvan.org.au)
  • Thus, the divergence of the osteocalcin responses to 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) is specific for the osteocalcin gene and for an acute 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) treatment regime. (garvan.org.au)
  • Dlx3 transcriptional regulation of osteoblast differentiation: temporal recruitment of Msx2, Dlx3, and Dlx5 homeodomain proteins to chromatin of the osteocalcin gene. (umassmed.edu)
  • Here, we have analyzed the rate of recruitment of these coactivators to the bone-specific osteocalcin (OC) gene in response to short and long exposures to 1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3. (umassmed.edu)
  • 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 treatment of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast- like cells results in a ligand-dependent increase in transcription of the bone-specific osteocalcin gene. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results establish in intact cells the requirement for both ligand- and receptor-dependent occupancy of the VDRE for vitamin D responsive enhancement of osteocalcin gene transcription. (elsevier.com)
  • The bone-specific activation and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) enhancement of osteocalcin (OC) gene transcription are both functionally linked to modifications in nucleosomal organization. (umassmed.edu)
  • Abstract Aim: Serum osteocalcin was shown in a previous study on first trimester pregnant women to correlate with bone density and to distinguish between fast and slow bone losers. (uzh.ch)
  • abstract = "Serum level of osteocalcin (OC) is believed to be a specific biochemical parameter of bone formation. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Osteocalcin production of senescent periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) with the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) was investigated on clones from 50-80 years old donors (n=20) with teeth extracted due to periodontitis and dental caries, and from 15-19 year old donors (n=20) with normal teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. (elsevier.com)
  • The most marked effects of MK-4 intake were observed on serum osteocalcin (OC) concentrations. (diigo.com)
  • These observations show for the first time that patients with fluorosis have markedly elevated osteocalcin, a marker of osteoblastic activity, and that they may have significantly elevated PTH concentrations in the presence of normal total and ionized calcium concentrations. (fluoridealert.org)
  • however, data are limited on their circulating concentrations and their associations with bone metabolism or with gamma-carboxylation of the osteocalcin molecule. (nih.gov)
  • There was no correlation among the magnitude of increase in alkaline phosphatase bone isoenzyme, osteocalcin, and serum thyroxine concentrations. (avmi.net)
  • Plasma concentrations of osteocalcin of normal … LabsMD offers the following test: Osteocalcin… Serum osteocalcin is considered a specific marker of osteoblast function, as its levels correlate with the bone formation rate. (chezbebeny.com)
  • Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. (go.jp)
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the validity of Osteocalcin (OCN) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) immunohistochemistry in discriminating OSA from OPBT. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Osteocalcin concentration was markedly elevated in all patients, as was alkaline phosphatase activity. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Since CrossLaps and alkaline phosphatase levels were independently associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the unique contribution of osteocalcin in glucose metabolism could not be concluded. (springer.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and osteocalcin was measured by radioimmunoassay. (avmi.net)
  • Dialysate osteocalcin, MTp-osteocalcin, PTH and alkaline phosphatase correlated with practically the same histomorphometric parameters as serum osteocalcin. (chezbebeny.com)
  • The study re vealed that both serum alkaline phosphatase levels and also, serum osteocalcin levels increased with age, and the increase for these two parameters was higher in the osteoporotic patients. (bu.edu.eg)
  • The exact biological function of osteocalcin is not known but the three gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues confer on it a very strong ability to bind to hydroxyapatite and calcium. (quidel.com)
  • While the biological function of osteocalcin is unknown, it appears to be a highly specific osteoblastic marker produced during bone formation, and is rapidly becoming a clinically important diagnostic parameter of bone pathology. (nih.gov)
  • The exact physiological function of osteocalcin is still unclear. (diasource-diagnostics.com)
  • Background: It is generally accepted that serum osteocalcin (OC) is a reliable marker of bone formation, while the role of serum uric acid (UA) in bone metabolism is still debated. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Takara's Osteocalcin EIA Kits may be used to study the role that osteocalcin (OC) plays in bone metabolism, insulin synthesis, glucose metabolism, and male fertility. (clontech.com)
  • Osteocalcin has also been shown to influence glucose metabolism in both mice and humans, suggesting that it does act as a hormone in humans. (science20.com)
  • Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is reported to function as an endocrine hormone, affecting glucose metabolism in mice ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vitamin K, which converts ucOC to carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC), has been suggested to regulate glucose metabolism by modulating osteocalcin and/or proinflammatory pathway ( 3 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although it has been shown that osteocalcin functions as a hormone in the regulation of glucose metabolism and fat mass, no population-based study to date has addressed serum osteocalcin levels in relation to energy metabolism concurrent with bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. (springer.com)
  • Kanazawa I, Yamaguchi T, Yamamoto M, Yamauchi M, Kurioka S, Yano S, Sugimoto T (2009) Serum osteocalcin level is associated with glucose metabolism and atherosclerosis parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • In the present commentary, we speculate on the meaning for bone to act as a 'rheostat' modulating glucose metabolism, and how the primitive way of communication between bone and energy metabolism through switch on/off genes (like Ptprv ) evolved to a more complicated 'talking' via gain/loss of hormones activity (like osteocalcin) by carboxylation/decarboxylation process. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Purpose: Bone plays a role in glucose metabolism through the release of uncarboxylated osteocalcin into the systemic circulation. (elsevier.com)
  • This study aimed to determine serum osteocalcin levels in overweight children and to investigate the relationships of osteocalcin with glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: Our findings showed associations of serum osteocalcin with glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight children, but we could not establish a causal relationship. (elsevier.com)
  • Background: Osteocalcin (OC) is an osteoblast derived marker of bone turnover, but it has also been linked to glucose metabolism. (eurospe.org)
  • Osteocalcin is an osteoblast-derived hormone that affects multiple aspects of glucose and energy metabolism during adulthood as well as male fertility ( 18 , 24 - 29 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Osteocalcin, a major inorganic component of bone matrix and marker of bone formation, is also involved in regulation of glucose and fat mass metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • In a high-profile, 2019 study published in Cell Metabolism, researchers measured significant increases in serum Osteocalcin levels in both humans and mice, in response to an acute stressor, with evidence to indicate Osteocalcin's direct contribution to the body's fight or flight response. (salimetrics.com)
  • Undercarboxylated osteocalcin has been linked to the regulation of metabolic functions, including glucose and lipid metabolism. (mdpi.com)
  • Beta-CTx collagen and osteocalcin are bone metabolism biomarkers that may represent bone turnover. (scielo.br)
  • Low serum osteocalcin level is a potential marker for metabolic syndrome: results from a Chinese male population survey," Metabolism , vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1186-1192, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Association between serum osteocalcin and markers of metabolic phenotype," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 827-832, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Is Osteocalcin Implicated in the Regulation of Energy Metabolism in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis? (omicsonline.org)
  • The present study suggests that inflammatory factors may modify in distinct ways the relationship between osteocalcin and carbohydrate metabolism in patients with RA. (omicsonline.org)
  • Animal studies have confirmed the mutual association between carbohydrate and bone metabolism, demonstrating the contribution of uncarboxylated osteocalcin (OC), released from bone, in the stimulation of insulin secretion and the regulation of energy metabolism [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Recently, osteocalcin has been recognized as a bone-derived hormone to regulate energy metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This product recognizes intact human and bovine osteocalcin in a "2 site" assay and reacts with osteocalcin fragments corresponding to amino acids 1-19, 7-19 and 15-31 of the native molecule. (novusbio.com)
  • It does not recognize fragments representing amino acids 20-43 or intact bovine osteocalcin. (novusbio.com)
  • BOC-3020 Bovine Bone Osteocalcin Price $171.00/100 µg ($155.00/min. (haemtech.com)
  • Osteocalcin is prepared from bovine bone generally as described by Price et al. (haemtech.com)
  • Should the Bovine Osteocalcin (OC) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (envite.org)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Bovine Osteocalcin (OC) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates or other biological fluids. (envite.org)
  • Lower total and carboxylated osteocalcin levels (not ucOC) associated with IR (p = 0.006 and p = 0.02, respectively), association attenuated by adjustment for adiponectin. (medscape.com)
  • The concentration of ucOC administered to each aortic ring was chosen based on physiological ranges … Description Osteocalcin is a … Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between osteocalcin and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children with obesity. (chezbebeny.com)
  • Both Gla and Glu osteocalcin in sera tend to be higher than the aged rats suggesting activation of bone metabolic turnover. (clontech.com)
  • Serum osteocalcin is elevated in diseases characterized by increased bone turnover such as osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism and Paget's disease, and low in conditions associated with low bone turnover such as hypoparathyroidism and growth hormone deficiency. (novusbio.com)
  • Osteocalcin can also be decreased in patients with low bone turnover such as some patients with osteoporosis in renal failure and patients with adynamic bone. (sas-centre.org)
  • Osteocalcin is released into the circulation from the matrix during bone resorption and, therefore, is considered a marker of bone turnover rather than a specific marker of bone formation. (qedbio.com)
  • Clinical evaluation of bone turnover by serum osteocalcin measurements in a hospital setting. (harvard.edu)
  • Alendronate decreases the risk of femoral neck fracture by suppressing bone turnover, and also decreases the serum total osteocalcin level. (druglib.com)
  • Usefulness of osteocalcin and CrossLaps as markers of bone turnover in children with chronic renal failure]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Circulatory osteocalcin (OC) has been widely used as a biomarker to indicate bone turnover status in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, circulatory OC may come from both bone formation and bone resorption [ 5 , 6 ] and serum osteocalcin (sOC) level may theoretically increase in PMO, which is characterized by high bone turnover status with both increased bone formation and bone resorption. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study was a trial to evaluate the potential value of scrum ostcocalcin (BGP) as a marker of bone turnover in elderly ostcoporotic male patients and to assess bone dynamics in elderly males via estimation of serum osteocalcin. (bu.edu.eg)
  • No association emerged between dietary calcium intake and site-specific bone mass, i.e., lumbar spine and femoral neck, nor was an association found between dietary calcium intake and serum osteocalcin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Calcium directly and thus concentrates in bone were seen between Clp-osteocalcin and any histomorphometric. (chezbebeny.com)
  • To this end, we have examined in an ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate model of urolithiasis in the rat, and in human kidney stones, the distribution of certain noncollagenous and plasma proteins known to accumulate in bone and other mineralized tissues that include osteopontin, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, albumin, and α 2 HS- glycoprotein. (elsevier.com)
  • Osteocalcin binds calcium in the bones, working to maintain and regenerate bone tissue [ 1 , 2 ]. (selfdecode.com)
  • Osteocalcin is responsible for binding calcium to bones, which is what gives bones their strength and flexibility. (selfdecode.com)
  • full history, complete clinical examination laboratory investigations(included blood picture, stool and urine analysis, blood sugar estimation, renal, and liver profile) for exclusion of any underlying disease, radiologic study (X-ray spine) and estimation of scrum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatasc and serum osteocalcin, all were done. (bu.edu.eg)
  • Takara has developed several high-specificity monoclonal antibodies against osteocalcin as well as reagents such as Osteoblast Inducer Reagent, TRACP and ALP Assay Kit and TRACP and ALP Double Stain Kit. (clontech.com)
  • The Mouse Osteocalcin ELISA Kit is a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of osteocalcin in mouse serum, plasma or cell culture media. (quidel.com)
  • Two different goat polyclonal antibodies to mouse osteocalcin have been purified by affinity chromatography. (quidel.com)
  • The skeletal hormone osteocalcin also, boosts testosterone production to support the survival of the germ cells that go on to become mature sperm, say researchers writing in Cell . (science20.com)
  • Low total osteocalcin levels are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in observational studies. (medscape.com)
  • Studies of total osteocalcin level in relation to insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in humans. (medscape.com)
  • As such, further studies that examine each form of osteocalcin are required to elucidate if it is a mediator of atherogenesis, and whether it functions independently of metabolic factors. (mdpi.com)
  • No significant difference was found between serum osteocalcin levels of those with and without metabolic syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Among the metabolic syndrome components, low osteocalcin levels had significant associations with elevated blood glucose [OR 1.89, CI (1.16-3.07), p = 0.010] and elevated waist circumference [OR 2.53, CI (1.13-5.67), p = 0.024] in multivariate analyses. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, serum osteocalcin was independently associated with glucose intolerance and abdominal obesity as the components of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women. (springer.com)
  • Kim YS, Paik IIY, Rhie YJ, Suh SH (2010) Integrative physiology: defined novel metabolic roles of osteocalcin. (springer.com)
  • Osteocalcin as a predictor of the metabolic syndrome in older persons: a population-based study," Clinical Endocrinology , vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 242-247, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, the association between osteocalcin and parameters of β-cell function and metabolic control was examined. (ebscohost.com)
  • Serum osteocalcin levels may be negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome. (arigobio.com)
  • DEX increased leptin, Ob-Ra and Ob-Rb expression in a dose-dependent manner while decreasing expression of osteocalcin. (medsci.org)
  • In the presence of leptin, Cbfa1 and osteonectin expression showed no significant change, whereas osteocalcin expression was decreased. (medsci.org)
  • Recombinant human quadruple antagonist leptin suppressed DEX-induced osteocalcin downregulation. (medsci.org)
  • In conclusion, upregulation of leptin and Ob-Rb in human bone cells by DEX is associated with down-regulation of osteocalcin expression. (medsci.org)
  • The down regulation of osteocalcin by DEX was partially through a leptin autocrine/paracrine loop. (medsci.org)
  • Moreover, a positive correlation between the adiponectin/leptin ratio and osteocalcin was demonstrated. (scielo.br)
  • Negative associations between leptin with osteocalcin, adiponectin with Beta CTX-collagen, and visceral fat with adiponectin were observed. (scielo.br)
  • Total osteocalcin, leptin, and total adiponectin levels were measured. (chezbebeny.com)
  • By showing that leptin inhibits insulin secretion by decreasing osteocalcin bioactivity, this study illustrates the importance of the relationship existing between fat and skeleton for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
  • Because osteocalcin has gla domains, its synthesis is vitamin K dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of the present study is to examine whether serum osteocalcin is related to vitamin D receptor (VDR) BsmI polymorphism in pregnant women. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In patients with low vitamin K and vitamin D intake osteocalcin can be decreased. (sas-centre.org)
  • Recent studies have reported diametrically opposing responses in the vitamin D regulation of the mouse vs the human and rat osteocalcin genes. (garvan.org.au)
  • However, sequences between -678 and -476 bp, which also includes the vitamin D response element (VDRE), were able to confer bFGF inducibility on both a minimal osteocalcin and a heterologous promoter. (garvan.org.au)
  • Response of serum carboxylated and undercarboxylated osteocalcin to alendronate monotherapy and combined therapy with vitamin K(2) in postmenopausal women. (druglib.com)
  • Vitamin K mediates the carboxylation of osteocalcin, but the effect of alendronate therapy with or without vitamin K(2) supplementation remains unknown. (druglib.com)
  • Addition of vitamin K(2) enhanced the decrease of undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels and led to a greater increase of femoral neck bone mineral density. (druglib.com)
  • Alendronate monotherapy does not decrease carboxylation of osteocalcin, and combination of vitamin K(2) and alendronate brings further benefits on both osteocalcin carboxylation and BMD of femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. (druglib.com)
  • 1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-enhanced expression of the osteocalcin " by Loreto Carvallo, Berta Henriquez et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Osteocalcin (OC), which is also known as bone Glaprotein (BGP), is a vitamin K-dependent bone matrix peptide of 49 amino acid residues. (hytest.fi)
  • Osteocalcin contains up to 3 gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues as a result of posttranslational, vitamin K-dependent enzymatic carboxylation. (chezbebeny.com)
  • Menaquinone-4 is a type of vitamin K that has a physiological function in maintaining bone quality via γ-carboxylation of osteocalcin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For this process to occur, osteocalcin first needs to be activated by vitamin K2 [ 6 ]. (selfdecode.com)
  • Osteocalcin helps build strong bones with the help of vitamin K2 . (selfdecode.com)
  • Our range of osteocalcin antibodies come in a selection of formats and to a number of target species. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The assay utilizes the two-site "sandwich" technique with two selected antibodies that bind to different epitopes of human osteocalcin. (ibl-international.com)
  • In the pancreas, osteocalcin acts on beta cells, causing beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence the loss of osteocalcin/Gprc6a signaling has a profound impact on β-cell mass accrual during late pancreas morphogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition to increasing GLP-1, uncarboxylated osteocalcin binds to the pancreas and causes insulin secretion directly. (hackyourgut.com)
  • In addition to effects on the pancreas, both GLP-1 and osteocalcin increase insulin sensitivity in muscle and fat . (hackyourgut.com)
  • Serum osteocalcin … In the pancreas, osteocalcin … Osteocalcin levels may serve as useful index in evaluating the therapeutic management of the patient. (chezbebeny.com)
  • In the pancreas, osteocalcin increases insulin production (via the GPRC6A receptor). (selfdecode.com)
  • Osteocalcin signals the pancreas to create more insulin. (blogspot.com)
  • Serum levels of the biomarkers Wingless proteins (Wnt3a), Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), sclerostin, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factors-κB ligand (sRANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), degradation products of C-terminal telopeptides of Type-l collagen (CTX-I) and osteocalcin were measured with sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). (bmj.com)
  • This ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit is intended for the quantitative determination of both human osteocalcin (1-49) and osteocalcin (1-43) (also referred as N-terminal & mid-regional osteocalcin) levels in test samples. (ibl-international.com)
  • This ELISA is designed, developed and produced for the quantitative measurement of human osteocalcin (1-49) and (1-43) in serum or plasma sample. (ibl-international.com)
  • The culture consisted of senescent PDLF (passage 8, PD 14.8) did not include cells which have a detectable reactivity with anti-osteocalcin immunohistochemically and the reactive intensity was significantly weaker in the senescent culture than in the culture in passage 2 by ELISA. (elsevier.com)
  • Unlike other assays, our EIA Kits don't just measure total osteocalcin. (clontech.com)
  • In addition, the utilization of recombinant osteocalcin for the standardization of osteocalcin assays is also an advantage. (hytest.fi)
  • Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels are inversely associated with glycemic status and insulin resistance in an elderly Japanese male population: fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study," Osteoporosis International , vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 761-770, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been observed that higher serum osteocalcin levels are relatively well correlated with increases in bone mineral density during treatment with anabolic bone formation drugs for osteoporosis, such as teriparatide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those with higher serum osteocalcin levels correlate with increases in bone mineral density (BMD), and has been used as a biomarker for effectiveness of bone formation treatment medications. (wlsvitagarten.com)
  • Specific for the intact osteocalcin molecule, recognising the carboxyl terminal. (genetex.com)
  • The osteoblast-secreted molecule osteocalcin favors insulin secretion, but how this function is regulated in vivo by extracellular signals is for now unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • The Columbia University scientists point out, "People with type 2 diabetes have been shown to have low osteocalcin levels, suggesting that altering the activity of this molecule could be an effective therapy. (blogspot.com)
  • A standard curve is generated by plotting the absorbance versus the respective human osteocalcin concentration for each standard on point-to-point or 4 parameter curve fit. (ibl-international.com)
  • The concentration of human osteocalcin in test samples is determined directly from this standard curve. (ibl-international.com)
  • The plasma Ca concentration was significantly increased while osteocalcin concentration was significantly decreased only in aged rats fed synbiotics . (osteoporosis-studies.com)
  • An acute stress response(ASR), colloquially known as the fight-or-flight response, stimulates osteocalcin release from bone within minutes in mice, rats, and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult osteocalcin-deficient mice are hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic while showing decreased insulin sensitivity, increased fat mass, and decreased energy expenditure ( 26 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increased Osteocalcin levels have been observed within minutes of the application of a stressor in both mice and humans in several studies prior to this one, and its role in stress is well documented (15-16). (salimetrics.com)
  • Results from a 2016 study in mice identified osteocalcin signaling in myofibers as a novel and powerful means to fight age-related decline in muscle function (2). (salimetrics.com)
  • Studies with mice have shown that mice with low levels of osteocalcin have weaker bones that are more likely to break [ 1 ]. (selfdecode.com)
  • Accordingly, Esp inactivation doubles hyperinsulinemia and delays glucose intolerance in ob/ob mice, whereas Osteocalcin inactivation halves their hyperinsulinemia. (elsevier.com)
  • However, a recent study from Columbia University Medical Center conducted with mice revealed how important the bone compound osteocalcin is to the endocrine system. (blogspot.com)
  • Immunostaining for osteocalcin in the aortic valve in Older mice.In vehicle-treated mice (A,C), osteocalcin (dark brown) is abundant near the cusp base (arrows). (nih.gov)
  • Kanazawa I, Yamaguchi T, Yamauchi M, Yamamoto M, Kurioka S, Yano S, Sugimoto T (2011) Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin was inversely associated with plasma glucose level and fat mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin was inversely associated with plasma glucose level and fat mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus," Osteoporosis International , vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 187-194, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Osteocalcin can be increased Paget's disease of bone, thyrotoxicosis and some patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. (sas-centre.org)
  • Serum total osteocalcin was measured by radioimmunoassay in 382 men and 435 postmenopausal women. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Research interest in Osteocalcin has revealed endocrine-related properties related to several physiological pathways. (salimetrics.com)
  • In fat cells, osteocalcin triggers the release of the hormone adiponectin, which increases sensitivity to insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systemic levels of the adhesion marker ICAM correlated significantly with the number of EPCs expressing osteocalcin. (uzh.ch)
  • Results The plasma levels of total osteocalcin were significantly different between the normal glucose toler-ance, pre-diabetes, and diabetes groups. (chezbebeny.com)
  • serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels and the ratio of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to γ-carboxylated osteocalcin were significantly lower than baseline at doses of 600 μg/day or more. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The reactive intensity of PDLF (passage 2, PD 3.0) was significantly stronger in 50-80 year old donor group than in 15-19 year old donor group, suggesting that osteocalcin production of PDLF cultured in early passage is larger in cells from adult population than in cells from adolescent population. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we show that osteocalcin, a bone-derived hormone, regulates β-cell replication in a CyclinD1-dependent manner by signaling through the Gprc6a receptor expressed in these cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In older people, high blood levels of osteocalcin predict lower bone density (particularly in the hip and spine) and fracture risk, including hip fractures [ 8 , 1 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ]. (selfdecode.com)
  • Blood levels of osteocalcin normally rise during puberty in boys. (selfdecode.com)
  • γ -carboxylation of osteocalcin and insulin resistance in older men and women," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1230-1235, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of osteocalcin with insulin resistance, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and inflammatory markers in women with RA. (omicsonline.org)
  • Serum osteocalcin levels were inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r=-0.283, P=0.003), weight standard deviation score (SDS) (r=-0.222, P=0.020), BMI SDS (r=-0.297, P=0.002), insulin (r=-0.313, P=0.001), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (r=-0.268, P=0.005). (elsevier.com)
  • Immunocytochemical labeling for both proteins of the content of secretory granules in tubular epithelial cells from treated rats, together with labeling of a similarly textured organic material in the tubular lumen, provides evidence for cosecretion of osteopontin and osteocalcin by epithelial cells, their transit through the urinary filtrate, and ultimately their incorporation into growing renal calculi. (elsevier.com)
  • Osteocalcin promotes β-cell proliferation during development and adulthood through Gprc6a. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • From the blood, osteocalcin reaches cells in the testicles and increases the production of testosterone (through the GPRC6A receptor) [ 4 , 19 , 1 , 20 , 21 , 4 ]. (selfdecode.com)
  • We demonstrated that the human osteocalcin promoter is activated by bFGF when transfected into rat osteoblastic (ROS 17/2.8) cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • These data suggest that induction of the human osteocalcin promoter by bFGF requires the interaction of more than one sequence element. (garvan.org.au)
  • A low serum carboxylated osteocalcin level or high undercarboxylated osteocalcin level could be risk factors for femoral neck fracture. (druglib.com)
  • Thus, osteocalcin is a bone derived hormone that modulates gut motility. (hackyourgut.com)
  • Osteocalcin has also been reported to serve several key biological functions including the regulation of insulin secretion, increased adaptation to exercise, improved brain development and cognitive functioning, and maintaining male fertility. (salimetrics.com)
  • Osteocalcin has also been implicated in male fertility through the regulation of the synthesis of testosterone in Leydig cells (4). (salimetrics.com)
  • Osteocalcin (OC) in its undercarboxylated (unOC) form may contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • Based on this research, osteocalcin appears to be involved in parasympathetic nervous system regulation during the early stages of the stress response as well as in other various biological pathways. (salimetrics.com)
  • The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of these differences and further elucidate the physiological function and regulation of osteocalcin. (garvan.org.au)