Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Diseases of BONES.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Breaks in bones.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
Osteoblasts are responsible for bone formation. The ECM can exist in varying degrees of stiffness and elasticity, from soft ... Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; ... In fact, collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and accounts for 90% of bone matrix protein content. Collagens ... Kern B, Shen J, Starbuck M, Karsenty G (March 2001). "Cbfa1 contributes to the osteoblast-specific expression of type I ...
"Evidence for targeted vesicular glutamate exocytosis in osteoblasts". Bone. 29 (1): 16-23. doi:10.1016/S8756-3282(01)00482-3. ...
... in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells named osteoblasts. It is synonymous with bone ... When bone grows at same rate at both ends, the nutrient artery is perpendicular to the bone. Most other bones (e.g. vertebrae) ... mandible and hip bone. Endochondral ossification is the formation of long bones and other bones. This requires a hyaline ... Caetano-Lopes J, Canhão H, Fonseca JE (2007). "Osteoblasts and bone formation". Acta reumatológica portuguesa. 32 (2): 103-10. ...
Bones are made of cells called osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Two different kinds of bone resorption are possible: direct ... This is called bone remodeling. Bone remodelling is a biomechanical process responsible for making bones stronger in response ... Bone deposition occurs in the distracted periodontal ligament. Without bone deposition, the tooth will loosen, and voids will ... September 2010). "Bone deposition, bone resorption, and osteosarcoma". Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 28 (9): 1142-8. doi: ...
... binds SOST, a negative regulator of osteoblast activity. Blocking SOST activity can lead to increased bone density. ... Clinical trials with Blosozumab have shown the antibody to be well tolerated and effective in producing a bone anabolic effect ... Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 29 (4): 935-43. doi:10.1002/jbmr.2092. PMID 23996473. v t e v t e. ...
Bone mineralization occurs in human body by cells called osteoblasts.[clarification needed] Among metazoans, biominerals ... These minerals often form structural features such as sea shells and the bone in mammals and birds. Organisms have been ... Examples of biogenic minerals include: Apatite in bones and teeth. Aragonite, calcite, fluorite in vestibular systems (part of ... Westbroek, P.; Marin, F. (1998). "A marriage of bone and nacre". Nature. 392 (6679): 861-862. Bibcode:1998Natur.392..861W. doi: ...
Expression in adults is bone specific and highest in osteoblasts. The homolog in the mouse is located on chromosome 7. A ... The gene first appeared in bony fish and its bone specific expression appears to be limited to therian mammals. The protein has ... Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5 is a gene that encodes a membrane protein thought to play a role in bone ... Hanagata N, Li X (2011). "Osteoblast-enriched membrane protein IFITM5 regulates the association of CD9 with an FKBP11-CD81-FPRP ...
Bone is an active tissue composed of different cells. Osteoblasts are involved in the creation and mineralisation of bone; ... Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and ... Bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebral skeleton. Bones support and protect the various organs of the body ... The mineralised matrix of bone tissue has an organic component mainly of collagen and an inorganic component of bone mineral ...
Bone marrow stromal cells found in the epidermis and make up 10% of progenitor cells. They are often classed as stem cells due ... Periosteum contains progenitor cells that develop into osteoblasts and chondroblasts. Pancreatic progenitor cells are among the ...
Thus cementoblasts resemble bone-forming osteoblasts but differ functionally and histologically. The cells of cementum are the ... Unlike those in bone, however, these canals in cementum do not contain nerves, nor do they radiate outward. Instead, the canals ... Each cementocyte lies in its lacuna (plural, lacunae), similar to the pattern noted in bone. These lacunae also have canaliculi ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Inhibits Differentiation and Mineralization of Cementoblasts in vitro". Journal of Dental Research ...
"Expression of a P2X7 receptor by a subpopulation of human osteoblasts". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 16 (5): 846-56. ... Mutations in this gene have been associated to low lumbar spine bone mineral density and accelerated bone loss in post- ... "Polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with low lumbar spine bone mineral density and accelerated bone loss in ... a mechanism for integrating local and systemic responses in the activation of bone remodeling". Bone. 28 (5): 507-12. doi: ...
Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency in osteoblasts and chondrocytes impairs bone mineralization, ... August 2007). "Infantile hypophosphatasia: transplantation therapy trial using bone fragments and cultured osteoblasts". The ... DXA may show abnormal bone mineral density which may correlate with disease severity, although bone mineral density in HPP ... one of the main components of bone, causing rickets in infants and children and osteomalacia (soft bones) in adults. PLP is the ...
At this point, elasmoblasts are replaced by osteoblasts, thus forming bone. The patches of the matrix of the scale that are not ... The inner part of the scales is made of dense lamellar bone called isopedine. On top of this lies a layer of spongy or vascular ... They are covered with a layer of hard enamel-like dentine in the place of cosmine, and a layer of inorganic bone salt called ... Bone, a tissue that is both resistant to mechanical damage and relatively prone to fossilization, often preserves internal ...
Hu K, Olsen BR (February 2016). "Osteoblast-derived VEGF regulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation during bone ... Mature osteoblasts are differentiated precursor cells found in the bone marrow. MSCs are typically found in the bone marrow ... Bone regeneration takes place during fracture healing and bone remodeling that takes place throughout life. Bone healing also ... Isolating bone stem cells: purifying stem cells from a collection of human fat tissue that can generate bone in vivo (animal ...
The functions of osteoblasts are bone formation by synthesising the organic matrix of bone, cell to cell communication and ... The supporting alveolar bone consists of both cortical bone and trabecular bone. The cortical bone, or cortical plates, ... The trabecular bone consists of cancellous bone that is located between the alveolar bone proper and the plates of cortical ... The cellular component of bone consists of osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts are usually cuboidal and ...
Kumar R, Haugen JD, Penniston JT (April 1993). "Molecular cloning of a plasma membrane calcium pump from human osteoblasts". ... Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 8 (4): 505-13. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650080415. PMID 8386431. S2CID 43674131. Hilfiker H, ...
"Rest-activity circadian rhythms and bone mineral density in elderly men". Bone Reports. 7: 156-163. doi:10.1016/j.bonr.2017.11. ... 2D3-induced Rankl expression in osteoblasts. Specifically for Bmal1, they found that Bmal1-deficient osteoblasts promote ... are rhythmically expressed in osteoblasts to modulate the osteoblast-dependent regulation of osteoclastogenesis by regulating 1 ... These findings could lead to future studies of RAR patterns and bone turnover markers. Tei holds a patent on a Per1 promoter ...
Osteoblasts are cells that group together to form units, called osteons, to produce bone. Runx2 (which may also be known as ... Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Benoit de Crombrugghe (Aug 2003). "Transcriptional mechanisms in osteoblast differentiation and bone ... giving rise to either bone or cartilage respectively. Osteochondroprogenitor cells are important for bone formation and ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Brian Keith Hall (2005). Bones and cartilage: developmental and ...
Of the four major types of bone cells, osteocytes are the most common and also exist in a terminal G0 phase. Osteocytes arise ... from osteoblasts that are trapped within a self-secreted matrix. While osteocytes also have reduced synthetic activity, they ... still serve bone functions besides generating structure. Osteocytes work through various mechanosensory mechanisms to assist in ...
Gori F, Schipani E, Demay MB (2001). "Fibromodulin is expressed by both chondrocytes and osteoblasts during fetal bone ...
Osteoblasts may also be dysregulated by the presence of solid tumors (outside the bone marrow); one study showed that mouse ... Osteoblasts, bone-forming cells, interact with HSCs and provide proliferative signals. Studies that have increased or decreased ... to show that quiescent LT-HSCs and osteoblasts are found in hypoxic and poorly perfused areas of the bone marrow, while ECs and ... as well as for the retention of these HSCs once they are in the bone marrow. HSCs in the bone marrow do not show the same ...
Throughout the body, cells that form bone are called osteoblasts. In the case of alveolar bone, these osteoblast cells form ... Like any other bone in the human body, alveolar bone is modified throughout life. Osteoblasts create bone and osteoclasts ... Osteoblasts give rise to the alveolar bone around the roots of teeth. Fibroblasts are involved developing the periodontal ... and alveolar bone. Cementum is the only one of these that is a part of a tooth. Alveolar bone surrounds the roots of teeth to ...
Osteoblasts give rise to the alveolar bone around the roots of teeth. Fibroblasts develop the periodontal ligaments which ... The crown is enclosed within bone before the tooth erupts, but after eruption the crown is almost always visible in an ... The tooth is supported in bone by an attachment apparatus, known as the periodontium, which interacts with the root. Surfaces ... However, the canines show the most prominent developmental grooves, because they have robust anchorage to the bone. Embrasures ...
"Vitamin D activation of functionally distinct regulatory miRNAs in primary human osteoblasts". J Bone Miner Res. 28 (6): 1478- ...
... has been shown to promote differentiation of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), and chondrocytes (cells in the cartilage ... "Harmine promotes osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein signaling". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Bone. 49 (2): 264-274. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.003. PMID 21504804. Pal Bais, Harsh; Park, Sang-Wook; Stermitz, Frank R.; ... Harmine was also shown to inhibit the formation of osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells). Harmine is currently the only known drug ...
Formation of bone collar The osteoblasts secrete osteoid against the shaft of the cartilage model (Appositional Growth). This ... which forms the bone trabecula. Osteoclasts, formed from macrophages, break down spongy bone to form the medullary (bone marrow ... The growth in diameter of bones around the diaphysis occurs by deposition of bone beneath the periosteum. Osteoclasts in the ... Recently it has been shown that biomimetic bone like apatite inhibits formation of bone through endochondral ossification ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily members. BMP2 can either stimulates the ... August 2008). "EphrinB2 regulation by PTH and PTHrP revealed by molecular profiling in differentiating osteoblasts". Journal of ... Adipocytes can arise either from preadipocytes resident in adipose tissue, or from bone-marrow derived progenitor cells that ... July 1998). "Differential roles for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor type IB and IA in differentiation and ...
As the older chondrocytes degenerate, osteoblasts ossify the remains to form new bone. In puberty increasing levels of estrogen ... It is the part of a long bone where new bone growth takes place; that is, the whole bone is alive, with maintenance remodeling ... Normal bones at, showing the development of epiphyseal plates for different ages and bones.. ... This applies to bone and joint deformities in the coronal -medial/lateral- plane or genu varum/genu valgum plane and in the ...
"Estrogen protects bone by inducing Fas ligand in osteoblasts to regulate osteoclast survival". The EMBO Journal. 27 (3): 535-45 ... Bone. 40 (5): 1415-24. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2006.12.066. PMID 17293177. van Bommel EF, Hendriksz TR, Huiskes AW, Zeegers AG ( ... "Tamoxifen impairs both longitudinal and cortical bone growth in young male rats". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 23 (8 ... A beneficial side effect of tamoxifen is that it prevents bone loss by acting as an ER agonist (i.e., mimicking the effects of ...
Marie PJ, Debiais F, Haÿ E (2003). "Regulation of human cranial osteoblast phenotype by FGF-2, FGFR-2 and BMP-2 signaling". ... Pereira RC, Economides AN, Canalis E (December 2000). "Bone morphogenetic proteins induce gremlin, a protein that limits their ... However, a low concentration of bFGF (10 ng/mL) may exert an inhibitory effect on osteoblast differentiation. The nuclear form ... "Adipocyte-secreted factors increase osteoblast proliferation and the OPG/RANKL ratio to influence osteoclast formation". ...
... into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, marrow adipocytes and beta-pancreatic islets cells. ... Bone-marrow Arall. Ffeiliau perthnasol ar Gomin Wicimedia. Mer esgyrn yw'r meinwe hyblyg tu mewn asgwrn. Gyda bodau dynol, mae ...
Increased bone turnoverEdit. Retinoic acid suppresses osteoblast activity and stimulates osteoclast formation in vitro,[23] ... such as hypercalcemia and numerous bone changes such as bone loss that potentially leads to osteoporosis, spontaneous bone ... resulting in increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. It is likely to exert this effect by binding to specific ... Stimulation of bone resorption by vitamin A has been reported to be independent of its effects on vitamin D.[23] ...
... osteoblasts, and fibroblasts. Cementoblasts form the cementum of a tooth. Osteoblasts give rise to the alveolar bone around the ... The tooth is attached to the surrounding gingival tissue and alveolar bone (C) by fibrous attachments. The gingival fibers (H) ... The crown is enclosed within bone before the tooth erupts, but after eruption the crown is almost always visible in an ... The tooth is supported in bone by an attachment apparatus, known as the periodontium, which interacts with the root. ...
Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (December 2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors 22 (4): 233-41. PMID 15621726. doi: ... Marie PJ, Debiais F, Haÿ E (2003). "Regulation of human cranial osteoblast phenotype by FGF-2, FGFR-2 and BMP-2 signaling.". ... Kawamura C, Kizaki M, Ikeda Y (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells.". Leuk. ... The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. 83-A Suppl 1 (Pt 1): S7-14. PMID 11263668. ...
"Myeloid DAP12-associating lectin (MDL)-1 regulates synovial inflammation and bone erosion associated with autoimmune arthritis ... osteoblast development. • innate immune response. • neutrophil degranulation. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. Orthologs. Species. ...
In experiments, it new bone fully covered skull wounds in test animals and stimulated growth in human bone marrow stromal cells ... osteoblasts, tenocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells as well as chemotaxis, the directed migration, ... A non-viral PDGF "bio patch" can regenerate missing or damaged bone by delivering DNA in a nano-sized particle directly into ... Repairing bone fractures, fixing craniofacial defects and improving dental implants are among potential uses. The patch employs ...
... specifically in the osteoblast, which is responsible for making new bone, a continual and highly regulated process in the ... "Multiple melanocortin receptors are expressed in bone cells". Bone. 36 (5): 820-31. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2005.01.020. PMID ... Isales CM, Zaidi M, Blair HC (March 2010). "ACTH is a novel regulator of bone mass". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences ... This response might be important in maintaining osteoblast survival under some conditions.[12] If this is physiologically ...
positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation. • activation of MAPK activity. • myoblast proliferation. • negative ... β down regulation and recruitment of bone marrow cells". Stem Cells. 37 (6): 791-802. doi:10.1002/stem.3000. PMID 30861238.. ...
Bone homeostasis[edit]. Similarly to A2A receptor, the A2B receptor promotes osteoblast differentiation.[22] The osteoblast ... Bone homeostasis[edit]. Adenosine receptors play a key role in the homeostasis of bone. The A1 receptor has been shown to ... Regulate Bone Resorption II Adenosine A1R Blockade or Deletion Increases Bone Density and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone ... Bone homeostasis[edit]. The role of A3 receptor is less defined in this field. Studies have shown that it plays a role in the ...
In the case of mesenchymal stem cells, these cell types include osteoblasts (bone cells), adipocytes (fat cells), and ... Autografts (employing bone or tissue harvested from the patient's body). *Allografts (using bone or tissue from another body, ... Grafts are inserted through a tunnel that is drilled through the shin bone (tibia) and thigh bone (femur). The graft is then ... The two bright objects in this X-ray are screws in the thigh bone (above) and shin bone (below). ...
Syringetin, a flavonoid derivative in grape and wine, induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic ...
The kype grows rapidly from bony needles proliferating from the tip of the dentary (the anterior and largest of the bones ... The speed at which the kype skeleton develops results in many osteoblasts and proteoglycans appearing along the growth zone. ... The kype formation process has been described as "making bone as fast as possible and with as little material as possible". ... In the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), kype development is accompanied by a morphogenesis of bones and cartilages in the ...
... allowing another type of cells called osteoblasts to form new bone. Except in growing bone, the rate of breakdown equals the ... As the disease progresses bone deformity occurs with further loss of bone mass and, in the tubular bones (the long bones of the ... Massive osteolysis (acute spontaneous absorption of bone, phantom bone, disappearing bone): its relation to hemangiomatosis. J ... complete or near-complete resorption of the bone occurs and may extend to adjacent bones, though spontaneous arrest of bone ...
Thus again, cementum is more similar to alveolar bone, with its osteoblasts becoming entrapped osteocytes.[2] ... It is attached to the alveolar bone (C) by the fibers of the periodontal ligament and to the soft tissue of the gingiva by the ... Unlike those in bone, however, these canals in cementum do not contain nerves, nor do they radiate outward. Instead, the canals ... Adler, C.J.; Haak, W.; Donlon, D.; Cooper, A. (2010). "Survival and recovery of DNA from ancient teeth and bones". Journal of ...
Bone is resorbed by osteoclasts, and is deposited by osteoblasts in a process called ossification. Osteocyte activity plays a ... Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and ... Bone remodelling is a process which maintains bone strength and ion homeostasis by replacing discrete parts of old bone with ... In some cases where bone resorption outpaces ossification, the bone is broken down much faster than it can be renewed. The bone ...
... while pyrophosphate inhibits both osteoclastic bone resorption and the mineralization of the bone newly formed by osteoblasts, ... Under therapy, normal bone tissue develops, and alendronate is deposited in the bone-matrix in a pharmacologically inactive ... the exposure to tissues other than bone is very low. After absorption in the bone, alendronate has an estimated terminal ... Its inhibition of bone-resorption is dose-dependent and approximately 1,000 times stronger than the equimolar effect of the ...
bone mineralization involved in bone maturation. • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • positive ... positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation. • activation of protein kinase B activity. • insulin-like growth factor ...
2009). „Changes of bone formation markers osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in postmenopausal women with ... 2008). „Two of four alternatively spliced isoforms of RUNX2 control osteocalcin gene expression in human osteoblast cells.". ... Lumachi F, Camozzi V, Tombolan V, Luisetto G (2009). „Bone mineral density, osteocalcin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase ... "J. Bone Miner. Res. 24 (12): 2039-49. PMC 2791518 . PMID 19453261. doi:10.1359/jbmr.090524.. CS1 одржавање: Експлицитна ...
"The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene regulates osteoclast and osteoblast activity in vitro". Bone. 30 (2): 368 ... endocrine bone disease: Osteitis fibrosa cystica (Brown tumor). infectious bone disease: Osteomyelitis (Sequestrum, Involucrum ... Fibrous dysplasia (Monostotic, Polyostotic) · Skeletal fluorosis · bone cyst (Aneurysmal bone cyst) · Hyperostosis (Infantile ... "Decision rules for selecting women for bone mineral density testing: application in postmenopausal women referred to a bone ...
osteoblast differentiation. • response to growth hormone. • glucose metabolic process. • negative regulation of insulin-like ... Mohan S، Farley JR، Baylink DJ (1996). "Age-related changes in IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5 levels in human serum and bone: implications ... negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation. • regulation of glucose metabolic process. • negative regulation of cell ... Andress DL، Birnbaum RS (1991). "A novel human insulin-like growth factor binding protein secreted by osteoblast-like cells". ...
"Vitamin D activation of functionally distinct regulatory miRNAs in primary human osteoblasts". J Bone Miner Res. 28 (6): 1478- ...
... increased osteoblast function (mineralization), resulting in higher bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume, and ... "J Bone Miner Res. 26 (2): 298-307. doi:10.1002/jbmr.209. PMC 3179349. PMID 20734455.. ... 2008). "Deletion of the G protein-coupled Receptor GPR30 Impairs Glucose Tolerance, Reduces Bone Growth, Increases Blood ... persistent growth plate activity resulting in longer bones.[38][39] Clinical significance[edit]. GPER plays a role in breast ...
In the neck-Although the hyoid bone is free-floating, it is not technically a sesamoid bone. All sesamoid bones form directly ... In anatomy, a sesamoid bone (/ˈsɛsəmɔɪd/[1][2]) is a bone embedded within a tendon or a muscle.[3] It is derived from the Latin ... In the foot-the first metatarsal bone usually has two sesamoid bones at its connection to the big toe (both within the tendon ... Sesamoid bones generally have a very limited blood supply, rendering them prone to avascular necrosis (bone death from lack of ...
"Bone. 64: 39-46. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2014.03.044. PMC 4041821. PMID 24709686.. ... In cell culture, adipocytes can also form osteoblasts, myocytes and other cell types. ... "Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 32 (8): 1692-1702. doi:10.1002/jbmr.3159. PMC 5550355. PMID 28436105.. ... Marrow adipose tissue expands in states of low bone density but additionally expands in the setting of obesity.[3] Marrow ...
This may cause bone pain and tenderness, due to increased bone resorption. Due to increased circulating calcium, there may be ... PTH increases blood calcium levels by directly stimulating osteoblasts and thereby indirectly stimulating osteoclasts (through ... Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism, characterized by alterations in the blood calcium levels and bone metabolism, are ... have key roles in regulating the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones. Parathyroid glands share a similar blood ...
"Bone Marrow Research. 2012: 1-8. doi:10.1155/2012/787414. PMC 3398573. PMID 22830032. Archived from the original on 3 January ... These cells have the ability to differentiate into various cell types such as osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, ... Bone Marrow Transplant Retrieved on 21 November 2008 *^ Srivastava A, Bapat M, Ranade S, Srinivasan V, Murugan P, Manjunath S, ... MSCs have been isolated from placenta, adipose tissue, lung, bone marrow and blood, Wharton's jelly from the umbilical cord,[23 ...
By a lesser understood mechanism, thiazides directly stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone mineral formation, further ... This effect is associated with positive calcium balance and is associated with an increase in bone mineral density and ... induce osteoblast differentiation and mineralized nodule formation by interacting with a sodium chloride co-transporter in bone ...
Osteoblast[edit]. Light micrograph of cancellous decalcified bone displaying osteoblasts actively synthesizing osteoid, ... Bone marrow[edit]. Bone marrow, also known as myeloid tissue in red bone marrow, can be found in almost any bone that holds ... Bone volume[edit]. Bone volume is determined by the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent research has suggested ... Bone tissue is a mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones ...
... excessive amounts of cytokines that stimulate bone marrow stromal cells to become fiber-secreting fibroblasts and osteoblasts. ... positive regulation of osteoblast proliferation. • transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • platelet aggregation. • ... negative regulation of bone mineralization. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • male ... V205M: familial disease characterized by severe anemia in fetuses and newborns; bone marrow has increased numbers of malformed ...
Adult bones are maintained by a balance of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Although Wnt signaling ... Mice lacking one copy of Fzd9 also had low bone mass, suggesting that insufficient Fzd9 may cause the reduced bone density seen ... Fzd9 was upregulated during osteoblast differentiation and that mice lacking Fzd9 had fragile bones due to low rates of bone ... Fzd9-null osteoblasts differentiated normally, but they failed to mineralize their extracellular matrix. The loss of Fzd9 ...
Tumor-driven systemic activation of osteoblasts in the bone promotes lung tumor growth ... Tumor-driven systemic activation of osteoblasts in the bone promotes lung tumor growth ... report that osteoblasts, which reside in the bone, can be remotely activated by secreted factors from lung adenocarcinoma, ... bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) have been shown to contribute to primary tumor progression by promoting hallmark processes ...
Bone mineral serves an important pathophysiologic role as a reserve of hydroxyl ions to buffer systemic protons if the kidneys ... we investigated the effects of acidosis on osteoblast function by using mineralized bone nodule-forming primary osteoblast ... Acidosis inhibits bone formation by osteoblasts in vitro by preventing mineralization Calcif Tissue Int. 2005 Sep;77(3):167-74. ... Thus, in uncorrected acidosis, the deposition of alkaline mineral in bone by osteoblasts is reduced, and osteoclast resorptive ...
... promotes bone formation, providing a potential new target for the treatment of osteoporosis, new research has shown. ... Adult bones are maintained by a balance of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Although Wnt signaling ... Pagets And Jaw Bone Diseases. Osteitis deformans, or Pagets disease of the bone, is the deformity of the bone. Symptoms include ... Advantages of Bone Marrow Stem Cells. Encyclopedia section of medindia explains in brief about the advantages of using bone ...
"Conditional disruption of calcineurin B1 in osteoblasts increases bone formation and reduces bone resorption," Journal of ... "Cyclosporin A elicits dose-dependent biphasic effects on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation," Bone, vol. 40, no. 6, ... NFAT Signaling in Osteoblasts Regulates the Hematopoietic Niche in the Bone Microenvironment. Cheryl L. Sesler and Majd ... L. Sun, H. C. Blair, Y. Peng et al., "Calcineurin regulates bone formation by the osteoblast," Proceedings of the National ...
Bone-protecting effect of Rubus coreanus by dual regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.. Do SH1, Lee JW, Jeong WI, Chung JY ... We observed that RCM could prevent bone loss by increasing the femur trabecular bone area in a dose-dependent manner in ... Bone loss occurs with increasing age and/or as a secondary occurrence to chronic metabolic disease. Certain nutritional and ... The beneficial effect of RCM may be mediated, at least in part, by dual regulation of the enhancement of osteoblast function ...
Structure and function of bone Bone turnover What is metabolic bone diseases? Structure of Collagen-I Bone turnover markers ... of total protein in human bone During bone formation 10-30% of OC synthesized from osteoblast is released in circulation ... Markers of Bone Resorption .. Osteocalcin (Bone Gla protein.N-terminal (PINP) .Bone ALP .Procollagen type I propeptide ( ... K+ osteoblast .. Bone turnover Osteoclast precursors Proliferate and fuse to Form Osteoclast Hydrogen Ion Remove mineralisation ...
Osteoblast Isolation. Osteoblasts were isolated from mouse bone as described for human osteoblasts (14). ... that nonadherent CD34 bone marrow cells can differentiate to osteoblasts (12) and the quite recent report that murine bone ... Hematopoietic cells and osteoblasts are derived from a common marrow progenitor after bone marrow transplantation. Massimo ... Hematopoietic cells and osteoblasts are derived from a common marrow progenitor after bone marrow transplantation ...
It is characterised by weakened bones associated with progressive bone loss. Currently the mechanism through which either bone ... Infected osteoblasts also increase the expression of RANKL, a key protein involved in initiating bone resorption. None of these ... Staphylococcus aureus protein A binds to osteoblasts and triggers signals that weaken bone in osteomyelitis.. Claro T1, Widaa A ... Staphylococcus aureus Protein A Binds to Osteoblasts and Triggers Signals That Weaken Bone in Osteomyelitis ...
The results show that new vessel and bone formed using implant cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Nanofiber- ... Bone tissue engineering has been developed and regarded as a new way of regenerating bone tissues to repair or substitute ... reinforced scaffold cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells can induce vascularized bone tissue formation. ... and X-ray examination had been done to learn the effect of vascularized bone repair materials on the regeneration of bone. ...
Heterozygous PPARγ-deficient mice exhibited high bone mass with increased osteoblastogenesis, but normal osteoblast and ... PPAR γ insufficiency enhances osteogenesis through osteoblast formation from bone marrow progenitors. ... PPAR γ insufficiency enhances osteogenesis through osteoblast formation from bone marrow progenitors. ... This study demonstrates a PPARγ-dependent regulation of bone metabolism in vivo, in that PPARγ insufficiency increases bone ...
In conclusion, supplementation of PMMA bone cement with gentamicin, AgNP, and both results in bone implants with an ... bone cement functionalized with AgNP and/or gentamicin were tested regarding their biocompatibility with bone forming cells. ...
Mst2 Controls Bone Homeostasis by Regulating Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation.. [Jongwon Lee, Bang Ung Youn, Kabsun ... Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 2015-3-13 ... Osteoblast precursors deficient in Mst2 exhibit attenuated osteoblast differentiation and function by downregulating the ... However, the roles of Mst2 in osteoclast and osteoblast development are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that mice ...
We have found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway exerts exquisite control of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation ... Our results suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery regulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation and that ... Selective inhibitors of the osteoblast proteasome stimulate bone formation in vivo and in vitro. ... Selective inhibitors of the osteoblast proteasome stimulate bone formation in vivo and in vitro. ...
... gene in osteoblasts of newborn rats, parietal calvaria bone osteoblast cultures of 48-hr-old rats were treated for 48 hr with ... Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells. "Stimulatory effects of fluoride on osteoblasts result in formation of osteoid, which ... The value of the hedgehog signal in osteoblasts in fluoride-induced bone-tissue injury.. Author: Deng C, Xu L, Zhang Y, Zhao L ... Fluorides Effect on Osteoblasts (Bone-Forming Cells). As noted by the National Research Council, "[p]erhaps the single ...
This study was to examine the association between ATO treatment and bone remodeling. The effects of ATO on osteoblast function ... Similar effects of ATO on osteoblasts were seen in in vivo experiments in the rat. Moreover, decreases of bone turnover markers ... This study was to examine the association between ATO treatment and bone remodeling. The effects of ATO on osteoblast function ... These results suggest that ATO interferes with bone remodeling mostly through changes in osteoblast differentiation and ...
These results indicated that MT01 could induce differentiation of BMSCs to osteoblasts and inhibit the alveolar bone absorption ... the differentiation of BMSCs to osteoblasts and mRNA expression of bone-associated factors including Runx2, Osterix, OPG, RANKL ... In vivo study showed that MT01 prevented the loss of alveolar bone in the rats with periodontitis and induced the production of ... to osteoblasts, in order to find a candidate ODN with potential for the treatment of periodontitis, a series of ODNs were ...
... Eur J ... Keywords: Bone morphogenetic protein; Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs); Osteogenic; RUNX2; Silibinin. ... However, no study has yet investigated the effect of silibinin on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells ( ... Silibinin also increased the mRNA expressions of Collagen type I (COL-I), ALP, Osteocalcin (OCN), Osterix, bone morphogenetic ...
... is an osteoblast secretory protein that becomes incorporated into the mineralized bone matrix. In osteoblast cultures, IGFBP-5 ... To evaluate whether IGFBP-5 can stimulate osteoblast activity and enhance bone accretion in a mouse model of osteoblast ... These data indicate that IGFBP-5 effectively enhances bone formation and bone accretion in OVX mice by stimulating osteoblast ... is an osteoblast secretory protein that becomes incorporated into the mineralized bone matrix. In osteoblast cultures, IGFBP-5 ...
The antigenic profile of human osteoblasts was previously analyzed by our group using primary cultures as study samples. These ... Osteoblasts Bone tissue Antigenic phenotype Immunohistochemistry This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Aubin JE, Liu F, Malaval L, Gupta AK (1995) Osteoblast and chondroblast differentiation. Bone 17:17S-83SCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... CD10, CD44 and alkaline phosphatase antigens and IL-12, IL-18 and IFNγ cytokines were detected in osteoblasts in the bone ...
Using 18-week-old and 52-week-old Wistar rats, we examined interleukin-6 (IL-6) production from osteoblasts and bone marrow ... EFFECTS OF MEDROXYPROGESTERONE ACETATE AND β-ESTRADIOL ON INTERLEUKIN-6 PRODUCTION FROM OSTEOBLASTS AND BONE MARROW MACROPHAGES ... The level of IL-6 production by osteoblasts was increased by treatment with MPA and, reversely, decreased by treatment with β- ... These data suggest that because the increased production of IL-6 by osteoblasts treated with MPA in opposition with β-estradiol ...
Activation of osteoclast and inhibition of osteoblast brings about bone fractures, osteoporosis, hypercalcemia, bone pain and ... Observational Study of the Effects Intravenous Bortezomib Has on Osteoblast (Cell That is Responsible for Bone Formation) ... released from multiple myeloma cells resorb bone and, at the same time, activation of osteoblast is inhibited, leading to ... bone metabolism markers (DKK-1, sRANKL, OPG, sRANKL/OPG,bALP, OC) [ Time Frame: on day 1 at the first cycle, and 12-24 weeks ] ...
Title: Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice ... Journal Article: Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in ... These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating ... the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone ...
Bone Mineralizing Activity of Osteoblasts Relates to Their Alkaline Phosphatase and Succinic Dehydrogenase Activity. JN ... Bone Mineralizing Activity of Osteoblasts Relates to Their Alkaline Phosphatase and Succinic Dehydrogenase Activity ... Bone Mineralizing Activity of Osteoblasts Relates to Their Alkaline Phosphatase and Succinic Dehydrogenase Activity ... Bone Mineralizing Activity of Osteoblasts Relates to Their Alkaline Phosphatase and Succinic Dehydrogenase Activity ...
Sobre: Bone formation by three-dimensional stromal osteoblast ... Baixe grátis o arquivo Bone formation by three-dimensional ... stromal osteoblast.pdf enviado por Igor no curso de Engenharia de Produção na UNIARA. ... Bone formation by three-dimensional stromal osteoblast. Igorrow Enviado por: Igor Donini , comentários Arquivado no curso de ... we also demonstrated that osteoblasts on polymer films migrate from isolated osteoblast cultures and bone chips as a monolayer ...
Generation of clinical grade human bone marrow stromal cells for use in bone regeneration. Bone. 2015;70:87-92 ... bone forming cells) and are relatively immune-privileged. (1) ESCs represent the ideal source of new osteoblasts for bone ... Bone-graft and bone-graft substitutes - a review of current technology and applications. J Appl Biomater. 1991;2(3):187-208 ... Ducheyne P, Qiu Q. Bioactive ceramics: the effect of surface reactivity on bone formation and bone cell function. Biomaterials ...
p38 MAPK in Myeloma Cells Regulates Osteoclast and Osteoblast Activity and Induces Bone Destruction. Jin He, Zhiqiang Liu, ... In this study, we show that p38 activity in myeloma inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, but also enhances ... p38 MAPK in Myeloma Cells Regulates Osteoclast and Osteoblast Activity and Induces Bone Destruction ... p38 MAPK in Myeloma Cells Regulates Osteoclast and Osteoblast Activity and Induces Bone Destruction ...
Research ArticleBone. Chronic skin inflammation leads to bone loss by IL-17-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in osteoblasts ... These data provide a mechanism where IL-17A affects bone formation by regulating Wnt signaling in osteoblasts and osteocytes. ... Chronic skin inflammation leads to bone loss by IL-17-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in osteoblasts ... Chronic skin inflammation leads to bone loss by IL-17-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in osteoblasts ...
Human Amniotic Tumor That Induces New Bone Formation in Vivo Produces a Growth-regulatory Activity in Vitro for Osteoblasts ... Human Amniotic Tumor That Induces New Bone Formation in Vivo Produces a Growth-regulatory Activity in Vitro for Osteoblasts ... Human Amniotic Tumor That Induces New Bone Formation in Vivo Produces a Growth-regulatory Activity in Vitro for Osteoblasts ... Human Amniotic Tumor That Induces New Bone Formation in Vivo Produces a Growth-regulatory Activity in Vitro for Osteoblasts ...
As methylation of CDKN2A increases, bone mineral content, bone area and areal bone mineral density all decrease at both 4 and 6 ... CDKN2A : a predictive marker for bone mineral density or direct role in osteoblast function ... bone area and areal bone mineral density in offspring from the Southampton Womens Survey(SWS) cohort. ... may be central to the mechanism by which early development influences bone mineral density and later bone health. Previous work ...
  • Adult bones are maintained by a balance of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. (
  • Extracellular hydrogen ions are now thought to be the primary activation signal for osteoclastic bone resorption, and osteoclasts are very sensitive to small changes in pH within the pathophysiologic range. (
  • Bone-protecting effect of Rubus coreanus by dual regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that mice deficient in Mst2 exhibit osteoporotic phenotypes with increased numbers of osteoclasts and decreased numbers of osteoblasts as shown by micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses. (
  • These data suggest that because the increased production of IL-6 by osteoblasts treated with MPA in opposition with β-estradiol, MPA should be careful for osteoporosis dependent upon osteoclasts activated by IL-6. (
  • Scientifically Proven: Cyanidin In These Fruits Inhibits Osteoclasts, Increases Osteoblasts And Much More! (
  • It's a powerful, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant polyphenol called cyanidin, and research reveals that it has the remarkable ability to inhibit the differentiation of osteoclasts (the cells that tear down bone) while increasing the differentiation of osteoblasts (bone-building cells), and much more. (
  • The body manufacturers osteoclasts (to remove old bone) and osteoblasts (to build new bone) from cells called haematopoietic progenitor cells, or stem cells. (
  • For osteoblasts and osteoclasts, factors called macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANK Ligand (RANKL) "decide" what each cell will become by activating various intracellular signaling pathways. (
  • 1 In other words, cyanidin plays a role in the natural regulation of osteoclasts in the process of bone remodeling, inhibiting a key RANKL receptor at the appropriate time. (
  • Histomorphometric measurements revealed a marked (30%) increase femoral cancellous bone volume in the OC-IGF-I transgenic mice, but no change in the total number of osteoblasts or osteoclasts. (
  • CGRP inhibits osteoclasts, stimulates insulin-like growth factor I and inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha production by osteoblasts in vitro. (
  • Journal Article] The dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibits bone resorption by rapidly disrupting actin rings of osteoclasts. (
  • Osteoclasts are the cells that degrade bone to initiate normal bone remodeling and mediate bone loss in pathologic conditions by increasing their resorptive activity. (
  • Recent studies have identified functions for OCPs and osteoclasts in and around bone other than bone resorption. (
  • Here, we review these findings, which define new roles for osteoclasts and OCPs in the growing field of osteoimmunology and in common pathologic conditions in which bone resorption is increased. (
  • Strontium potently inhibits mineralisation in bone-forming primary rat osteoblast cultures and reduces numbers of osteoclasts in mouse marrow cultures. (
  • As such, osteoblasts serve as an HSC niche, whereas osteoclasts mediate HSCs and progenitor egress from the BM. (
  • osteoclasts are involved in the resorption of bone tissue. (
  • Bone is actively constructed and remodeled throughout life by special bone cells known as osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (
  • However, these reports conflict in their nomination of osteoblasts versus osteoclasts as the key producers of skeletal SLIT3 and additionally offer conflicting data on the effects of SLIT3 on osteoclastogenesis. (
  • Conditional deletion of SLIT3 in cathepsin K (CTSK)-positive cells, including osteoclasts, had no effect on the number of osteoclast progenitors, in vitro osteoclast differentiation, overall bone mass, or bone resorption/formation parameters. (
  • These drugs function to either block bone resorption by osteoclasts or augment bone formation by osteoblasts. (
  • 9 However, in this report, osteoclasts, as opposed to osteoblasts, were nominated as a key source of SLIT3 to control coupling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (
  • Histomorphometric analysis of femurs showed decreased numbers of osteoblasts but similar numbers of osteoclasts compared to WT, altered osteoblast morphology and decreased tissue synthesis of alkaline phosphatase in Mecp2-null and HET mice. (
  • The uPAR and its ligand uPA are expressed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (
  • We report that uPAR-lacking mice display increased BMD, increased osteogenic potential of osteoblasts, decreased osteoclasts formation, and altered cytoskeletal reorganization in mature osteoclasts. (
  • It was previously shown that the major players in bone remodeling, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, express uPAR and produce urokinase (uPA). (
  • Conclusions: The defective proliferation and differentiation of bone cells, coincident with both aberrant expression of transcription factors and cytoskeletal organization, are typical uPAR-dependent molecular phenotypes, and we have now shown their function in osteoblasts and osteoclasts function in vivo. (
  • Osteoclasts travel over the surface of the bone matrix and secrete acids and enzymes to disintegrate it, forming a little bit on the surface of the bone. (
  • The main function of osteoclasts is reabsorbing the bone. (
  • The cells of osteoclasts are equipped with engulfs bone fragments mechanism. (
  • Osteocytes affect bone remodeling by producing regulatory factors to influence the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in response to endocrine signals including the blood level of vitamin D . Osteocytes can sense pressures or cracks in the bone and help to direct where osteoclasts will dissolve the bone. (
  • tPA and uPA are expressed by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and these factors are regulated by stimuli with hormones and factors such as parathyroid hormone, prostaglandin E 2 , and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ( 1 , 15 , 16 , 20 , 21 , 47 ). (
  • Still, osteoblast activity activates RANKL activity which stimulates osteoclasts which can cause bone disease . (
  • Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is known to be important in the initiation and regulation of osteogenesis , so in this study the actions of FGF-6 on human osteoblasts and osteoclasts were investigated. (
  • Mature osteoclasts cultured on dentine slice increased the area of reabsorption with a maximal effect of FGF-6 at 10(-12) M. FGF-6 may be considered a regulator of bone metabolism as shown by its activity on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (
  • Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly being reshaped by osteoblasts, which produce and secrete matrix proteins and transport mineral into the matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down the tissues. (
  • Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that derive from hematopoietic progenitors in the bone marrow which also give rise to monocytes in peripheral blood. (
  • Osteoclasts break down bone tissue, and along with osteoblasts and osteocytes form the structural components of bone. (
  • A team of researchers led by Thorsten Schinke found that the Wnt receptor Fzd9 was upregulated during osteoblast differentiation and that mice lacking Fzd9 had fragile bones due to low rates of bone formation. (
  • However, osteoblast alkaline phosphatase activity, which peaked strongly near pH 7.4, was reduced eight-fold at pH 6.9. (
  • Osteoblasts were allowed adhere to immobilised wildtype S. aureus and isogenic mutants (1×10 9 cells/ml), ( A+B ) strain Newman, ( C ) strain SH1000, ( D ) strain 8325-4 or ( E ) purified protein A or recombinant ClfA(50 µg/ml) for 45 mins at 37°C. Adhesion was determined by measuring the intracellular enzyme alkaline phosphatase content at 405 nm in a microplate reader. (
  • In the F group, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblasts increased gradually. (
  • In cell culture, ATO decreased osteoblast mineralization by decreasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and this effect was prevented by co-addition of inorganic phosphate (Pi). (
  • CD10, CD44 and alkaline phosphatase antigens and IL-12, IL-18 and IFNγ cytokines were detected in osteoblasts in the bone tissue. (
  • In primary osteoblast-enriched cultures, extracellular tenascin was found only in cell aggregates expressing the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase. (
  • METHODS: Osteoblast cell cultures were prepared from metaphyseal trabecular bone of normal individuals, OA patients, OA patients with fTHR with massive cavitary osteolysis (fTHR-O) and without massive cavitary osteolysis (fTHR-NO). Osteoblasts were characterized by measuring osteocalcin, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) activity. (
  • The FGFR-2 mutation caused increased expression of the osteoblast markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type 1 collagen (COLIA1), and osteocalcin (OC) in long-term culture. (
  • 8 ] observed that polarization of human fetal pre-osteoblasts reduced the activity of the early stage differentiation marker, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), but increased calcium deposition. (
  • T63 increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) activity and mineralization as well as gene expression of Alpl and other osteogenic marker genes in mouse osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cell-like cells. (
  • However, osteoblasts deficient in ACVR2A exhibited enhanced differentiation indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity, mineral deposition, and transcriptional expression of osterix, osteocalcin, and dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1. (
  • uPAR KO osteoblasts showed a proliferative advantage with no difference in apoptosis, higher matrix mineralization, and earlier appearance of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). (
  • Alterations of the subchondral bone include an increased, yet under mineralized osteoid matrix, abnormal osteoblast cell phenotype including elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, increased release of osteocalcin (OC) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1). (
  • Osteoblasts also produce chemicals called prostaglandins and an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase enzyme. (
  • Human primary osteoblasts (hOB) were used to study the effect of FGF-6 on proliferation (by ATP quantification), signal transduction (by ERK and AKT phosphorylation), differentiation (by alkaline phosphatase activity) and mineralization (by calcein staining). (
  • Bone health biomarkers such as alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization were evaluated. (
  • I have cultured human fetal osteoblast (hFOB 1.19) and I need to check for the alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for that cells. (
  • You can apply this method of fractional precipitation for to research, with the Randox kit, bone alkaline phosphatase. (
  • We have found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway exerts exquisite control of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo in rodents. (
  • To investigate the effect of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to osteoblasts, in order to find a candidate ODN with potential for the treatment of periodontitis, a series of ODNs were designed and selected to test their effect on the promotion of the differentiation of BMSCs to osteoblasts in vitro and on the repair of periodontal tissue in rats with periodontitis. (
  • It was found that MT01, one of the ODNs with the sequences of human mitochondrial DNA, stimulated the proliferation of BMSCs, the differentiation of BMSCs to osteoblasts and mRNA expression of bone-associated factors including Runx2, Osterix, OPG, RANKL and collagen I in vitro . (
  • The transplanted osteoblasts may be obtained by a variety of methods for in vitro and in vivo studies, including migration from bone chips and enzymatic digestion of harvested bone.10 However, the most desirable method would be to obtain osteoblasts percutaneously from the patient's bone marrow. (
  • They then used nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques to examine osteoblasts in an in vitro model of bone formation. (
  • Our study indicates the importance of using different in vitro approaches for studies of regulation of osteoclastogenesis by S. aureus to obtain better understanding of the complex mechanisms of S. aureus bone destruction in vivo . (
  • Since the susceptibility to, or the severity of inflammation-associated bone diseases are likely related to differences in the tissue response, and the mechanisms by which PAMPs interact with bone cells are not fully understood, we aimed to elucidate the importance of different TLRs for inflammation induced bone loss by conducting in vitro and in vivo investigations. (
  • Maniatopoulos C, Sodek J, Melcher AH (1988) Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young rats. (
  • We previously reported that Lef1 is expressed in proliferating osteoblasts and blocks osteocalcin expression, but Lef1N is only detectable in the later stages of osteoblast differentiation and promotes osteogenesis in vitro. (
  • Publications] Sasano.Y: 'BMPs induce direct bone formation in ectopic sites independent in vivo and in vitro' The Anatomical Record. (
  • Publications] Kuboki.Y: 'Hydroxyapatite as a supporter for osteoblasts differentiation in vivo and in vitro' Apatite. (
  • Publications] Kuboki, Y.Murata, T.Mizuno, M.and Nagai, Y.: 'hydroxyapatite as a carrier for osteoblasts differentiation in vivo and in vitro' Apatite. (
  • The aim of the in vivo and in vitro studies on which this thesis is based was to investigate the responses to CF of immune cells and osteoblasts derived from human alveolar bone (HOBs). (
  • In the in vitro studies (Papers II and III), HOBs were used to study the initial effects of varying magnitudes of CF on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of molecules involved in inflammation and the bone remodelling process. (
  • Paper III: Tripuwabhrut P, Mustafa M, Gjerde CG, Brudvik P, Mustafa K. Effect of compressive force on human osteoblast-like cells and bone remodelling: an in vitro study. (
  • The overall objective of the present study was to generate a tissue engineered synthetic bone graft with homogenously distributed osteoblasts and mineralizing bone matrix in vitro , thereby mimicking the advantageous properties of autogenous bone grafts and facilitating usage for reconstructing segmental discontinuity defects in vivo . (
  • In conclusion, RPS displayed superior mechanical and biological properties and facilitated generating a tissue engineered synthetic bone graft in vitro , which mimics the advantageous properties of autogenous bone grafts, by containing homogenously distributed terminally differentiated osteoblasts and mineralizing bone matrix and therefore is suitable for subsequent in vivo implantation for regenerating segmental discontinuity bone defects. (
  • 8] C. Knabe, G. Berger, R. Gildenhaar, J. Meyer, C.R. Howlett, B. Markovic, H. Zreiqat, Effect of rapidly resorbable calcium phosphates and a calcium phosphate bone cement on the expression of bone-related genes and proteins in vitro, J Biomed Mater Res A. 69 (2004). (
  • 9] C. Knabe, A. Houshmand, G. Berger, P. Ducheyne , R. Gildenhaar , I, Kranz , M. Stiller, Effect of rapidly resorbable bone substitute materials on the temporal expression of the osteoblastic phenotype in vitro, J. Biomed Mater Res A. 84 (2008). (
  • In vitro , NCC protein was virtually absent in proliferating human and fetal rat osteoblasts, whereas its expression dramatically increased during differentiation. (
  • Using human breast cancer cell lines to induce tumors in the bone of immune-deficient mice, we first determined whether RANKL released by cells of the osteoblast lineage directly promotes IL-6 expression by cancer cells in-vitro and in-vivo. (
  • We demonstrate that osteoblast lineage-derived RANKL up-regulates secretion of IL-6 by breast cancers in-vivo and in-vitro. (
  • Results indicate that the biphasic bioceramic electrospun scaffolds are biocompatible and have no significant negative effects on either osteoblasts or osteoclast-like cells in vitro. (
  • Supplementation with AA can thus help to expand subchondral bone OB in vitro while maintaining their special cellular characteristics. (
  • In order to investigate this issue, we studied the effects of various bisphosphonates on osteoblast growth and differentiation in vitro. (
  • We conclude that aminobisphosphonates cause osteoblast apoptosis in vitro at micromolar concentrations and inhibit osteoblast differentiation at nanomolar concentrations by mechanisms that are independent of effects on protein prenylation and may be due in part to inhibition of mineralization. (
  • Osteoblasts lacking ACVR2B did not show significant changes in vitro. (
  • Similar to the lack of effect in vitro, ACVR2B-deficient mice demonstrated no significant change in any bone parameter. (
  • In vitro osteoclast formation was tested with uPAR KO bone marrow monocytes in the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL. (
  • Expression of osteoblast-specific genes and subsequent osteoblasts mineralization was increased in mesenchymal stromal cells from healthy young donors by in vitro erythropoietin treatment. (
  • We used an in vitro cell adhesion assay to demonstrate that at 0.1 mM, 8-Br-cAMP, a cell-permeable cAMP analog, significantly enhances osteoblast-like cells' (MC3T3-E1) adherence to biomaterials[so this is the analog that should be applied beneath the subchondral plate] . (
  • Mammalian bone marrow contains cells capable of forming colonies in culture (CFU fibroblasts [CFU-Fs]) that contain cells capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro or after subcutaneous transplantation. (
  • The present data provide the first direct in vivo evidence that RCM has a bone-protecting effect caused by estrogen deficiency, without undesirable side effects on the uterus and other solid organs. (
  • An ideal bone tissue engineering graft should have both excellent proosteogenesis and proangiogenesis to rapidly realize the bone regeneration in vivo [ 6 ]. (
  • This study demonstrates a PPARγ-dependent regulation of bone metabolism in vivo, in that PPARγ insufficiency increases bone mass by stimulating osteoblastogenesis from bone marrow progenitors. (
  • The effects of ATO on osteoblast function were investigated in primary cell cultures and in an in vivo study in rats. (
  • Similar effects of ATO on osteoblasts were seen in in vivo experiments in the rat. (
  • In vivo study showed that MT01 prevented the loss of alveolar bone in the rats with periodontitis and induced the production of proteins of OPG and Osterix in the bone tissue. (
  • The finding that IGFBP-5-(1--169) is bioactive in vivo indicates that the carboxy-terminal portion is not required for this bone anabolic effect. (
  • The aim of the present study was to analyze the antigens present in osteoblasts in vivo, since the presence of certain biomolecules in fetal bovine serum may modulate the antigenic expression, compromising the results. (
  • Blocking IL-17A restored bone formation in vivo. (
  • After two weeks of in vivo tibial compression, female pOC-ER[alpha]KO mice showed a greater increase in bone mass in the proximal tibia, where baseline bone mass was decreased, and at the tibial midshaft, where baseline bone mass was similar to LC. (
  • This is the first evidence to indicate that BMPR1a may mediate bone's response to mechanical loading and interact with ER[alpha] in osteoblasts in vivo. (
  • S. aureus stimulation of neonatal mouse parietal bone induced ex vivo bone resorption and osteoclastic gene expression. (
  • To determine the role of Lef1N on bone formation in vivo, a Lef1N transgene was expressed in committed osteoblasts. (
  • The extracellular matrix glycoprotein, tenascin, is associated in vivo with mesenchyme undergoing osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, but is absent from mature bone and cartilage matrix. (
  • To examine the effects of locally produced IGF-I in bone in vivo, we targeted expression IGF-I to osteoblasts of transgenic mice using a human osteocalcin promoter. (
  • To investigate the role of CGRP in bone in vivo, mice were engineered to express CGRP in osteoblasts by placing the human CGRP gene under the control of the rat osteocalcin promoter (Ost-CGRP tg+ mice). (
  • The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds (porosity, compressive strength, solubility) and their potential to facilitate homogenous colonization by osteogenic cells and extracellular bone matrix formation throughout the porous scaffold architecture prior to in vivo implantation were examined. (
  • By contrast, Cdh2 +/− ;Cdh11 −/− exhibit severely reduced trabecular bone mass, decreased in vivo bone formation rate, smaller diaphyses and impaired bone strength relative to single Cdh11 null mice. (
  • Disruption in-vivo of this auto-amplifying crosstalk by knockdown of IL-6 or RANK in cancer cells, or via treatment with anti-IL-6 receptor antibodies, significantly reduces tumor growth in bone but not in soft tissues. (
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor 603281-31-8, administered once daily increased bone formation in vivo. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that pannexin 3 (Panx3) promotes differentiation of osteoblasts and ex vivo growth of metatarsals. (
  • In an attempt to reveal the osteoblast-like phenotype of osteotropic breast cancer cells, we performed a microarray study on a model of breast cancer bone metastasis consisting of the MDA-MB-231 human cell line and its variant B02 selected for its high capacity to form bone metastases in vivo. (
  • Using immunohistochemistry, performed on human breast primary tumors and their matched liver and bone metastases, we were able to confirm that the osteoblast-like pattern of gene expression observed in our model holds true in vivo. (
  • Bisphosphonates are known to inhibit biochemical markers of bone formation in vivo, but it is unclear to what extent this is a consequence of osteoclast inhibition or a direct inhibitory effect on cells of the osteoblast lineage. (
  • The aminobisphosphonates pamidronate and alendronate inhibited osteoblast growth, caused osteoblast apoptosis, and inhibited protein prenylation in osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner over the concentration range 20-100 mu M. Further studies showed that alendronate in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg inhibited protein prenylation in calvarial osteoblasts in vivo, indicating that alendronate can be taken up by osteoblasts in sufficient amounts to inhibit protein prenylation at clinically relevant doses. (
  • While these results need to be interpreted with caution because of uncertainty about the concentrations of bisphosphonates that osteoblasts are exposed to in vivo, our studies clearly demonstrate that bisphosphonates exert strong inhibitory effects on cells of the osteoblast lineage at similar concentrations to those that cause osteoclast inhibition. (
  • To investigate activin signaling in osteoblasts in vivo, we analyzed the skeletal phenotypes of mice lacking these receptors in osteoblasts and osteocytes (osteocalcin-Cre). (
  • Among stromal cells, isolated mature osteoblasts which had strong in vivo osteogenic activity could be efficiently converted into functional neurons. (
  • Thus, teriparatide increases the numbers of early cells of the osteoblast lineage, hastens their differentiation into osteoblasts, and suppresses their differentiation into adipocytes in vivo. (
  • It is less clear whether teriparatide also acts on early osteoprogenitors to increase the number of new osteoblasts, partly because the identification of such cells in vivo has been challenging. (
  • This interaction prevents proliferation, induces apoptosis and inhibits mineralisation of cultured osteoblasts. (
  • Complementing the SpA-defective mutant with a plasmid expressing spa or using purified protein A resulted in attachment to osteoblasts, inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis to a similar extent as wildtype S. aureus. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus lacking SpA does not inhibit osteoblast proliferation. (
  • The proliferation rate of primary rat osteoblasts presented time-affected and dose-affected relationships in a short time under treatment with a low dose of sodium fluoride (NaF), but the proliferation of osteoblasts was inhibited by long-term and high-dose NaF exposure. (
  • Therefore, we speculate that the hedgehog (Hh) signal may affect the balance of bone remodeling by participating in the differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of osteoblasts and accordingly play an important role in the occurrence and development of skeletal fluorosis. (
  • In osteoblast cultures, IGFBP-5 stimulates cell proliferation by an IGF-independent mechanism. (
  • Osteoblasts should populate the constructs by proliferation of the transplanted cells and the migration of cells into the construct from the surrounding tissue while the polymer scaffold gradually degrades. (
  • Treatment of both SaOS-2 cells and primary osteoblasts with siRNAs against ANRIL caused a decrease in cell number, a decrease in cell proliferation, an increase in cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and, in SaOS-2 cells, caused an increase in the expression of bone differentiation markers RUNX2 and ALP. (
  • These findings suggest that ANRIL could potentially play a role in bone differentiation, cell proliferation and metabolism and that dysregulation of the expression of this lncRNA could have adverse effects on bone health, potentially increasing the risk of individuals developing osteoporosis in later life. (
  • Here we show that insulin promotes osteoblast proliferation and survival via the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signal transduction pathway, and that PKG stimulation of Akt provides a positive feedback loop. (
  • Cinaciguat-a NO-independent activator of oxidized guanylate cyclase-increased cGMP synthesis under diabetic conditions and restored proliferation, differentiation, and survival of osteoblasts. (
  • Skeletal unloading reduced osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through at least two independent pathways in bone marrow cells: apoptotic signal through the p53 gene and decreased osteogenic potential related to reduction of PECAM-1 expression. (
  • Thiazides did not affect osteoblast proliferation, but directly stimulated the production of the osteoblast differentiation markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2) and osteopontin. (
  • Given the potential therapeutic importance of long-term thiazide treatment in the prevention of age-related osteoporosis, it was the objective of this study to investigate the effects of thiazides by establishing NCC expression in human bone and to determine the effects of thiazides on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and mineralized nodule formation in osteoblast models. (
  • Osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and growth on polyelectrolyte complex-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites. (
  • Osteoblasts as well as monocytes that were differentiated into osteoclast-like cells, were cultured separately on the biphasic bioceramic scaffolds for up to 6 days and the proliferation, adhesion and cellular response were determined using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay, nucleus and cytoskeleton dynamics, analysis of the cell cycle progression, measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the detection of phosphatidylserine expression. (
  • Klein, RF 1997, ' Alcohol-induced bone disease: Impact of ethanol on osteoblast proliferation ', Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research , vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 392-399. (
  • UPAR KO calvaria osteoblasts were characterized by proliferation assays, RT-PCR for important proteins secreted during differentiation, and immunoblot for activator protein 1 (AP-1) family members. (
  • Moreover, the proliferation of primary calvarial osteoblasts was reduced in tPA −/− mice. (
  • Our results provide novel evidence that tPA is crucial for bone repair through the facilitation of osteoblast proliferation related to annexin 2 and ERK1/2 as well as enhancement of vessel formation related to VEGF and HIF-1α at the site of bone damage. (
  • So, how do you stimulate osteoblast proliferation and encourage the deposit of bone beneath the subchondral plate? (
  • In conclusion, finding the things that regulate osteoblasts is more important than just increasing osteoblast proliferation. (
  • I use the plant extract as for the treatment for differentiation and proliferation of the osteoblast. (
  • Though little is known about Isg15's function, restoring its expression in Fzd9-null osteoblasts boosted matrix mineralization, whereas mice lacking Isg15 had similar bone defects to Fzd9-knockout animals. (
  • Abundant, matrix-containing mineralized nodules formed in osteoblast cultures at pH 7.4, but acidification progressively reduced mineralization of bone nodules, with complete abolition at pH 6.9. (
  • 3) These findings indicated that the process of mineralization in calcified nodules is similar to that of body, and the calcified nodules formed by bone marrow cells are same with bone. (
  • Effect of nicotine in matrix mineralization by human bone marrow and Saos-2 cells cultured on the surface of plasma-sprayed titanium implants. (
  • These proteins are crucial for mineralization of the bone matrix. (
  • Using µCT, histomorphometry and quantitative backscattered electron imaging, we found minimal alterations in the quantity of bone and no differences in the degree of bone matrix mineralization in this model. (
  • It is the bone mineralization that give bones rigidity. (
  • As bone remodeling and mineralization are dependent on osteoblasts, it follows that the deleterious effect of alcohol on these cells would result in slowed bone formation, aberrant remodeling of skeletal tissue and, ultimately, osteopenia and fractures. (
  • Osteoblast differentiation is regulated by a variety of factors, including transcriptional factors and signaling pathways, which result in the maturation and mineralization of bone. (
  • Inorganic phosphate, which is generated during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, has recently been identified as an important signaling molecule capable of altering signal transduction pathways and gene expression. (
  • The process of osteoblast differentiation leading to bone mineralization is a poorly understood series of temporally and spatially coordinated events occurring on the order of weeks and months. (
  • Using the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast differentiation model ( 1 - 3 ), we have recently described the significance of inorganic phosphate, which is generated during differentiation, as a signaling molecule capable of altering specific signal transduction pathways, gene expression, and ultimately mineralization ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Vitamin D play an important role for calcium absorption and bone mineralization, which can improve the patients' quality of life. (
  • Moreover, the percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased in UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups by 416.9% (10 µg/mL), 460.7% (0.1 µg/mL), and 441.7% (10 µg/mL) respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. (
  • Thus, Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role to control the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in many bone disorders. (
  • Similarly, the percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 416.9% at 10 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while BT-DMEM+UT-TI group showed increased bone mineralization by 49.4%, 23.1%, and 20.6% at 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated group. (
  • In addition, bone mineralization in MG-63 cells was increased by 441.7% in the BT-DMEM+BT-TI group at 10 µg/mL, 460.7% at 0.1 µg/mL in BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and 416.9% at 10 µg/mL in UT-DMEM+BT-TI as compared with the untreated group. (
  • Conditional disruption of calcineurin B1 in osteoblasts increases bone formation and reduces bone resorption," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 282, no. 48, pp. 35318-35327, 2007. (
  • Infected osteoblasts also increase the expression of RANKL, a key protein involved in initiating bone resorption. (
  • Therefore, we investigated how S. aureus regulates periosteal/endosteal osteoclast formation and bone resorption. (
  • S. aureus also increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins in parietal bones but the stimulatory effect of S. aureus on bone resorption and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression was independent of these cytokines and prostaglandins. (
  • These data show that S. aureus enhances bone resorption and periosteal osteoclast formation by increasing osteoblast RANKL production through TLR2. (
  • Bone formation was evaluated with fluorescence double labeling with calcein and bone resorption with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. (
  • If excessive CF is applied, root resorption may be an unwanted complication of the bone remodelling process. (
  • The results of the studies provide evidence of the potentially pivotal roles of both the immune cells and the osteoblasts of the PDL in extensive root resorption induced by orthodontic tooth movement. (
  • Potential mechanisms by which thiazides may exert their effect on bone are via an inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and/or by an increase in osteoblastic bone formation. (
  • RANKL-Tg mice exhibit osteopenia characterized by excessive bone resorption. (
  • These osteoclast precursors (OCPs) are attracted to sites on bone surfaces destined for resorption and fuse with one another to form the multinucleated cells that resorb calcified matrixes under the influence of osteoblastic cells in bone marrow. (
  • Biochemical and histological evaluation of patients with alcoholic bone disease reveal a marked impairment in bone formation in the face of relatively normal bone resorption. (
  • Osteoporosis results from the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation, and restoring the normal balance of bone remodeling is highly desirable for identification of better treatment. (
  • Osteoporosis is caused by the imbalance between osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation, and has become one of the major global health concerns during aging development 1 . (
  • Either reducing bone resorption or increasing bone formation becomes suitable strategy for treatment of osteoporosis, aiming to restore the normal balance of bone remodeling. (
  • In addition, inhibiting bone resorption alone is apparently not sufficient, especially for those who already have serious bone mass loss. (
  • Bisphosphonates are widely used for the treatment of bone diseases associated with increased osteoclastic bone resorption. (
  • Osteoporosis is caused by increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation due to the changes in the level of different proteins and RNAs in osteoclast or/and osteoblasts. (
  • The available therapeutic interventions can significantly reduce bone resorption or enhance bone formation, but their prolonged use has deleterious side effects. (
  • The balance of bone formation and bone resorption tends to be negative with age, particularly in post-menopausal women, often leading to a loss of bone serious enough to cause fractures, which is called osteoporosis. (
  • We show that teriparatide increases the numbers of osteoblast precursors and drives their differentiation into mature osteoblasts. (
  • B) Relative mRNA levels of the marker genes for osteoblasts - COL1A1, osteocalcin and Runx2 - determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR 10 days after the embryoid bodies were transferred to a gelatinized six-multiwell plate in DMEM/10% FBS without any osteogenic supplements. (
  • Moreover, levels of mRNAs for the transcription factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix, the osteoblast osteogenic gene osteocalcin, and the adherence molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were decreased by ATO. (
  • Moreover, decreases of bone turnover markers of osteocalcin, Procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (CTX) as well as bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone volume of femur were observed in ATO-treated rats. (
  • Silibinin also increased the mRNA expressions of Collagen type I (COL-I), ALP, Osteocalcin (OCN), Osterix, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). (
  • In contrast, bone formation and mineral apposition rates, as well as osteocalcin levels were increased in Lef1N transgenic mice. (
  • We observed a downregulation of the osteoblast markers Runx2, Colα1, osteocalcin and sclerostin in corticosterone-treated mice compared to placebo. (
  • RESULTS: ALP activity was increased in osteoblasts from patients with OA and fTHR-O compared to normal controls and fTHR-NO. Osteocalcin release was increased only in fTHR-O compared to all other groups. (
  • Reduced CpG methylation is associated with transcriptional activation of the bone-specific rat osteocalcin gene in osteoblasts. (
  • Osteoblasts attach to the surface of the bone matrix, proliferate, and secrete type I collagen and bone-specific non-collagenous proteins such as osteocalcin. (
  • The presence of these surface features has also been shown to induce the expression of bone-specific proteins such as osteocalcin and osteopontin, even in the absence of osteoinductive media [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • They synthesize dense, crosslinked collagen and specialized proteins in much smaller quantities, including osteocalcin and osteopontin, which compose the organic matrix of bone. (
  • However, no study has yet investigated the effect of silibinin on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs). (
  • The ideal bone substitute would approximate the autograft, requiring minimally that it be biocompatible and osteoconductive, contain osteoinductive factors to enhance new bone ingrowth, and contain osteogenic cells to begin secreting new extracellular matrix.1 Bone regeneration by autogenous osteoblast transplantation meets these requirements and thus holds promise as an improved method of skeletal reconstruction. (
  • In situ hybridization studies of developing chicken bones, using a cDNA probe that hybridizes to all chicken tenascin splice variants, showed specific labelling of both osteogenic and chondrogenic regions of developing endochondral bones. (
  • Within osteogenic regions, tenascin mRNA was expressed by osteoblasts. (
  • A comparison of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that tenascin mRNA and protein were codistributed in osteogenic regions of endochondral and membrane bones, whereas protein was retained in regions of differentiating cartilage where mRNA was no longer detectable. (
  • Thus, Cdh2 and Cdh11 are crucial regulators of postnatal skeletal growth and bone mass maintenance, serving overlapping, yet distinct, functions in the osteogenic lineage. (
  • Osteogenic cells differentiated from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) hold much promise in bone tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery. (
  • Additionally, surface microtopography can modulate the extent to which the cell body is elongated, which has been demonstrated to be important in determining the osteogenic capacity of osteoblasts. (
  • Bone marrow stromal cells are able to differentiate into adipogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, osteogenic, and cardiomyogenic lineages, all of which are limited to a mesoderm-derived origin. (
  • This capacity may solely reflect the activities of multiple discrete stem cells with restricted genetic programs, such as hematopoietic stem cells able to differentiate to leukocytes, erythrocytes, or megakaryocytes and mesenchymal stem cells that can differentiate to bone, cartilage, or adipose tissue ( 3 ). (
  • The repair of the damaged bone tissue caused by damage or bone disease was still a problem. (
  • Bone tissue engineering has been developed and regarded as a new way of regenerating bone tissues to repair or substitute damaged or diseased ones. (
  • Nanofiber-reinforced scaffold cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells can induce vascularized bone tissue formation. (
  • It is a problem to repair the damaged bone tissue caused by damage or bone disease. (
  • Thus, there is a need to develop the artificial bone substitutes to repair the damaged bone tissue. (
  • The reconstruction of bone defects based on cell-seeded constructs requires a functional microvasculature that meets the metabolic demands of the engineered tissue. (
  • In this paper, a new-typed hydroxyapatite/collagen composite scaffold reinforced by chitosan fibers and cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells which could support the vascularization of a complex tissue engineered construct for bone [ 8 ] has been discussed. (
  • It has also been proved that nHAC is a very biodegradable and biocompatible material,which can enhance the formation of new bone tissue by increasing osteoblast adhesion, osseointegration, and deposition of calcium-containing minerals on its surface [ 9 - 11 ]. (
  • The value of the hedgehog signal in osteoblasts in fluoride-induced bone-tissue injury. (
  • This study was designed to observe the expression of important hedgehog (Hh) signal factors in the bone tissue of rats with chronic fluorosis and cultured osteoblasts in order to investigate the role and significance of the Hh signal in fluoride-induced bone injury. (
  • For this purpose, human bone tissue sections were analyzed with a wide panel of mAbs and using the immunoperoxidase technique. (
  • Increasingly, it is recognized that it is extremely important to facilitate the attachment of osteoblasts on the implant so that a proper foundation of extracellular matrix (ECM) can be laid down for the growth of new bone tissue. (
  • 1 ) ESCs represent the ideal source of new osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering. (
  • Patients with inflammatory or infectious conditions such as periodontitis, peri-implantitis, osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, septic arthritis and loosened joint prosthesis display varying severity of destruction in the adjacent bone tissue. (
  • Over the last decade there have been increasing efforts to develop adequate 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering from bioactive ceramics with 3D printing emerging as a promising technology. (
  • We produced 3D poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) matrices by a fused deposition modeling method for bone and cartilage tissue engineering and performed femtosecond (fs) laser modification experiments to improve the surface properties of the PCL construct. (
  • Bone tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard tissue , a type of dense connective tissue . (
  • Bone tissue is made up of different types of bone cells . (
  • The mineralised matrix of bone tissue has an organic component of mainly collagen called ossein and an inorganic component of bone mineral made up of various salts. (
  • Bone tissue is a mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone . (
  • Other types of tissue found in bones include bone marrow , endosteum , periosteum , nerves , blood vessels and cartilage . (
  • Within any single bone, the tissue is woven into two main patterns, known cortical and cancellous bone, and each with different appearance and characteristics. (
  • Cancellous bone, also called trabecular or spongy bone, [6] is the internal tissue of the skeletal bone and is an open cell porous network. (
  • Bone tissue morphogenesis is an intricately regulated process that depends on the interplay between cells and their extracellular matrix (ECM). (
  • Your bones are composed of two different types of tissue. (
  • It's made up of many closely packed layers of bone tissue. (
  • If all of your bone tissue was compact, you'd probably be too heavy to move! (
  • Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a cysteine rich, extracellular matrix protein that acts as an anabolic growth factor to regulate osteoblast differentiation and function. (
  • Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) expression in normal and OA subchondral bone tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. (
  • Sirt1 expression and production were reduced in OA subchondral bone tissue compared to normal tissue. (
  • The main function of osteoblasts in bone formation and maintaining bone tissue integrity and shape. (
  • However, the details of the role of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the bone repair process still remain unknown. (
  • In organized groups of connected cells, osteoblasts produce hydroxylapatite - the bone mineral, that is deposited in a highly regulated manner, into the organic matrix forming a strong and dense mineralized tissue - the mineralized matrix. (
  • Osteoblast quantity is understood to be inversely proportional to that of marrow adipocytes which comprise marrow adipose tissue (MAT). (
  • Osteoblasts are found in large numbers in the periosteum, the thin connective tissue layer on the outside surface of bones, and in the endosteum. (
  • Bone is a highly vascular tissue, and active formation of blood vessel cells, also from mesenchymal stem cells, is essential to support the metabolic activity of bone. (
  • A bone is a rigid tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. (
  • The apoptosis rate of osteoblasts, assessed by the enrichment of nucleosomes in cell lysates, was also unaffected by pH within this range. (
  • The effect of RCM increased not only osteoblast differentiation but also osteoclast apoptosis. (
  • The beneficial effect of RCM may be mediated, at least in part, by dual regulation of the enhancement of osteoblast function and induction of osteoclast apoptosis. (
  • We have focused on the p53 gene related to apoptosis and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) related to osteoblast differentiation. (
  • Teriparatide increases osteoblast numbers by suppressing osteoblast apoptosis and activating bone-lining cells. (
  • In this paper, a new-typed hydroxyapatite/collagen composite scaffold which was reinforced by chitosan fibers and cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells was fabricated. (
  • Hydroxyapatite and collagen are the main components in natural bone. (
  • Vernes C, Roebuck KA, Chandrasekaran R, Dobai JG, Jacobs JJ, Glant TT (2000) Particulate wear debris activates protein tyrosine kinases and nuclear factor (B, which down-regulates type I collagen synthesis in human osteoblast. (
  • Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. (
  • When they were cultured on collagen gel, they differentiated into osteoblasts and formed calcified nodules. (
  • If type I collagen was dried and bone marrow cells were cultured on membrane-type collagen, collagen did not show inductive activity against bone marrow cells. (
  • 5) These results indicate that features of collagen is crucial for the inductive activity against bone marrow cells. (
  • Maintenance of a bone collagen phenotype by osteoblast-like cells in 3D periodic porous titanium (Ti-6Al-4 V) structures fabricated by selective electron beam melting. (
  • However, mass spectroscopy of bone collagen demonstrated a decrease in mature, hydroxylysine-aldehyde crosslinking. (
  • Taken together, these data suggest that the altered collagen crosslinking through Fkbp10 ablation in osteoblasts primarily leads to a qualitative defect in the skeleton. (
  • Bone matrix is 90 to 95% composed of elastic collagen fibers, also known as ossein, [3] and the remainder is ground substance . (
  • Osteoblasts cultured from Mecp2-null mice, which unlike WT osteoblasts did not express MeCP2, had increased growth rates, but reductions in mRNA expression of type I collagen, Runx2 and Osterix compared to WT osteoblasts. (
  • Plasma biomarkers suggested that the low bone mass in MR mice could be due to increased collagen degradation, which may be influenced by leptin, IGF-1, adiponectin and FGF21 hormone levels. (
  • Mouse preosteoblast cell line cultured under low sulfur amino acid growth media attenuated gene expression levels of Col1al , Runx2 , Bglap , Alpl and Spp1 suggesting delayed collagen formation and bone differentiation. (
  • The matrix material in which they deposit hydroxyapatite is collagen, a much softer material that is synthesized and secreted by osteoblasts. (
  • The osteoblast group synthesizes densely cross-linked collagen fibrils plus several other proteins needed in the bone matrix. (
  • Moreover, the bone health parameters such as collagen, calcium and ALP were significantly improved and can be used as supplement to improve bone health. (
  • Using several mouse models and patient-derived primary cells we elucidate that loss of Gorab elicits a defect in proteoglycan glycanation, which is associated with collagen disorganization in dermis and bone. (
  • Based on the fact that aging is associated with a reciprocal decrease of osteogenesis and an increase of adipogenesis in bone marrow and that osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common progenitor, this study investigated the role of PPARγ, a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation, in bone metabolism. (
  • The purpose of this study is to measure the markers related to bone metabolism before and after the use of bortezomib injection in patients with multiple myeloma and to evaluate the effect bortezomib injection has on bone disease. (
  • This is a prospective (a study where the participants are identified and then followed forward in time), multi-center, Phase 4, observational study (studies that record specific events occurring without any intervention from the researcher) in order to analyze the change in bone metabolism markers (DKK-1, sRANKL, OPG, sRANKL/OPG,bALP, OC) before and after the use of bortezomib injection by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum. (
  • these results strongly suggest that C3G has a dual role in bone metabolism, as an effective inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation but also as an activator of osteoblast differentiation. (
  • OBJECTIVE: This study explored whether osteoblast metabolism in trabecular bone of failed total hip replacement (fTHR) in primary osteoarthritis (OA) plays a role in differential failure. (
  • Endocrine regulation of bone and energy metabolism in hibernating mammals. (
  • Given these conflicting data and the fundamental importance of SLIT3 as a promising osteoanabolic agent and physiologic signal linking bone metabolism to skeletal angiogenesis, further studies to clarify the cellular sources and targets of SLIT3 are needed. (
  • Thus, dasatinib is a potentially interesting candidate drug for the treatment of osteolysis through its dual effect on bone metabolism. (
  • RANKL and IL-6 mediate direct paracrine-autocrine signaling between cells of the osteoblast lineage and cancer cells significantly enhancing the growth of metastatic breast cancers within bone. (
  • This raises the possibility that inhibition of bone formation by bisphosphonates may be due in part to a direct inhibitory effect on cells of the osteoblast lineage. (
  • No direct evidence for teriparatide's actions on early cells of the osteoblast lineage has been demonstrated. (
  • Here, we have employed a lineage-tracing strategy that uses a tamoxifen-dependent, promoter-driven cre to mark early cells of the osteoblast lineage in adult mice. (
  • Both of these actions of teriparatide involve postmitotic, mature cells of the osteoblast lineage. (
  • Using a repopulation assay in mice, we show here that gene-marked, transplantable marrow cells from the plastic-nonadherent population can generate both functional osteoblasts/osteocytes and hematopoietic cells. (
  • The effects of removing ER[alpha] in osteoblasts and osteocytes on bone mass, bone strength, and bone's response to mechanical loading were studied in 10-week-old animals. (
  • OPG was highly expressed in osteocytes in the alveolar bone, suggesting that OPG secreted from osteocytes prevents the alveolar bone loss induced by the excess amount of RANKL in RANKL-Tg mice. (
  • Each column is multiple layers of osteoblasts and osteocytes around a central canal called the haversian canal . (
  • Immunohistochemistry localized ACVR2A and ACVR2B to osteoblasts and osteocytes. (
  • Osteocytes are cells inside the bone. (
  • As osteoblasts mature, they become osteocytes. (
  • Osteoblasts turn into osteocytes while the new bone is being formed, and the osteocytes then get surrounded by the new bone. (
  • Once osteoblasts turn into osteocytes, they express different proteins and settle themselves into life as active bone regulatory cells. (
  • Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in the bone, and they live about 25 years. (
  • Osteoblasts buried in the matrix are called osteocytes. (
  • Osteocytes remain alive and are connected by cell processes to a surface layer of osteoblasts. (
  • New research shows that the Wnt receptor Frizzled-9 (Fzd9) promotes bone formation, providing a potential new target for the treatment of osteoporosis. (
  • Activation of osteoclast and inhibition of osteoblast brings about bone fractures, osteoporosis, hypercalcemia, bone pain and spinal cord compression. (
  • One of the main predictors of developing osteoporosis in later life is a bone mineral density that is greater than 2.5 standard deviations below the young adult sex-matched mean, though studies have only been able to explain 5% of the variance seen in bone mineral densities between individuals. (
  • There is now increasing evidence that the development of osteoporosis can begin in utero and that epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, may be central to the mechanism by which early development influences bone mineral density and later bone health. (
  • Together, these findings suggest that the association between CDKN2A methylation at birth and later bone health could indicate a potential role for CDKN2A in bone development and function and raises the possibility that differential methylation of CDKN2A may allow the identification of individuals at increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. (
  • Inter alia , S. aureus septic arthritis is a disease with high mortality and morbidity caused by destruction of the infected joints and systemic bone loss, osteoporosis. (
  • Background Long-term and high-dose treatment with glucocorticoids causes bone loss and can lead to secondary osteoporosis in both human and mice. (
  • Discovering and learning which nutrients are most effective at building and renewing bone, and then enjoying the foods that contain them, delivers targeted nutrition that is the basis for the Osteoporosis Reversal Program 's drug-free approach. (
  • Referred to as "undercover bone-builders" in the Osteoporosis Reversal Program , antioxidants like cyanidin protect your bones from the very real damage caused by free radicals (aka reactive oxygen species). (
  • Antioxidants stop this chain reaction and free up the bones to undergo the remodeling process, which is the key to reversing osteoporosis. (
  • We demonstrate that mice undergoing chronic inflammatory arthritis displayed osteoporosis resulting from a severe defect in osteoblast function. (
  • Moreover, T63 markedly protected against bone mass loss in the ovariectomized and dexamethasone treated rat osteoporosis model. (
  • Despite advancements in the molecular field, not much is known about the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) in bone homeostasis and osteoporosis. (
  • Therefore, in this article, we summarize the role of lncRNAs and circRNAs in different bone cells and osteoporosis so that it might help in the development of osteoporotic therapeutics. (
  • Different factors contribute to the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, such as defects in trabecular microarchitecture, inability to repair damage caused by normal activities, and increased rate of bone remodeling ( Armas and Recker, 2012 ). (
  • Teriparatide, a recombinant form of parathyroid hormone (PTH), is the only approved treatment for osteoporosis that increases the rate of bone formation. (
  • Teriparatide is currently the only agent with bone-building properties (so-called anabolic agents) approved by the FDA for treatment of people with osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis, characterized by weak bones and increased risk of fracture in the elderly, is due to poor bone turnover - the lifelong process that breaks down bones and replaces them with new ones. (
  • Osteoblast precursors deficient in Mst2 exhibit attenuated osteoblast differentiation and function by downregulating the expression of Runx2, Alpl, Ibsp, and Bglap. (
  • These results indicate that silibinin enhances osteoblast differentiation probably by inducing the expressions of BMPs and activating BMP and RUNX2 pathways. (
  • Downstream of Runx2, other osteoblast-specific transcription factors have been identified. (
  • T63 stimulated osteoblast differentiation by up-regulating the activity of RUNX2. (
  • These compounds increased BMP-2 but not BMP-4 or BMP-6 mRNA expression in osteoblastic cells, suggesting that BMP-2 was responsible for the observed bone formation that was inhibited by noggin. (
  • Stimulation of isolated periosteal osteoblasts with S. aureus also resulted in increased expression of Tnfsf11 mRNA, an effect lost in osteoblasts from Tlr2 knockout mice. (
  • Further characterization of hGH mRNA distribution by in situ hybridization revealed that in neonates the most intense signal was found in periosteal osteoblasts, while in adults, trabecular and endosteal osteoblasts were favored. (
  • Because NCC mRNA has been previously reported in a bone-derived cell line, 14 we hypothesized that thiazides increase bone mineral density by interacting directly with an osteoblast NCC protein. (
  • Mutant osteoblasts showed increased N- and E-cadherin, but not N-cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. (
  • Neutralizing anti-N-cadherin antibody or N-cadherin antisense (AS) oligonucleotides but not anti-E-cadherin antibody or AS reduced ALP activity as well as ALP, COLIA1, and OC mRNA overexpression in mutant osteoblasts. (
  • Unlike the robust Slit3 expression observed in the brain and primary osteoblasts, we were unable to detect Slit3 mRNA expression during bone marrow macrophage (BMM)-derived osteoclastogenesis at the mRNA level (Fig. 1b ). (
  • To further analyze the mechanisms by which inorganic phosphate regulates cellular protein levels, we undertook a mRNA microarray analysis of pre-osteoblast cells at 18, 21, and 24 h after inorganic phosphate exposure. (
  • One of these genes en-coded a ubiquitin-like molecule called Isg15. (
  • Since the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been shown to modulate expression of the Drosophila homologue of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -4 (BMP-2 and BMP-4) genes, we examined the effects of noggin, an endogenous inhibitor of BMP-2 and BMP-4 on bone formation stimulated by these compounds and found that it was abrogated. (
  • Knock down of ANRIL expression also caused a change in genes that have roles in osteoblast specific pathways as well as genes that were involved in molecular functions such as nuclear regulation and acetylation. (
  • In bones from diabetic mice and in osteoblasts exposed to high glucose, cinaciguat reduced oxidative stress via PKG-dependent induction of anti-oxidant genes, and down-regulation of excess NADPH oxidase-4-dependent H 2 O 2 production. (
  • Residues at the amino-terminus of Lef1ΔN were required for β-catenin binding and the expression of osteoblast differentiation genes. (
  • RNA was isolated from tibia at endpoint (day 28) and Affymetrix Gene Array analysis (GeneSpring GX) was performed to assess changes in expression of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation and the regulation of bone remodelling. (
  • We found that the expression of genes implicated in osteoblast differentiation and the regulation of bone remodelling was downregulated in mice treated with corticosterone compared to placebo. (
  • Conclusions These results confirm that glucocorticoids primarily target genes involved in osteoblast differentiation and the regulation of bone remodelling. (
  • By activating these pathways, M-CSF and RANKL regulate the expression of osteoclast- and osteoblast-specific genes. (
  • Thus, N-cadherin plays a role in the activation of osteoblast differentiation marker genes in mutant osteoblasts and PKCalpha signaling appears to be involved in the increased N-cadherin and osteoblast gene expression induced by the S252W FGFR-2 mutation in human osteoblasts. (
  • Over the last 10 yr, a growing body of knowledge has emerged regarding the transcriptional control of osteoblast differentiation and function. (
  • Thus, the control of osteoblast differentiation is critical in the management of bone diseases. (
  • Poly(a-hydroxy esters) can be fabricated into 3-D foams that can serve as a supportive scaffold for the culture and transplantation of osteoblasts,8 and they have the potential of filling in skeletal defects of various sizes and shapes. (
  • The aim of this study was to clarify signal transduction of osteoblast development in bone loss due to skeletal unloading. (
  • We recently demonstrated that osteoblast-targeted disruption of glucocorticoid signalling attenuates glucocorticoid-induced bone loss in mice, indicating that the detrimental skeletal effects of glucocorticoids are predominantly mediated by osteoblasts. (
  • The bone microenvironment and its modification by cancer and host cell interactions is a key driver of skeletal metastatic growth. (
  • Taken in context, multiple lines of evidence were unable to identify the physiologic function of osteoclast-derived SLIT3, indicating that osteoblasts are the major source of skeletal SLIT3. (
  • Axon guidance cues have emerged as agents of great interest in this regard, as they control bone formation by a variety of mechanisms, including shaping the skeletal microenvironment to support osteogenesis. (
  • Our prior study showed that SLIT3 is highly expressed in osteoblasts, where it acts as a proangiogenic factor in bone to increase the levels of skeletal vascular endothelium and thereby increase bone formation. (
  • The skeletal consequences of alcohol intake during adolescence, when the rapid skeletal growth ultimately responsible for achieving peak bone mass is occurring, may be especially harmful. (
  • In addition to that backbone, we also have an extensive skeletal system that's made up of bones and cartilage as well as tendons and ligaments . (
  • Bone and skeletal muscle mass are highly correlated in mammals, suggesting the existence of common anabolic signaling networks that coordinate the development of these two anatomically adjacent tissues. (
  • Dental follicle mesenchymal progenitor cells express parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), a locally acting autocrine/paracrine ligand, and become essential skeletal cell types establishing the root-bone interface. (
  • Our results suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery regulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation and that inhibition of specific components of this system may be useful therapeutically in common diseases of bone loss. (
  • We show that p53 also regulates osteoblast differentiation, bone formation, and osteoblast-dependent osteoclast differentiation. (
  • and the CaM pathway regulates osteoblast differentiation ( Zayzafoon, 2006 ). (
  • Reyes-Botella C, Montes MJ, Abadía-Molina AC, Vallecillo-Capilla MF, Ruiz C (1999) CD10 expression in cultured human osteoblast-like cells. (
  • Reyes-Botella C, Montes MJ, Vallecillo-Capilla MF, Olivares EG, Ruiz C (2002) Antigenic phenotype of cultured human osteoblast-like cells. (
  • Structures were seeded with human osteoblast-like cells (SAOS-2) and cultured for four weeks. (
  • Flow cytometry was used to investigate whether the growth factors FGFb, TGFβ1, PDGF-BB, IL-2, IL-1β, LPS and IFNγ modulate the expression on cultured human osteoblast-like cells of different antigens involved in antigen-presentation and T cell activation. (
  • Mice lacking one copy of Fzd9 also had low bone mass, suggesting that insufficient Fzd9 may cause the reduced bone density seen in Williams-Beuren syndrome patients, who have a hemizygous deletion of the chromosomal region that includes the FZD9 gene. (
  • Bone marrow cells contribute to many diverse tissues after systemic transplantation in both mice and humans ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Bone marrow was flushed from the dissected femurs and tibias of FVB/N mice (The Jackson Laboratory), and the isolated adherent marrow cells were transduced with a GFP-expressing retroviral vector (multiplicity of infection, ≈5) as described ( 17 ). (
  • Heterozygous PPARγ-deficient mice exhibited high bone mass with increased osteoblastogenesis, but normal osteoblast and osteoclast functions, and this effect was not mediated by insulin or leptin. (
  • When administered systemically to mice, the proteasome inhibitors epoxomicin and proteasome inhibitor-1 increased bone volume and bone formation rates over 70% after only 5 days of treatment. (
  • IGF-binding protein-5 stimulates osteoblast activity and bone accretion in ovariectomized mice. (
  • To evaluate whether IGFBP-5 can stimulate osteoblast activity and enhance bone accretion in a mouse model of osteoblast insufficiency, daily subcutaneous injections of either intact [IGFBP-5 (intact)] or carboxy-truncated IGFBP-5 [IGFBP-5-(1--169)] were given to ovariectomized (OVX) mice for 8 wk. (
  • These data indicate that IGFBP-5 effectively enhances bone formation and bone accretion in OVX mice by stimulating osteoblast activity. (
  • In general, cancellous and cortical bone mass were both reduced in pOC-ER[alpha]KO female mice, while bone mass was increased in pOC-ER[alpha]KO male mice compared to their sex-matched LC, measured by microCT in the proximal and midshaft tibia, femur, and L5 vertebra. (
  • These bone mass changes correlated with decreased vertebral compressive strength in female knockout mice and increased femoral bending strength in male knockout mice. (
  • In the vertebra, the drug-induced increase in bone mass was less in pOC-ER[alpha]KO mice than LC. (
  • Indeed, p53 − / − mice display a high bone mass phenotype, and p53 − / − osteoblasts show accelerated differentiation, secondary to an increase in expression of the osteoblast differentiation factor osterix, as a result. (
  • Furthermore, inactivating p53 is sufficient to rescue the osteoblast differentiation defects observed in mice lacking c-Abl, a p53-interacting protein. (
  • Cinaciguat increased trabecular and cortical bone in mice with type 1 diabetes by improving bone formation and osteocyte survival. (
  • Osteoblast-specific expression of growth hormone stimulates bone growth in transgenic mice. (
  • Lef1N transgenic mice had higher trabecular bone volume. (
  • The Lef1N transgenic mice had higher trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibiae and L5 vertebrae. (
  • The IGF-I transgene was expressed in bone osteoblasts in OC-IGF-I transgenic mice at high levels in the absence of any change in serum IGF-I levels, or of total body growth. (
  • Bone formation rate at the distal femur in 3-week-old OC-IGF-I transgenic mice was approximately twice that of controls. (
  • By 6 weeks, bone mineral density as measured by dual energy x-ray, and quantitative computed tomography was significantly greater in OC-IGF-I transgenic mice compared with controls. (
  • Trabecular bone density decreased in tg+ mice as a result of ovariectomy, but remained higher than in sham tg- mice. (
  • Targeting CGRP to osteoblasts appears to favor the establishment of a higher trabecular bone mass in mice. (
  • To determine the specific roles of these two cadherins in the adult skeleton, we generated mice with an osteoblast/osteocyte specific Cdh2 ablation (cKO) and double Cdh2 +/− ;Cdh11 −/− germline mutant mice. (
  • The number of bone marrow immature precursors and osteoprogenitor cells is reduced in both cKO and Cdh2 +/− ;Cdh11 −/− mice, suggesting that N-cadherin is involved in maintenance of the stromal cell precursor pool via the osteoblast. (
  • Alveolar bone loss in OPG KO mice and RANKL-Tg mice was evaluated using micro computed tomography and histological techniques. (
  • We show that OPG KO but not RANKL-Tg mice exhibit severe alveolar bone destruction. (
  • Treatment with an anti-RANKL antibody as well as risedronate, a bisphosphonate, significantly inhibited the alveolar bone loss in OPG KO mice. (
  • Journal Article] Stimulation of bone formation in cortical bone of mice treated with a receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL)-binding peptide that possesses osteoclastogenesis inhibitory activity. (
  • Furthermore, bone of mutant mice exhibits a reduction in mineral-to-matrix ratio and in crystal size as shown by Raman spectroscopy and small angle x-ray scattering, respectively. (
  • Using mice undergoing chronic inflammatory arthritis, we investigated the relationship between hematopoiesis and bone homeostasis in pathologic conditions. (
  • Despite the defective osteoblast function, however, the hematopoietic stem cells from these mice exhibited normal properties in either long-term repopulation or cell cycling. (
  • However, unlike the osteolyisis of inflamed joints, which reflects accelerated osteoclast activity, the systemic bone loss of arthritic mice is the result of arrested osteoblast function. (
  • Unexpectedly, the osteoblast deficiency in bone formation did not affect the long-term repopulating potential of HSCs in these arthritic mice. (
  • However, mineral apposition rate, mineralizing surface and bone formation rate/bone surface were each decreased in HET and Mecp2-null mice compared to WT mice. (
  • Osteoblast dysfunction was more marked in Mecp2-null male than in HET female mice, suggesting that expression of MeCP2 plays a critical role in bone development. (
  • Here, we generated mice with conditional deletion of activin receptor (ACVR) type 2A, ACVR2B, or both, in osteoblasts, to determine the contribution of activin receptor signaling in regulating bone mass. (
  • By contrast, mice lacking ACVR2A had significantly increased femoral trabecular bone volume at 6 weeks of age. (
  • Moreover, mutant mice lacking both ACVR2A and ACVR2B demonstrated sustained increases in trabecular bone volume, similar to those in ACVR2A single mutants, at 6 and 12 weeks of age. (
  • Results: pQCT revealed increased bone mass in uPAR-null mice. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of MR on bone structure in young and aged male and female C57BL/6J mice. (
  • MR reduced volumetric bone mass density (vBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), while bone microarchitecture parameters were decreased in males and young females, but not in aged females compared to control-fed (CF) mice. (
  • However, when adjusted for bodyweight, the effect of MR in reducing vBMD, BMC and microarchitecture measurements was either attenuated or reversed suggesting that the smaller bones in MR mice is appropriate for its body size. (
  • Herein, we examined the effects of plasminogen activators on bone repair after a femoral bone defect using tPA-deficient ( tPA −/− ) and uPA-deficient ( uPA −/− ) mice. (
  • Bone repair of the femur was delayed in tPA −/− mice, unlike that in wild-type ( tPA +/+ ) mice. (
  • Conversely, the bone repair was comparable between wild-type ( uPA +/+ ) and uPA −/− mice. (
  • The number of proliferative osteoblasts was decreased at the site of bone damage in tPA −/− mice. (
  • 11 ) reported that bone mass is increased in tPA and uPA double-deficient mice. (
  • The deficiency of PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an endogenous negative regulator of the fibrinolytic system, partially protects against bone loss in estrogen-deficient mice ( 12 ). (
  • They found that injections of GDF11 caused bone loss in both young and old mice, and inhibited generation of bone-forming cells and repair of bone defects. (
  • Blocking GDF11, on the other hand, prevented bone loss, caused by age and oestrogen-deficiency in female mice. (
  • Moreover, in our human cell therapy trials, donor osteoblast engraftment was demonstrated after transplantation of unmanipulated bone marrow ( 14 ), but the percentage of such engraftment could not be improved by transplanting as many as 5 × 10 6 isolated plastic-adherent marrow stromal cells per kg of body weight, a cell number that greatly exceeds the marrow stromal cell content of unmanipulated marrow ( 15 ). (
  • 2 ) Therefore, researchers are focused on utilizing other types of stem cells, especially bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). (
  • We evaluated the effects of dasatinib on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) differentiation into osteoblasts, in the presence or absence of a mixture of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (DAG) for up to 21 days. (
  • In recent years, much interest emerged for the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) due to their ability to self-renew, proliferate and differentiate into a variety of cell types of mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal origins [ 7 ]. (
  • Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. (
  • Publications] Nagai.N: 'Histological studies of heteotopic osteogenesis induced by bone morphogenetic protein binding apatite' Apatite. (
  • Publications] Nagai, Y.Inoue, N.Mizuno, M.and Kuboki, Y.: 'Histological studies of heterotopic osteogenesis induced by bone morphogenetic protein binding apatite' Apatite. (
  • Hence, this study investigated whether a combination of chemical stimuli (ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone) and culture media conditioned by a human foetal osteoblast cell line (hFOB) had any synergistic effect on the osteogenesis of MSC. (
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), also known as brittle bone disease, displays a spectrum of clinical severity from mild (OI type I) to severe early lethality (OI type II), with clinical features including low bone mass, fractures and deformities. (
  • In osteoblasts exposed to high glucose, NO/cGMP/PKG signaling was reduced due in part to O -Glc-N-acetylation of NO synthase-3, oxidative inhibition of guanylate cyclase activity, and suppression of PKG transcription. (
  • Morey ER, Baylink DJ (1978) Inhibition of bone formation during space flight. (
  • 9 The mechanism by which genetic (Gitelman syndrome) or pharmacologic (thiazide treatment) inhibition of NCC results in enhanced bone mineral density has been hypothesized to be due to increased circulating serum calcium levels. (
  • It negatively regulates osteoblast activity, and, as such, its inhibition is a potential means to prevent bone loss. (
  • Our results suggest a dual role for dasatinib in both (i) stimulating osteoblast differentiation leading to a direct increase in bone formation, and (ii) downregulating RANKL synthesis by osteoblasts leading to an indirect inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. (
  • Treatment of osteoblasts with a Src family kinase inhibitor, PP2, or the expression of two independent kinase-dead Src mutant constructs caused significant inhibition of TGF-beta1 induced CTGF promoter activity and expression. (
  • Previous studies have demonstrated an inhibition of the canonical Wnt signaling (cWnt) pathway in OA osteoblasts (Ob). (
  • Inhibition of glycolysis in osteoblasts reduced ATP contents more significantly than inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine. (
  • In contrast, S. aureus inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophages. (
  • Bone loss in inflammatory diseases is considered a consequence of cytokine induced RANKL and subsequent enhanced osteoclast formation. (
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates RANKL expression in bone cells, and serum IL-6 levels are associated with poor clinical outcomes in cancer patients. (
  • We investigated the effects of RANKL on cancer cells and the role of tumor-derived IL-6 within the bone microenvironment. (
  • This is the first report demonstrating a gene-expression pattern corresponding to the acquisition of an osteomimetic phenotype by bone metastatic breast cancer cells. (
  • We tested this prediction in a murine transplantation model by using gene-marked bone marrow cells and retroviral integration site-specific PCR analysis. (
  • Homozygous PPARγ-deficient ES cells failed to differentiate into adipocytes, but spontaneously differentiated into osteoblasts, and these were restored by reintroduction of the PPARγ gene. (
  • Together our data indicated that Lef1ΔN binds β-catenin, stimulates gene expression, and promotes terminal osteoblast differentiation. (
  • Objectives To further determine the role of the osteoblast in glucocorticoid-induced bone loss, we aimed to elucidate the effects of glucocorticoids on the gene expression profile in bone cells. (
  • Gene expression profile analyses may point to the pathways involved in the negative effects of glucocorticoids on bone. (
  • The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is concentrated in fine sensory nerve endings innervating all tissues, including bone. (
  • First, patients with Gitelman syndrome and the equivalent murine model, in which NCC is nonfunctional as a result of a mutation in the SLC12A3 gene, exhibit an increased bone mineral density. (
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and thereby induces osteoprotegerin gene expression in osteoblast-like cell lines. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Role of N-cadherin and protein kinase C in osteoblast gene activation induced by the S252W fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutation in Apert craniosynostosis. (
  • Mutations in the FK506 Binding Protein 10 (FKBP10), gene encoding the 65KDa protein FKBP65, cause a recessive form of OI and Bruck syndrome, the latter being characterized by joint contractures in addition to low bone mass. (
  • While S100A4, recently described as a key negative regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is the most down-regulated gene in B02 cells. (
  • This transdifferentiation or meta-differentiation was enhanced by Noggin, an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins, in comparison with 5-azacytidine, a demethylating agent capable of altering the gene expression pattern. (
  • M. Zayzafoon, K. Fulzele, and J. M. McDonald, "Calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent kinase II α regulate osteoblast differentiation by controlling c-fos expression," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 280, no. 8, pp. 7049-7059, 2005. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cells regulate mesenchymal stromal cell induction into osteoblasts thereby participating in the formation of the stem cell niche," Stem Cells , vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 2042-2051, 2008. (
  • The body has to regulate osteoclast activity, or else too much bone would be shed. (
  • Many signaling molecules have been identified that positively or negatively regulate osteoblast differentiation. (
  • They regulate the passage of calcium in and out of the bone, and they express a special type of protein on their membranes by responding to various hormones. (
  • In contrast, S. aureus inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow derived precursors. (
  • These data indicate that RSV promotes Sirt1 levels, inhibits the endogenous expression of leptin by OA osteoblasts and can promote the Wnt/β-catenin and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, which are altered in these cells. (
  • Therefore, the bone-forming capacity of osteoblasts is distinct from their ability to maintain hematopoietic stem cells in chronic inflammatory conditions. (
  • Under normal physiologic conditions, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) residing within the specialized bone marrow (BM) niche maintain a balance between self-renewal and differentiation and provide continuous supply of circulating mature immune cells with a limited life span. (
  • Within these spaces are bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. (
  • Metabolic activity of osteoblasts from periprosthetic trabecular bone in failed total hip arthroplasties and osteoarthritis as markers of osteolysis and loosening. (
  • ALP is found in many tissues like bone. (
  • Bone and bone marrow are closely aligned physiologic compartments, suggesting that these tissues may represent a single functional unit with a common bone marrow progenitor that gives rise to both osteoblasts and hematopoietic cells. (
  • Alternatively, the bone marrow may contain rare "marrow stem cells" with the potential to differentiate to a spectrum of tissues, possibly in response to specific environmental cues. (
  • Bone marrow and bone are anatomically contiguous tissues that show parallel age-related changes and share several genetic features ( 9 - 11 ), suggesting a close developmental relationship. (
  • The fourfold repeated domain of OSF-2 shows homology with the insect protein fasciclin I. RNA analyses revealed that OSF-2 is expressed in bone and to a lesser extent in lung, but not in other tissues. (
  • We previously showed that Fkbp10 expression is limited to bone, tendon and ligaments in postnatal tissues. (
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease, which affects multiple tissues, namely the subchondral bone, articular cartilage and synovial membrane. (
  • Author summary Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is segmental progeroid disorder affecting connective tissues and bone, leading to extreme bone fragility. (
  • Early studies in 1960s showed high production of lactate and decreased activity of TCA cycle in bone slices, and estimated that more than 80% of glucose was converted to lactate in bone tissues [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Schinke now wants to investigate whether boosting Fzd9 expression has the opposite effect to Fzd9 depletion and can stimulate bone formation. (
  • Here, we show that local production of GH in osteoblasts is able to stimulate bone growth directly without significant systemic effects. (
  • however, the local concentrations of hGH in bone were sufficient to stimulate bone growth in these animals. (
  • Overall, our study demonstrates that thiazides directly stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone mineral formation independent of their effects in the kidney. (
  • Thus, developing new approaches that may stimulate osteoblast differentiation is highly desirable. (
  • Non collagenous protein 1% of total protein in human bone During bone formation 10-30% of OC synthesized from osteoblast is released in circulation Synthesis stimulated by vit-D Excreted by kidney Half life is 5 min. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus protein A binds to osteoblasts and triggers signals that weaken bone in osteomyelitis. (
  • We describe here for the first time that the major virulence factor of S. aureus, protein A (SpA) binds directly to osteoblasts. (
  • Protein A is involved in binding of Staphylococcus aureus to osteoblasts. (
  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is an osteoblast secretory protein that becomes incorporated into the mineralized bone matrix. (
  • Arihiro K, Inai K (2001) Expression of CD31, Met/hepatocyte growth factor receptor and bone morphogenetic protein in bone metastasis of osteosarcoma. (
  • Publications] Zhou H-Y: 'Effect of a bone lysine-rich 18 KDa protein on osteoblaet-like MC3T3-E1 Cells' Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun.186. (
  • A cDNA was identified and sequenced which encodes a protein designated osteoblast-specific factor 2 (OSF-2) comprising 811 amino acids. (
  • Protein kinase inhibitor γ reciprocally regulates osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation by downregulating leukemia inhibitory factor. (
  • Bellahcène A, Merville M-P, Castronovo V (1994) Expression of bone sialoprotein, a bone matrix protein, in human breast cancer. (
  • These cells help in making a protein called osteoid, which helps in forming and maintaining the structure of the bone. (
  • Activation of cyclic amp/protein kinase: A signaling pathway enhances osteoblast cell adhesion on biomaterials for regenerative engineering. (
  • The SCU team discovered, through a mouse model, that the growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) protein can interfere with this bone renewal. (
  • The bone matrix consists of protein and mineral. (
  • The analysis of the MG63 and MC3T3 osteoblast attachment suggested regulation of cells volume migration. (
  • The analysis of the data presented here not only sheds new light on the important roles of inorganic phosphate in osteoblast function but also begins to address the contribution of post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation to a cell's expressed proteome. (
  • To confirm the vital role of Erk, we used the Erk inhibitor (PD98059) to block its activation, demonstrating that it prevented TGF-beta1 activation of the CTGF promoter and up-regulation of CTGF expression in osteoblasts. (
  • Regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast functions by FGF-6. (
  • These results have indicated that osteoblasts increase Glut1 expression through the down-regulation of p53 to switch their metabolic pathway to glycolysis during differentiation. (
  • We and others have previously reported that human breast tumors which metastasize to the skeleton overexpress bone matrix extracellular proteins. (
  • Bellahcène A, Castronovo V (1995) Increased expression of osteonectin and osteopontin, two bone matrix proteins, in human breast cancer. (
  • A large scale quantitative proteomic investigation of pre-osteoblasts stimulated with inorganic phosphate for 24 h resulted in the identification of 2501 proteins, of which 410 (16%) had an altered abundance ratio of greater than or equal to 1.75-fold, either up or down, revealing both novel and previously defined osteoblast-regulated proteins. (
  • However, an analysis of osteoblast relevant proteins revealed a much higher correlation at all time points. (
  • Conversely, ectopic expression of Mst2 in osteoblast precursors increases osteoblastogenesis. (
  • They are derived from precursors in the myeloid/ monocyte lineage that circulate in the blood after their formation in the bone marrow. (
  • Selective, inducible deletion of the PTH receptor in Sox9 -cre cells demonstrated that PTH receptor expression is required for teriparatide-mediated increases in early osteoblast precursors. (
  • Thus, Panx3 appears to be a new regulator that promotes osteoblast differentiation by functioning as an ER Ca 2+ channel and a hemichannel, and by forming gap junctions. (
  • Femur and spine bone mineral density (BMD), measured every 2 wk, showed early and sustained increases in response to IGFBP-5. (
  • As methylation of CDKN2A increases, bone mineral content, bone area and areal bone mineral density all decrease at both 4 and 6 years of age. (
  • CONCLUSION: Osteoblasts from fTHR-O and a subgroup of OA patients present similarly increased osteoblast markers compared to normal subjects, the low metabolic OA subgroup, and fTHR-NO. This information suggests the differential role of osteoblasts in osteolysis pathophysiology in primary THR surgery. (
  • AP-1 components, such as JunB and Fra-1, were upregulated in uPAR KO osteoblasts, along with other osteoblasts markers. (
  • Herein, we investigated the effects of acidosis on osteoblast function by using mineralized bone nodule-forming primary osteoblast cultures. (
  • The PPARγ haploinsufficiency was confirmed to enhance osteoblastogenesis in the bone marrow cell culture but did not affect the cultures of differentiated osteoblasts or osteoclast-lineage cells. (
  • Structurally different inhibitors that bind to specific catalytic β subunits of the 20S proteasome stimulated bone formation in bone organ cultures in concentrations as low as 10 nM. (
  • The antigenic profile of human osteoblasts was previously analyzed by our group using primary cultures as study samples. (
  • Tenascin was secreted into the medium and deposited in the matrix by human and rat osteoblast-like cell lines, as well as by primary osteoblast-enriched cultures from chick embryo calvarial bones. (
  • Chicken osteoblast cultures synthesized almost exclusively the largest tenascin subunit, whereas fibroblast cultures from periostea of chicken calvariae synthesized approximately equal amounts of all three subunits. (
  • We show that an important action of strontium salts is to block calcification in cultures of osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells. (
  • Thus, these results identify p53 as a novel regulator of osteoblast differentiation, osteoblast-dependent osteoclastogenesis, and bone remodeling. (
  • Notably, bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) have been shown to contribute to primary tumor progression by promoting hallmark processes such as inflammation, immunosuppression, vasculogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling. (
  • These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood. (
  • In addition, p53 − / − osteoblasts have an enhanced ability to favor osteoclast differentiation, in association with an increase in expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor, which is under the control of osterix. (
  • Osteoblast is a cell of mesenchymal origin that is responsible for bone formation and can support osteoclast differentiation. (
  • To study FGF-6 activity on osteoclast differentiation, human bone marrow cells were used and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) multinucleated cells together with actin filaments arrangements were quantified. (
  • Studies demonstrate that polymeric microscale ridges/grooves promote the adhesion and differentiation of human osteoblasts [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • However, its effects on the differentiation of human osteoblasts have never been examined. (
  • Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. (
  • Experiments using well-defined osteoblastic model systems indicate that the observed reductions in bone formation result from a direct, antiproliferative effect of ethanol on the osteoblast itself. (
  • Thus, osteoblast specific cadherin 11 which mediates the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblastic cells is up-regulated in B02. (
  • osteoblastic cells adhering to biodegradable biomaterials require the expression of integrins on the cell surface [we can manipulate integrins to affect osteoblast adhesion to grow taller]. (
  • These events demonstrate mechanisms through which loss of bone formation and bone weakening may occur in osteomyelitis patients. (
  • 4] P. Ducheyne, Q. Qiu, Bioactive ceramics: the effect of surface reactivity on bone formation and bone cell function, Biomaterials. (
  • The hard outer layer of bones is composed of cortical bone also called compact bone being much denser than cancellous bone. (
  • The cortical bone gives bone its smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult human skeleton . (
  • Cortical bone is covered by a periosteum on its outer surface, and an endosteum on its inner surface. (
  • The endosteum is the boundary between the cortical bone and the cancellous bone. (
  • [6] The primary anatomical and functional unit of cortical bone is the osteon . (
  • Cancellous bone has a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio than cortical bone because it is less dense. (
  • The primary osteoblasts of rats were selected for cell experiment, and the experiment was carried out after the cells were passaged from the second to the fourth generation. (
  • These results allow data obtained by the primary culture of osteoblast-like cells to be endorsed. (
  • Due to the effect of ANRIL knock down in primary osteoblasts, which could not be explained through normal cell cycle pathways, results suggest that ANRIL has potential trans-regulatory functions in these cells. (
  • Bellahcène A, Menard S, Bufalino R, Moreau L, Castronovo V (1996) Expression of bone sialoprotein in primary human breast cancer is associated with poor survival. (
  • Primary osteoblasts expressed activin signaling components, including ACVR2A, ACVR2B, and ACVR1B (ALK4) and demonstrated increased levels of phosphorylated Smad2/3 upon exposure to activin ligands. (
  • Molecular requirements for induction of CTGF expression by TGF-beta1 in primary osteoblasts. (
  • We prepared primary human Ob using the subchondral bone plate of tibial plateaus of OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, or tibial plateaus of normal individuals at autopsy. (
  • We found that primary osteoblasts increased expressions of glycolysis-related enzymes such as Glut1, hexokinase 1 and 2, lactate dehydrogenase A and pyruvate kinase M2 during their differentiation. (
  • Mst2 Controls Bone Homeostasis by Regulating Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation. (
  • Our findings suggest that Mst2 is involved in bone homeostasis, functioning as a reciprocal regulator of osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation through the NF-κB pathway. (
  • Recent studies support the notion that there is an intricate relationship between hematopoiesis and bone homeostasis in normal steady states. (
  • An intricate relationship exits between hematopoiesis and bone homeostasis. (
  • Using a KRNxG7 mouse model, we investigated the relationship between HSCs and bone homeostasis in chronic inflammatory conditions. (
  • These results indicated that MT01 could induce differentiation of BMSCs to osteoblasts and inhibit the alveolar bone absorption in rats with periodontitis. (
  • 1 - 5 To date, this bone-protective effect has been attributed to thiazides' acting at the distal nephron to inhibit the Na + -Cl − co-transporter (NCC). (
  • Pamidronate and alendronate inhibited bone nodule formation at concentrations 10-fold lower than those required to inhibit osteoblast growth. (
  • Bone loss and fractures are under-recognized complications of type 1 diabetes, and are primarily due to impaired bone formation by osteoblasts. (
  • In addition to their antihypertensive effect, thiazides increase bone mineral density and reduce the prevalence of fractures. (
  • If these changes occur in mesenchymal stem cells or early osteoblasts they impair osteoblast differentiation resulting in cortical thinning and spontaneous fractures. (
  • Forces that exceed the capacity of bone to behave elastically may cause failure, typically bone fractures. (
  • Besides, it has been reported that chitosan can promote adhesion and functional expression of osteoblasts because of its similarity to glycosaminoglycan in structure [ 12 - 14 ]. (
  • Various techniques were used to determine whether this differentially methylated region has a functional role in osteoblasts or whether it is just a potential marker for predicting bone mineral density. (
  • Given the functional relationship between c-Abl and p53, we decided to study the role of p53 in osteoblast differentiation and bone remodeling. (
  • Collectively, we provide evidence that marrow HSCs can be maintained in the absence of functional osteoblasts in chronic inflammatory environments. (
  • The functional part of bone, the bone matrix, is entirely extracellular. (
  • We studied the role of cadherins and signaling events in the phenotypic alterations induced by the Ap FGFR-2 S252W mutation in mutant immortalized fetal human calvaria osteoblasts. (