Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Congenital craniostenosis with syndactyly.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Diseases of BONES.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
LDL-receptor related protein that combines with FRIZZLED RECEPTORS at the cell surface to form receptors that bind WNT PROTEINS. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY in OSTEOBLASTS and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase that may play a role in the degradation or activation of a variety of PEPTIDE HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of this protein are a cause of HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS, X-LINKED DOMINANT.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).

Platelet-derived growth factor induces interleukin-6 transcription in osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2. (1/4631)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB, a mitogen that stimulates bone resorption, increases the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine that induces osteoclast recruitment. The mechanisms involved in IL-6 induction by PDGF BB are poorly understood. We examined the effect of PDGF BB on IL-6 expression in cultures of osteoblasts from fetal rat calvariae (Ob cells). PDGF BB increased IL-6 mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA levels, the rate of transcription, and the activity of base pairs (bp) -2906 to +20 IL-6 promoter fragments transiently transfected into Ob cells. Deletion analysis revealed two responsive regions, one containing an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site located between bp -276 and -257, and a second, less well defined, downstream of -257. Targeted mutations of a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE), and nuclear factor-IL-6 and nuclear factor-kappaB binding sites in a bp -257 to +20 IL-6 construct that was transfected into Ob cells, revealed that the CRE also contributed to IL-6 promoter induction by PDGF BB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed AP-1 and CRE nuclear protein complexes that were enhanced by PDGF BB. Supershift assays revealed binding of Jun and Fos to AP-1 and CRE sequences and binding of activating transcription factor-2 to CRE. In conclusion, PDGF BB induces IL-6 transcription in osteoblasts by regulating nuclear proteins of the AP-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of mouse and bovine chondromodulin-II cDNAs and the growth-promoting actions of bovine recombinant protein. (2/4631)

We previously determined the complete primary sequence of a heparin-binding growth-promoting factor, chondromodulin-II (ChM-II), which stimulated the growth of chondrocytes and osteoblasts in culture. Bovine ChM-II was a 16-kDa basic protein with 133 amino acid residues and exhibited a significant sequence similarity to the repeats of the chicken mim-1 gene product. Here we report the nucleotide sequences of bovine and mouse ChM-II cDNAs. The cDNAs each contained an open-reading frame corresponding to the ChM-II precursor with 151 amino acid residues. The N-terminus of the precursor included a secretory signal sequence of 18 amino acids prior to the mature ChM-II sequence. Unlike MIM-1, there was no repeat structure in the precursor protein, indicating that ChM-II was encoded as a gene product distinct from MIM-1. We then expressed recombinant bovine ChM-II protein which was purified to homogeneity. The recombinant protein stimulated the growth of rabbit growth plate chondrocytes, mouse MC3T3-E1 cells and rat UMR-106 osteoblastic cells in vitro.  (+info)

Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. (3/4631)

In serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, mechanical stimulation caused by mild (287 x g) centrifugation induced a 10-fold increase in mRNA levels of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Induction of c-fos was abolished by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89, suggesting that the transient c-fos mRNA increase is mediated by cAMP. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment failed to significantly reduce c-fos induction, suggesting that TPA-sensitive isoforms of PKC are not responsible for c-fos up-regulation. In addition, 287 x g centrifugation increased intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels 2.8-fold (P<0. 005). Since we have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can induce c-fos expression via a cAMP-mediated mechanism, we asked whether the increase in c-fos mRNA was due to centrifugation-induced PGE2 release. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen did not hinder the early induction of c-fos by mechanical stimulation. We conclude that c-fos expression induced by mild mechanical loading is dependent primarily on cAMP, not PKC, and initial induction of c-fos is not necessarily dependent on the action of newly synthesized PGE2.  (+info)

Cbfa1 isoforms exert functional differences in osteoblast differentiation. (4/4631)

Cbfa1 is an essential transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. We investigated functional differences among three isoforms of Cbfa1: Type I (originally reported as Pebp2alphaA by Ogawa et al. (Ogawa, E., Maruyama, M., Kagoshima, H., Inuzuka, M., Lu, J., Satake, M., Shigesada, K., and Ito, Y. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 90, 6859-6863), Type II (originally reported as til-1 by Stewart et al. (Stewart, M., Terry, A., Hu, M., O'Hara, M., Blyth, K., Baxter, E., Cameron, E., Onions, D. E., and Neil, J. C. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 8646-8651), and Type III (originally reported as Osf2/Cbfa1 by Ducy et al. (Ducy, P., Zhang, R., Geoffroy, V., Ridall, A. L., and Karsenty, G. (1997) Cell 89, 747-754). A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that these isoforms were expressed in adult mouse bones. The transient transfection of Type I or Type II Cbfa1 in a mouse fibroblastic cell line, C3H10T1/2, induced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. This induction was synergistically enhanced by the co-introduction of Xenopus BMP-4 cDNA. In contrast, the transient transfection of Type III cDNA induced no ALP activity. In C3H10T1/2 cells stably transfected with each isoform of Cbfa1, the gene expression of ALP was also strongly induced in cells transfected with Type I and Type II Cbfa1 but not in cells with Type III Cbfa1. Osteocalcin, osteopontin,and type I collagen gene expressions were induced or up-regulated in all of the cells stably transfected with each isoform of Cbfa1, and Type II transfected cells exhibited the highest expression level of osteocalcin gene. A luciferase reporter gene assay using a 6XOSE2-SV40 promoter (6 tandem binding elements for Cbfa1 ligated in front of the SV40 promoter sequence), a mouse osteocalcin promoter, and a mouse osteopontin promoter revealed the differences in the transcriptional induction of target genes by each Cbfa1 isoform with or without its beta-subunit. These results suggest that all three of the Cbfa1 isoforms used in the present study are involved in the stimulatory action of osteoblast differentiation, but they exert different functions in the process of osteoblast differentiation.  (+info)

Transplantation of osteoblast-like cells to the distracted callus in rabbits. (5/4631)

We carried out limb lengthening in rabbits and then transplanted osteoblast-like cells derived from the tibial periosteum to the centres of distracted callus immediately after distraction had been terminated. Two weeks later the transaxial area ratio at the centre of the distracted callus and the bone mineral density (BMD) were significantly higher in the transplanted group, by 21% and 42%, respectively, than in the non-injected group or the group injected with physiological saline (p < 0.05). Callus BMD as a percentage of density in uninvolved bone was also significantly higher in the transplanted group (p < 0.05) than in the other two groups, by 27% and 20% in the second and fourth weeks, respectively (p < 0.05). Mechanically, the callus in the transplanted group tended to be stronger as shown by the three-point bending test although the difference in fracture strength was not statistically significant. Our results show that transplantation of osteoblast-like cells promotes maturity of the distracted callus as observed at the second and fourth weeks after lengthening. The method appears promising as a means of shortening the consolidation period of callus distraction and decreasing complications during limb lengthening with an external fixator.  (+info)

Leukemia inhibitory factor and oncostatin M stimulate collagenase-3 expression in osteoblasts. (6/4631)

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and oncostatin M (OSM) have multiple effects on skeletal remodeling. Although these cytokines modestly regulate collagen synthesis in osteoblasts, their effects on collagenase expression and collagen degradation are not known. We tested whether LIF and OSM regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in osteoblast-enriched cells isolated from fetal rat calvariae. LIF and OSM increased collagenase-3 (MMP-13) mRNA and immunoreactive protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. LIF and OSM enhanced the rate of transcription of the collagenase gene and stabilized collagenase mRNA in transcriptionally arrested cells. LIF and OSM failed to regulate the expression of gelatinase A (MMP-2) and B (MMP-9). LIF and OSM modestly stimulated the expression of TIMP-1 but did not alter the expression of TIMP-2 and -3. In conclusion, LIF and OSM stimulate collagenase-3 and TIMP-1 expression in osteoblasts, and these effects may be involved in mediating the bone remodeling actions of these cytokines.  (+info)

Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by Cbfa1. (7/4631)

Cbfa1, a developmentally expressed transcription factor of the runt family, was recently shown to be essential for osteoblast differentiation. We have investigated the role of Cbfa1 in endochondral bone formation using Cbfa1-deficient mice. Histology and in situ hybridization with probes for indian hedgehog (Ihh), collagen type X and osteopontin performed at E13.5, E14.5 and E17.5 demonstrated a lack of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the anlagen of the humerus and the phalanges and a delayed onset of hypertrophy in radius/ulna in Cbfa1-/- mice. Detailed analysis of Cbfa1 expression using whole mount in situ hybridization and a lacZ reporter gene reveled strong expression not only in osteoblasts but also in pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Our studies identify Cbfa1 as a major positive regulator of chondrocyte differentiation.  (+info)

A BMP-inducible gene, dlx5, regulates osteoblast differentiation and mesoderm induction. (8/4631)

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, have been identified by their ability to induce cartilage and bone from nonskeletal cells and have been shown to act as a ventral morphogen in Xenopus mesoderm. We isolated a murine homeobox-containing gene, distal-less 5 (mDlx5), as a BMP-inducible gene in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Stable transfectants of MC3T3-E1 that overexpress mDlx5 mRNA showed increase in various osteogenic markers, a fourfold increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, a sixfold increase in osteocalcin production, and appearance in mineralization of extracellular matrix. Furthermore, mDlx5 was induced orthotopically in mouse embryos treated with BMP-4 and in fractured bone of adult mice. Consistent with these observations, we also found that injection of mDlx5 mRNA into dorsal blastomeres enhanced the ventralization of Xenopus embryos. These findings suggest that mDlx5 is a target gene of the BMP signaling pathway and acts as an important regulator of both osteogenesis and dorsoventral patterning of embryonic axis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Development and characterization of a conditionally immortalized human osteoblastic cell line stably transfected with the human androgen receptor gene. AU - Hofbauer, Lorenz C.. AU - Hicok, Kevin C.. AU - Schroeder, Marcy J.. AU - Harris, Steven A.. AU - Robinson, John A.. AU - Khosla, Sundeep. PY - 1997/9/15. Y1 - 1997/9/15. N2 - Androgens have significant beneficial effects on the skeleton. However, studies on the effects of androgens on osteoblasts are limited due to the absence of appropriate model systems that combine completness of the osteoblastic phenotype, rapid proliferation rate, and stable expression of the androgen receptor (AR). Thus, we stably transfected the conditionally immortalized human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB) with the human wild- type AR (hAR) cDNA. Compared to nontransfected hFOB cells, constitutive hAR mRNA expression in three independent hAR-transfected hFOB clones (hFOB/AR) was 15-fold higher in hFOB/AR-16, 62-fold higher in hFOB/AR-2, and ...
Full Text - Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces oxidative injury to human osteoblasts. The expression and potential function of circular RNA HIPK3 (circHIPK3) in H2O2-treated human osteoblasts were tested. We show that H2O2 significantly downregulated circHIPK3 in OB-6 cells and primary human osteoblasts. Furthermore, circHIPK3 levels were decreased in the necrotic femoral head tissues of dexamethasone-treated patients. In OB-6 osteoblastic cells and primary human osteoblasts, forced overexpression of circHIPK3 by a lentiviral construct alleviated H2O2-induced viability reduction, cell death and apoptosis. Contrarily, circHIPK3 silencing by targeted shRNA potentiated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in OB-6 cells and primary human osteoblasts. Moreover, circHIPK3 downregulation by H2O2 induced miR-124 accumulation in OB-6 cells and primary human osteoblasts. On the contrary, miR-124
Bisphosphonates are therapeutically applied to treat metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis or metastasis to the bone. Clinical studies have shown their potency to increase bone density over an extended period of time [25-28]. This effect is not only caused by a positive bone turnover, but also by a direct stimulation of osteoblast and osteoblast precursor cells by applying nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates [15, 29]. An anabolic effect to the bone could be caused by proliferation and by extracellular matrix production, mainly of collagen type I. With respect to osteoblast proliferation, we examined cyclin D1, an important regulator of the cell cycle and a surrogate of cell proliferation. Our results did not show a significant impact on osteoblast proliferation during the first 6 days. However, after day 6 zoledronate led to a reduced Cyclin D1 gene expression. As shown in other in vitro studies, pamidronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, decreased osteoblast proliferation in a ...
Osteoblast differentiation requires the coordinated stepwise expression of multiple genes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) accelerate the osteoblast differentiation process by blocking the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs), which alter gene expression by modifying chromatin structure. We previously demonstrated that HDIs and HDAC3 shRNAs accelerate matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblast maturation genes (e.g. alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin). Identifying other genes that are differentially regulated by HDIs might identify new pathways that contribute to osteoblast differentiation. To identify other osteoblast genes that are altered early by HDIs, we incubated MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts with HDIs (trichostatin A, MS-275, or valproic acid) for 18 hours in osteogenic conditions. The promotion of osteoblast differentiation by HDIs in this experiment was confirmed by osteogenic assays. Gene expression profiles relative to vehicle-treated cells were assessed by microarray analysis
Citation. Wei J, Shi Y, Zheng L, Zhou B, Inose H, Wang J, Guo XE, Grosschedl R, Karsenty G. miR-34s inhibit osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in the mouse by targeting SATB2.. The Journal of cell biology. 2012 May 07;. External Citation. Abstract. A screen of microRNAs preferentially expressed in osteoblasts identified members of the miR-34 family as regulators of osteoblast proliferation and/or differentiation. Osteoblast-specific gain- and loss-of-function experiments performed in vivo revealed that miR-34b and -c affected skeletogenesis during embryonic development, as well as bone mass accrual after birth, through two complementary cellular and molecular mechanisms. First, they inhibited osteoblast proliferation by suppressing Cyclin D1, CDK4, and CDK6 accumulation. Second, they inhibited terminal differentiation of osteoblasts, at least in part through the inhibition of SATB2, a nuclear matrix protein that is a critical determinant of osteoblast differentiation. Genetic evidence ...
The extracellular matrix glycoprotein, tenascin, is associated in vivo with mesenchyme undergoing osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, but is absent from mature bone and cartilage matrix. The expression of tenascin by osteoblastic cells in vitro has been investigated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Tenascin was secreted into the medium and deposited in the matrix by human and rat osteoblast-like cell lines, as well as by primary osteoblast-enriched cultures from chick embryo calvarial bones. In primary osteoblast-enriched cultures, extracellular tenascin was found only in cell aggregates expressing the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase. Chicken osteoblast cultures synthesized almost exclusively the largest tenascin subunit, whereas fibroblast cultures from periostea of chicken calvariae synthesized approximately equal amounts of all three subunits. In situ hybridization studies of developing chicken bones, using a cDNA probe that hybridizes to all chicken tenascin splice variants, ...
Current treatments for the prevention of thromboembolism include heparin and low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs). A number of studies have suggested that long term administration of these drugs may adversely affect osteoblasts and therefore, bone metabolism. Xarelto™ (Rivaroxaban) is a new anti-thrombotic drug for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective hip and knee replacement surgery. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the possible effects of rivaroxaban on osteoblast viability, function and gene expression compared to enoxaparin, a commonly used LMWH. Primary human osteoblast cultures were treated with varying concentrations of rivaroxaban (0.013, 0.13, 1.3 and 13 μg/ml) or enoxaparin (1, 10 and 100 μg/ml). The effect of each drug on osteoblast function was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. The MTS assay was used to assess the effect of drug treatments on cell proliferation. Changes in osteocalcin, Runx2 and BMP-2
Osteoblasts are a key component in the regulation of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche. Manipulating osteoblast numbers results in a parallel change in HSC numbers. We tested the activity of strontium (Sr), a bone anabolic agent that enhances osteoblast function and inhibits osteoclast activity, on hematopoiesis. In vitro treatment of primary murine osteoblasts with Sr increased their ability to form bone nodules, and in vivo it increased osteoblast number, bone volume, and trabecular thickness and decreased trabecular pattern factor. However, the administration of Sr had no influence on primitive HSCs, although the number of hematopoietic progenitors was higher than in control cells. When Sr-treated mice were used as donors for HSC transplantation, no difference in the engraftment ability was observed, whereas hematopoietic recovery was delayed when they were used as recipients. Despite the changes in osteoblast numbers, no increment in the number of N-cadherin(+) osteoblasts and ...
Osteoblasts are a key component in the regulation of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche. Manipulating osteoblast numbers results in a parallel change in HSC numbers. We tested the activity of strontium (Sr), a bone anabolic agent that enhances osteoblast function and inhibits osteoclast activity, on hematopoiesis. In vitro treatment of primary murine osteoblasts with Sr increased their ability to form bone nodules, and in vivo it increased osteoblast number, bone volume, and trabecular thickness and decreased trabecular pattern factor. However, the administration of Sr had no influence on primitive HSCs, although the number of hematopoietic progenitors was higher than in control cells. When Sr-treated mice were used as donors for HSC transplantation, no difference in the engraftment ability was observed, whereas hematopoietic recovery was delayed when they were used as recipients. Despite the changes in osteoblast numbers, no increment in the number of N-cadherin(+) osteoblasts and N-cadherin
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibroblasts expressing Sonic hedgehog induce osteoblast differentiation and ectopic bone formation. AU - Kinto, Naoki. AU - Iwamoto, Masahiro. AU - Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi. AU - Noji, Sumihare. AU - Ohuchi, Hideyo. AU - Yoshioka, Hidefumi. AU - Kataoka, Hiroko. AU - Wada, Yasuhiro. AU - Yuhao, Gao. AU - Takahashi, Hideaki E.. AU - Yoshiki, Shusaku. AU - Yamaguchi, Akira. PY - 1997/3/10. Y1 - 1997/3/10. N2 - We investigated the role of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. The numbers of ALP-positive cells in the mouse fibroblastic cell line C3H10T1/2 and the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 were increased by co-culture with chicken fibroblasts transfected with chicken Shh cDNA encoding amino-terminal peptide (Shh-N). The conditioned medium of Shh-N-RCAS-transfected chicken fibroblast cultures also significantly increased ALP activity in both C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1 cells. Intramuscular transplantation of Shh-N-RCAS-transfected chicken ...
Results IL-6 significantly reduced ALP activity, and expression of osteoblastic gene, Runx2 and osteocalcin, and also inhibited mineralization in a dose-dependent manner, which indicates a negative effect of IL-6 on osteoblast differentiation. Signal transduction analyses by Western blotting demonstrated that IL-6 significantly promoted phosphorylation of ERK and STAT3. The negative effect of IL-6 on ALP activity was restored by inhibition of ERK in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, the negative effect of IL-6 on ALP activity was enhanced by inhibition of STAT3. These results indicate that ERK has negative effect on osteoblast differentiation, whereas STAT3 has positive one. Moreover, ERK inhibitor enhanced IL-6-triggered STAT3 phosphorylation, and STAT3 inhibitor enhanced IL-6-triggered ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that ERK and STAT3 signaling pathway negatively regulates each other.. ...
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.4247 Purpose: To assess and compare topographic features and preosteoblastic cell responses of a new hydrothermally treated, calcium-incorporated surface against other commercially available implant surfaces. Materials and Methods: Four different surfaces were the subject of comparison in this study: machined (MC), resorbable blast media (RBM), sandblasted/large-grit/acid-etched (SLA), and calcium-incorporated SLA (Ca-SLA). Surface morphology and roughness were first characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and white light interferometer, respectively. Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were then cultured on the titanium surfaces. Cell morphology was observed at 24 hours, 48 hours, 7 days, and 15 days by SEM; differentiation was assessed at 7, 11, and 15 days by assaying alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) levels. Results: Surface characterization revealed nanotopographic features on Ca-SLA. At topographic analysis, SLA and Ca-SLA showed similar ...
Exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp) are well known to induce ectopic bone formation, but the physiological effect of Bmp signaling on normal bone is not completely understood. By deleting the receptor Bmpr1a in osteoblast-lineage cells with Dmp1-Cre, we observed a dramatic increase in trabecular bone mass in postnatal mice, due to a marked increase in osteoblast number likely driven by hyperproliferation of Sp7+ preosteoblasts. Similarly, inducible deletion of Bmpr1a in Sp7-positive cells specifically in postnatal mice increased trabecular bone mass. However, deletion of Smad4 by the same approaches had only a minor effect, indicating that Bmpr1a signaling suppresses trabecular bone formation through effectors beyond Smad4. Besides increasing osteoblast number in the trabecular bone, deletion of Bmpr1a by Dmp1-Cre also notably reduced osteoblast activity, resulting in attenuation of periosteal growth. The impairment in osteoblast activity correlated with reduced mTORC1 signaling in vivo, ...
Background/Purpose: The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating bone formation and maintaining bone hemostasis. Wnt activates a pathway that leads to stabilization of β-catenin and its translocation to the nucleus. Osteoblast differentiation and proliferation are also regulated by adenosine receptors, among other signals. We recently reported that A2aR signaling promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling in fibroblasts via activation of Akt and p38MAPK. In the present study we sought to determine whether there is a similar interaction between these pathways in osteoblasts. Methods: We studied murine osteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1) and primary osteoblasts derived from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells of mice. The cells were treated with CGS21680, a selective A2aR agonist, at doses ranging from 0 to 10µM, and for varying incubation periods up to 240 minutes. Levels of phosphorylated β-catenin at Ser552 (p-Ser552), a β-catenin isoform with enhanced transcriptional ...
Genetic studies show that Msx2 and Dlx5 homeodomain (HD) proteins support skeletal development, but null mutation of the closely related Dlx3 gene results in early embryonic lethality. Here we find that expression of Dlx3 in the mouse embryo is associated with new bone formation and regulation of osteoblast differentiation. Dlx3 is expressed in osteoblasts, and overexpression of Dlx3 in osteoprogenitor cells promotes, while specific knock-down of Dlx3 by RNA interference inhibits, induction of osteogenic markers. We characterized gene regulation by Dlx3 in relation to that of Msx2 and Dlx5 during osteoblast differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed a molecular switch in HD protein association with the bone-specific osteocalcin (OC) gene. The transcriptionally repressed OC gene was occupied by Msx2 in proliferating osteoblasts, while Dlx3, Dlx5, and Runx2 were recruited postproliferatively to initiate transcription. Dlx5 occupancy increased over Dlx3 in mature osteoblasts at the
Lisse TS, Chun RF, Rieger S, Adams JS, Hewison M. Vitamin D activation of functionally distinct regulatory miRNAs in primary human osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Jun; 28(6):1478-88 ...
Adhesion of Human Osteoblasts Cell on TiN Thin Film Deposited by Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition - Human osteoblast;TiN film;Cell adhesion;Surface modification;Cytoskeleton;
Glucocorticoids are known to increase the cyclic AMP response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) in cultured bone organs or bone cells. Using the osteoblast-like cell line ROS 17/2.8, which possesses receptors for both PTH and glucocorticoids, we investigated which component of the complex hormone receptor-guanine nucleotide regulatory unit-adenylate cyclase was affected by dexamethasone treatment. In response to PTH, isoproterenol or forskolin, a compound that is supposed to act directly on the catalytic unit, cyclic AMP production by intact cells and adenylate cyclase activity in purified plasma membrane were markedly increased by dexamethasone. Whereas NaF, guanosine 5′-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate and Mn/ stimulated adenylate cyclase activity were similarly enhanced in membranes isolated from glucocorticoid-treated cells, the activity of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory unit, as assessed by reconstitution into membranes from the CYC- clone, which is genetically devoid of this ...
Accumulating evidence suggests that extracellular nucleotides, signaling through P2 receptors, play a role in modulating bone cell function. ATP and ADP stimulate osteoclastic resorption, while ATP and UTP are powerful inhibitors of bone formation by osteoblasts. We investigated changes in the expression of P2 receptors with cell differentiation in primary osteoblast cultures. Rat calvarial osteoblasts, cultured for up to 10 days, were loaded with the intracellular Ca(2+)-sensing fluorophore, Fluo-4 AM, and a fluorescence imaging plate reader was used to measure responses to nucleotide agonists. Peak responses occurred within 20 s and were evoked by ATP or UTP at concentrations as low as 2 microM. Osteoblast number doubled between day 4 and 10 of culture, but the peak intracellular Ca(2+) response to ATP or UTP increased up to 6-fold over the same period, indicating that osteoblast responsiveness to nucleotides increases as cell differentiation proceeds. The approximate order of potency for the ...
Pereira, B.P., Aung, K.Z., Pho, R.W.H., Cool, S.M., Nathan, S.S., Zhou, Y., Gupta, A., Leong, D.T., Salto-Tellez, M., Van, Wijnen A.J., Ling, L., Galindo, M., Stein, G.S. (2009). Runx2, p53, and pRB status as diagnostic parameters for deregulation of osteoblast growth and differentiation in a new pre-chemotherapeutic osteosarcoma cell line (OS1). Journal of Cellular Physiology 221 (3) : 778-788. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp. ...
Taken from: Building stronger bones: molecular regulation of the osteoblast lineage by Fanxin Long [1]. Osteoblast differentiation at a glance, Arkady Rutkovskiy, Kåre-Olav Stensløkken, Ingvar Jarle Vaage [2]. Development of the endochondral skeleton by Fanxin Long, David Ornitz [3]. Mesenchymal stem cells can give rise to 4 lineages by expressing corresponding transcriptional regulators: PPARg for adipogenic, MyoD for myogenic, Runx2 for osteoblastic, and Sox9 for chondrocytic lineages. In intramembranous ossification (osteogenesis in the scull and clavicles), preosteoblasts stem directly from mesenchymal stem cells, while in endochondral (osteogenesis of the axial skeleton and the limbs) a common osteo-chondro progenitor gives rise to both cell types. Extracellular signals regulating osteoblast differentiation: Model is based on studies of the mouse limb skeleton. Osteoblasts differentiate from mesenchymal progenitors (MP) through distinct developmental stages marked by expression of key ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pretreatment with low nitric oxide protects osteoblasts from high nitric oxide-induced apoptotic insults through regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun-mediated Bcl-2 gene expression and protein translocation. AU - Tai, Yu-Ting. AU - Cherng, Yih-Giun. AU - Chang, Chia Chen. AU - Hwang, Yi Ping. AU - Chen, Jui Tai. AU - Chen, Ruei-Ming. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) can regulate osteoblast activity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pretreatment with a low concentration of NO on osteoblast injuries induced by a high level of NO and its possible molecular mechanisms. Exposure of osteoblasts to 0.3 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, slightly increased cellular NO levels without affecting cell viability. SNP at 2 mM greatly increased the levels of cellular NO and reactive oxygen species, and induced osteoblast death. Thus, osteoblasts were treated with 0.3 and 2 mM SNP as the sources of low and high NO, respectively. Exposure of osteoblasts ...
1|i|α|/i|,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D|sub|3|/sub| (1,25(OH)|sub|2|/sub|D|sub|3|/sub|), the active metabolite of vitamin D (Vit D), increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, maintaining a correct balance of bone remodeling. Vit D has an anabolic effect on the skeletal system and is key in promoting osteoblastic differentiation of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) from bone marrow. MSCs can be also isolated from the immature form of the tooth, the dental bud: Dental Bud Stem Cells (DBSCs) are adult stem cells that can effectively undergo osteoblastic differentiation. In this work we investigated the effect of Vit D on DBSCs differentiation into osteoblasts. Our data demonstrate that DBSCs, cultured in an opportune osteogenic medium, differentiate into osteoblast-like cells; Vit D treatment stimulates their osteoblastic features, increasing the expression of typical markers of osteoblastogenesis like RUNX2 and Collagen I (Coll I) and, in a more important way, determining a higher
Growth and differentiation of osteoblasts are often studied in cell cultures. In vivo, however, osteoblasts are embedded within a complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, which bears little relation to standard culture flasks. Our study characterizes osteoblast-like cells cultured in 3D collagen gels and compares them with cells in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Primary rat osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded within type I collagen gels, and differentiation was determined by mineral staining and gene expression analysis. Cells growing in 3D gels showed positive mineral staining and induction of osteoblast marker genes earlier than cells growing in 2D. A number of genes, including osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, alkaline phosphatase and dentin matrix protein 1, were already highly upregulated in 3D cultures 24 h after seeding. The early expression of osteoblast genes was dependent on the 3D structure and was not induced in cells growing on collagen-coated dishes in 2D. Comparison of
The relationship of proliferation to the developmental sequence associated with bone cell differentiation was examined in primary osteoblast cultures derived from fetal rat and embryonic chick calvaria. A reciprocal and functional relationship exists between the decline in proliferative activity which occurs during the initial stages of the developmental sequence and the induction of genes encoding osteoblast phenotype proteins associated with matrix maturation and mineralization. This relationship is supported by 1) a temporal sequence of events in which there is an enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and osteopontin (OP) genes immediately following the proliferative period and expression of osteocalcin with the onset of mineralization, and 2) increases in AP and OP when DNA synthesis is inhibited. By determining cellular mRNA levels and rates of mRNA synthesis in isolated nuclei, we found that the down-regulation of cell growth-related genes is modified at both the levels of transcription
More than 95% of TAF gets eliminated from plasma 2 hours after dosing. To mimic that process, the researchers pulsed TAF into PBMCs and primary human osteoblasts for 2 hours, followed by a washout. They measured TFV-DP in cells collected at multiple points after dosing. The investigators conducted PBMC loading experiments with multiple TAF concentrations to find the concentration that results in intracellular TFV-DP levels similar to those seen in vivo (677 nM). They then evaluated similar TAF concentrations in primary osteoblasts. Next the Gilead team developed a primary osteoblast cell growth assay and evaluated TFV-DP levels after single and multiple TAF pulses. They assessed cell viability after treating primary osteoblasts with TAF for 3 days ...
Alkaline phosphatase activity on osteoblast - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: HelloI have cultured human fetal osteoblast (hFOB 1.19) and I need to check for the alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for that cells.I use the plant extract as for the treatment for differentiation and proliferation of the osteoblast.I never did ALP test before. Does everybody can help regarding the protocol for ALP assay?I will use ALP kit from RANDOX.Thank you for help.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of cytokines and growth factors on osteoblastic cells. AU - Mundy, G. R.. AU - Boyce, B.. AU - Hughes, D.. AU - Wright, K.. AU - Bonewald, L.. AU - Dallas, S.. AU - Harris, S.. AU - Ghosh-Choudhury, N.. AU - Chen, D.. AU - Dunstan, C.. AU - Izbicka, E.. AU - Yoneda, T.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1995/8. Y1 - 1995/8. N2 - In this short review, some regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the control of normal bone formation are proposed, based on several in vivo and in vitro models our group has utilized recently to study osteoblast differentiation and mineralized bone matrix formation. Of course, these proposals must be assessed in the light of the limitations of the models, which probably represent a simplification of the complex and different ways in which normal mammalian bone is formed at different sites. Nevertheless, it is likely that the same general types of control mechanisms are active in each of the ...
The exposure of human osteoblastic cells to EMD, TGF-β1 and EMD+TGF-β1 resulted in early increased cell proliferation, and reduced ALP activity and matrix mineralization. The present results are corroborated by several works that observed EMD stimulation of the proliferative capacity of both osteoblastic cells[14, 16, 36] and PDL fibroblasts[10, 12, 13, 20, 22]. In contrast to PDL fibroblast response to EMD, which shows signs of matrix mineralization when EMD are used even at earlier time points[13], osteoblastic cell cultures seem to be inhibited in terms of osteogenic differentiation. Interestingly, the association of EMD and exogenous TGF-β1 did not alter the osteogenic potential of the cultures.. Although the results of the present study point toward the development of a less differentiated osteoblastic phenotype when cells were exposed to EMD, TGF-β1 or EMD+TGF-β1, no morphologic differences were observed among the groups. Cell morphology was considered within the typical features of ...
To examine the effect of fluoride on the survival of osteoblasts, media containing various concentrations of fluoride, 0〗5.0×10,sup,-2,/sup, mol/L, were prepared and mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured. At the same time, media containing 0〗5.0×10,sup,-2,/sup, mol/L of chloride as an indicator of pH were also adjusted. Although osteoblasts grew well at fluoride levels below 1.0×10,sup,-3,/sup, mol/L, osteoblast survival was dramatically inhibited over 5.0×10,sup,-3,/sup, mol/L of fluoride despite the pH of the medium scarcely decreasing when compared with the control pH 7.81, and osteoblasts showing favorable survival with 2.0×10,sup,-2,/sup, mol/L of chloride even at pH 6.81. Fluorospectrophotometric observation showed quite different features between control cells and at higher concentrations of fluoride. These results suggested that fluoride dramatically inhibits osteoblast growth at concentrations above 5.0×10,sup,-3,/sup, mol/L in the medium solution.. ...
We investigated the biophysical effects (cell elasticity and spring constant) caused on Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells by nanosized metal (Co and Ti) wear debris, as well as the adhesive characteristics of cells after exposure to the metal nanoparticles. Cell mitochondrial activity was investigated using the MTT assays; along with LDH assay, metal uptake, cell apoptosis and mineralisation output (alizarin red assay) of the cells. Osteoblasts mitochondrial activity was not affected by Ti nanoparticles at concentrations up to 1 mg/ml and by Cobalt nanoparticles at concentrations , 0.5 mg/ml; however elasticity and spring constant were significantly modified by the exposure to nanoparticles of these metals in agreement with the alteration of cell conformation (shape), as result of the exposure to simulated wear debris, demonstrated by fluorescence images after actin staining.. ...
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently involved pathogens in bacterial infections such as skin abscess, pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and implant-associated infection. As for bone homeostasis, it is partly altered during infections by Staphylococcus aureus by the induction of various responses from osteoblasts, which are the bone-forming cells responsible for extracellular matrix synthesis and its mineralization. Nevertheless, bone-forming cells are a heterogeneous population with different stages of maturation and the impact of the latter on their responses toward bacteria remains unclear. We describe the impact of Staphylococcus aureus on two populations of human primary bone-forming cells which have distinct maturation characteristics in both acute and persistent models of interaction. Cell maturation did not influence the internalization and survival of Staphylococcus aureus inside bone-forming cells or the cell death related to the infection. By studying the expression of
Primary osteoblast cultures from calvaria of newborn, wild-type, and Lrp5−/− mice were established and mineralized in vitro as previously described (Ducy et al., 1999). Transfections were performed in 24-well plates (20,000 cells/well; Fugene6; Roche) in triplicate and repeated at least three times; cells were harvested 40 h after transfection. Empty vector was added to keep the total amount of DNA constant at 225 ng/well. The FOPtkluc reporter, containing mutated Lef1 binding sites, was used in control transfections. All luciferase values were corrected for β-galactosidase activity as a control for transfection efficiency. For Western blot analysis, primary osteoblast lysates were collected in physiological buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), homogenized, fractionated into cytosolic and membrane fractions by ultracentrifugation at 100,000 g for 90 min, and separated by SDS-PAGE. The epitope tags were detected by the anti-FLAG M2 antibody (Sigma-Aldrich) and anti-HA antibody ...
The ancestral glycoprotein hormone thyrostimulin is a heterodimer of unique glycoprotein hormone subunit alpha (GPA)2 and glycoprotein hormone subunit beta (GPB)5 subunits with high affinity for the TSH receptor. Transgenic overexpression of GPB5 in mice results in cranial abnormalities, but the role of thyrostimulin in bone remains unknown. We hypothesized that thyrostimulin exerts paracrine actions in bone and determined: 1) GPA2 and GPB5 expression in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, 2) the skeletal consequences of thyrostimulin deficiency in GPB5 knockout (KO) mice, and 3) osteoblast and osteoclast responses to thyrostimulin treatment. Gpa2 and Gpb5 expression was identified in the newborn skeleton but declined rapidly thereafter. GPA2 and GPB5 mRNAs were also expressed in primary osteoblasts and osteoclasts at varying concentrations. Juvenile thyrostimulin-deficient mice had increased bone volume and mineralization as a result of increased osteoblastic bone formation. However, thyrostimulin failed to
Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an acidic extracellular matrix phosphoprotein that can bind calcium. DMP1 is required for bone and dentin mineralization and is expressed in the cells of bone and teeth. It is thought to play a role in regulating expression of osteoblast-specific genes during osteoblast cell differentiation and is localized to the nucleus in osteoblast precursor cells. In mature osteoblasts, the DMP1 protein is phosphorylated and localized to the extracellular matrix, where it plays a role in forming mineralized matrix. While other constitutively expressed proteins in the extracellular matrix, such as osteopontin and osteocalcin, are expressed in osteoblast cells, DMP1 is expressed in osteocytes, making it a candidate biomarker for osteocyte activity.. ...
Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an acidic extracellular matrix phosphoprotein that can bind calcium. DMP1 is required for bone and dentin mineralization and is expressed in the cells of bone and teeth. It is thought to play a role in regulating expression of osteoblast-specific genes during osteoblast cell differentiation and is localized to the nucleus in osteoblast precursor cells. In mature osteoblasts, the DMP1 protein is phosphorylated and localized to the extracellular matrix, where it plays a role in forming mineralized matrix. While other constitutively expressed proteins in the extracellular matrix, such as osteopontin and osteocalcin, are expressed in osteoblast cells, DMP1 is expressed in osteocytes, making it a candidate biomarker for osteocyte activity.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of nano-engineered surfaces on osteoblast adhesion, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. AU - Miralami, Raheleh. AU - Sharp, John G.. AU - Namavar, Fereydoon. AU - Hartman, Curtis W.. AU - Garvin, Kevin L.. AU - Thiele, Geoffrey M.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Modifying implant surfaces to improve their biocompatibility by enhancing osteoblast activation, growth, differentiation, and induction of greater bone formation with stronger attachments should result in improved outcomes for total joint replacement surgeries. This study tested the hypothesis that nano-structured surfaces, produced by the ion beam-assisted deposition method, enhance osteoblast adhesion, growth, differentiation, bone formation, and maturation. The ion beam-assisted deposition technique was employed to deposit zirconium oxide films on glass substrates. The effects of the ion beam-assisted deposition technique on cellular functions were investigated by comparing adhesion, proliferation, ...
We have previously shown that targeted expression of a dominant-negative truncated form of N-cadherin (Cdh2) delays acquisition of peak bone mass in mice and retards osteoblast differentiation; whereas deletion of cadherin 11 (Cdh11), another osteoblast cadherin, leads to only modest osteopenia. To determine the specific roles of these two cadherins in the adult skeleton, we generated mice with an osteoblast/osteocyte specific Cdh2 ablation (cKO) and double Cdh2+/−;Cdh11−/− germline mutant mice. Age-dependent osteopenia and smaller diaphyses with decreased bone strength characterize cKO bones. By contrast, Cdh2+/−;Cdh11−/− exhibit severely reduced trabecular bone mass, decreased in vivo bone formation rate, smaller diaphyses and impaired bone strength relative to single Cdh11 null mice. The number of bone marrow immature precursors and osteoprogenitor cells is reduced in both cKO and Cdh2+/−;Cdh11−/− mice, suggesting that N-cadherin is involved in maintenance of the stromal ...
Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic ...
A cDNA library prepared from the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was screened for the presence of specifically expressed genes by employing a combined subtraction hybridization/differential screening approach. A cDNA was identified and sequenced which encodes a protein designated osteoblast-specific factor 2 (OSF-2) comprising 811 amino acids. OSF-2 has a typical signal sequence, followed by a cysteine-rich domain, a fourfold repeated domain and a C-terminal domain. The protein lacks a typical transmembrane region. The fourfold repeated domain of OSF-2 shows homology with the insect protein fasciclin I. RNA analyses revealed that OSF-2 is expressed in bone and to a lesser extent in lung, but not in other tissues. Mouse OSF-2 cDNA was subsequently used as a probe to clone the human counterpart. Mouse and human OSF-2 show a high amino acid sequence conservation except for the signal sequence and two regions in the C-terminal domain in which in-frame insertions or deletions are observed, ...
Osteoporosis results from the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation, and restoring the normal balance of bone remodeling is highly desirable for identification of better treatment. In this study, using a cell-based high-throughput screening model representing Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) transcriptional activity, we identified a novel small-molecular-weight compound, T63, as an efficient up-regulator of osteogenesis. T63 increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) activity and mineralization as well as gene expression of Alpl and other osteogenic marker genes in mouse osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cell-like cells. Upon induction of osteoblast differentiation, T63 inhibited adipogenic differentiation in the pluripotent mesenchymal cells. Consistently, T63 up-regulated RUNX2 mRNA and protein levels, and knockdown of RUNX2 reduced the osteogenic role of T63. Mechanistically, T63 activated both BMPs and WNT/β-catenin signaling pathways. Inhibition of either signaling pathway
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucocorticoid enhances the expression of dickkopf-1 in human osteoblasts. T2 - Novel mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. AU - Ohnaka, Keizo. AU - Taniguchi, Hiroshi. AU - Kawate, Hisaya. AU - Nawata, Hajime. AU - Takayanagi, Ryoichi. PY - 2004/5/21. Y1 - 2004/5/21. N2 - To clarify the underlying mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, we investigated the effect of glucocorticoid on the expression of dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), an antagonist of Wnt signaling, in primary cultured human osteoblasts. Dexamethasone markedly induced the expression of mRNA for Dkk-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of Kremen1, a receptor for Dkk, did not change by the treatment with dexamethasone, while that of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), a Wnt coreceptor, slightly decreased by the treatment with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone increased the transcriptional activity of the Dkk-1 gene promoter in human osteoblasts. Serial deletion and ...
Betaine (BET), a component of many foods, is an essential osmolyte and a source of methyl groups; it also shows an antioxidant activity. Moreover, BET stimulates muscle differentiation via insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I). The processes of myogenesis and osteogenesis involve common mechanisms with skeletal muscle cells and osteoblasts sharing the same precursor. Therefore, we have hypothesized that BET might be effective on osteoblast cell differentiation. The effect of BET was tested in human osteoblasts (hObs) derived from trabecular bone samples obtained from waste material of orthopedic surgery. Cells were treated with 10 mM BET at 5, 15, 60 min and 3, 6 and 24 h. The possible effects of BET on hObs differentiation were evaluated by real time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Calcium imaging was used to monitor intracellular calcium changes. Real time PCR results showed that BET stimulated significantly the expression of RUNX2, osterix, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin. Western
Levesque, Jean-Pierre, Bendall, Linda J., Pettit, Allison R., Raggatt, Liza, Jacobsen, Rebecca, Barbier, Valarie, Nowlan, Bianca, Shen, Yi Shen, Sims, Natalie A. and Winkler, Ingrid G. (2011). Mobilizing agents G-CSF, cyclophosphamide or AMD3100 (Plerixafor) Have distinct effects on osteoblasts, hematopoietic stem cell niches, and B-Lymphopoiesis. In: Abstracts of the American Society of Hematology 53rd Annual Meeting. 53rd Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), San Diego CA, United States, (1713-1713). 10-13 December 2011. ...
Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopy technique that provides a global biochemical signature and has been shown to have utility in the analysis of biological cells for bone tissue engineering applications. Traditionally, sample analysis in this field employs destructive biological methods that require the use of biomarkers, however, Raman has since become an essential tool in various areas of bio-industry and by incorporating the technique into biological laboratories these perturbing methodologies are no longer the only means of analysis. Therefore the focus of this study was to investigate the capability of Raman spectroscopy as a tool for the in vitro characterisation of the sub-cellular composition and osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells. As with most biological samples a high degree of heterogeneity is often found, therefore in order to extract the desired information from the biological studies multivariate analysis tools were utilised. The reliability and ...
The Runx2 transcription factor is critical for commitment to the osteoblast lineage. However, its role in committed osteoblasts and its functions during postnatal skeletogenesis remain unclear. We established a Runx2-floxed line with insertion of loxP sites around exon 8 of the Runx2 gene. Runx2 protein lacking the region encoded by exon 8 is imported into the nucleus and binds target DNA, but exhibits diminished transcriptional activity. We specifically deleted the Runx2 gene in committed osteoblasts using 2.3kb col1a-Cre transgenic mice. Surprisingly, the homozygous Runx2 mutant mice were born alive. The Runx2 heterozygous and homozygous null were grossly indistinguishable from wild-type littermates at birth. Runx2 deficiency did not alter proliferative capacity of osteoblasts during embryonic development (E18). Chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage growth in mutants was similar to wild-type mice from birth to 3 months of age. Analysis of the embryonic skeleton revealed poor calcification ...
Currently, no model is available to study the cellular and molecular events associated with bone metastases of prostate cancer. This study shows that MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b cells induce a specific and reproducible increase in osteoblast differentiation and proliferation when the cells share the medium during coculturing. Osteoblast differentiation in this system was associated with up-regulation of the osteoblast-specific transcriptor factor Cbfa1. Moreover, up-regulation of Cbfa1 and Osteocalcin expression was also induced in PMOs by CM produced by MDA PCa 2b cells, suggesting that soluble factors produced by prostate cancer cells promote osteoblast differentiation and that Cbfa1 mediates this effect. To our knowledge, this is the first in vitro model of bone metastasis from prostate cancer that recapitulates the osteoblastic phenotype typical of the disease. These results confirmed in vivo and at the molecular level, suggest that the pathophysiology of osteoblastic bone metastases from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein Gp120 induces proliferation but not apoptosis in osteoblasts at physiologic concentrations. AU - Cummins, Nathan W.. AU - Klicpera, Anna. AU - Sainski, Amy M.. AU - Bren, Gary D.. AU - Khosla, Sundeep. AU - Westendorf, Jennifer J.. AU - Badley, Andrew D.. PY - 2011/9/12. Y1 - 2011/9/12. N2 - Patients with HIV infection have decreased numbers of osteoblasts, decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture compared to uninfected patients; however, the molecular mechanisms behind these associations remain unclear. We questioned whether Gp120, a component of the envelope protein of HIV capable of inducing apoptosis in many cell types, is able to induce cell death in bone-forming osteoblasts. We show that treatment of immortalized osteoblast-like cells and primary human osteoblasts with exogenous Gp120 in vitro at physiologic concentrations does not result in apoptosis. Instead, in the osteoblast-like U2OS cell line, cells ...
To illuminate the effect of titanium particles on osteoblast function, we compared the adhesion force of neonatal rat calvarial osteoblasts on fibronectin-coated glass after incubation with titanium particles (80% had diameters of less than 5 microm). The cells were incubated with the particles for 1.5-72 hours. Using a micropipette single-cell manipulation system, we showed that the adhesion force of the osteoblasts to fibronectin-coated glass (1.0 microg/ml) was significantly affected by the presence of particulate debris. The adhesion force of the cells incubated with titanium particles for less than 4 hours was not significantly affected by exposure to the particles; after 4 hours, however, it was significantly reduced relative to that of controls. Aspiration of particle-challenged osteoblasts into the micropipette demonstrated that the particles were not stripped from the cell surface and therefore confirmed that the osteoblasts had ingested them. During aspiration, the particles
TY - JOUR. T1 - Porcine fetal enamel matrix derivative stimulates proliferation but not differentiation of pre-osteoblastic 219 cells, inhibits proliferation and stimulates differentiation of osteoblast-like MG63 cells, and increases proliferation and differentiation of normal human osteoblast NHOst cells. AU - Schwartz, Z.. AU - Carnes, D. L.. AU - Pulliam, R.. AU - Lohmann, C. H.. AU - Sylvia, V. L.. AU - Liu, Y.. AU - Dean, D. D.. AU - Cochran, D. L.. AU - Boyan, Barbara D.. PY - 2000/8. Y1 - 2000/8. N2 - Background: Embryonic enamel matrix proteins are hypothesized to be involved in the formation of acellular cementum during tooth development, suggesting that these proteins can be used to regenerate periodontal tissues. Enamel matrix protein derived from embryonic porcine tooth germs is used clinically, but the mechanisms by which it promotes the formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and bone are not well understood. Methods: This study examined the response of osteoblasts at 3 stages ...
OBJECTIVE To explore the response of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and calvarial osteoblasts to mechanical strain and the consequent changes of cytoskeleton F-actin. METHODS Bone marrow MSCs and calvarial osteoblasts were isolated from SD rats and cultured in vitro. Mechanical stretch was performed on passage 3 cells at 2 000 microepsilon for 0, 2, 6 and 12 hours using four-point bending system. The response of cells and the distribution of F-actin were observed using fluorescent staining under laser scanning confocal microscope and the morphological parameters were quantified using image analysis software Laserpix. RESULTS Under mechanical stretch, the fluorescent staining decreased obviously at both MSCs and osteoblasts, and F-actin filaments were rearranged and became tenuous, thinner, and abnormally distributed. The outline of nucleus became unclear and apoptotic changes were observed at some of both cells. Cellular size decreased more significantly in MSCs than in osteoblasts.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor that most frequently affects young adults. There is increasing evidence that miRNAs (miRs) are important modulators of gene expression and their deregulation has been reported in various human tumors. This study investigated differences in miR expression in normal human osteoblast cells versus malignant human osteosarcoma cells differ in their miR expression. Analysis of miRNA expression in normal osteoblast cell lines (hOBc, NHOST, hFOB) and osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS, Saos, U-2OS) were completed using miR microarray technology with unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. The relative expression levels of these miRs were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. A number of miRs were found to have different expression in the osteosarcoma cells when compared to normal human osteoblasts. Three miRs, miR-199a-3p, miR-127-3p and miR-376c were significantly decreased in osteosarcoma cell lines while miR-151-3p and miR-191 were ...
Implantable Collagen sponges are used in Spinal Surgery as Drug Delivery Scaffolds. An optimal concentration of growth factor that strikes a balance between bone growth and adverse diffusion effects is difficult to find. The porous sponge also serves as a scaffold for Osteoblast growth, and fluid shear has been shown to mediate biological effects on that cell type.. We use COMSOL Multiphysics to model an in-vitro perfusion bioreactor system that contains a porous scaffold in the reaction chamber. The reaction engineering interface is used to model release of scaffold-bound growth factor, while its subsequent convection and diffusion are modeled as species transport in porous media. The Brinkman Equations are used to simulate fluid flow through the Porous phase.. ...
Oscarvit (OSC) is an in-house preparation consisting of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, strontium, Vitamin D, and eggshell membrane hydrolysate containing naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and sulfated glycoproteins. OSC has been used both in an open-label human study and in vitro in osteoblasts. Fifteen patients divided into three groups received oral OSC 0.6 g three times daily for 20 days. The main outcome measures were regional skeletal pain over the treatment period. For the in vitro experiments eight primary human osteoblasts cultures were established from trabecular bone, six of them from the femoral head, and two from the tibia. Cells were cultured for five to 20 days in the presence of 20 μg/ml OSC. Immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect molecular alterations involved in the mineralization process. Calcium concentration was measured by means of a colorimetric assay and cell viability was analyzed using the LDH cytotoxicity assay. To investigate whether the osteoblasts response
The development, maintenance and repair of the skeletal system are dependent on the differentiation of both chondrocytes and osteoblasts from their common progenitor, the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). The A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that signals by increasing cAMP and/or activating phospholipase C signaling. Considering the published roles of cAMP on MSC differentiation, and our finding that the expression of the A2BAR is induced following injury, we hypothesized that ablation or activation of the A2BAR impacts the differentiation of osteoblasts and chondrocytes and that this would manifest as changes in skeletal development and bone fracture repair. Activation of the A2BAR increased the differentiation of bone marrow-derived MSCs to osteoblasts by increasing mRNA expression of the transcription factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Sp7 transcription factor (Osterix), which are essential for osteoblast differentiation. To examine the effect of ...
Osteocytes are the most abundant osteoblast lineage cells within the bone matrix. They respond to mechanical stimulation and can participate in the release of regulatory proteins that can modulate the activity of other bone cells. We hypothesize that neuropeptide Y (NPY), a neurotransmitter with regulatory functions in bone formation, is produced by osteocytes and can affect osteoblast activity. To study the expression of NPY by the osteoblast lineage cells, we utilized transgenic mouse models in which we can identify and isolate populations of osteoblasts and osteocytes. The Col2.3GFP transgene is active in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while the DMP1 promoter drives green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in osteocytes. Real-time PCR analysis of RNA from the isolated populations of cells derived from neonatal calvaria showed higher NPY mRNA in the preosteocytes/osteocytes fraction compared to osteoblasts. NPY immunostaining confirmed the strong expression of NPY in osteocytes (DMP1GFP+)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primitive adult hematopoietic stem cells can function as osteoblast precursors. AU - Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.. AU - Gugala, Zbigniew. AU - Camargo, Fernando. AU - Gannon, Francis H.. AU - Jackson, KathyJo. AU - Kienstra, Kirsten Anderson. AU - Shine, H. David. AU - Lindsey, Ronald. AU - Hirschi, Karen K.. AU - Goodell, Margaret A.. AU - Brenner, Malcolm K.. AU - Davis, Alan R.. PY - 2003/12/23. Y1 - 2003/12/23. N2 - Osteoblasts are continually recruited from stem cell pools to maintain bone. Although their immediate precursor is a plastic-adherent mesenchymal stem cell able to generate tissues other than bone, increasing evidence suggests the existence of a more primitive cell that can differentiate to both hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells. We show here that the side population (SP) of marrow stem cells, defined by their ability to rapidly expel a DNA-binding dye and to regenerate the hematopoietic compartment, can differentiate to osteoblasts through a mesenchymal ...
The serotonergic system plays a significant regulatory role in osteoblast differentiation and proliferation. Serotonin (five-hydroxytryptamine or 5HT) may promote or inhibit osteoblast proliferation depending upon the serotonin receptor isoforms expressed by the cell. Classically, 5HT receptor 1B (5HTR1B) reduces osteoblast proliferation by inhibiting phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor. Conversely, 5HT receptor 2A (5HTR2A) activation positively influences osteoblast proliferation through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Despite the serotonergic system being well characterized in normal osteoblasts, minimal information concerning the influence of serotonin on malignant osteoblasts is reported. The objectives of our study were to elucidate the expression, function, and potential of therapeutic targeting of these two receptors in a canine osteosarcoma cell line (COS) and primary normal canine osteoblasts (CnOb). Equal ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of bone that has been shown to be internalized by osteoblasts via a receptor-mediated pathway. Here we report that there are strain-dependent differences in the uptake of S. aureus by osteoblasts. An S. aureus septic arthritis isolate, LS-1, was internalized some 10-fold more than the laboratory strain 8325-4. Disruption of the genes for the fibronectin binding proteins in these two strains of S. aureus blocked their ability to be internalized by osteoblasts, thereby demonstrating the essentiality of these genes in this process. However, there were no differences in the capacity of these two strains to bind to fibronectin or osteoblasts. Analysis of the kinetics of internalization of the two strains by osteoblasts revealed that strain 8325-4 was internalized only over a short period of time (2 h) and to low numbers, while LS-1 was taken up by osteoblasts in large numbers for over 3 h. These differences in the kinetics of uptake explain the fact that the ...
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the primary causes of bone infections which are often chronic and difficult to eradicate. Bacteria like S. aureus may survive upon internalization in cells and may be responsible for chronic and recurrent infections. In this study, we compared the responses of a phagocytic cell (i.e. macrophage) to a non-phagocytic cell (i.e. osteoblast) upon S. aureus internalization. We found that upon internalization, S. aureus could survive for up to 5 and 7 days within macrophages and osteoblasts, respectively. Significantly more S. aureus was internalized in macrophages compared to osteoblasts and a significantly higher (100 fold) level of live intracellular S. aureus was detected in macrophages compared to osteoblasts. However, the percentage of S. aureus survival after infection was significantly lower in macrophages compared to osteoblasts at post-infection days 1-6. Interestingly, macrophages had relatively lower viability in shorter infection time periods (i.e. 0.5
New research shows that the Wnt receptor Frizzled-9 (Fzd9) promotes bone formation, providing a potential new target for the treatment of osteoporosis. The study appears online on March 14 in The Journal of Cell Biology (www.jcb.org).. Adult bones are maintained by a balance of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Although Wnt signaling affects this balance in mice and humans, the Wnt receptors involved remain unknown. A team of researchers led by Thorsten Schinke found that the Wnt receptor Fzd9 was upregulated during osteoblast differentiation and that mice lacking Fzd9 had fragile bones due to low rates of bone formation.. Fzd9-null osteoblasts differentiated normally, but they failed to mineralize their extracellular matrix. The loss of Fzd9 disrupted a non-canonical branch of the Wnt signaling pathway, resulting in reduced levels of the transcription factor STAT1, which was, in turn, required for the expression of several interferon-regulated genes. One of these genes ...
We reported that interleukin (IL) 6 alone cannot induce osteoclast formation in cocultures of mouse bone marrow and osteoblastic cells, but soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) strikingly triggered osteoclast formation induced by IL-6. In this study, we examined the mechanism of osteoclast formation by IL-6 and related cytokines through the interaction between osteoblastic cells and osteoclast progenitors. When dexamethasone was added to the cocultures, IL-6 could stimulate osteoclast formation without the help of soluble IL-6R. Osteoblastic cells expressed a very low level of IL-6R mRNA, whereas fresh mouse spleen and bone marrow cells, both of which are considered to be osteoclast progenitors, constitutively expressed relatively high levels of IL-6R mRNA. Treatment of osteoblastic cells with dexamethasone induced a marked increase in the expression of IL-6R mRNA. By immunoblotting with antiphosphotyrosine antibody, IL-6 did not tyrosine-phosphorylate a protein with a molecular mass of 130 kD in ...
Skeletal muscle and bone are highly interrelated, and previous proteomic analyses suggest that lumican is one of muscle-derived factors. To further understand the role of lumican as a myokine affecting adjacent bone metabolism, we investigated the effects of lumican on osteoblast biology. Lumican expression was significantly higher in the cell lysates and conditioned media (CM) of myotubes than those of undifferentiated myoblasts, and the known anabolic effects of myotube CM on osteoblasts were reduced by excluding lumican from the CM. Lumican stimulated preosteoblast viability and differentiation, resulting in increased calvaria bone formation. The expression of osteoblast differentiation markers was consistently increased by lumican. Lumican increased the phosphorylation of ERK, whereas ERK inhibitors completely reversed lumican-mediated stimulation of Runx2 and ALP activities in osteoblasts. Results of a binding ELISA experiment in osteoblasts show that transmembrane integrin α2β1 directly
We provide genetic evidence that p53 plays a negative role in postnatal bone development, with a cell-autonomous effect on osteoblastogenesis. The mice deficient for p53 displayed increased bone formation and osteosclerotic phenotypes; the osteoblasts deficient for p53 showed enhanced proliferation and accelerated differentiation; and p53 deficiency could overcome the differentiation defects of c-Abl−/− osteoblasts. Moreover, p53 deficiency confers the osteoblasts a greater osteoclastogenic capacity, without directly affecting osteoclast differentiation or resorption. Accordingly, increased bone resorption was also observed in p53−/− mice. Thus, the osteosclerotic phenotype is a net result of the direct effect of p53 on osteoblast action combined with an osteoblast-mediated effect on osteoclasts. This osteoblast-supported osteoclastogenesis might explain why most of the osteosclerosis models associated with enhanced osteoblast function do not exhibit a huge increase in bone mass (Ducy et ...
The importance of Wnt pathway signaling in development of bone has been well established. Here we investigated the role of a known Wnt target, ENC1 (ectodermal-neural cortex 1; NRP/B), in osteoblast differentiation. Enc1 expression was detected in mouse osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and osteocytes by in situ hybridization, and osteoblastic expression was verified in differentiating primary cultures and MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells, with 57 kDa and 67 kDa ENC1 protein isoforms detected throughout differentiation. Induced knockdown of both ENC1 isoforms reduced alkaline phosphatase staining and virtually abolished MC3T3-E1 mineralization. At culture confluence, Alpl (alkaline phosphatase liver/bone/kidney) expression was markedly reduced compared with control cells, and there was significant and coordinated alteration of other genes involved in cellular phosphate biochemistry. In contrast, with 67 kDa-selective knockdown mineralized nodule formation was enhanced and there was a two-fold increase in Alpl
The study explores the inhibition effects of MicroRNAs in osteosarcoma, as a means of suggesting it as treatment for bone cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a sort of noncoding RNA molecules that regulates gene expression by targeting mRNAs and play critical roles in tumor development. This study probed the effect of miR-9-5p on osteosarcoma development. Human osteosarcoma cell lines U2-OS, 143B, MG63 and HOS and normal human osteoblast cell line hFOB were cultivated and expression of miR-9-5p and Grb2-associated binding protein 2 (Gab2) measured. The binding of miR-9-5p and Gab2 was confirmed using a bio-information program and dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Loss-of-functions of miR-9-5p and Gab2 were performed to measure their roles in osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion, migration and resistance to death. Result showed high miR-9-5p expression and low Gab2 expression in osteosarcoma cells, particularly in U2-OS cells. miR-9-5p directly bound to the 3¢untranslated region of Gab2. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Upregulated osterix expression elicited by Runx2 and Dlx5 is required for the accelerated osteoblast differentiation in PP2A Cα-knockdown cells. AU - Yang, Di. AU - Okamura, Hirohiko. AU - Qiu, Lihong. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by grants from Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education (HO, 23592703), the Ichiro Kanehara Foundation for the Promotion of Medical Sciences and Medical Care, Takeda Science Foundation, the Nakatomi Foundation, The Japan China medical association, National Natural Science Foundation of China (81500843), and scientific activities foundation for overseas students, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of the Peoples Republic of China (2016-176). Funding Information: This work was supported by grants from Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education (HO, 23592703), the Ichiro Kanehara Foundation for the Promotion of Medical Sciences and Medical Care, Takeda Science ...
Background Osteoblast differentiation requires the coordinated stepwise expression of multiple genes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) accelerate the osteoblast differentiation process by...
The heterotopic ossification of muscles, tendons, and ligaments is a common problem faced by orthopaedic surgeons. Runx2/Cbfa1 plays an essential role during the osteoblast differentiation and is considered as a molecular switch in osteoblast biology. RNA interference technology is a powerful tool for silencing endogenous or exogenous genes in mammalian cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of Runx2/Cbfa1-specific siRNA on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in osteoblastic cells, and then constructed adenovirus containing siRNA against Runx2/Cbfa1 (Ad-Runx2-siRNA) to inhibit the formation of heterotopic ossification induced by BMP4, dernineralized bone matrix, and trauma in animal model. Our results showed that the Runx2/Cbfa1-specific siRNA could inhibit the expression of Runx2/Cbfa1 at the level of mRNA and protein. Analysis of the expression of osteoblast maturation genes including type I collagen, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase ...
Despite years of extensive investigation, the cellular origin of heterotopic ossification (HO) has not been fully elucidated. We have previously shown that circulating bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells, characterized by the immunophenotype CD45 −/CD44 +/CXCR4 +, contributed to the formation of heterotopic bone induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. In contrast, other reports have demonstrated the contribution of CD45 + hematopoietic derived cells to HO. Therefore, in this study, we developed a novel triple transgenic mouse strain that allows us to visualize CD45 + cells with red fluorescence and mature osteoblasts with green fluorescence. These mice were generated by crossing CD45-Cre mice with Z/RED mice that express DsRed, a variant of red fluorescent protein, after Cre-mediated recombination, and then crossing with Col2.3GFP mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in mature osteoblasts. Utilizing this model, we were able to investigate if hematopoietic ...
Read Appearance of cell-adhesion factor in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation of apatite coating titanium by blast coating method, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Results By comparing gene expression profiles in RNA from mice treated with corticosterone or placebo, we found that corticosterone specifically regulated 391 genes. To further investigate the genes targeted by corticosterone treatment we performed gene ontology analysis with the aid of heat maps. We found that the expression of genes implicated in osteoblast differentiation and the regulation of bone remodelling was downregulated in mice treated with corticosterone compared to placebo. We observed a downregulation of the osteoblast markers Runx2, Colα1, osteocalcin and sclerostin in corticosterone-treated mice compared to placebo. In addition BMP4 and BMP7 followed the same pattern. Genes that were most profoundly downregulated in the array analysis were validated by qRT-PCR.. Consistent with mRNA levels, osteocalcin serum levels were suppressed to almost undetectable levels.. ...
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Bone consists of a dense, compact layer and a spongy cancellous structure. While compact bone forms an organized outer shell, cancellous bone consists of thin, interlocking plates, called trabeculae. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are the osteocytes, or bone cells, that make up bone tissue. Bone continually renews its structure and strength through remodeling. Osteoclasts break down existing bone, and osteoblasts built up new bone. In normal bone, adequate physical stress and changing blood calcium levels prompt osteocytes to initiate bone remodeling. Osteoblasts emit a cytokine that transforms immature osteoclasts into mature osteoclasts. In a process called resorption, mature osteoclasts use enzymes to remove existing bone tissue. Then osteoclasts release chemicals that stimulate immature osteoblasts to mature and release osteoprotegerin, a protein that deactivates osteoclasts, stopping bone resorption. In response, bone formation occurs. Mature osteoblasts deposit osteoid,
Osteoporosis is a serious disease caused by decreased bone mass. There is constant matrix remodeling in bones, by which bone formation is performed by osteoblastic cells, whereas bone resorption is accomplished by osteoclast cells. We investigated the effect of a Japanese apricot (Prunus mume SIBE. et ZUCC.) extract on the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, cell proliferation assay, alizarin red staining and expression analysis of osteoblastic genes were carried out to assess the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation. The water-soluble fraction of Prunus mume (PWF) increased the ALP activity, cell proliferation and mineralization. The gene expression of osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein-2, which are markers in the early period of osteoblastic differentiation, were significantly enhanced by the PWF treatment. PWF therefore stimulated the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Mesenchymal cell response to biomaterials is modulated by their maturation state in their lineage. AU - Boyan, Barbara D.. AU - Lohmann, Christoph H.. AU - Dean, David D.. AU - Bonewald, Lynda F.. AU - Cochran, David L.. AU - Schwartz, Zvi. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - Osteoblasts and chondrocytes respond to material surface roughness as well as to chemical composition. The effect of these surface characteristics on chondrocyte response depends on the state of endochondral maturation of the cells. Here, we present data showing that the maturation state of cells in the osteoblastic lineage is also an important variable in their response to material surfaces. Fetal rat calvarial cells (FRCs), MG63 human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells, mouse OCT-1 mature osteoblast-like cells, and mouse MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells were cultured on cpTi disks with Ras of 0.5, 4 and 5 mm. Cells expressed their differentiated phenotypes only on rough surfaces in a roughness-dependent ...
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is an osteoblast secretory protein that becomes incorporated into the mineralized bone matrix. In osteoblast cultures, IGFBP-5 stimulates cell proliferation by an IGF-independent mechanism. To ev
Among several symptoms in patients with multiple myeloma, the bone disease is one of the most common symptoms that approximately 80 percent of the patients experience. Multiple myeloma is different from other tumors in that several osteoclast activating factors (OAF) released from multiple myeloma cells resorb bone and, at the same time, activation of osteoblast is inhibited, leading to unbalance of breakdown and formation of bone. Activation of osteoclast and inhibition of osteoblast brings about bone fractures, osteoporosis, hypercalcemia, bone pain and spinal cord compression. Those symptoms are directly related to patients quality of life. Therefore, they are the important therapeutic targets for multiple myeloma. Various types of bisphosphonate agents are used for the treatment of the bone disease in patients with multiple myeloma. This is a prospective (a study where the participants are identified and then followed forward in time), multi-center, Phase 4, observational study (studies ...
Osteocytes are cells inside the bone. As osteoblasts mature, they become osteocytes. Osteoblasts turn into osteocytes while the new bone is being formed, and the osteocytes then get surrounded by the new bone. Once osteoblasts turn into osteocytes, they express different proteins and settle themselves into life as active bone regulatory cells.
Copyright © 2015 Hiroshi Kobayashi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ...
This study compared the particulate and ion forms of a cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) alloy on the differentiation/activation of preosteoblasts. Mouse preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) were cultured in an osteoblast-induction medium in the presence of particulate and ion forms of a Co-Cr alloy, followed by cell proliferation and cytotoxicity evaluations. The maturation and function of osteoblasts were assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and related gene expressions. Both particulate and ion forms of the metals significantly reduced the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, cells challenged with high concentrations of particles and ions exhibited a marked cytotoxic effect and diminished expression of ALP. Real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data have suggested that cells with Co-Cr particles dramatically promoted over-expression of monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas Co2+ ions treatment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of osteoblastic gene expression by lead. AU - Klein, Robert. AU - Wiren, Kristine. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - Although it is well recognized that lead accumulates in bone, skeletal tissue is considered primarily a sequestering compartment and not a site of toxic action for lead. However, exposure to lead is associated with impaired skeletal growth in children and reductions in indices of bone formation in laboratory animals. Osteoblastic ROS 17/2.8 cells were used in an effort to better understand the consequences of lead exposure on skeletal homeostasis. Studies on confluent cultures of ROS 17/2.8 cells revealed that lead (2-200 μM) had no effect on cell number or DNA and protein synthesis. However, alkaline phosphatase activity was reduced by lead in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Reductions in steady state alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels paralleled the lead-induced inhibition of enzyme activity. Moreover, lead exposure resulted in similar dose-dependent ...
To elucidate the role of endogenous glucocorticoid signaling in bone, we previously developed Col2.3-HSD2 and Col3.6-HSD2 transgenic mice in which a 2.3-kb or 3.6-kb Colla1 promoter fragment drives expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) in mature and early osteoblasts, respectively. In the first study, we first characterized the bone phenotype of Col3.6-HSD2 mice. Col3.6-HSD2 mice had decreased trabecular bone in vertebra and decreased cortical bone in femur and tibia. Transgenic calvarial osteoblast and bone marrow stromal cultures had decreased alkaline phosphatase and mineral staining, and reduced Colla1, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin mRNA expression. Cell growth and proliferation were decreased in transgenic cultures. Transgenic bone marrow cells showed more osteoclast formation in vitro. However, osteoclast resorptive activity was decreased in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed that multiple signaling pathways were affected in transgenic osteoblasts including
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of a human homolog of osteoclast inhibitory lectin that inhibits the formation and function of osteoclasts. AU - Yun, Shan Hu. AU - Zhou, Hong. AU - Myers, Damian. AU - Quinn, Julian M W. AU - Atkins, Gerald J.. AU - Ly, Chi. AU - Gange, Christine. AU - Kartsogiannis, Vicky. AU - Elliott, Jan. AU - Kostakis, Panagiota. AU - Zannettino, Andrew C W. AU - Cromer, Brett. AU - Mckinstry, William J.. AU - Findlay, David M.. AU - Gillespie, Matthew T.. AU - Kong, Wah Ng. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL) is a newly recognized inhibitor of osteoclast formation. We identified a human homolog of OCIL and its gene, determined its regulation in human osteoblast cell lines, and established that it can inhibit murine and human osteoclast formation and resorption. OCIL shows promise as a new antiresorptive. Introduction: Murine and rat osteoclast inhibitory lectins (mOCIL and rOCIL, respectively) are type II membrane C-type lectins expressed by ...
Objective:To investigate the effect of lycopene on enhancing the function of anti-oxidative damage in osteoblast.Methods:MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were randomly divided into five groups,including control group,model group,lycopene group[low dose(1×10~(-8) mol/L),middle dose(1×10~(-7) mol/L),high dose(1×10~(-6) mol/L)],whose activity of cells,superoxide dismutase(SOD),the content of reactive oxygen species(ROS),lipid oxygen(LPO) and membrane fluidity were tested and compared.Results: Compared with lycopene groups,the activity of cells,SOD activity and membrane fluidity in the model group were significantly decreased(P0.01).However,the content of ROS and LPO were significantly raised(P0.01).Conclusion: H_2O_2 can cause oxidative damage of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts,but lycopene can prevent and decrease its influence.
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are effective anti-inflammatory agents commonly used to suppress autoimmune diseases; however, their beneficial effects are countered by the efficiency to which GCs deteriorate bone mineral density. We show here that the molecular mechanisms contributing to this bone loss may be linked to the ability of GCs to suppress the cell cycle, Krox20, and Wnt signaling. GCs inhibit cell cycle progression in primary osteoblast cultures in a developmental- and stage-specific manner attributable to suppression of cyclin A. Analysis of the cyclin A promoter revealed that Atf4 regulates GC-mediated inhibition of cyclin A expression through a Creb/Atf site. In addition to the anti-proliferative effect of GCs, we show that Egr2/Krox20 is required for GC-mediated repression of osteocalcin, an osteoblast specific gene and that Egr family members are down-regulated by GCs. Furthermore, micro-computed tomographic analysis of Krox20 heterozygous mice revealed decreased trabecular bone mineral ...
Preclinical and clinical studies suggest a possible role for cyclooxygenases in bone repair and create concerns about the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in patients with skeletal injury. We utilized wild-type, COX-1-/-, and COX-2-/- mice to demonstrate that COX-2 plays an essential role in both endochondral and intramembranous bone formation during skeletal repair. The healing of stabilized tibia fractures was significantly delayed in COX-2-/- mice compared with COX-1-/- and wild-type controls. The histology was characterized by a persistence of undifferentiated mesenchyme and a marked reduction in osteoblastogenesis that resulted in a high incidence of fibrous nonunion in the COX-2-/- mice. Similarly, intramembranous bone formation on the calvaria was reduced 60% in COX-2-/- mice following in vivo injection of FGF-1 compared with either COX-1-/- or wild-type mice. To elucidate the mechanism involved in reduced bone formation, osteoblastogenesis was studied in bone marrow stromal ...
Mammalian focal adhesion proteins Pinch1 and Pinch2 regulate integrin activation and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and migration. Here, we show that deleting Pinch1 in osteocytes and mature osteoblasts using the 10-kb mouse Dmp1-Cre and Pinch2 globally (double KO; dKO) results in severe osteopenia throughout life, while ablating either gene does not cause bone loss, suggesting a functional redundancy of both factors in bone. Pinch deletion in osteocytes and mature osteoblasts generates signals that inhibit osteoblast and bone formation. Pinch-deficient osteocytes and conditioned media from dKO bone slice cultures contain abundant sclerostin protein and potently suppress osteoblast differentiation in primary BM stromal cells (BMSC) and calvarial cultures. Pinch deletion increases adiposity in the BM cavity. Primary dKO BMSC cultures display decreased osteoblastic but enhanced adipogenic, differentiation capacity. Pinch loss decreases expression of integrin β3, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prostaglandin e1 and f2α stimulate differentiation and proliferation, respectively, of clonal osteoblastic mc3t3-e1 cells by different second messengers in vitro. AU - Hakeda, Yoshiyuki. AU - Hotta, Takahiko. AU - Kurihar, Anoriyoshi. AU - Ikeda, Eiko. AU - Maeda, Norihiko. AU - Yagyu, Yoshihiro. AU - Kumegawa, Masayoshi. PY - 1987/12/1. Y1 - 1987/12/1. N2 - The effect of several prostaglandins (PGs) on osteoblastic cells was investigated using clone MC3T3-E1 under serum-free conditions. PGA1, A2, B1, and B2 had little effect on intracellular cAMP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and DNA synthesis in the cells. At 4-2000 ng/ml, PGE1 among PG analogs tested had a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on ALP activity in the cells, and this effect was amplified by isobutyl methylxanthine. Also, PGE1 strongly augmented the amount of intracellular cAMP over the same concentration range. However, PGEj had little effect on ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis, and at ...
JAG1, the gene for the Jagged-1 ligand (Jag1) in the Notch signaling pathway, is variably mutated in Alagille Syndrome (ALGS). ALGS patients have skeletal defects, and additionally JAG1 has been shown to be associated with low bone mass through genome wide association studies. Plating human osteoblast precursors (mesenchymal stem cells -- hMSC) on Jag1 is sufficient to induce osteoblast differentiation; however, exposure of mouse MSC (mMSC) to Jag1 actually inhibits osteoblastogenesis. Overexpression of the notch-2 intracellular domain (NICD) is sufficient to mimic the effect of Jag1 on hMSC osteoblastogenesis, while blocking Notch signaling with a gamma-secretase inhibitor or with dominant negative mastermind inhibits Jag1 induced hMSC osteoblastogenesis. In pursuit of interacting signaling pathways, we discovered that treatment with a PKCδ inhibitor abrogates Jag1 induced hMSC osteoblastogenesis. Jag1 results in rapid PKCδ nuclear translocation and kinase activation. Furthermore, Jag1 stimulates the
The purpose was to evaluate the effect of Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) reagents in monotherapy and in combinations at clinical doses, on the viability and function of osteoblasts isolated from hip OA patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Human hip OA osteoblasts were exposed to LIA reagents including Bupivacaine, Lidocaine, Ropivacaine, Ketorolac and combinations with Adrenaline for 30 min. Osteoblast cellular viability and function was determined at 24 h and 7 days post-exposure. In conclusion, our data shows that LIA reagents, most notably Bupivacaine and its use in combination, are detrimental to human hip OA osteoblasts at concentrations advocated for clinical use ...
Lymphoid enhancer binding factor (Lef) 1 is a Wnt-responsive transcription factor that associates with β-catenin. Lef1N lacks the first 113 amino acids of Lef1
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of myokines on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. AU - Lee, Jin Young. AU - Park, So Jeong. AU - Han, Sun Ae. AU - Lee, Seung Hun. AU - Koh, Jung Min. AU - Hamrick, Mark W.. AU - Kim, Beom Jun. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - Recently, muscle has received much attention as an endocrine organ regulating other biological targets, including the pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue. Although there is a possibility that muscle-secreting factors biochemically affect bone metabolism in a paracrine manner, the net effects of myokines on the biology of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, particularly on bone mass in vivo, have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed in vitro as well as animal experiments using conditioned media (CM) collected from C2C12 myoblast and myotube cultures to better understand the interactions between muscle and bone. Compared with non-CM (i.e., control) and myoblast CM, myotube CM markedly inhibited in vitro bone resorption through the ...
Osterix, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation during embryonic development. The c-Src of tyrosine kinase is involved in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, leading to the induction of DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Src activity is tightly regulated and its dysregulation leads to constitutive activation and cellular transformation. The function of Osterix can be also modulated by post-translational modification. But the precise molecular signaling mechanisms between Osterix and c-Src are not known. In this study we investigated the potential regulation of Osterix function by c-Src in osteoblast differentiation. We found that c-Src activation increases protein stability, osteogenic activity and transcriptional activity of Osterix. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Src decreased the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Osterix. Conversely, Src specific inhibitor, SU6656, decreased ...
Question 1. Which disorder is characterized by the formation of abnormal new bone at an accelerated rate beginning with excessive resorption of spongy bone? Osteomalacia Paget disease Osteoporosis Osteosarcoma Question 2. Considering the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, what are the effects of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) and receptor activator of RANKL on osteoblasts and osteoclasts? ERKs increase the life span of osteoclasts and RANKL decreases the life span of osteoblasts. ERKs and RANKL increase the life span of osteoclasts and decrease the life span of osteoblasts. ERKs and RANKL increase the life span of osteoblasts and decrease the life span of osteoclasts. ERKs increase the life span of osteoblasts and RANKL decreases the life span of osteoclasts. Question 3. _____ is the temporary displacement of two bones in which the bone surfaces partially lose contact. Dislocation Subluxation Malunion Nonunion Question 4. What is the diagnosis
Mechanical effects have been demonstrated to activate periprosthetic osteoclasts and hence to promote bone resorption. However, the periprosthetic mechanical effect on osteoblast function is not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to ex
Differentiation into osteoblasts[edit]. Main article: Osteoblast. Osteoblasts are cells that group together to form units, ... During this process, TGF-β can stimulate differentiation into either chondrocytes or osteoblasts via FGF, Msx1, and Ctgf ... They have the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts or chondrocytes depending on the signalling molecules they are exposed ... Simplified diagram of MSCs, and their differentiation pathways into osteoblast and chodrocytic cell lineages. Data based on a ...
Osteoblast[edit]. Light micrograph of cancellous decalcified bone displaying osteoblasts actively synthesizing osteoid, ... When the osteoblast becomes trapped, it becomes known as an osteocyte.[16] Other osteoblasts remain on the top of the new bone ... First, the osteoblast puts up collagen fibers. These collagen fibers are used as a framework for the osteoblasts' work. The ... Osteoblasts also manufacture hormones, such as prostaglandins, to act on the bone itself. The osteoblast creates and repairs ...
o. Layer of osteoblasts. im. Subperiosteal bony deposit. (From Quain's "Anatomy," E. A. Schäfer.) Intramembranous ossification ... Formation of bone collar The osteoblasts secrete osteoid against the shaft of the cartilage model (Appositional Growth). This ... The periosteum contains a layer of undifferentiated cells (osteoprogenitor cells) which later become osteoblasts. ...
... (or osteogenesis) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells named osteoblasts. ... It invades the primary center of ossification, bringing osteogenic cells (osteoblasts on the outside, osteoclasts on the inside ... Caetano-Lopes J, Canhão H, Fonseca JE (2007). "Osteoblasts and bone formation". Acta reumatológica portuguesa. 32 (2): 103-10. ... depositing osteoclasts and osteoblasts which erode the cartilage and build bone, respectively. This occurs at both ends of long ...
Terminal osteoblast differentiation, represented by matrix mineralization, is significantly inhibited by the inactivation of ... ATF4 transcription factor is also known to play role in osteoblast differentiation along with RUNX2 and osterix. ... "Transcriptional regulation of osteoblasts". Cells Tissues Organs. 189 (1-4): 144-52. doi:10.1159/000151747. PMC 3512205. PMID ... "JNK activity is essential for Atf4 expression and late-stage osteoblast differentiation". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research ...
10-20% of osteoblasts differentiate into osteocytes. Those osteoblasts on the bone surface that are destined for burial as ... Osteocytes are simply osteoblasts trapped in the matrix that they secrete. They are networked to each other via long ... As the osteoblast transitions to an osteocyte, alkaline phosphatase is reduced, and casein kinase II is elevated, as is ... During bone formation, an osteoblast is left behind and buried in the bone matrix as an "osteoid osteocyte", which maintains ...
Osteoblasts are responsible for bone formation. The ECM can exist in varying degrees of stiffness and elasticity, from soft ... Kern B, Shen J, Starbuck M, Karsenty G (March 2001). "Cbfa1 contributes to the osteoblast-specific expression of type I ...
It regulates osteoblasts. HIVEP3 has been shown to interact with TRAF1 and TRAF2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000127124 ...
OPG expression in osteoblast lineage cells is highly regulated by estrogens such as estradiol (E2). E2 transcriptionally ... RANKL is released by osteoblast lineage cells and binds to receptor RANK on the surface of osteoclast progenitor cells RANK- ... OPG is largely expressed by osteoblast lineage cells of bone, epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, lung, breast and ... These cytokines act on osteoblasts to increase RANKL and decrease OPG expression resulting in excess bone resorption. During ...
... where the body constantly maintains this calcium homeostasis through osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Osteoblast activity ... Matsuo K, Irie N (May 2008). "Osteoclast-osteoblast communication". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 473 (2): 201-9. ... while still able to maintain osteoblast function so as to not hinder bone formation. Unlike other vitamin D analogs, ...
Osteoblasts actively synthesizing osteoid containing two osteocytes. Osteoclast, with bone below it, showing typical ... Two main types of cells are responsible for bone metabolism: osteoblasts (which secrete new bone), and osteoclasts (which break ... followed by deposition of bone by osteoblasts. Together, the cells that are responsible for bone remodeling are known as the ...
"Medpor regulates osteoblast's microRNAs". Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering. 18 (2): 91-7. doi:10.3233/BME-2008-0512. PMID ...
"Differences in osteoblast miRNA induced by cell binding domain of collagen and silicate-based synthetic bone". Journal of ... "PerioGlas regulates osteoblast RNA interfering". Journal of Prosthodontics. 17 (7): 522-6. doi:10.1111/j.1532-849X.2008.00331.x ... "Medpor regulates osteoblast's microRNAs". Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering. 18 (2): 91-7. doi:10.3233/BME-2008-0512. PMID ... "Peptide-15 changes miRNA expression in osteoblast-like cells". Implant Dentistry. 17 (1): 100-8. doi:10.1097/ID. ...
"Medpor regulates osteoblast's microRNAs". Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering. 18 (2): 91-7. PMID 18408260. Choong ML, Yang ...
Similarly to A2A receptor, the A2B receptor promotes osteoblast differentiation. The osteoblast cell is derived from the ... The role of A2A receptor opposes that of A1 in that it inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activates osteoblasts. Studies ... The cell signalling involved in the stimulation of the A2B receptor directs the route of differentiation to osteoblast, rather ... Its function in regards to osteoblasts remains ambiguous. Fredholm BB, Abbracchio MP, Burnstock G, Dubyak GR, Harden TK, ...
Bone is resorbed by osteoclasts, and is deposited by osteoblasts in a process called ossification. Osteocyte activity plays a ... Ethanol suppresses the activity and differentiation of osteoblasts. At the same time, it has a direct effect on osteoclast ... Oxidative stress results when ethanol induces NOX expression, resulting in ROS production in osteoblasts which can ultimately ... Direct effects of chronic alcoholism are apparent in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. ...
MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. In biology, oligopotency is the ability of progenitor ...
"Molecular mechanism of staurosporine-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts". Pharmacological Research. 42 (4): 373-381. doi:10.1006/ ...
"Evidence for targeted vesicular glutamate exocytosis in osteoblasts". Bone. 29 (1): 16-23. doi:10.1016/S8756-3282(01)00482-3. ...
The mineralized matrix is penetrated by microvessel and numerous osteoblasts. The osteoblasts form new lamellar bone upon the ... Osteoblasts fill up the cavities with the Haversian system. This causes the formation of lamellar bone that orients ... The periosteal cells distal to (at the far end of) the fracture gap develop into osteoblasts, which form woven bone[citation ... IL-6 promotes differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. All cells within the blood clot degenerate and die. Within this ...
Progesterone directly stimulates osteoblasts to make new bone. Therefore if the woman is not ovulating, she is not creating ...
The osteoblasts, which form the bone tissue are destroyed due to the radiation with increased activity of osteoclasts. This ... while the average lifespan of human osteoclasts is about 2 to 6 weeks and the average lifespan of osteoblasts is approximately ... Diseased or damaged bone is resorbed through the osteoclasts mediated process while osteoblasts form new bone to replace it, ... Experimental evidence suggests that bone cells composed of osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts die within 12-48 hours, and ...
It is produced by monocytes, macrophages, osteoblasts, keratinocytes. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is ...
"Differences in osteoblast miRNA induced by cell binding domain of collagen and silicate-based synthetic bone". Journal of ... "PerioGlas regulates osteoblast RNA interfering". Journal of Prosthodontics. 17 (7): 522-6. doi:10.1111/j.1532-849X.2008.00331.x ...
"PerioGlas regulates osteoblast RNA interfering". Journal of Prosthodontics. 17 (7): 522-6. doi:10.1111/j.1532-849X.2008.00331.x ... regulates miRNA of osteoblast-like cells". The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry. 30 (1): 83-7. ...
This aging-related biasing of MSC away from osteoblast lineage may represent higher basal PPARγ expression or decreased Wnt10b ... The marrow adipocytes originate from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitors that also give rise to osteoblasts, among other ... Thus, it is thought that MAT results from preferential MSC differentiation into the adipocyte, rather than osteoblast, lineage ... MAT is thought to result from preferential MSC differentiation into an adipocyte, rather than osteoblast lineage in ...
Bones are made of cells called osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Two different kinds of bone resorption are possible: direct ...
... and decreased numbers of diaphyseal osteoblast precursors. CB2 receptors were expressed in osteoblasts, osteocytes, and ... Furthermore, HU-308 dose dependently increased the number and activity of endocortical osteoblasts and restrained trabecular ... accelerated age-related trabecular bone loss and cortical expansion accompanied by increased activity of trabecular osteoblasts ...
Receptor expression is also observed at the surface of osteoblasts, the cell progenitors involved in bone formation. Muscle ... "Apelin and its receptor are expressed in human osteoblasts". Regul. Pept. 134 (2-3): 118-25. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2006.02.004. ...
Osteoblasts form a closely packed sheet on the surface of the bone, from which cellular processes extend through the developing ... Osteoblast, large cell responsible for the synthesis and mineralization of bone during both initial bone formation and later ... osteoblastThree osteoblasts (at pointer) in developing bone (magnification 400x).. Wbensmith. This article was most recently ... and calcitrial can also stimulate osteoblasts to produce osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF). Osteoblasts that have ODF on ...
As osteoblasts mature, they become osteocytes. Osteoblasts turn into osteocytes while the new bone is being formed, and the ... Once osteoblasts turn into osteocytes, they express different proteins and settle themselves into life as active bone ... Osteoblasts or lining cells: Osteoblasts are considered the main type of bone cells. They regulate the passage of calcium in ... As osteoblasts mature, they become osteocytes. Osteoblasts turn into osteocytes while the new bone is being formed, and the ...
Fzd9-null osteoblasts differentiated normally, but they failed to mineralize their extracellular matrix. The loss of Fzd9 ... Adult bones are maintained by a balance of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Although Wnt signaling ... A team of researchers led by Thorsten Schinke found that the Wnt receptor Fzd9 was upregulated during osteoblast ... Though little is known about Isg15s function, restoring its expression in Fzd9-null osteoblasts boosted matrix mineralization ...
The osteoblasts are also connected by gap junctions, small pores that connect osteoblasts, allowing the cells in one cohort to ... Osteoblasts are the major cellular component of bone. Osteoblasts arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). MSC give rise to ... Osteoblasts buried in the matrix are called osteocytes. During bone formation, the surface layer of osteoblasts consists of ... A group of organized osteoblasts together with the bone made by a unit of cells is usually called the osteon. Osteoblasts are ...
Furthermore, the differentiated osteoblasts increased alkaline phosphatase and collagen I expression by an Irisin-dependent ... The conditioned media (CM) collected from myoblasts of exercised mice induced osteoblast differentiation ,i,in vitro,/i, to a ... Our results show, for the first time, that Irisin directly targets osteoblasts, enhancing their differentiation. This finding ... demonstrating its ability to increase the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into mature osteoblasts. Firstly, we ...
Tumor-driven systemic activation of osteoblasts in the bone promotes lung tumor growth ... Tumor-driven systemic activation of osteoblasts in the bone promotes lung tumor growth ... report that osteoblasts, which reside in the bone, can be remotely activated by secreted factors from lung adenocarcinoma, ...
Pipette 30 ml of Human Osteoblast Growth Medium (417-500) to a T-175 flask (SIAL1080) (to be used in Section IV C Step 15.) ... Pipette 15 ml of Human Osteoblast Growth Medium (417-500)* to a T-75 flask (SIAL0641).. * Keep the medium to surface area ratio ... Remove Human Osteoblast Differentiation Medium (417D-250) from culture tissue ware by aspiration. Do not allow cells to dry ... Resuspend the cells in 5 ml of Human Osteoblast Growth Medium (417-500) by gently pipetting the cells to break up the clumps. ...
... Ling-juan Liu,1 Li-qun Liu,1 Tao Bo,1 Shi-jun Li,1 ... J. M. Hock, V. Krishnan, J. E. Onyia et al., "Osteoblast apoptosis and bone turnover," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ... H. Xie, L. Q. Yuan, X. H. Luo et al., "Apelin suppresses apoptosis of human osteoblasts," Apoptosis, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 247- ... N. Maruotti, A. Corrado, A. Neve, and F. P. Cantatore, "Bisphosphonates: effects on osteoblast," European Journal of Clinical ...
Osteoblast milk protein (OMP, Chinese: 造骨牛奶蛋白) is the name used by Mengniu, a Chinese dairy company, for a milk protein used as ... It is supposed to help the absorption of calcium and promote bone growth in the osteoblasts and prevent osteoporosis. In ...
... we investigated the effects of acidosis on osteoblast function by using mineralized bone nodule-forming primary osteoblast ... Osteoblasts harvested from neonatal rat calvariae were cultured up to 21 days in serum-containing medium, with ascorbate, beta- ... Acidosis inhibits bone formation by osteoblasts in vitro by preventing mineralization Calcif Tissue Int. 2005 Sep;77(3):167-74. ... However, osteoblast alkaline phosphatase activity, which peaked strongly near pH 7.4, was reduced eight-fold at pH 6.9. ...
Osteoblast autophagy in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.. Wang L1, Heckmann BL2, Yang X3,4, Long H3. ... Autophagy in osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts plays a critical role in the maintenance of bone homeostasis. Herein, we ... specifically discuss how osteoblast autophagy responds to glucocorticoids and its role in the development of GIO. ...
Osteoblasts in culture flasks were studied by polymerase chain re … ... Effects of radial shock waves therapy on osteoblasts activities Musculoskelet Surg. 2012 Dec;96(3):183-9. doi: 10.1007/s12306- ... Osteoblasts in culture flasks were studied by polymerase chain reaction after treatment with RSW (500 impulses, 0.05 mJ/mm(2 ...
Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Osteoblasts. *The cells were identified as functional osteoblasts by indirect ... Anatomical context of Osteoblasts. *Although immature osteoblasts, which expressed alkaline phophatase weakly but not ... Gene context of Osteoblasts. *Osf2/Cbfa1: a transcriptional activator of osteoblast differentiation [25]. ... ATF4 is a substrate of RSK2 and an essential regulator of osteoblast biology; implication for Coffin-Lowry Syndrome. Yang, X., ...
Textbook solution for MindTap Biology, 1 term (6 months) Printed Access Card for… 14th Edition Cecie Starr Chapter 35 Problem 15SQ. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts!
The safety of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) in children is controversial. Researchers were mandated by the College of Chiropractors of British Columbia to review the evidence on this issue. Researchers conducted a rapid review of the safety of SMT in children (< 10 years). They aimed to: 1) describe adverse events; 2) report the incidence of adverse events; and 3) determine whether SMT increases the risk of adverse events compared to other interventions. They searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Index to Chiropractic Literature from January 1, 1990 to August 1, 2019. They used rapid review methodology recommended by the World Health Organization. Eligible studies (case reports/series, cohort studies and randomized controlled trials) were critically appraised. Studies of high and acceptable methodological quality were included. The lead author extracted data. Data extraction was independently validated by a second reviewer. Researchers conducted a qualitative synthesis of the evidence. Most adverse ...
Bone-protecting effect of Rubus coreanus by dual regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.. Do SH1, Lee JW, Jeong WI, Chung JY ... The beneficial effect of RCM may be mediated, at least in part, by dual regulation of the enhancement of osteoblast function ... The effect of RCM increased not only osteoblast differentiation but also osteoclast apoptosis. In addition, the extract of RCM ...
Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and reproducible research results. To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No matter how you are using your cells, you can count on these products to help keep them healthy.. ...
Osteoblasts remotely supply lung tumors with cancer-promoting SiglecFhigh neutrophils. By Camilla Engblom, Christina Pfirschke ... Osteoblasts remotely supply lung tumors with cancer-promoting SiglecFhigh neutrophils. By Camilla Engblom, Christina Pfirschke ... The activated osteoblasts in turn triggered production of a certain type of neutrophil that infiltrates the primary tumor and ... In turn, these osteoblasts supply tumors with SiglecFhigh neutrophils, which exhibit cancer-promoting functions (left). By ...
K+ osteoblast .. Bone turnover Osteoclast precursors Proliferate and fuse to Form Osteoclast Hydrogen Ion Remove mineralisation ... RANK ligand and Osteoprotegerin Osteoblast RANK ligand Osteoprotegerin(OPG) (Receptor activator of Nuclear factor kB) for bind ... of OC synthesized from osteoblast is released in circulation Synthesis stimulated by vit-D Excreted by kidney Half life is 5 ... 4/19/12 Lysosomal enzyme digest metrix matrix bone lining cell Osteoblast . ...
Osteoblast Isolation. Osteoblasts were isolated from mouse bone as described for human osteoblasts (14). ... F) RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from the cultured osteoblasts. (G) PCR analysis of the cultured osteoblasts with site- ... and osteoblasts sorted by FACS. The common integration pattern between CFU-S clone 18 and the osteoblasts confirms that these ... Clonal analysis of GFP-enriched osteoblasts by site-specific PCR and Southern blotting. (A) Graph of CD45-/CD11b-/CD34- cells ...
Teriparatide suppresses osteoblast apoptosis (3) and activates dormant bone-lining cells so that they become active osteoblasts ... Teriparatide increases osteoblast numbers by suppressing osteoblast apoptosis and activating bone-lining cells. No direct ... In this way, the action of teriparatide on osteoblast precursors resembles that of PTH on mature osteoblasts. ... probable markers of some early cells in the osteoblast lineage (6, 9) or Ocn-GFPtpz (osteoblast marker). To answer this ...
... exhibit a reduced capability of attracting osteoblasts. Conversely, osteoblasts whose platelet-derived growth factor receptor β ... Conclusions/Significance We conclude that, in vitro mature osteoclasts control osteoblast chemotaxis via PDGF-bb/PDGFR-β ... Several studies have now described the molecular mechanisms by which osteoblasts control osteoclastogenesis and bone ... secrete chemotactic factors recognized by both mature osteoblasts and their precursors. Several growth factors whose expression ...
Beck GR Jr, Zerler B, Moran E (2001) Gene array analysis of osteoblast differentiation. Cell Growth Differ 12:61-83PubMedGoogle ... Marie PJ (2003) Fibroblast growth factor signaling controlling osteoblast differentiation. Gene 316:23-32PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Thus, osteoblast specific cadherin 11 which mediates the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblastic cells is up- ... In an attempt to reveal the osteoblast-like phenotype of osteotropic breast cancer cells, we performed a microarray study on a ...
... The current study was established to ... If you know the author of Vitamin D3 and Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Modality on Human Osteoblast Cells, please help ... Disciplines with similar materials as Vitamin D3 and Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Modality on Human Osteoblast Cells ... Edit comment for material Vitamin D3 and Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Modality on Human Osteoblast Cells ...
Human cultured female osteoblasts (Obs) respond age-dependently to estradiol-17β (E2) and to phytoestrogens by increased DNA ... Osteoblasts. Human cultured female osteoblasts (Obs) respond age-dependently to estradiol-17β (E2) and to phytoestrogens by ...
... Grano M., Galimi F., Zambonin G., ... Osteoblasts respond to HGF by entering the cell cycle, as indicated by stimulation of DNA synthesis. Interestingly, osteoclasts ... We show that the HGF receptor is expressed by human primary osteoclasts, by osteoclast-like cell lines, and by osteoblasts. In ... suggest the possibility of an autocrine regulation of the osteoclast by HGF and a paracrine regulation of the osteoblast by the ...
Although osteoblasts grew well at fluoride levels below 1.0×10,sup,-3,/sup, mol/L, osteoblast survival was dramatically ... Higher Concentrations of Fluoride Ions Dramatically Inhibit the Survival of Osteoblasts * * HIRATA Isao ... To examine the effect of fluoride on the survival of osteoblasts, media containing various concentrations of fluoride, 0〗5.0×10 ... These results suggested that fluoride dramatically inhibits osteoblast growth at concentrations above 5.0×10,sup,-3,/sup, mol/L ...
... and osteoblasts (0.395 uM). Furthermore, TAF concentrations similar to those given to humans were not toxic to osteoblasts. ... They then evaluated similar TAF concentrations in primary osteoblasts. Next the Gilead team developed a primary osteoblast cell ... In primary osteoblasts, a single 2-hour pulse of the same TAF concentrations yielded TFV-DP levels comparable to those reached ... They assessed cell viability after treating primary osteoblasts with TAF for 3 days. A 2-hour TAF pulse in PBMCs at ...
Osteoblasts produce osteoid, which is composed mainly of Type I collagen. Osteoblasts are also responsible for mineralization ... Although the term osteoblast implies an immature cell type, osteoblasts are in fact the mature bone cells entirely responsible ... Osteoblast definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms (110 words). ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for "bone" and "germ" or embryonic) is a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone ...
Nephronectin is an extracellular matrix protein, and we have demonstrated that its over-expression enhanced osteoblast ... thereby resulting in a higher rate of osteoblast differentiation. ... Osteoblasts Is the Subject Area "Osteoblasts" applicable to ... Osteoblast differentiation Is the Subject Area "Osteoblast differentiation" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
  • The conditioned media (CM) collected from myoblasts of exercised mice induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro to a greater extent than those of mice housed in resting conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • Mammalian bone marrow contains cells capable of forming colonies in culture (CFU fibroblasts [CFU-Fs]) that contain cells capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro or after subcutaneous transplantation. (jci.org)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor is a coupling factor for osteoclasts and osteoblasts in vitro. (uniprot.org)
  • Lack of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) effect on primary osteoblasts in vitro at clinically relevant drug concentrations. (natap.org)
  • Osteoblast differentiation of calvarial cells from BCL2 transgenic mice also fell in vitro. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Un nuevo estudio caracteriza los efectos ines vitro de estos PEMFs sobre las células cruciales del precursor del osteoblast y los intenta determinar las condiciones óptimas que ascenderán la regeneración del hueso. (news-medical.net)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the activating potential of polyhexanide and chlorhexidine on inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in human osteoblasts in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Materials and Methods: Human osteoblasts were isolated and cultivated in vitro and then treated separately with 0.1% and 2% chlorhexidine and 0.04% polyhexanide as commonly applied concentrations in clinical practice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For this purpose, we have developed in vitro studies on normal human osteoblasts (HOB ® ) HOB ® osteoblasts grown on a resorbable Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) membrane foil functionalized by a very thin film (around 15 nm) of TiO 2 ( i.e. (mdpi.com)
  • An in vitro model of bone metastases from prostate cancer was developed using a bicompartment coculture system of mouse osteoblasts and human prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This in vitro model provides a valuable system to isolate molecules secreted by prostate cancer cells that favor osteoblast differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or stromal cells to the adipoctye and osteoblast lineage pathways. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Recently, it has also demonstrated that this organism is internalized by embryonic chick osteoblasts in vitro ( 16 ), and a preliminary report has suggested that such internalization occurs in vivo ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of dilute povidone-iodine (PVI) solutions on human osteoblast, fibroblast and myoblast cells in vitro. (ovid.com)
  • Clinically used concentration of PVI (0.35%) exerts a pronounced cytotoxic effect on osteoblasts, fibroblast, and myoblasts in vitro. (ovid.com)
  • The transplanted osteoblasts may be obtained by a variety of methods for in vitro and in vivo studies, including migration from bone chips and enzymatic digestion of harvested bone.10 However, the most desirable method would be to obtain osteoblasts percutaneously from the patient's bone marrow. (ebah.com.br)
  • Expression of osteoblast-specific genes and subsequent osteoblast mineralization was increased in mesenchymal stromal cells from healthy young donors by in vitro erythropoietin treatment. (haematologica.org)
  • In this study, we used primary osteoblast to detect the differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro , the immune cells of spleen and bone marrow of 6-month old LRP5 heterozygote (HZ) and wild-type (WT) mice were analyzed by Flow cytometry. (go.jp)
  • In addition, 1,25D 3 can directly affect osteoblasts as shown by stimulating in vitro mineralization in osteoblast cultures and by altering gene regulation. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Objectives To evaluate the in vitro expression of Runx2 in human osteoblasts from normal and OA knees after the stimulation with SP, IGF-1 and TNF-α. (bmj.com)
  • In vitro studies showed that the nHA patterns generated are capable of regulating the human osteoblast cell attachment and orientation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, previous reports regarding the effects of IL-6 on osteoblast differentiation in vitro are not consistent. (bmj.com)
  • Objectives The objectives of this study was to clarify the effect of IL-6 on osteoblast differentiation in vitro , with consideration of intracellular signaling pathways. (bmj.com)
  • They then used nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques to examine osteoblasts in an in vitro model of bone formation. (asbmr.org)
  • Osteocytes affect bone remodeling by producing regulatory factors to influence the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in response to endocrine signals including the blood level of vitamin D . Osteocytes can sense pressures or cracks in the bone and help to direct where osteoclasts will dissolve the bone. (medicinenet.com)
  • Adult bones are maintained by a balance of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. (redorbit.com)
  • Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly being reshaped by osteoblasts, which produce and secrete matrix proteins and transport mineral into the matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down the tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts break down bone tissue, and along with osteoblasts and osteocytes form the structural components of bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autophagy in osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts plays a critical role in the maintenance of bone homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • Bone-protecting effect of Rubus coreanus by dual regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (nih.gov)
  • We show that the HGF receptor is expressed by human primary osteoclasts, by osteoclast-like cell lines, and by osteoblasts. (uniprot.org)
  • Osteoblasts and osteoclasts on trabecula of lower jaw of calf embryo. (statemaster.com)
  • Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly being reshaped by osteoblasts, which build bone, and osteoclasts , which resorb bone. (statemaster.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that AhR was detected in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (mdpi.com)
  • The four main types of bone cells are the (1) osteoclasts , (2) osteoblasts, (3) osteocytes , and (4) lining cells. (biology-online.org)
  • The osteoblasts work closely with the osteoclasts . (biology-online.org)
  • While osteoblasts are associated with bone formation, the osteoclasts are associated with bone resorption. (biology-online.org)
  • The mature bone tissue undergoes a lifelong process of bone resorption (mainly through the action of osteoclasts) and new bone formation (mainly through the action of osteoblasts). (biology-online.org)
  • Along with osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone degradation, osteoblasts are key regulators of the shape and volume of bone tissue. (wikipathways.org)
  • Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly being reshaped by osteoblasts, which are in charge of production of matrix and mineral, and osteoclasts, which break down the tissue. (definitions.net)
  • Osteoblasts not only play a central role in bone formation by synthesizing multiple bone matrix proteins, but regulate osteoclast maturation by soluble factors and cognate interactio … Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • Osteoclasts deposit bone matrix into bones, whereas osteoblasts dissolve bone matrix. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • Though 'osteoclasts' are correct in the sense that they can call for the osteoblasts. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • Start studying Chapter 6: Osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • Osteoblasts are found in the medullary canal, whereas osteoclasts are found in the periosteum. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • Bone tissue consists of osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption, and osteoblasts and osteocytes, which are responsible for bone formation. (clontech.com)
  • These data suggest that because the increased production of IL-6 by osteoblasts treated with MPA in opposition with β-estradiol, MPA should be careful for osteoporosis dependent upon osteoclasts activated by IL-6. (go.jp)
  • Osteoblasts are specialized, terminally differentiated products of mesenchymal stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoblasts arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Components that are essential for osteoblast bone formation include mesenchymal stem cells (osteoblast precursor) and blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients for bone formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • One interpretation of these observations is that cells other than those in the adherent population, where mesenchymal stem cells are thought to reside ( 3 ), are potent transplantable progenitors of osteoblasts, consistent with laboratory studies showing that nonadherent cells can give rise to bone ( 12 , 13 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, osteoblast specific cadherin 11 which mediates the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblastic cells is up-regulated in B02. (springer.com)
  • In the skeleton, Notch suppresses osteoblast differentiation and sustains bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors during postnatal life. (jci.org)
  • Here, we report that activation of Notch signaling by either Jagged1 or the Notch2 intracellular domain suppresses glucose metabolism and osteoblast differentiation in primary cultures of bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors. (jci.org)
  • T63 increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) activity and mineralization as well as gene expression of Alpl and other osteogenic marker genes in mouse osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cell-like cells. (nature.com)
  • Upon induction of osteoblast differentiation, T63 inhibited adipogenic differentiation in the pluripotent mesenchymal cells. (nature.com)
  • Osteoblasts differentiate from mesenchymal progenitors (MP) through distinct developmental stages marked by expression of key transcription factors including SOX9, RUNX2, and OSX. (wikipathways.org)
  • Osteoblasts are specialized mesenchymal cells that undergo a process of maturation where genes like core-binding factor alpha1 (Cbfa1) and osterix (Osx) play a very important role. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • However, we are only now beginning to understand the mechanisms that control the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to either osteoblasts or adipocytes. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • These reagents induce efficient stem cell differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells and adipose-derived stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells) into osteoblasts when added to culture medium. (clontech.com)
  • The formation of cranial bone requires the differentiation of osteoblasts from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • AU - Marie,P J, AU - Debiais,F, AU - Haÿ,E, PY - 2002/8/10/pubmed PY - 2003/4/18/medline PY - 2002/8/10/entrez SP - 877 EP - 85 JF - Histology and histopathology JO - Histol Histopathol VL - 17 IS - 3 N2 - The formation of cranial bone requires the differentiation of osteoblasts from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • When Raman spectroscopy is coupled with biological and multivariate analyses techniques, it shows further novelty when employed to monitor mineralisation of human mesenchymal stem cells, human primary osteoblasts and osteoblast-like cells. (bl.uk)
  • Osteoblast is a cell of mesenchymal origin that is responsible for bone formation and can support osteoclast differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • A team of researchers led by Thorsten Schinke found that the Wnt receptor Fzd9 was upregulated during osteoblast differentiation and that mice lacking Fzd9 had fragile bones due to low rates of bone formation. (redorbit.com)
  • In an attempt to reveal the osteoblast-like phenotype of osteotropic breast cancer cells, we performed a microarray study on a model of breast cancer bone metastasis consisting of the MDA-MB-231 human cell line and its variant B02 selected for its high capacity to form bone metastases in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Alterations of the subchondral bone include an increased, yet under mineralized osteoid matrix, abnormal osteoblast cell phenotype including elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, increased release of osteocalcin (OC) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1). (wellnessresources.com)
  • It seems that ovariectomy in mice prior to culture affected the phenotype of the cultured osteoblasts and their response to estradiol, testosterone, and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , depending on whether animals were pretreated with estradiol or not. (springer.com)
  • To study the effects and importance of fluoride on FBs in the development of extraperiosteal calcification and the ossification of skeletal fluorosis, the presence of the osteogenic phenotype, which is indicated by the expression of core-binding factor a1 (Cbfa1) and osteocalcin (OCN), in an FB cell line (L929) and in osteoblasts (OBs) exposed to fluoride was determined. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The cytocompatibility of collagen-immobilized scaffolds was significantly improved in terms of cellular adhesion, proliferation, collagen synthesis and maintenance of osteoblast-like phenotype, indicating, therefore, the fundamental role of collagen protein over the biological interactions that occur by bio-recognition mimetic mechanisms at biomaterials interface. (scielo.br)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that the bone-derived prostate cancer cells MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b promote differentiation of osteoblast precursors to an osteoblastic phenotype through a Cbfa1 -dependent pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Reyes-Botella C, Montes MJ, Vallecillo-Capilla MF, Olivares EG, Ruiz C (2002) Antigenic phenotype of cultured human osteoblast-like cells. (springer.com)
  • Our studies of the human calvaria osteoblast phenotype and calvarial bone formation showed that premature fusion of the sutures in non-syndromic and syndromic (Apert syndrome) craniosynostoses results from precocious osteoblast differentiation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Mechanisms that induce the differentiated osteoblast phenotype have also been identified in human calvaria osteoblasts. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The identification of these essential signaling molecules provides new insights into the pathways controlling the differentiated osteoblast phenotype, and leads to a more comprehensive view in the mechanisms that control normal and premature cranial ossification in humans. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Marie PJ, Debiais F, Haÿ E. Regulation of human cranial osteoblast phenotype by FGF-2, FGFR-2 and BMP-2 signaling. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Numerous studies have shown that osteoblasts exhibit a more differentiated phenotype when grown on titanium (Ti) substrates with micron scale roughness than when grown on smooth Ti substrates or on tissue culture polystyrene [ 1 - 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Background The protein Runt-relatede Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2) promotes the expression of most genes of the bone matrix proteins at the early stage of osteoblast differentiation, leading the cells to acquire an osteoblastic phenotype. (bmj.com)
  • Indeed, p53 − / − mice display a high bone mass phenotype, and p53 − / − osteoblasts show accelerated differentiation, secondary to an increase in expression of the osteoblast differentiation factor osterix, as a result. (rupress.org)
  • Vaspin attenuates the apoptosis of human osteoblasts through ERK signaling pathway," Amino Acids , vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 961-968, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • The apoptosis rate of osteoblasts, assessed by the enrichment of nucleosomes in cell lysates, was also unaffected by pH within this range. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of RCM increased not only osteoblast differentiation but also osteoclast apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • The beneficial effect of RCM may be mediated, at least in part, by dual regulation of the enhancement of osteoblast function and induction of osteoclast apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Teriparatide increases osteoblast numbers by suppressing osteoblast apoptosis and activating bone-lining cells. (jci.org)
  • Overexpression of bcl2 in osteoblasts inhibits osteoblast differentiation and induces osteocyte apoptosis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Unexpectedly, overexpression of BCL2 in osteoblasts eventually caused osteocyte apoptosis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These findings indicate that overexpression of BCL2 in osteoblasts inhibits osteoblast differentiation, reduces osteocyte processes, and causes osteocyte apoptosis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mature osteoblasts (OB) can further differentiate to osteocytes (OCY) or bone lining cells (not depicted) or undergo apoptosis (not depicted). (wikipathways.org)
  • These results suggest that the increased expression of DMT1 induces iron overload and iron overload induces osteoblast autophagy and apoptosis, thus affecting the pathological processes of osteoporosis. (medsci.org)
  • Iron overload also reduces osteoblast function by inducing osteoblast apoptosis, which can cause osteoporosis [ 9 ]. (medsci.org)
  • However, no study has reported that the DMT1 expressed in osteoblasts affects cell autophagy by regulating the concentration of Fe2+ ions, thereby affecting apoptosis. (medsci.org)
  • Indeed, intermittent PTH is the most potent bone anabolic agent known and works, in part, by reactivation of quiescent bone surfaces and reducing osteoblast apoptosis. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • The balance between osteoblast recruitment, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in sutures between cranial bones is essential for calvarial bone formation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We showed that Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2), FGF receptor-2 (FGFR-2) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), three essential factors involved in skeletal development, regulate the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in human calvaria osteoblasts. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We demonstrated the implication of molecules (N-cadherin, Il-1) and signaling pathways (src, PKC) by which these local factors modulate human calvaria osteoblast differentiation and apoptosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effect of EXD in preventing osteoblast apoptosis and the underlying mechanism of prevention. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evaluations of bone mineral density, serum estradiol level, trabecular area fraction, serum calcium levels, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in ovariectomized rats, as well as cell proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and western blotting in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were performed for further experimental validation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results suggest that EXD exerted profound anti-osteoporosis effects, at least partially by reducing production of TNF-α and attenuating osteoblast apoptosis via Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • B. abortus infection induces apoptosis and inhibits osteoblast function. (frontiersin.org)
  • DHEA treatment reversed the effect of B. abortus infection on osteoblast by increasing their proliferation, inhibiting osteoblast apoptosis, and reversing the inhibitory effect of B. abortus on osteoblast differentiation and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • As osteoblasts mature, they become osteocytes. (medicinenet.com)
  • Osteoblasts turn into osteocytes while the new bone is being formed, and the osteocytes then get surrounded by the new bone. (medicinenet.com)
  • Once osteoblasts turn into osteocytes, they express different proteins and settle themselves into life as active bone regulatory cells. (medicinenet.com)
  • Osteoblasts buried in the matrix are called osteocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteocytes remain alive and are connected by cell processes to a surface layer of osteoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a repopulation assay in mice, we show here that gene-marked, transplantable marrow cells from the plastic-nonadherent population can generate both functional osteoblasts/osteocytes and hematopoietic cells. (pnas.org)
  • The numbers of osteoblasts and osteocytes increased, but osteoid thickness and the bone formation rate were reduced in BCL2 transgenic mice with high expression at 10 weeks of age. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Osteoblasts that become trapped in their own secretions become the osteocytes . (biology-online.org)
  • The effects of removing ER[alpha] in osteoblasts and osteocytes on bone mass, bone strength, and bone's response to mechanical loading were studied in 10-week-old animals. (cornell.edu)
  • We found that the NO-cGMP-PKG signaling pathway activates Src in mechanically stimulated osteoblasts to initiate a proliferative response. (sciencemag.org)
  • mol/L, were prepared and mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Los autores aplicaron una dosis controlada diaria de la radiación electromágnetica pulsada en la duración diversa a las células del precursor del osteoblast MC3T3-E1 y a la actividad vigilada del viabilidad de la célula y metabólica. (news-medical.net)
  • Using the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast differentiation model ( 1 - 3 ), we have recently described the significance of inorganic phosphate, which is generated during differentiation, as a signaling molecule capable of altering specific signal transduction pathways, gene expression, and ultimately mineralization ( 4 , 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Methods Osteoblast differentiation was induced in murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells with or without addition of IL-6 (soluble IL-6 receptor was used to enhance the effect of IL-6). (bmj.com)
  • The osteoblasts produce many cell products, including the enzymes alkaline phosphatase and collagenase, growth factors, hormones such as osteocalcin, and collagen , part of the organic unmineralized component of the bone called osteoid. (britannica.com)
  • Osteoblast differentiation was inhibited, as shown by reduced Col1a1 and osteocalcin expression. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Moreover, levels of mRNAs for the transcription factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix, the osteoblast osteogenic gene osteocalcin, and the adherence molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were decreased by ATO. (biomedsearch.com)
  • in essence, osteoblasts are specialized fibroblasts that in addition to fibroblastic products, express bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. (definitions.net)
  • The results indicate that the pulsed electrodeposited Ca-def HAP coating doesn't produce any cytotoxic effect and enhances the gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) which are the two main markers of osteoblast differentiation and bone neoformation. (rsc.org)
  • Moreover, these cells were able to induce osteoblast differentiation, as assessed by increased alkaline phosphatase activity, Osteocalcin expression, and calcified matrix formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, treatment of osteoblasts with conditioned medium obtained from MDA PCa 2b cells resulted in up-regulation of Cbfa1 and Osteocalcin expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Osteoblast differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of osteoblastic gene such as Runx2 and osteocalcin, and mineralization. (bmj.com)
  • Results IL-6 significantly reduced ALP activity, and expression of osteoblastic gene, Runx2 and osteocalcin, and also inhibited mineralization in a dose-dependent manner, which indicates a negative effect of IL-6 on osteoblast differentiation. (bmj.com)
  • FoxO1 expression in osteoblasts regulates glucose homeostasis through regulation of osteocalcin in mice. (harvard.edu)
  • Cbfa1/Runx2 is key transcription factor associated with osteoblast differentiation. (statemaster.com)
  • T63 stimulated osteoblast differentiation by up-regulating the activity of RUNX2. (nature.com)
  • During b-catenin-dependent WNT signaling, b-catenin is stabilized following binding of WNT to its receptors Frizzled (FZD) and lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) or LRP6, leading to the transcription of b-catenin target genes and ultimately stimulating progression from the RUNX2+ stage to the RUNX2+OSX+ stage, and from RUNX2+OSX+ cells to mature osteoblasts. (wikipathways.org)
  • Runx2, an essential transactivator for osteoblast differentiation, is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. (rupress.org)
  • In the presence of increased Runx2 protein levels, CHIP expression decreases, whereas the expression of other E3 ligases involved in Runx2 degradation, such as Smurf1 or WWP1, remains constant or increases during osteoblast differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • Depletion of CHIP results in the stabilization of Runx2, enhances Runx2-mediated transcriptional activation, and promotes osteoblast differentiation in primary calvarial cells. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, CHIP overexpression in preosteoblasts causes Runx2 degradation, inhibits osteoblast differentiation, and instead enhances adipogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • Our data suggest that negative regulation of the Runx2 protein by CHIP is critical in the commitment of precursor cells to differentiate into the osteoblast lineage. (rupress.org)
  • Runx2, a runt domain family protein, is an essential transactivator for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. (rupress.org)
  • as Smad6 interacts with Runx2 and TNF promotes the expression of Smurf1 expression in osteoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we show that CHIP promotes Runx2 ubiquitination and degradation and thereby negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • We found that LRP5 +/- could influence the differentiation of osteoblasts by decreasing the mRNA level of Osterix , and increasing the mRNA level of Runx2 and the ratio of receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ( RANKL/OPG ). (go.jp)
  • It is established that the Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGFs) and the Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) regulate the Runx2 expression in osteoblasts at different stages of differentiation. (bmj.com)
  • Instead there are no studies about the role of P Substance (SP), IGF-1 and TNF-α in the regulation of the expression of Runx2 in the human OA osteoblasts. (bmj.com)
  • In the OA osteoblasts, we found a tendency to decrease the Runx2 expression with IGF-1 and TNF-α (p: 0.068 for both). (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions This study provides evidence that IGF-1 and TNF-α are involved in the regulation of the expression of Runx2 in both normal and OA osteoblasts. (bmj.com)
  • Treatment of both SaOS-2 cells and primary osteoblasts with siRNAs against ANRIL caused a decrease in cell number, a decrease in cell proliferation, an increase in cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and, in SaOS-2 cells, caused an increase in the expression of bone differentiation markers RUNX2 and ALP. (bl.uk)
  • Downstream of Runx2, other osteoblast-specific transcription factors have been identified. (rupress.org)
  • In simple words, an osteoblast builds the bone, whereas an osteoclast eats up the bone so that it can be reshaped into a stronger and resilient load-bearing structure. (medicinenet.com)
  • Thus, in uncorrected acidosis, the deposition of alkaline mineral in bone by osteoblasts is reduced, and osteoclast resorptive activity is increased in order to maximize the availability of hydroxyl ions in solution to buffer protons. (nih.gov)
  • These data strongly suggest the possibility of an autocrine regulation of the osteoclast by HGF and a paracrine regulation of the osteoblast by the HGF produced by the osteoclast. (uniprot.org)
  • Multiple myeloma is different from other tumors in that several osteoclast activating factors (OAF) released from multiple myeloma cells resorb bone and, at the same time, activation of osteoblast is inhibited, leading to unbalance of breakdown and formation of bone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Activation of osteoclast and inhibition of osteoblast brings about bone fractures, osteoporosis, hypercalcemia, bone pain and spinal cord compression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These data show that S. aureus enhances bone resorption and periosteal osteoclast formation by increasing osteoblast RANKL production through TLR2. (diva-portal.org)
  • We show that p53 also regulates osteoblast differentiation, bone formation, and osteoblast-dependent osteoclast differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, p53 − / − osteoblasts have an enhanced ability to favor osteoclast differentiation, in association with an increase in expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor, which is under the control of osterix. (rupress.org)
  • Fzd9-null osteoblasts differentiated normally, but they failed to mineralize their extracellular matrix. (redorbit.com)
  • PKGII-null mice showed defective Src and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling in osteoblasts and decreased ERK-dependent gene expression in bone. (sciencemag.org)
  • Extracellular signals regulating osteoblast differentiation: Model is based on studies of the mouse limb skeleton. (wikipathways.org)
  • Osteoblasts produce extracellular matrix proteins and paracrine factors that together support formation of bone tissue. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • Our results suggest that PKC activation enhanced Fn fibrillogenesis, whereas PKA activation inhibited extracellular Fn fibrillogenesis in primary cultured osteoblasts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The ideal bone substitute would approximate the autograft, requiring minimally that it be biocompatible and osteoconductive, contain osteoinductive factors to enhance new bone ingrowth, and contain osteogenic cells to begin secreting new extracellular matrix.1 Bone regeneration by autogenous osteoblast transplantation meets these requirements and thus holds promise as an improved method of skeletal reconstruction. (ebah.com.br)
  • Eventually the construct will be filled with calcified extracellular matrix secreted by the osteoblasts and will be devoid of the synthetic biodegradable polymer. (ebah.com.br)
  • While S100A4, recently described as a key negative regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is the most down-regulated gene in B02 cells. (springer.com)
  • Thus, these results identify p53 as a novel regulator of osteoblast differentiation, osteoblast-dependent osteoclastogenesis, and bone remodeling. (rupress.org)
  • In accordance with these new findings, we hypothesized that Irisin is directly involved in bone metabolism, demonstrating its ability to increase the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into mature osteoblasts. (hindawi.com)
  • We show that teriparatide increases the numbers of osteoblast precursors and drives their differentiation into mature osteoblasts. (jci.org)
  • FGF signaling regulates preosteoblast proliferation and osteoblast differentiation, as well as the function of mature osteoblasts. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transgenic elevation of VDR in mature osteoblasts was found to inhibit osteoclastogenesis associated with an altered OPG response. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • Vernes C, Roebuck KA, Chandrasekaran R, Dobai JG, Jacobs JJ, Glant TT (2000) Particulate wear debris activates protein tyrosine kinases and nuclear factor (B, which down-regulates type I collagen synthesis in human osteoblast. (springer.com)
  • To further analyze the mechanisms by which inorganic phosphate regulates cellular protein levels, we undertook a mRNA microarray analysis of pre-osteoblast cells at 18, 21, and 24 h after inorganic phosphate exposure. (mcponline.org)
  • Beck GR Jr, Moran E, Knecht N (2003) Inorganic phosphate regulates multiple genes during osteoblast differentiation, including Nrf2. (springermedizin.de)
  • Consistent with this idea is the observation, reported over a decade ago, that nonadherent CD34 bone marrow cells can differentiate to osteoblasts ( 12 ) and the quite recent report that murine bone marrow side population (SP) cells can engraft in bone after transplantation ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although all PromoCell media are optimized for use with primary human cells, we have received feedback from customers that this particular medium can also be used for bovine, murine, and rat osteoblasts as well as osteoblast cell lines. (promocell.com)
  • Among many stratagems employed by the bacterium to harm bone, Brucella can infect and survive within human and murine osteoblasts, and this infection triggers the secretion of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines that could be implicated in the presentation of osteoarticular brucellosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • however, the effects of Bcl2 overexpression on osteoblast differentiation and bone development and maintenance have not been fully investigated. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We demonstrate that this scaffold is able to trigger mineral deposition of both MG63 osteoblasts and primary normal human osteoblasts in the absence of any exogenous osteogenic factors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A number of miRs were found to have different expression in the osteosarcoma cells when compared to normal human osteoblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • WNT signaling promotes osteoblast differentiation. (wikipathways.org)
  • Kahai S, Lee SC, Seth A, Yang BB (2010) Nephronectin promotes osteoblast differentiation via the epidermal growth factor-like repeats. (springermedizin.de)
  • In support of the differentiation studies, a microarray analysis showed that primary mouse osteoblasts grown in the presence of MDA PCa 2b cells showed a shift in the pattern of gene expression with an increase in mRNA-encoding Procollagen type I and Osteopontin and a decrease in mRNA-encoding proteins associated with myoblast differentiation, namely myoglobin and myosin light-chain 2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Stimulation of isolated periosteal osteoblasts with S. aureus also resulted in increased expression of Tnfsf11 mRNA, an effect lost in osteoblasts from Tlr2 knockout mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • We detected GHS-R1b mRNA in human bone and osteoblasts but not ghrelin's cognate receptor GHS-R1a, using two different real-time PCR assays and both total RNA and mRNA. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In osteoblasts GHS-R1b mRNA expression remained low during the first 14 days of culture, but increased 300% in differentiating cells by day 21. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Both human bone biopsies and osteoblasts expressed ghrelin mRNA, and osteoblasts were found to secrete ghrelin. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Though little is known about Isg15's function, restoring its expression in Fzd9-null osteoblasts boosted matrix mineralization, whereas mice lacking Isg15 had similar bone defects to Fzd9-knockout animals. (redorbit.com)
  • Furthermore, the differentiated osteoblasts increased alkaline phosphatase and collagen I expression by an Irisin-dependent mechanism. (hindawi.com)
  • Selective, inducible deletion of the PTH receptor in Sox9 -cre cells demonstrated that PTH receptor expression is required for teriparatide-mediated increases in early osteoblast precursors. (jci.org)
  • Using immunohistochemistry, performed on human breast primary tumors and their matched liver and bone metastases, we were able to confirm that the osteoblast-like pattern of gene expression observed in our model holds true in vivo. (springer.com)
  • This study investigated differences in miR expression in normal human osteoblast cells versus malignant human osteosarcoma cells differ in their miR expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of miRNA expression in normal osteoblast cell lines (hOBc, NHOST, hFOB) and osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS, Saos, U-2OS) were completed using miR microarray technology with unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data indicate that RSV promotes Sirt1 levels, inhibits the endogenous expression of leptin by OA osteoblasts and can promote the Wnt/β-catenin and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, which are altered in these cells. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Our results showed an increase in the expression of Cbfa1 and OCN in fibroblasts and osteoblasts exposed to fluoride and suggested that the osteogenic function of fibroblasts induced by fluoride could play an important role in the development of extraperiosteal ossification during skeletal fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Cytokine Expression in Human Osteoblasts After Antiseptic Treatment: A Comparative Study Between Polyhexanide and Chlorhexidine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In cell culture, ATO decreased osteoblast mineralization by decreasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and this effect was prevented by co-addition of inorganic phosphate (Pi). (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results also established that soluble factors produced by prostate cancer cells can induce expression of osteoblast-specific genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to analyze the antigens present in osteoblasts in vivo, since the presence of certain biomolecules in fetal bovine serum may modulate the antigenic expression, compromising the results. (springer.com)
  • Reyes-Botella C, Montes MJ, Abadía-Molina AC, Vallecillo-Capilla MF, Ruiz C (1999) CD10 expression in cultured human osteoblast-like cells. (springer.com)
  • Reyes-Botella C, Montes MJ, Vallecillo-Capilla MF, Olivares EG, Ruiz C (2000) Expression of molecules involved in antigen presentation and T cell activation by cultured human osteoblasts. (springer.com)
  • Inorganic phosphate, which is generated during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, has recently been identified as an important signaling molecule capable of altering signal transduction pathways and gene expression. (mcponline.org)
  • Expression of α2 and β1 integrin subunits increases when osteoblasts are grown on microstructured surfaces [ 15 ] and silencing of these integrins blocks the substrate dependent increases in osteoblast differentiation and local factor production [ 16 , 17 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we show that osteoblast-specific expression of the AP-1 transcription factor Fra-2 (Fra-2 Ob-tet ) induced a systemic inflammatory state with infiltration of neutrophils and proinflammatory macrophages into the spleen and liver as well as increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (asm.org)
  • Knock down of ANRIL expression also caused a change in genes that have roles in osteoblast specific pathways as well as genes that were involved in molecular functions such as nuclear regulation and acetylation. (bl.uk)
  • Overall, ghrelin gene expression was greater in differentiating than non-differentiating osteoblasts, but was not increased during culture in either group. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Puerarin stimulates osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation through estrogen receptor, p38 MAPK, and Wnt/ β -catenin pathways," Journal of Asian Natural Products Research , vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 897-905, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Osteoblast differentiation is regulated by a variety of factors, including transcriptional factors and signaling pathways, which result in the maturation and mineralization of bone. (nature.com)
  • In the current presentation the direct regulation of osteoblast differentiation by vitamin D and interaction with other signaling pathways will be discussed. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Due to the effect of ANRIL knock down in primary osteoblasts, which could not be explained through normal cell cycle pathways, results suggest that ANRIL has potential trans-regulatory functions in these cells. (bl.uk)
  • Here, we have employed a lineage-tracing strategy that uses a tamoxifen-dependent, promoter-driven cre to mark early cells of the osteoblast lineage in adult mice. (jci.org)
  • To investigate these issues, we established two lines of osteoblast-specific BCL2 transgenic mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This study investigated whether 17β-estradiol (E2) may have different effects on osteoblasts derived from estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) mice compared to sham-operated normal animals. (springer.com)
  • The addition of 17β-estradiol to the culture medium increased ALP activity, collagen production, and mineralization by all cultured osteoblasts, except in those derived from sham-operated, estrogen-pretreated mice, where these features remained unchanged. (springer.com)
  • The osteoblast activity is augmented in the Shn3 deficiency mice that generate adult onset osteosclerosis with increased bone mass. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, inactivating p53 is sufficient to rescue the osteoblast differentiation defects observed in mice lacking c-Abl, a p53-interacting protein. (rupress.org)
  • Osteoblasts are also responsible for mineralization of the osteoid matrix . (statemaster.com)
  • Osteoid is a protein mixture which is secreted by osteoblasts. (statemaster.com)
  • Osteoblasts produce a matrix of osteoid, which is composed mainly of Type I collagen. (definitions.net)
  • Osteoblast , large cell responsible for the synthesis and mineralization of bone during both initial bone formation and later bone remodeling . (britannica.com)
  • This cell differentiation requires a regular supply of blood, without which cartilage-forming chondroblasts, rather than osteoblasts, are formed. (britannica.com)
  • Eventually the osteoblast is surrounded by the growing bone matrix, and, as the material calcifies, the cell is trapped in a space called a lacuna. (britannica.com)
  • MSC give rise to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and myocytes among other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pipette the cell suspension (1ml) from the vial into the T-75 flask ( SIAL0641 ) containing 15 ml of Human Osteoblast Growth Medium ( 417-500 ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Moreover, in our human cell therapy trials, donor osteoblast engraftment was demonstrated after transplantation of unmanipulated bone marrow ( 14 ), but the percentage of such engraftment could not be improved by transplanting as many as 5 × 10 6 isolated plastic-adherent marrow stromal cells per kg of body weight, a cell number that greatly exceeds the marrow stromal cell content of unmanipulated marrow ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Osteoblasts respond to HGF by entering the cell cycle, as indicated by stimulation of DNA synthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • Next the Gilead team developed a primary osteoblast cell growth assay and evaluated TFV-DP levels after single and multiple TAF pulses. (natap.org)
  • They assessed cell viability after treating primary osteoblasts with TAF for 3 days. (natap.org)
  • The Gilead team saw no change in cell viability of primary osteoblasts exposed to clinically relevant TAF concentrations. (natap.org)
  • An osteoblast (from the Greek words for " bone " and "germ" or embryonic) is a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone formation. (statemaster.com)
  • Although the term osteoblast implies an immature cell type, osteoblasts are in fact the mature bone cells entirely responsible for generating bone tissue in animals and humans. (statemaster.com)
  • Three miRs, miR-199a-3p, miR-127-3p and miR-376c were significantly decreased in osteosarcoma cell lines while miR-151-3p and miR-191 were increased in osteosarcoma cell lines in comparison to osteoblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Osteoblasts could adhere to the surface of all three materials, and spindle shapes were clearer in serum-containing media compared to PBS and serum-free culture media, suggesting that serum-contained proteins are helpful for the initial cell adhesion and spreading. (dovepress.com)
  • Results: Cell shrinking, defective cell membrane, and the loss of cell adhesion indicated cell damage of human osteoblasts after treatment with both antiseptics was evaluated by using light microscopy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of ATO on osteoblast function were investigated in primary cell cultures and in an in vivo study in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Both morphological changes and cytoskeletal reorganization, together with the focal adhesion development observed in HOB osteoblasts, significantly related to TiO 2 treated PLGA in which the Ti deposition method described has revealed to be a valuable tool to increase bioactivity of PLGA membranes, by combining cell nanotopography cues with the incorporation of bioactive factors. (mdpi.com)
  • Additionally, surface microtopography can modulate the extent to which the cell body is elongated, which has been demonstrated to be important in determining the osteogenic capacity of osteoblasts. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell culture media for human osteoblasts from femoral trabecular bone tissue. (promocell.com)
  • Here, osteoblast (bone forming cells) and endothelial cell (cells that line the vasculature) adhesion was determined on nanostructured compared to conventional, nano-smooth polyethylene and titanium. (dovepress.com)
  • In summary, this study provided evidence that electron beam evaporation can modify implant surfaces (specifically, polyethylene and titanium) to have nanostructured surface features to improve osteoblast and endothelial cell adhesion. (dovepress.com)
  • The study of the biology of osteoblasts, or bone-forming cells, illustrates how mammalian genetics has profoundly modified our understanding of cell differentiation and physiologic processes. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • Osteoblast: A cell that makes bone. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • The osteoblast, the bone cell responsible for forming new bone, is found in the growing portions of bone, including the periosteum and endosteum. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • Bone is a dynamic tissue that is continuously being broken down and restructured in response to such influences as structural stress and … Osteoblast definition is - a bone-forming cell. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • In this model, the bone-derived prostate cancer cell lines MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b induced a specific and reproducible increase in osteoblast proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Osteoblasts have a characteristic antigenic profile and share antigens in common with other cell populations that also originate in the bone marrow. (springer.com)
  • i grow osteoblast cell and now it is in incubator. (protocol-online.org)
  • Osteoblast-Inducer Reagent (for animal cell) contains a set of osteoblast differentiation reagents including hydrocortisone, beta-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid. (clontech.com)
  • Hence, a more complete understanding of the consequences of elevated inorganic phosphate on cell function may be relevant not only to the process of osteoblast differentiation but also to various cell types with a wide range of functions. (mcponline.org)
  • Observational Study of the Effects Intravenous Bortezomib Has on Osteoblast (Cell That is Responsible for Bone Formation) Activity in Multiple Myeloma Patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A further novelty was introduced with the use of Raman spectroscopy to determine the suitability of the U20S osteoblast-like cell line for use as a model for human primary osteoblasts with emphasis on the ability of these cell types to replicate their tissue of origin. (bl.uk)
  • Investigation of the U20S osteoblast-like cell line provided evidence of dense multilayered mineralised regions that corresponded more closely to native bone, which has not been previously reported on. (bl.uk)
  • It was shown that there was specific binding in the osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cell line to this region and that methylation of these CpGs led to a decrease in transcription factor binding. (bl.uk)
  • Thus, teriparatide increases the numbers of early cells of the osteoblast lineage, hastens their differentiation into osteoblasts, and suppresses their differentiation into adipocytes in vivo. (jci.org)
  • Second, they inhibited terminal differentiation of osteoblasts, at least in part through the inhibition of SATB2, a nuclear matrix protein that is a critical determinant of osteoblast differentiation. (jcvi.org)
  • Herein, we investigated the effects of acidosis on osteoblast function by using mineralized bone nodule-forming primary osteoblast cultures. (nih.gov)
  • Abundant, matrix-containing mineralized nodules formed in osteoblast cultures at pH 7.4, but acidification progressively reduced mineralization of bone nodules, with complete abolition at pH 6.9. (nih.gov)
  • At the end of the experiment, bones were removed for primary osteoblast cultures or for morphological and chemical evaluation. (springer.com)
  • Minaralization medium for induction of mineralization in human osteoblast cultures. (promocell.com)
  • PromoCell Osteoblast Mineralization Medium has been developed for the efficient induction of strong mineralization in human osteoblast cultures. (promocell.com)
  • The antigenic profile of human osteoblasts was previously analyzed by our group using primary cultures as study samples. (springer.com)
  • No direct evidence for teriparatide's actions on early cells of the osteoblast lineage has been demonstrated. (jci.org)
  • Both of these actions of teriparatide involve postmitotic, mature cells of the osteoblast lineage. (jci.org)
  • Building stronger bones: molecular regulation of the osteoblast lineage by Fanxin Long [1] . (wikipathways.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has diverse roles in osteoblast lineage cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Building strong bones: molecular regulation of the osteoblast lineage. (wikipathways.org)
  • This strongly suggests that the interaction of prostatic cancer cells with cells of the osteoblast lineage contributes to the lethal progression of prostate cancer, although the molecular nature of this interaction is still poorly understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Non collagenous protein 1% of total protein in human bone During bone formation 10-30% of OC synthesized from osteoblast is released in circulation Synthesis stimulated by vit-D Excreted by kidney Half life is 5 min. (scribd.com)
  • Human cultured female osteoblasts (Obs) respond age-dependently to estradiol-17β (E2) and to phytoestrogens by increased DNA synthesis (DNA) and creatine kinase specific activity (CK). (omicsonline.org)
  • To elucidate the regulatory role of protein kinases in the formation of fibrillar Fn matrix, Fn synthesis and assembly were examined in cultured osteoblasts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • JCVI: miR-34s inhibit osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in the mouse by targeting SATB2. (jcvi.org)
  • Likewise, agents inducing osteoblast dfferentiation inhibit adipogenesis. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), an investigational prodrug of tenofovir, did not accumulate in primary osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) more than in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and had no cytotoxic effects in osteoblasts at concentrations that would be used in humans [1]. (natap.org)
  • To mimic that process, the researchers pulsed TAF into PBMCs and primary human osteoblasts for 2 hours, followed by a washout. (natap.org)
  • They then evaluated similar TAF concentrations in primary osteoblasts. (natap.org)
  • In primary osteoblasts, a single 2-hour pulse of the same TAF concentrations yielded TFV-DP levels comparable to those reached in PBMCs. (natap.org)
  • The investigators concluded that "primary osteoblasts were not preferentially loaded by TAF relative to PBMCs. (natap.org)
  • Overexpression of BCL2 in primary osteoblasts had no effect on osteoclastogenesis in co-culture with bone marrow cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 3D bioprinting of GelMA scaffolds triggers mineral deposition by primary human osteoblasts. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Primary Human Osteoblasts isolated from femoral trabecular bone tissue from the knee or hip joint region. (promocell.com)
  • When the primary human osteoblasts (hOST) were seeded and cultured directly on the Ultrafoam[R], confocal microscopy showed CytotrackerTM Orange labeled cells to be predominantly on or close to the surface of the scaffold (Fig 5b panels 1i, 1ii). (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • These results allow data obtained by the primary culture of osteoblast-like cells to be endorsed. (springer.com)
  • Primary human osteoblasts and HGFs were cultured from patient samples obtained during routine oral surgery. (asm.org)
  • In this article we complement and compare our published data with hitherto unpublished data and show the protective effect of 15 different antioxidants on cigarette smoke induced damage in primary human osteoblasts. (scirp.org)
  • Vitamin D activation of functionally distinct regulatory miRNAs in primary human osteoblasts. (harvard.edu)
  • Lisse TS, Chun RF, Rieger S, Adams JS, Hewison M. Vitamin D activation of functionally distinct regulatory miRNAs in primary human osteoblasts. (harvard.edu)
  • It is supposed to help the absorption of calcium and promote bone growth in the osteoblasts and prevent osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. V. Gurban and O. Mederle, "The OPG/RANKL system and zinc ions are promoters of bone remodeling by osteoblast proliferation in postmenopausal osteoporosis," Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology , vol. 52, supplement 3, pp. 1113-1119, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Osteoblast autophagy in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. (nih.gov)
  • The number of osteoblasts tends to decrease with age, affecting the balance of formation and resorption in the bone tissue, and potentially leading to osteoporosis. (definitions.net)
  • Connective tissue growth factor is a downstream mediator for preptin-induced proliferation and differentiation in human osteoblasts," Amino Acids , vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 763-769, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • The osteoblast differentiation induced by MDA PCa 2b cells was associated with up-regulation of the osteoblast-specific transcriptor factor Cbfa1 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, osteoblast alkaline phosphatase activity, which peaked strongly near pH 7.4, was reduced eight-fold at pH 6.9. (nih.gov)
  • I have cultured human fetal osteoblast (hFOB 1.19) and I need to check for the alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for that cells. (protocol-online.org)
  • One of these genes en-coded a ubiquitin-like molecule called Isg15. (redorbit.com)
  • NICD interacts with RBPJk and together they activate downstream target genes, including HES (Hairy and Enhancer of Split) and HEY (HES-related with YRPW motif) family transcription factors, ultimately leading to inhibition of osteoblast differentiation, seemingly at a stage before OSX activation. (wikipathways.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 and forskolin induce mineralization-associated genes in two kinds of osteoblast-like cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Take the Human Osteoblast Growth Medium ( 417-500 ) from the refrigerator. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pipette 15 ml of Human Osteoblast Growth Medium ( 417-500 )* to a T-75 flask ( SIAL0641 ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Change to fresh Human Osteoblast Growth Medium ( 417-500 ) after 24 hours or overnight to remove all traces of DMSO. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Change Human Osteoblast Growth Medium ( 417-500 ) every other day until the cells reach 60% confluency. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pipette 30 ml of Human Osteoblast Growth Medium ( 417-500 ) to a T-175 flask ( SIAL1080 ) (to be used in Section IV C Step 15. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Osteoarticular brucellosis is the most common presentation of the active disease in humans, and we have previously demonstrated that B. abortus infection inhibits osteoblast function. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results are the first to identify a family of microRNAs involved in bone formation in vivo and to identify a specific genetic pathway by which these microRNAs regulate osteoblast differentiation. (jcvi.org)
  • Conclusions IL-6 can be thought to negatively regulate osteoblast differentiation through ERK pathway. (bmj.com)
  • I use the plant extract as for the treatment for differentiation and proliferation of the osteoblast. (protocol-online.org)
  • Moreover, it was found recently that Wnt/ beta-catenin pathway plays a part on osteoblast differentiation and proliferation. (rinconesdelatlantico.com)
  • Mineralization is mediated by osteoblasts, which secrete mineral precursors through matrix vesicles (MVs) as a fundamental process in vertebrates. (phys.org)
  • Osteoblasts (OB) are bone-forming cells that secrete calcium and synthesize the bone matrix. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Osteoblasts grown on microstructured Ti surfaces enhance osteointegration by producing local factors that regulate bone formation as well as bone remodeling, including the RANK ligand decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent studies have also shown that the more differentiated osteoblasts produce increased levels of factors that stimulate vasculogenesis [ 10 ] and factors that decrease osteoclastic activity such as the RANK ligand (RANKL) decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) [ 11 , 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, direct effects are also likely as the vitamin D receptor is present in osteoblasts. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Since increase of type 1 collagen N-propeptide, a bone formation marker, is recognized in RA patients treated with tocilizumab, a humanized anti- IL-6 receptor antibody, IL-6 could be thought to have negative effect on osteoblast differentiation. (bmj.com)
  • DHEA reversed the inhibitory effect induced by B. abortus infection on osteoblast matrix deposition in an estrogen receptor- and ERK1/2-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • On the other hand, STAT3 pathway could have a positive regulatory role in osteoblast differentiation. (bmj.com)
  • Duplicate incubations of human periosteal fibroblasts and osteoblasts were performed with 14C-testosterone as substrate, in the presence or absence of CoQ (20 microg/ml), Pycnogenol (150 microg/ml), and phytoestrogens (10 and 40 microg/ml), alone and in combination with nicotine (250 microg/ml). (chiro.org)
  • Osteoblasts produce anti-swelling or anti-inflammatory cytokines that help in the bone healing process. (medicinenet.com)
  • But only polyhexanide mediated a pronounced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human osteoblasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CD10, CD44 and alkaline phosphatase antigens and IL-12, IL-18 and IFNγ cytokines were detected in osteoblasts in the bone tissue. (springer.com)