A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A degenerative joint disease involving the SPINE. It is characterized by progressive deterioration of the spinal articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR), usually with hardening of the subchondral bone and outgrowth of bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE).
The articulations extending from the WRIST distally to the FINGERS. These include the WRIST JOINT; CARPAL JOINTS; METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and FINGER JOINT.
Pain in the joint.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Replacement of the knee joint.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
A therapeutic treatment typically involving INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTIONS of HYALURONIC ACID and related compounds. The procedure is commonly used in the treatment of OSTEOARTHRITIS with the therapeutic goal to restore the viscoelasticity of SYNOVIAL FLUID, decrease pain, improve mobility and restore the natural protective functions of hyaluronan in the joint.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Viscoelastic solutions that are injected into JOINTS in order to alleviate symptoms of joint-related disorders such as OSTEOARTHRITIS.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Replacement of the hip joint.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Manner or style of walking.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of various tissues, particularly in the synthesis of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, which are essential components of cartilage and synovial fluid in joints.
Partial or total replacement of a joint.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.
'Joint diseases' is a broad term that refers to medical conditions causing inflammation, degeneration, or functional impairment in any part of a joint, including the cartilage, bone, ligament, tendon, or bursa, thereby affecting movement and potentially causing pain, stiffness, deformity, or reduced range of motion.
The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Arthritis is a general term used to describe inflammation in the joints, often resulting in pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility, which can be caused by various conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or lupus.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
'Shoes' are not a medical term, but an item of footwear designed to provide protection, support, and comfort to the feet during various activities, although ill-fitting or inappropriate shoes can contribute to various foot conditions such as blisters, corns, calluses, and orthopedic issues.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).
Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A departure from the normal gait in animals.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Replacement for a knee joint.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Bone marrow diseases, also known as hematologic or blood disorders, refer to conditions that affect the production and function of blood cells within the bone marrow, such as leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and aplastic anemia, potentially leading to complications like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased susceptibility to infections or bleeding.
An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE. Members contain harpagoside.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC 3.4.24.14.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
An inward slant of the thigh in which the knees are close together and the ankles far apart. Genu valgum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasias (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; HURLER SYNDROME); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).
An outward slant of the thigh in which the knees are wide apart and the ankles close together. Genu varum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasia (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; Blount's disease); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
Developmental bone diseases are a category of skeletal disorders that arise from disturbances in the normal growth and development of bones, including abnormalities in size, shape, structure, or composition, which can lead to various musculoskeletal impairments and deformities.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Fractures of the articular surface of a bone.
A pathological mechanical process that can lead to hip failure. It is caused by abnormalities of the ACETABULUM and/or FEMUR combined with rigorous hip motion, leading to repetitive collisions that damage the soft tissue structures.
A SYNOVIAL CYST located in the back of the knee, in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.
Replacement for a hip joint.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
Sulfones are a class of organic compounds containing the functional group with a sulfur atom bonded to two oxygen atoms and another organic group, widely used in pharmaceuticals, particularly for the treatment of bacterial infections, leprosy, and certain types of cancer.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Devices used to support or align the foot structure, or to prevent or correct foot deformities.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The use of focused short radio waves to produce local hyperthermia in an injured person or diseased body area.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.
Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.
External application of water for therapeutic purposes.
A carpal bone adjacent to the TRAPEZOID BONE.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Thiazines are heterocyclic chemical compounds containing a sulfur atom and a nitrogen atom in a six-membered ring, which are the core structure of various drugs used in treatment of psychiatric disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and gastrointestinal conditions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Perennial herb Symphytum officinale, in the family Boraginaceae, used topically for wound healing. It contains ALLANTOIN, carotene, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE); GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, resin, SAPONINS; TANNINS; triterpenoids, VITAMIN B12, and ZINC. Comfrey also contains PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS and is hepatotoxic if ingested.
The therapeutic use of mud in packs or baths taking advantage of the absorptive qualities of the mud. It has been used for rheumatism and skin problems.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.
Replacement of the ANKLE JOINT.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.
A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
Difficulty in walking from place to place.
Benign hypertrophy that projects outward from the surface of bone, often containing a cartilaginous component.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
The burning of a small, thimble sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves on the SKIN at an ACUPUNCTURE point. Usually the plugs contain leaves of MUGWORT or moxa.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A syndrome characterized by retropatellar or peripatellar PAIN resulting from physical and biochemical changes in the patellofemoral joint. The pain is most prominent when ascending or descending stairs, squatting, or sitting with flexed knees. There is a lack of consensus on the etiology and treatment. The syndrome is often confused with (or accompanied by) CHONDROMALACIA PATELLAE, the latter describing a pathological condition of the CARTILAGE and not a syndrome.
Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.
A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A political subdivision of eastern RUSSIA located within Europe. It consists of a plateau and mountainous area of the Southern Urals. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1997)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.

Overexpression of human homologs of the bacterial DnaJ chaperone in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (1/3950)

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of the chaperone family of J proteins in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis. METHODS: Rabbit antibodies specific for a synthetic peptide (pHSJ1: EAYEVLSDKHKREIYD), representing the most conserved part of all J domains thus far identified--among them the Drosophila tumor suppressor Tid56--were used in immunohistochemical analyses of frozen sections of synovial tissue and immunoblotting of protein extracts of adherent synovial cells. IgG specific for Tid56 was also used. RESULTS: Both antisera predominantly and intensely stained synovial lining cells from RA patients; other cells did not stain or stained only faintly. In immunoblots, anti-pHSJ1 specifically detected several bands with molecular weights of >74 kd (type I), 57-64 kd (type II), 41-48 kd (type III), and < or =36 kd (type IV). The strongest band detected in RA adherent synovial cells was the type II band, whereas in a B cell line, a type I band was prominent. CONCLUSION: Several potentially new members of the J family are described. The type II band represents the human homolog of the Drosophila Tid56 protein and is strongly expressed in RA synovial tissue.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (2/3950)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

Ankle arthrodesis using an anterior AO T plate. (3/3950)

We describe a surgical technique for ankle arthrodesis using an anterior approach to the ankle and internal fixation with an anteriorly-placed AO T plate. A total of 33 patients who had ankle arthrodeses have been followed retrospectively. Thirty-one (94%) of the ankles fused although two patients developed tibial stress fractures. Four patients had a superficial infection which did not prevent union. The surgical technique is simple, easily reproducible and gives excellent clinical results with a high rate of union.  (+info)

Prevalence of generalised osteoarthritis in patients with advanced hip and knee osteoarthritis: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study. (4/3950)

OBJECTIVES: Different prevalences of generalised osteoarthritis (GOA) in patients with knee and hip OA have been reported. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate radiographic and clinical patterns of disease in a hospital based population of patient subgroups with advanced hip and knee OA and to compare the prevalence of GOA in patients with hip or knee OA, taking potential confounding factors into account. METHODS: 420 patients with hip OA and 389 patients with knee OA scheduled for unilateral total joint replacement in four hospitals underwent radiographic analysis of ipsilateral and contralateral hip or knee joint and both hands in addition to a standardised interview and clinical examination. According to the severity of radiographic changes in the contralateral joints (using Kellgren-Lawrence > or = grade 2 as case definition) participants were classified as having either unilateral or bilateral OA. If radiographic changes of two joint groups of the hands (first carpometacarpal joint and proximal/distal interphalangeal joints defined as two separate joint groups) were present, patients were categorised as having GOA. RESULTS: Patients with hip OA were younger (mean age 60.4 years) and less likely to be female (52.4%) than patients with knee OA (66.3 years and 72.5% respectively). Intensity of pain and functional impairment at hospital admission was similar in both groups, while patients with knee OA had a longer symptom duration (median 10 years) compared with patients with hip OA (5 years). In 41.7% of patients with hip OA and 33.4% of patients with knee OA an underlying pathological condition could be observed in the replaced joint, which allowed a classification as secondary OA. Some 82.1% of patients with hip and 87.4% of patients with knee OA had radiographic changes in their contralateral joints (bilateral disease). The prevalence of GOA increased with age and was higher in female patients. GOA was observed more often in patients with knee OA than in patients with hip OA (34.9% versus 19.3%; OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.56, 3.21). Adjustment for the different age and sex distribution in both patient groups, however, takes away most of the difference (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.96). CONCLUSION: The crude results confirm previous reports as well as the clinical impression of GOA being more prevalent in patients with advanced knee OA than in patients with advanced hip OA. However, these different patterns might be attributed to a large part to a different distribution of age and sex in these hospital based populations.  (+info)

Nuclear factor-kappa B activity in T cells from patients with rheumatic diseases: a preliminary report. (5/3950)

OBJECTIVE: The NF-kappa B/Rel family of transcription factors regulates the expression of many genes involved in the immune or inflammatory response at the transcriptional level. The aim of this study was to determine whether distinctive patterns of NF-kappa B activation are seen in different forms of joint disease. METHODS: The DNA binding activity of these nucleoproteins was examined in purified synovial and peripheral T cells from patients with various chronic rheumatic diseases (12: four with rheumatoid arthritis; five with spondyloarthropathies; and three with osteoarthritis). RESULTS: Electrophoretic mobility shift assays disclosed two specific complexes bound to a NF-kappa B specific 32P-labelled oligonucleotide in nucleoproteins extracted from purified T cells isolated from synovial fluid and peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The complexes consisted of p50/p50 homodimers and p50/p65 heterodimers. Increased NF-kappa B binding to DNA in synovial T cells was observed relative to peripheral T cells. In non-rheumatoid arthritis, binding of NF-kappa B in synovial T cells was exclusively mediated by p50/p50 homodimers. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results suggest that NF-kappa B may play a central part in the activation of infiltrating T cells in chronic rheumatoid arthritis. The activation of this nuclear factor is qualitatively different in rheumatoid synovial T cells to that in other forms of non-rheumatoid arthritis (for example, osteoarthritis, spondyloarthropathies).  (+info)

Effects of joint lavage and steroid injection in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: results of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. (6/3950)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of joint lavage and intraarticular steroid injection, alone and in combination, in the treatment of patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Ninety-eight patients with painful tibiofemoral OA were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled, 2 x 2 factorial-design trial of 6 months' duration. The 4 treatment groups consisted of 1) intraarticular placebo (1.5 ml of 0.9% normal saline), 2) intraarticular corticosteroids (3.75 mg of cortivazol in 1.5 ml), 3) joint lavage and intraarticular placebo, and 4) joint lavage and intraarticular corticosteroid. Outcome measures evaluated at baseline, week 1, week 4, week 12, and week 24 included severity of pain (100-mm visual analog scale [VAS]), global status (100-mm VAS), and Lequesne's functional index. RESULTS: No interaction between steroid injection and joint lavage was demonstrated. Patients who had undergone joint lavage had significantly improved pain VAS scores at week 24 (P = 0.020). In contrast, corticosteroid injection had no long-term effect (P = 0.313); corticosteroid injection was associated with a decrease in pain only at week 1 (P = 0.003) and week 4 (P = 0.020). After week 4, Lequesne's functional index was not significantly improved regardless of the assigned treatment. CONCLUSION: Compared with placebo, both treatments significantly relieved pain but did not improve functional impairment. The effects of the 2 treatments were additive. Cortivazol provided short-term relief of pain (up to week 4). The effects of joint lavage persisted up to week 24.  (+info)

The associations of bone mineral density and bone turnover markers with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in pre- and perimenopausal women. (7/3950)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Caucasian women ages 28-48 years with newly defined osteoarthritis (OA) would have greater bone mineral density (BMD) and less bone turnover over time than would women without OA. METHODS: Data were derived from the longitudinal Michigan Bone Health Study. Period prevalence and 3-year incidence of OA were based on radiographs of the dominant hand and both knees, scored with the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) scale. OA scores were related to BMD, which was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and to serum osteocalcin levels, which were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The period prevalence of OA (K/L grade > or =2 in the knees or the dominant hand) was 15.3% (92 of 601), with 8.7% for the knees and 6.7% for the hand. The 3-year incidence of knee OA was 1.9% (9 of 482) and of hand OA was 3.3% (16 of 482). Women with incident knee OA had greater average BMD (z-scores 0.3-0.8 higher for the 3 BMD sites) than women without knee OA (P < 0.04 at the femoral neck). Women with incident knee OA had less change in their average BMD z-scores over the 3-year study period. Average BMD z-scores for women with prevalent knee OA were greater (0.4-0.7 higher) than for women without knee OA (P < 0.002 at all sites). There was no difference in average BMD z-scores or their change in women with and without hand OA. Average serum osteocalcin levels were lower in incident cases of hand OA (>60%; P = 0.02) or knee OA (20%; P not significant). The average change in absolute serum osteocalcin levels was not as great in women with incident hand OA or knee OA as in women without OA (P < 0.02 and P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Women with radiographically defined knee OA have greater BMD than do women without knee OA and are less likely to lose that higher level of BMD. There was less bone turnover among women with hand OA and/or knee OA. These findings suggest that bone-forming cells might show a differential response in OA of the hand and knee, and may suggest a different pathogenesis of hand OA and knee OA.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor alpha regulation of the FAS-mediated apoptosis-signaling pathway in synovial cells. (8/3950)

OBJECTIVE: Fas-mediated apoptosis is observed in synoviocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but not in those of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The present study was conducted to elucidate the mechanisms that initiate induction of Fas-mediated apoptosis in RA synoviocytes. METHODS: Cultured OA synoviocytes, which are insensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis in spite of Fas antigen expression, were used in these experiments. Synovial cell proliferation and cytotoxicity studies were performed using MTS and lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Surface expression of Fas antigen was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression and function of apoptosis-signaling molecules, such as caspase 8 and caspase 3, were examined by immunoblot analysis. RESULTS: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) induced proliferation of cultured OA synoviocytes. Fas ligation with anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb) resulted in cytotoxic activity against cultured OA synoviocytes that had been pretreated with TNFalpha for 5 days, but not those pretreated for 2 days. In contrast, anti-Fas mAb did not show a cytotoxic effect against untreated cultured OA synoviocytes. A gradual up-regulation of caspase 8 and caspase 3, which played a role in the caspase cascade for Fas-mediated apoptosis, was observed in TNFalpha-treated cultured OA synoviocytes. In addition, Fas ligation to TNFalpha-treated cultured OA synoviocytes induced activation of caspase 8 and caspase 3, with subsequent cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a substrate of activated caspase 3. More importantly, Z-IETD-FMK, a caspase 8 inhibitor, and Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase 3 inhibitor, almost completely inhibited Fas-mediated apoptosis of TNFalpha-treated cultured OA synoviocytes, whereas Ac-YVAD-CHO, a caspase 1 inhibitor, did not. CONCLUSION: Our results clearly demonstrate that TNFalpha stimulates synovial cells to proliferate as well as sensitizes the cells for Fas-mediated apoptosis, at least in part by up-regulation and activation of caspase 8 and caspase 3. These findings suggest that TNFalpha may be one of the factors providing sensitization of synovial cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis in RA.  (+info)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the hip joint. It is characterized by the progressive loss of cartilage, remodeling of bone, osteophyte formation (bone spurs), cysts, and mild to moderate inflammation. The degenerative process can lead to pain, stiffness, limited range of motion, and crepitus (grating or crackling sound) during movement.

In the hip joint, OA typically affects the femoral head and acetabulum. As the articular cartilage wears away, the underlying bone becomes exposed and can lead to bone-on-bone contact, which is painful. The body responds by attempting to repair the damage through remodeling of the subchondral bone and formation of osteophytes. However, these changes can further limit joint mobility and exacerbate symptoms.

Risk factors for OA of the hip include age, obesity, genetics, previous joint injury or surgery, and repetitive stress on the joint. Treatment options may include pain management (such as NSAIDs, physical therapy, and injections), lifestyle modifications (such as weight loss and exercise), and, in severe cases, surgical intervention (such as hip replacement).

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It provides a cushion between bones and allows for smooth movement by reducing friction. Articular cartilage also absorbs shock and distributes loads evenly across the joint, protecting the bones from damage. It is avascular, meaning it does not have its own blood supply, and relies on the surrounding synovial fluid for nutrients. Over time, articular cartilage can wear down or become damaged due to injury or disease, leading to conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Osteoarthritis of the spine, also known as spondylosis, is a degenerative joint disease that affects the spine. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints of the spine, which can lead to pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility. The condition most commonly affects the joints in the lower back (lumbar) and neck (cervical) regions of the spine.

The symptoms of osteoarthritis of the spine can vary widely, but may include:

* Pain and stiffness in the neck or back, especially after prolonged periods of inactivity or overuse
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs, due to nerve compression
* Decreased range of motion and flexibility in the spine
* Popping, cracking, or grinding sounds in the spine with movement
* In severe cases, loss of bladder or bowel control.

The diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the spine is typically made through a combination of physical exam, medical history, and imaging studies such as X-rays, MRI, or CT scan. Treatment options may include pain medication, physical therapy, exercise, and in some cases, surgery.

A hand joint, also known as an articulation, is the location at which two or more bones connect. Specifically, in the context of the hand, there are several types of joints:

1. **Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) Joints:** These are the joints located between the metacarpal bones of the hand and the proximal phalanges of the fingers. The MCP joints allow for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction movements.
2. **Proximal Interphalangeal (PIP) Joints:** These are the joints located between the proximal and middle phalanges of the fingers. The PIP joints allow for flexion, extension, and a limited amount of abduction and adduction movements.
3. **Distal Interphalangeal (DIP) Joints:** These are the joints located between the middle and distal phalanges of the fingers. The DIP joints mainly allow for flexion and extension movements.
4. **Carpometacarpal (CMC) Joints:** These are the joints located between the carpal bones of the wrist and the metacarpal bones of the hand. The CMC joints, particularly the first CMC joint at the base of the thumb, allow for a wide range of movements, including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and opposition (the ability to touch the tip of the thumb to each of the other fingers).

These hand joints are supported by various structures such as ligaments, tendons, muscles, and cartilage, which provide stability, enable movement, and absorb shock during daily activities.

Arthralgia is a medical term that refers to pain in the joints. It does not involve inflammation, which would be referred to as arthritis. The pain can range from mild to severe and may occur in one or multiple joints. Arthralgia can have various causes, including injuries, infections, degenerative conditions, or systemic diseases. In some cases, the underlying cause of arthralgia remains unknown. Treatment typically focuses on managing the pain and addressing the underlying condition if it can be identified.

The menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located in the knee joint. There are two menisci in each knee: the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus. The tibial menisci, also known as the medial and lateral menisci, are named according to their location in the knee joint. They lie on the top surface of the tibia (shin bone) and provide shock absorption, stability, and lubrication to the knee joint.

The tibial menisci have a complex shape, with a wider outer portion called the peripheral rim and a narrower inner portion called the central portion or root attachment. The menisci are attached to the bones of the knee joint by ligaments and have a rich blood supply in their outer portions, which helps in healing after injury. However, the inner two-thirds of the menisci have a poor blood supply, making them more prone to degeneration and less likely to heal after injury.

Damage to the tibial menisci can occur due to trauma or degenerative changes, leading to symptoms such as pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility of the knee joint. Treatment for meniscal injuries may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

An osteophyte, also known as a bone spur, is a bony projection that forms along the margins of joints, often as a result of degenerative changes in the cartilage and underlying bone. These changes are most commonly seen in conditions such as osteoarthritis, where the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of bones breaks down, leading to inflammation, pain, and reduced mobility.

Osteophytes can develop in any joint in the body, but they are most commonly found in the spine, hips, knees, and hands. They may vary in size from small bumps to large, irregular growths that can restrict joint movement and cause discomfort or pain. In some cases, osteophytes may also compress nearby nerves, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb.

While osteophytes are often considered a sign of aging or joint degeneration, they can also be caused by other conditions that put excessive stress on the joints, such as injury, infection, or inflammatory arthritis. Treatment for osteophytes typically involves addressing the underlying cause of joint damage, along with pain management strategies such as physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Intra-articular injections refer to the administration of medication directly into a joint space. This route of administration is used for treating various joint conditions such as inflammation, pain, and arthritis. Commonly injected medications include corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and viscosupplementation agents. The procedure is usually performed using imaging guidance, like ultrasound or fluoroscopy, to ensure accurate placement of the medication within the joint.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Synovial fluid is a viscous, clear, and straw-colored fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. It is produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the inner surface of the capsule surrounding these structures.

The primary function of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between articulating surfaces, providing lubrication for smooth and painless movement. It also acts as a shock absorber, protecting the joints from external forces during physical activities. Synovial fluid contains nutrients that nourish the articular cartilage, hyaluronic acid, which provides its viscoelastic properties, and lubricin, a protein responsible for boundary lubrication.

Abnormalities in synovial fluid composition or volume can indicate joint-related disorders, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, infection, or trauma. Analysis of synovial fluid is often used diagnostically to determine the underlying cause of joint pain, inflammation, or dysfunction.

The hip joint, also known as the coxal joint, is a ball-and-socket type synovial joint that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the pelvis. The "ball" is the head of the femur, while the "socket" is the acetabulum, a concave surface on the pelvic bone.

The hip joint is surrounded by a strong fibrous capsule and is reinforced by several ligaments, including the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments. The joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction movements, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body.

The hip joint is also supported by various muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, and other hip flexors and extensors. These muscles provide stability and strength to the joint, allowing for weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

Chondrocytes are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage tissue. They are responsible for synthesizing and secreting the collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and other components that give cartilage its unique properties, such as elasticity, resiliency, and resistance to compression. Chondrocytes are located within lacunae, or small cavities, in the cartilage matrix, and they receive nutrients and oxygen through diffusion from the surrounding tissue fluid. They are capable of adapting to changes in mechanical stress by modulating the production and organization of the extracellular matrix, which allows cartilage to withstand various loads and maintain its structural integrity. Chondrocytes play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and repair of cartilaginous tissues throughout the body, including articular cartilage, costal cartilage, and growth plate cartilage.

A finger joint, also known as an articulation, is the point where two bones in a finger connect and allow for movement. The majority of finger joints are classified as hinge joints, permitting flexion and extension movements. These joints consist of several components:

1. Articular cartilage: Smooth tissue that covers the ends of the bones, enabling smooth movement and protecting the bones from friction.
2. Joint capsule: A fibrous sac enclosing the joint, providing stability and producing synovial fluid for lubrication.
3. Synovial membrane: Lines the inner surface of the joint capsule and produces synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.
4. Volar plate (palmar ligament): A strong band of tissue located on the palm side of the joint, preventing excessive extension and maintaining alignment.
5. Collateral ligaments: Two bands of tissue located on each side of the joint, providing lateral stability and limiting radial and ulnar deviation.
6. Flexor tendons: Tendons that attach to the bones on the palmar side of the finger joints, facilitating flexion movements.
7. Extensor tendons: Tendons that attach to the bones on the dorsal side of the finger joints, enabling extension movements.

Finger joints are essential for hand function and enable activities such as grasping, holding, writing, and manipulating objects.

The synovial membrane, also known as the synovium, is the soft tissue that lines the inner surface of the capsule of a synovial joint, which is a type of joint that allows for smooth movement between bones. This membrane secretes synovial fluid, a viscous substance that lubricates and nourishes the cartilage and helps to reduce friction within the joint during movement.

The synovial membrane has a highly specialized structure, consisting of two layers: the intima and the subintima. The intima is a thin layer of cells that are in direct contact with the synovial fluid, while the subintima is a more fibrous layer that contains blood vessels and nerves.

The main function of the synovial membrane is to produce and regulate the production of synovial fluid, as well as to provide nutrients to the articular cartilage. It also plays a role in the immune response within the joint, helping to protect against infection and inflammation. However, abnormalities in the synovial membrane can lead to conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, where the membrane becomes inflamed and produces excess synovial fluid, leading to pain, swelling, and joint damage.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Arthroplasty, replacement, knee is a surgical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surface of the knee is removed and replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. The procedure involves resurfacing the worn-out ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) with metal components, and the back of the kneecap with a plastic button. This surgery is usually performed to relieve pain and restore function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries that have damaged the joint beyond repair. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance the quality of life for the patient.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

The term "stifle" is commonly used in veterinary medicine to refer to the joint in the leg of animals, specifically the knee joint in quadrupeds such as dogs and horses. In human anatomy, this joint is called the patellofemoral joint or knee joint. The stifle is a complex joint made up of several bones, including the femur, tibia, and patella (kneecap), as well as various ligaments, tendons, and cartilage that provide stability and support. Injuries or diseases affecting the stifle can cause lameness, pain, and decreased mobility in animals.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. It is characterized by persistent inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, and subsequent damage to the articular cartilage and bone. The immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, specifically targeting the synovial membrane lining the joint capsule. This results in swelling, pain, warmth, and stiffness in affected joints, often most severely in the hands and feet.

RA can also have extra-articular manifestations, affecting other organs such as the lungs, heart, skin, eyes, and blood vessels. The exact cause of RA remains unknown, but it is believed to involve a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in managing rheumatoid arthritis to prevent joint damage, disability, and systemic complications.

Knee injuries refer to damages or harm caused to the structures surrounding or within the knee joint, which may include the bones (femur, tibia, and patella), cartilage (meniscus and articular cartilage), ligaments (ACL, PCL, MCL, and LCL), tendons (patellar and quadriceps), muscles, bursae, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes, such as trauma, overuse, degeneration, or sports-related activities. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, instability, reduced range of motion, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected knee. Common knee injuries include fractures, dislocations, meniscal tears, ligament sprains or ruptures, and tendonitis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

Viscosupplementation is a medical procedure where a thick, gel-like substance called hyaluronic acid is injected into a joint, usually the knee. The goal of this treatment is to supplement or replace the viscous properties of the synovial fluid within the joint that has become thin and less effective due to aging, arthritis, or injury.

Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring substance in the body, particularly in the synovial fluid, which acts as a lubricant and shock absorber for the joints. By injecting additional hyaluronic acid into the affected joint, viscosupplementation aims to improve joint mobility, reduce pain, and protect the cartilage from further damage.

This procedure is often considered when other treatments, such as physical therapy, pain medications, or corticosteroid injections, have not provided sufficient relief for patients with osteoarthritis or other joint-related conditions. Viscosupplementation can be a short-term solution to alleviate symptoms and improve the quality of life for those suffering from joint pain and stiffness.

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is a major stabilizing ligament in the knee. It is one of the four strong bands of tissue that connect the bones of the knee joint together. The ACL runs diagonally through the middle of the knee and helps to control the back and forth motion of the knee, as well as provide stability to the knee joint. Injuries to the ACL often occur during sports or physical activities that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, or awkward landings.

In medical terms, the knee is referred to as the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a hinge joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bones (tibia and fibula), enabling movements like flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation. The knee also contains several other components such as menisci, ligaments, tendons, and bursae, which provide stability, cushioning, and protection during movement.

Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan, a type of complex carbohydrate, that is naturally found in the human body. It is most abundant in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues, including the skin, eyes, and joints. Hyaluronic acid is known for its remarkable capacity to retain water, which helps maintain tissue hydration, lubrication, and elasticity. Its functions include providing structural support, promoting wound healing, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. In the medical field, hyaluronic acid is often used in various forms as a therapeutic agent for conditions like osteoarthritis, dry eye syndrome, and skin rejuvenation.

Viscosupplements are a type of medication that contain a gel-like substance called hyaluronic acid, which is naturally found in the synovial fluid of joints. This fluid acts as a lubricant and shock absorber for the joints, allowing smooth movement and protecting them from wear and tear.

In osteoarthritis, the synovial fluid may become less viscous and contain lower levels of hyaluronic acid, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility in the affected joint. Viscosupplementation involves injecting a preparation of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid into the joint space to restore its normal viscoelastic properties and provide symptomatic relief from osteoarthritis.

Viscosupplements are typically administered through a series of injections, usually given once a week for 3-5 weeks, depending on the specific product used. They may help reduce pain, improve joint function, and increase mobility in people with osteoarthritis, particularly in the knee joint. However, their effectiveness varies from person to person, and they are not recommended for everyone with osteoarthritis. It is important to consult a healthcare provider to determine if viscosupplementation is appropriate for an individual's specific condition.

Cartilage diseases refer to conditions that affect the cartilaginous tissues in the body. Cartilage is a firm, flexible connective tissue found in many areas of the body, including the joints, ribcage, ears, and nose. It provides structure and support, allows for smooth movement between bones, and protects the ends of bones from friction.

There are several types of cartilage diseases, including:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): This is a degenerative joint disease that occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones wears down over time. It can cause pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility in the affected joints.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): This is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, leading to cartilage damage and bone erosion.
3. Traumatic arthritis: This occurs when a joint is injured, causing damage to the cartilage and resulting in pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
4. Infectious arthritis: This occurs when a joint becomes infected, leading to inflammation and potential damage to the cartilage.
5. Chondromalacia patellae: This is a condition that affects the cartilage on the back of the kneecap, causing pain and stiffness in the knee.
6. Costochondritis: This is an inflammation of the cartilage in the ribcage, causing chest pain and discomfort.
7. Nasal septal deviation: This is a condition where the cartilage that separates the nostrils is crooked or off-center, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.
8. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): This is a joint condition that occurs when a piece of cartilage and bone in a joint becomes detached, causing pain and stiffness.
9. Synovial chondromatosis: This is a rare condition where nodules made up of cartilage form in the lining of a joint, causing pain, swelling, and limited mobility.

Treatment for cartilage diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity, but may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these.

The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a sesamoid bone located at the front of the knee joint. It is embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle and serves to protect the knee joint and increase the leverage of the extensor mechanism, allowing for greater extension force of the lower leg. The patella moves within a groove on the femur called the trochlea during flexion and extension of the knee.

Bone malalignment is a term used to describe the abnormal alignment or positioning of bones in relation to each other. This condition can occur as a result of injury, deformity, surgery, or disease processes that affect the bones and joints. Bone malalignment can cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and an increased risk of further injury. In some cases, bone malalignment may require treatment such as bracing, physical therapy, or surgery to correct the alignment and improve function.

Arthrography is a medical imaging technique used to diagnose problems within joints. It involves the injection of a contrast agent, such as a radiopaque dye or air, into the joint space, followed by the use of fluoroscopy or X-ray imaging to visualize the internal structures of the joint. This can help to identify injuries, tears, or other abnormalities in the cartilage, ligaments, tendons, or bones within the joint.

The procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and may be used to diagnose conditions such as shoulder dislocations, rotator cuff tears, meniscal tears in the knee, or hip labral injuries. It is a relatively safe and minimally invasive procedure, although there may be some temporary discomfort or swelling at the injection site. Patients are usually advised to avoid strenuous activity for a day or two following the procedure to allow the contrast agent to fully dissipate from the joint.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Matrilin proteins are a group of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that are predominantly found in cartilaginous tissues, such as articular cartilage, costal cartilage, and intervertebral discs. They belong to the von Willebrand factor A (vWF-A) domain-containing protein family and play important roles in maintaining the structural integrity and organization of the ECM.

Matrilin proteins are composed of multiple domains, including vWF-A domains, coiled-coil domains, and calcium-binding epidermal growth factor (cbEGF)-like domains. They can form multimeric complexes through their coiled-coil domains, which helps to stabilize the ECM network.

There are four known matrilin proteins in humans, designated as Matrilin-1, Matrilin-2, Matrilin-3, and Matrilin-4. Each of these proteins has distinct tissue distribution patterns and functions. For example, Matrilin-1 is primarily found in hyaline cartilage and is involved in regulating chondrocyte differentiation and matrix assembly. Matrilin-2 is widely expressed in various tissues, including cartilage, tendon, and ligament, and plays a role in maintaining the organization of collagen fibrils. Matrilin-3 is specifically expressed in articular cartilage and is involved in regulating the formation and maintenance of the cartilaginous matrix. Matrilin-4 is found in both hyaline and fibrocartilage, as well as in tendons and ligaments, and has been implicated in regulating collagen fibrillogenesis and tissue development.

Mutations in matrilin genes have been associated with various musculoskeletal disorders, such as multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD). These genetic defects can lead to abnormalities in the structure and organization of the ECM, resulting in joint pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility.

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is found throughout the body in various forms. It is made up of specialized cells called chondrocytes, which are embedded in a firm, flexible matrix composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans. This unique structure gives cartilage its characteristic properties of being both strong and flexible.

There are three main types of cartilage in the human body: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage.

1. Hyaline cartilage is the most common type and is found in areas such as the articular surfaces of bones (where they meet to form joints), the nose, trachea, and larynx. It has a smooth, glassy appearance and provides a smooth, lubricated surface for joint movement.
2. Elastic cartilage contains more elastin fibers than hyaline cartilage, which gives it greater flexibility and resilience. It is found in structures such as the external ear and parts of the larynx and epiglottis.
3. Fibrocartilage has a higher proportion of collagen fibers and fewer chondrocytes than hyaline or elastic cartilage. It is found in areas that require high tensile strength, such as the intervertebral discs, menisci (found in joints like the knee), and the pubic symphysis.

Cartilage plays a crucial role in supporting and protecting various structures within the body, allowing for smooth movement and providing a cushion between bones to absorb shock and prevent wear and tear. However, cartilage has limited capacity for self-repair and regeneration, making damage or degeneration of cartilage tissue a significant concern in conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone is cut to shorten, lengthen, or change its alignment. It is often performed to correct deformities or to realign bones that have been damaged by trauma or disease. The bone may be cut straight across (transverse osteotomy) or at an angle (oblique osteotomy). After the bone is cut, it can be realigned and held in place with pins, plates, or screws until it heals. This procedure is commonly performed on bones in the leg, such as the femur or tibia, but can also be done on other bones in the body.

A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide support and stability to the body during motion. Joints can be classified in several ways, including structure, function, and the type of tissue that forms them. The three main types of joints based on structure are fibrous (or fixed), cartilaginous, and synovial (or diarthrosis). Fibrous joints do not have a cavity and have limited movement, while cartilaginous joints allow for some movement and are connected by cartilage. Synovial joints, the most common and most movable type, have a space between the articular surfaces containing synovial fluid, which reduces friction and wear. Examples of synovial joints include hinge, pivot, ball-and-socket, saddle, and condyloid joints.

Collagen Type II is a specific type of collagen that is a major component of the extracellular matrix in articular cartilage, which is the connective tissue that covers and protects the ends of bones in joints. It is also found in other tissues such as the vitreous humor of the eye and the inner ear.

Collagen Type II is a triple helix molecule composed of three polypeptide chains that contain a high proportion of the amino acids proline and hydroxyproline. This type of collagen provides structural support and elasticity to tissues, and it also plays a role in the regulation of cell behavior and signaling.

Collagen Type II is a target for autoimmune responses in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own collagen, leading to joint inflammation and damage. It is also a common component of various dietary supplements and therapies used to support joint health and treat osteoarthritis.

Synovitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane, which is the soft tissue that lines the inner surface of joint capsules and tendon sheaths. The synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and allows for smooth movement.

Inflammation of the synovial membrane can cause it to thicken, redden, and become painful and swollen. This can lead to stiffness, limited mobility, and discomfort in the affected joint or tendon sheath. Synovitis may occur as a result of injury, overuse, infection, or autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

If left untreated, synovitis can cause irreversible damage to the joint and surrounding tissues, including cartilage loss and bone erosion. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to reduce inflammation and manage pain.

Hip arthroplasty, also known as hip replacement surgery, is a medical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surfaces of the hip are removed and replaced with artificial components. These components typically include a metal or ceramic ball that replaces the head of the femur (thigh bone), and a polyethylene or ceramic socket that replaces the acetabulum (hip socket) in the pelvis.

The goal of hip arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function to the hip joint. This procedure is commonly performed in patients with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, or other conditions that cause significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several types of hip replacement surgeries, including traditional total hip arthroplasty, partial (hemi) hip arthroplasty, and resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and the extent of joint damage.

After surgery, patients typically require rehabilitation to regain strength, mobility, and function in the affected hip. With proper care and follow-up, most patients can expect significant pain relief and improved quality of life following hip arthroplasty.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

The femoral head is the rounded, ball-like top portion of the femur (thigh bone) that fits into the hip socket (acetabulum) to form the hip joint. It has a smooth, articular cartilage surface that allows for smooth and stable articulation with the pelvis. The femoral head is connected to the femoral neck, which is a narrower section of bone that angles downward and leads into the shaft of the femur. Together, the femoral head and neck provide stability and range of motion to the hip joint.

The carpometacarpal (CMC) joints are the articulations between the carpal bones of the wrist and the metacarpal bones of the hand. There are five CMC joints in total, with one located at the base of each finger and thumb. The CMC joint of the thumb, also known as the first CMC joint or trapeziometacarpal joint, is the most commonly affected by osteoarthritis. These joints play a crucial role in hand function and movement, allowing for various grips and grasping motions.

Medical Definition:

Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), also known as collagenase 3, is an enzyme belonging to the family of Matrix Metalloproteinases. These enzymes are involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix components, playing crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes such as tissue remodeling, wound healing, and cancer progression.

MMP-13 has a specific affinity for cleaving type II collagen, one of the major structural proteins found in articular cartilage. It is also capable of degrading other extracellular matrix components like proteoglycans, elastin, and gelatin. This enzyme is primarily produced by chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, and osteoblasts.

Increased expression and activity of MMP-13 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, most notably osteoarthritis (OA) and cancer. In OA, overexpression of MMP-13 leads to excessive degradation of articular cartilage, contributing to joint damage and degeneration. In cancer, MMP-13 facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis by breaking down the surrounding extracellular matrix.

Regulation of MMP-13 activity is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and preventing disease progression. Various therapeutic strategies aiming to inhibit MMP-13 activity are being explored as potential treatments for osteoarthritis and cancer.

In medical terms, a hand is the part of the human body that is attached to the forearm and consists of the carpus (wrist), metacarpus, and phalanges. It is made up of 27 bones, along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. The hand is a highly specialized organ that is capable of performing a wide range of complex movements and functions, including grasping, holding, manipulating objects, and communicating through gestures. It is also richly innervated with sensory receptors that provide information about touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a extracellular matrix protein that is found in high concentrations in cartilaginous tissues, such as articular cartilage and intervertebral discs. It is a member of the thrombospondin family and plays a role in the organization and stability of the extracellular matrix.
It is also known to be involved in the process of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease. High levels of COMP are found in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis, and it is thought to contribute to the breakdown of cartilage. Additionally, genetic variations in the COMP gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis.
It also plays a role in bone development and repair, as well as in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Chondrocalcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in the fibrous cartilage (also known as chondral or articular cartilage) and/or the joint cavity (synovial fluid). This cartilage is present in various parts of the body, including the ears, nose, respiratory tract, and connective tissues such as those found in joints.

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals are normally present in small amounts within the body; however, an overabundance of these crystals can lead to chondrocalcinosis. The condition is often associated with osteoarthritis and can affect people of all ages but is more common in older adults.

Chondrocalcinosis may not always cause symptoms, but when it does, they can include joint pain, stiffness, swelling, and warmth. These symptoms are similar to those seen in other forms of arthritis, making chondrocalcinosis difficult to diagnose based on symptoms alone. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as X-rays or ultrasounds, as well as joint fluid analysis to identify the presence of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals.

Treatment for chondrocalcinosis is generally focused on managing symptoms and addressing any underlying conditions that may contribute to the development or progression of the disease. This can include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation, joint aspiration to remove excess fluid and crystals from the affected area, and physical therapy to maintain joint mobility and strength. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Glucosamine is a natural compound found in the body, primarily in the fluid around joints. It is a building block of cartilage, which is the tissue that cushions bones and allows for smooth joint movement. Glucosamine can also be produced in a laboratory and is commonly sold as a dietary supplement.

Medical definitions of glucosamine describe it as a type of amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. It is often used as a supplement to help manage osteoarthritis symptoms, such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, by potentially reducing inflammation and promoting cartilage repair.

There are different forms of glucosamine available, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl glucosamine. Glucosamine sulfate is the most commonly used form in supplements and has been studied more extensively than other forms. While some research suggests that glucosamine may provide modest benefits for osteoarthritis symptoms, its effectiveness remains a topic of ongoing debate among medical professionals.

Arthroplasty, replacement, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased joint surface is removed and replaced with an artificial implant or device. The goal of this surgery is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve the quality of life for patients who have severe joint damage due to arthritis or other conditions.

During the procedure, the surgeon removes the damaged cartilage and bone from the joint and replaces them with a metal, plastic, or ceramic component that replicates the shape and function of the natural joint surface. The most common types of joint replacement surgery are hip replacement, knee replacement, and shoulder replacement.

The success rate of joint replacement surgery is generally high, with many patients experiencing significant pain relief and improved mobility. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the potential benefits and risks of joint replacement surgery with a healthcare provider before making a decision.

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light and camera on the end) to diagnose and treat problems inside a joint. The surgeon makes a small incision, inserts the arthroscope into the joint, and then uses the attached camera to view the inside of the joint on a monitor. They can then insert other small instruments through additional incisions to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Arthroscopy is most commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and reduced risk of infection. The procedure can be used to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions, including torn ligaments or cartilage, inflamed synovial tissue, loose bone or cartilage fragments, and joint damage caused by arthritis.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Joint instability is a condition characterized by the loss of normal joint function and increased risk of joint injury due to impaired integrity of the supporting structures, such as ligaments, muscles, or cartilage. This can result in excessive movement or laxity within the joint, leading to decreased stability and increased susceptibility to dislocations or subluxations. Joint instability may cause pain, swelling, and limited range of motion, and it can significantly impact a person's mobility and quality of life. It is often caused by trauma, degenerative conditions, or congenital abnormalities and may require medical intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, to restore joint stability.

Acquired joint deformities refer to structural changes in the alignment and shape of a joint that develop after birth, due to various causes such as injury, disease, or wear and tear. These deformities can affect the function and mobility of the joint, causing pain, stiffness, and limited range of motion. Examples of conditions that can lead to acquired joint deformities include arthritis, infection, trauma, and nerve damage. Treatment may involve medication, physical therapy, or surgery to correct the deformity and alleviate symptoms.

Joint diseases is a broad term that refers to various conditions affecting the joints, including but not limited to:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and underlying bone, leading to pain, stiffness, and potential loss of function.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disorder causing inflammation in the synovial membrane lining the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and joint damage if left untreated.
3. Infectious Arthritis: Joint inflammation caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream or directly enter the joint space.
4. Gout: A type of arthritis resulting from the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, typically affecting the big toe and characterized by sudden attacks of severe pain, redness, and swelling.
5. Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA): An inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis, causing symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints and surrounding tissues.
6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): A group of chronic arthritis conditions affecting children, characterized by joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness.
7. Ankylosing Spondylitis: A form of arthritis primarily affecting the spine, causing inflammation, pain, and potential fusion of spinal vertebrae.
8. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain and swelling.
9. Tendinitis: Inflammation or degeneration of tendons, which connect muscles to bones, often resulting in pain and stiffness near joints.

These conditions can impact the function and mobility of affected joints, causing discomfort and limiting daily activities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing joint diseases and preserving joint health.

The patellofemoral joint is the articulation between the patella (kneecap) and the femur (thigh bone). It is a synovial joint, which means it is surrounded by a joint capsule containing synovial fluid to lubricate the joint. This joint is responsible for providing stability to the knee extensor mechanism and allows for smooth movement of the patella during activities like walking, running, and jumping. Pain or dysfunction in this joint can result in various conditions such as patellofemoral pain syndrome, chondromalacia patella, or patellar dislocation.

Aggrecan is a large, complex proteoglycan molecule found in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and other connective tissues. It is a key component of the structural framework of these tissues, helping to provide resiliency, cushioning, and protection to the cells within. Aggrecan contains numerous glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which are negatively charged molecules that attract water and ions, creating a swelling pressure that contributes to the tissue's load-bearing capacity.

The medical definition of 'Aggrecans' can be described as:

1. A large proteoglycan molecule found in articular cartilage and other connective tissues.
2. Composed of a core protein with attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, primarily chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate.
3. Plays a crucial role in the biomechanical properties of articular cartilage by attracting water and ions, creating a swelling pressure that contributes to the tissue's load-bearing capacity.
4. Aggrecan degradation or loss is associated with various joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis, due to reduced structural integrity and shock-absorbing capabilities of articular cartilage.

Arthritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation in one or more joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, stiffness, swelling, and reduced range of motion. There are many different types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, and lupus, among others.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by wear and tear on the joints over time. Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joint lining, causing inflammation and damage.

Arthritis can affect people of all ages, including children, although it is more common in older adults. Treatment for arthritis may include medications to manage pain and reduce inflammation, physical therapy, exercise, and in some cases, surgery.

Exercise therapy is a type of medical treatment that uses physical movement and exercise to improve a patient's physical functioning, mobility, and overall health. It is often used as a component of rehabilitation programs for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or surgeries that have impaired their ability to move and function normally.

Exercise therapy may involve a range of activities, including stretching, strengthening, balance training, aerobic exercise, and functional training. The specific exercises used will depend on the individual's needs, goals, and medical condition.

The benefits of exercise therapy include:

* Improved strength and flexibility
* Increased endurance and stamina
* Enhanced balance and coordination
* Reduced pain and inflammation
* Improved cardiovascular health
* Increased range of motion and joint mobility
* Better overall physical functioning and quality of life.

Exercise therapy is typically prescribed and supervised by a healthcare professional, such as a physical therapist or exercise physiologist, who has experience working with individuals with similar medical conditions. The healthcare professional will create an individualized exercise program based on the patient's needs and goals, and will provide guidance and support to ensure that the exercises are performed safely and effectively.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that cause pain and inflammation in the body. Diclofenac is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suppositories, topical creams, gels, and patches.

The medical definition of Diclofenac is:

Diclofenac sodium: A sodium salt of diclofenac, a phenylacetic acid derivative that is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. It is used in the treatment of inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other conditions. Diclofenac sodium has also been used to treat actinic keratosis, a precancerous skin condition. It is available by prescription in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, topical creams, gels, and patches.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "shoes" are not a medical term. Shoes are items of footwear intended to protect and comfort the feet. They typically have a durable sole that provides protection from sharp objects, hot surfaces, and the effects of moisture. The upper part of a shoe can be made from various materials such as leather, plastic, or textiles, and is designed to provide coverage and support for the foot.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help!

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the integrity and function of a joint. The term is derived from two Greek words: "arthro" meaning joint, and "plasty" meaning to mold or form. There are several types of arthroplasty, but most involve resurfacing the damaged joint cartilage with artificial materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic.

The goal of arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function in a joint that has been damaged by arthritis, injury, or other conditions. The most common types of arthroplasty are total joint replacement (TJR) and partial joint replacement (PJR).

In TJR, the surgeon removes the damaged ends of the bones in the joint and replaces them with artificial components called prostheses. These prostheses can be made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials, and are designed to mimic the natural movement and function of the joint.

In PJR, only one side of the joint is resurfaced, typically because the damage is less extensive. This procedure is less invasive than TJR and may be recommended for younger patients who are still active or have a higher risk of complications from a full joint replacement.

Other types of arthroplasty include osteotomy, in which the surgeon cuts and reshapes the bone to realign the joint; arthrodesis, in which the surgeon fuses two bones together to create a stable joint; and resurfacing, in which the damaged cartilage is removed and replaced with a smooth, artificial surface.

Arthroplasty is typically recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as physical therapy, medication, or injections, but have not found relief from their symptoms. While arthroplasty can be highly effective in relieving pain and improving mobility, it is not without risks, including infection, blood clots, and implant failure. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of arthroplasty with their healthcare provider to determine if it is the right treatment option for them.

The Quadriceps muscle, also known as the Quadriceps Femoris, is a large muscle group located in the front of the thigh. It consists of four individual muscles - the Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, and Vastus Medialis. These muscles work together to extend the leg at the knee joint and flex the thigh at the hip joint. The Quadriceps muscle is crucial for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and kicking.

Pain management is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pain and improvement in the quality of life of patients with chronic pain. The goal of pain management is to reduce pain levels, improve physical functioning, and help patients cope mentally and emotionally with their pain. This may involve the use of medications, interventional procedures, physical therapy, psychological therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The definition of pain management can vary depending on the medical context, but it generally refers to a multidisciplinary approach that addresses the complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the experience of pain. Pain management specialists may include physicians, nurses, physical therapists, psychologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with chronic pain.

Experimental arthritis refers to the induction of joint inflammation in animal models for the purpose of studying the disease process and testing potential treatments. This is typically achieved through the use of various methods such as injecting certain chemicals or proteins into the joints, genetically modifying animals to develop arthritis-like symptoms, or immunizing animals to induce an autoimmune response against their own joint tissues. These models are crucial for advancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of arthritis and for developing new therapies to treat this debilitating disease.

Growth Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins, which are involved in various developmental processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and migration. GDF5 plays crucial roles in skeletal development, joint formation, and cartilage maintenance. It is a secreted signaling molecule that binds to specific receptors on the cell surface, activating intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and ultimately influence cell behavior.

GDF5 has been associated with several genetic disorders affecting the musculoskeletal system, such as brachydactyly type C (shortened fingers or toes), Grebe's recessive chondrodysplasia (disproportionate short stature and joint deformities), and Hunter-Thompson syndrome (a rare skeletal disorder characterized by abnormal bone growth, joint laxity, and other features). Additionally, GDF5 has been implicated in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, due to its role in maintaining cartilage homeostasis.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a group of structural and functional molecules that provide support, organization, and regulation to the cells in tissues and organs. The ECM is composed of a complex network of proteins, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates that are secreted by the cells and deposited outside of them.

ECM proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, including:

1. Collagens: These are the most abundant ECM proteins and provide strength and stability to tissues. They form fibrils that can withstand high tensile forces.
2. Proteoglycans: These are complex molecules made up of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. The GAG chains attract water, making proteoglycans important for maintaining tissue hydration and resilience.
3. Elastin: This is an elastic protein that allows tissues to stretch and recoil, such as in the lungs and blood vessels.
4. Fibronectins: These are large glycoproteins that bind to cells and ECM components, providing adhesion, migration, and signaling functions.
5. Laminins: These are large proteins found in basement membranes, which provide structural support for epithelial and endothelial cells.
6. Tenascins: These are large glycoproteins that modulate cell adhesion and migration, and regulate ECM assembly and remodeling.

Together, these ECM proteins create a microenvironment that influences cell behavior, differentiation, and function. Dysregulation of ECM proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative disorders.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

The acetabulum is the cup-shaped cavity in the pelvic bone (specifically, the os coxa) where the head of the femur bone articulates to form the hip joint. It provides a stable and flexible connection between the lower limb and the trunk, allowing for a wide range of movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction. The acetabulum is lined with articular cartilage, which facilitates smooth and frictionless movement of the hip joint. Its stability is further enhanced by various ligaments, muscles, and the labrum, a fibrocartilaginous rim that deepens the socket and increases its contact area with the femoral head.

Congenital hip dislocation, also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), is a condition where the hip joint fails to develop normally in utero or during early infancy. In a healthy hip, the head of the femur (thigh bone) fits snugly into the acetabulum (hip socket). However, in congenital hip dislocation, the femoral head is not held firmly in place within the acetabulum due to abnormal development or laxity of the ligaments that support the joint.

There are two types of congenital hip dislocations:

1. Teratologic dislocation: This type is present at birth and occurs due to abnormalities in the development of the hip joint during fetal growth. The femoral head may be completely outside the acetabulum or partially dislocated.

2. Developmental dysplasia: This type develops after birth, often within the first few months of life, as a result of ligamentous laxity and shallow acetabulum. In some cases, it can progress to a complete hip dislocation if left untreated.

Risk factors for congenital hip dislocation include family history, breech presentation during delivery, and female gender. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term complications such as pain, limited mobility, and osteoarthritis. Treatment options may include bracing, closed reduction, or surgical intervention, depending on the severity and age of the child at diagnosis.

Muscle strength, in a medical context, refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce during contraction. It is the maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate through its full range of motion and is often measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons. Muscle strength is an important component of physical function and mobility, and it can be assessed through various tests, including manual muscle testing, dynamometry, and isokinetic testing. Factors that can affect muscle strength include age, sex, body composition, injury, disease, and physical activity level.

The ankle joint, also known as the talocrural joint, is the articulation between the bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula) and the talus bone in the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements, which are essential for walking, running, and jumping. The ankle joint is reinforced by strong ligaments on both sides to provide stability during these movements.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

Medical science often defines and describes "walking" as a form of locomotion or mobility where an individual repeatedly lifts and sets down each foot to move forward, usually bearing weight on both legs. It is a complex motor activity that requires the integration and coordination of various systems in the human body, including the musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems.

Walking involves several components such as balance, coordination, strength, and endurance. The ability to walk independently is often used as a measure of functional mobility and overall health status. However, it's important to note that the specific definition of walking may vary depending on the context and the medical or scientific field in question.

Proteoglycans are complex, highly negatively charged macromolecules that are composed of a core protein covalently linked to one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, regulation of growth factor activity, and maintenance of tissue structure and function.

The GAG chains, which can vary in length and composition, are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are composed of repeating disaccharide units containing a hexuronic acid (either glucuronic or iduronic acid) and a hexosamine (either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine). These GAG chains can be sulfated to varying degrees, which contributes to the negative charge of proteoglycans.

Proteoglycans are classified into four major groups based on their core protein structure and GAG composition: heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans. Each group has distinct functions and is found in specific tissues and cell types.

In summary, proteoglycans are complex macromolecules composed of a core protein and one or more GAG chains that play important roles in the ECM and various biological processes, including cell signaling, growth factor regulation, and tissue structure maintenance.

Lameness in animals refers to an alteration in the animal's normal gait or movement, which is often caused by pain, injury, or disease affecting the locomotor system. This can include structures such as bones, joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. The severity of lameness can vary from subtle to non-weight bearing, and it can affect one or more limbs.

Lameness can have various causes, including trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, congenital defects, and neurological disorders. In order to diagnose and treat lameness in animals, a veterinarian will typically perform a physical examination, observe the animal's gait and movement, and may use diagnostic imaging techniques such as X-rays or ultrasound to identify the underlying cause. Treatment for lameness can include medication, rest, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

A knee prosthesis, also known as a knee replacement or artificial knee joint, is a medical device used to replace the damaged or diseased weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint. It typically consists of three components: the femoral component (made of metal) that fits over the end of the thighbone (femur), the tibial component (often made of metal and plastic) that fits into the top of the shinbone (tibia), and a patellar component (usually made of plastic) that replaces the damaged surface of the kneecap.

The primary goal of knee prosthesis is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve quality of life for individuals with advanced knee joint damage due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries. The procedure to implant a knee prosthesis is called knee replacement surgery or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

The metacarpal bones are the long slender bones that make up the middle part of the hand, located between the carpals (wrist bones) and the phalanges (finger bones). There are five metacarpal bones in total, with one for each finger and thumb. Each bone has a base attached to the carpals, a shaft, and a head that connects to the phalanges. The metacarpal bones play a crucial role in hand function, providing stability and support during gripping and manipulation movements.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Hip injuries refer to damages or harm caused to the hip joint or its surrounding structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as falls, accidents, sports-related activities, or degenerative conditions. Common hip injuries include fractures, dislocations, strains, sprains, bursitis, and labral tears. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness, limited mobility, and inability to bear weight on the affected leg. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

In medical terms, the thumb is referred to as "pollex" and it's the first digit of the hand, located laterally to the index finger. It's opposable, meaning it can move opposite to the other fingers, allowing for powerful gripping and precise manipulation. The thumb contains two phalanges bones - the distal and proximal - and is connected to the hand by the carpometacarpal joint, which provides a wide range of motion.

Chondroitin sulfates are a type of complex carbohydrate molecules known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They are a major component of cartilage, the tissue that cushions and protects the ends of bones in joints. Chondroitin sulfates are composed of repeating disaccharide units made up of glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, which can be sulfated at various positions.

Chondroitin sulfates play a crucial role in the biomechanical properties of cartilage by attracting water and maintaining the resiliency and elasticity of the tissue. They also interact with other molecules in the extracellular matrix, such as collagen and proteoglycans, to form a complex network that provides structural support and regulates cell behavior.

Chondroitin sulfates have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage. Supplementation with chondroitin sulfate has been shown to reduce pain and improve joint function in some studies, although the evidence is not consistent across all trials. The mechanism of action is thought to involve inhibition of enzymes that break down cartilage, as well as stimulation of cartilage repair and synthesis.

Bone marrow diseases, also known as hematologic disorders, are conditions that affect the production and function of blood cells in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones where all blood cells are produced. There are various types of bone marrow diseases, including:

1. Leukemia: A cancer of the blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow. Leukemia causes the body to produce large numbers of abnormal white blood cells, which can crowd out healthy blood cells and impair their function.
2. Lymphoma: A cancer that starts in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. Lymphoma can affect the bone marrow and cause an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. Multiple myeloma causes an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells, which can lead to bone pain, fractures, and other complications.
4. Aplastic anemia: A condition in which the bone marrow does not produce enough new blood cells. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and an increased risk of infection.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): A group of disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS can lead to anemia, infections, and bleeding.
6. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of disorders in which the bone marrow produces too many abnormal white or red blood cells, or platelets. MPNs can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, itching, and an increased risk of blood clots.

Treatment for bone marrow diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapies that target specific genetic mutations.

Naproxen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for its analgesic (pain-relieving), antipyretic (fever-reducing), and anti-inflammatory properties. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which leads to reduced prostaglandin production, thereby alleviating pain, inflammation, and fever.

Medical professionals prescribe Naproxen for various conditions such as:

1. Pain management: Naproxen can be used to treat mild to moderate pain caused by conditions like headaches, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, and dental issues.
2. Inflammatory conditions: It is effective in reducing inflammation associated with arthritis (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile arthritis), gout, bursitis, and tendonitis.
3. Fever reduction: Naproxen can help lower fever caused by infections or other medical conditions.

Common side effects of Naproxen include stomach upset, heartburn, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Serious side effects, although rare, may include gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and increased risk of cardiovascular events (e.g., heart attack or stroke). Patients should consult their healthcare provider for appropriate dosage and potential risks before starting Naproxen therapy.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Harpagophytum, also known as Devil's Claw, is a plant species native to southern Africa. Its medicinal properties come from the root of the plant. The active components include harpagosides, which have been studied for their potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. It has been traditionally used in herbal medicine to treat various conditions such as arthritis, musculoskeletal pain, and digestive disorders. However, its efficacy and safety are not fully established, and it may interact with certain medications or have side effects. Therefore, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional before using Harpagophytum for medicinal purposes.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), also known as stromelysin-1, is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. These are a group of enzymes involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix, the network of proteins and other molecules that provides structural and biochemical support to surrounding cells. MMP-3 is secreted by various cell types, including fibroblasts, synovial cells, and chondrocytes, in response to inflammatory cytokines.

MMP-3 has the ability to degrade several extracellular matrix components, such as proteoglycans, laminin, fibronectin, and various types of collagen. It also plays a role in processing and activating other MMPs, thereby contributing to the overall breakdown of the extracellular matrix. This activity is crucial during processes like tissue remodeling, wound healing, and embryonic development; however, uncontrolled or excessive MMP-3 activation can lead to pathological conditions, including arthritis, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.

In summary, Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) is a proteolytic enzyme involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the activation of other MMPs. Its dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases.

Procollagen N-Endopeptidase, also known as ADAMTS2 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 2), is an enzyme involved in the processing and maturation of procollagens. Specifically, it cleaves off the N-terminal extension peptides from procollagen types I, II, and III, allowing for the formation of stable collagen fibrils. Mutations in the ADAMTS2 gene can lead to various connective tissue disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and dermatosparaxis type of cutis laxa.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

A bone cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops within a bone. It can be classified as either simple (unicameral) or aneurysmal. Simple bone cysts are more common in children and adolescents, and they typically affect the long bones of the arms or legs. These cysts are usually asymptomatic unless they become large enough to weaken the bone and cause a fracture. Aneurysmal bone cysts, on the other hand, can occur at any age and can affect any bone, but they are most common in the leg bones and spine. They are characterized by rapidly growing blood-filled sacs that can cause pain, swelling, and fractures.

Both types of bone cysts may be treated with observation, medication, or surgery depending on their size, location, and symptoms. It is important to note that while these cysts can be benign, they should still be evaluated and monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure proper treatment and prevention of complications.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Articular ligaments, also known as fibrous ligaments, are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that connect and stabilize bones to each other at joints. They help to limit the range of motion of a joint and provide support, preventing excessive movement that could cause injury. Articular ligaments are composed mainly of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern, making them strong and flexible. They have limited blood supply and few nerve endings, which makes them less prone to injury but also slower to heal if damaged. Examples of articular ligaments include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee joint, and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow joint.

The term "canes" is a common name for walking sticks that are used as a mobility aid. They are typically made of materials such as wood, metal, or fiberglass and have a handle at the top and a single foot at the bottom to provide support and stability while walking.

However, in medical terminology, "canes" does not have a specific definition. It is simply another name for walking sticks or walking canes. If you are looking for a medical definition related to a specific medical condition or treatment, could you please provide more context?

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Calcium pyrophosphate is a mineral compound made up of calcium and pyrophosphate ions. In the body, it can form crystals that deposit in joints, causing a type of arthritis known as calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease or pseudogout. CPPD disease is characterized by sudden attacks of joint pain and swelling, often in the knee or wrist. The condition is more common in older adults and can also occur in people with underlying medical conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, hemochromatosis, and hypophosphatasia. Calcium pyrophosphate crystals may also be found in the fluid around the heart (pericardial fluid) or in other tissues, but they do not always cause symptoms.

"Genu valgum," also known as "knock-knee," is a condition where there is an excessive angle between the thighbone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia), causing the knees to touch or come close together while the ankles remain separated when standing with the feet and knees together. This abnormal alignment can lead to difficulty walking, running, and participating in certain activities, as well as potential long-term complications such as joint pain and osteoarthritis if not properly addressed. Genu valgum is typically diagnosed through physical examination and imaging studies such as X-rays, and treatment may include observation, physical therapy, bracing, or surgery depending on the severity of the condition and the individual's age and overall health.

"Genu Varum" is a term used in orthopedics to describe a condition where the legs bow out at the knees, causing them to touch each other only at the ankles when standing with the feet and knees together. This is also commonly referred to as "bow-legged." It's important to note that this condition can be present from birth (congenital) or can develop later in life due to various reasons such as rickets, Blount's disease, or injuries. In some cases, it may require medical treatment to correct the alignment of the legs and prevent future complications.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A hip dislocation is a medical emergency that occurs when the head of the femur (thighbone) slips out of its socket in the pelvis. This can happen due to high-energy trauma, such as a car accident or a severe fall. Hip dislocations can also occur in people with certain health conditions that make their hips more prone to displacement, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip.

There are two main types of hip dislocations: posterior and anterior. In a posterior dislocation, the femur head moves out of the back of the socket, which is the most common type. In an anterior dislocation, the femur head moves out of the front of the socket. Both types of hip dislocations can cause severe pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected leg.

Immediate medical attention is necessary for a hip dislocation to realign the bones and prevent further damage. Treatment typically involves sedation or anesthesia to relax the muscles around the joint, followed by a closed reduction procedure to gently guide the femur head back into the socket. In some cases, surgery may be required to repair any associated injuries, such as fractures or damaged ligaments. After treatment, physical therapy and rehabilitation are usually necessary to restore strength, mobility, and function to the affected hip joint.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Analgesics, non-narcotic are a class of medications used to relieve pain that do not contain narcotics or opioids. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system or by reducing inflammation and swelling. Examples of non-narcotic analgesics include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), and aspirin. These medications are often used to treat mild to moderate pain, such as headaches, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, and arthritis symptoms. They can be obtained over-the-counter or by prescription, depending on the dosage and formulation. It is important to follow the recommended dosages and usage instructions carefully to avoid adverse effects.

Developmental bone diseases are a group of medical conditions that affect the growth and development of bones. These diseases are present at birth or develop during childhood and adolescence, when bones are growing rapidly. They can result from genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, or environmental factors such as poor nutrition.

Some examples of developmental bone diseases include:

1. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): Also known as brittle bone disease, OI is a genetic disorder that affects the body's production of collagen, a protein necessary for healthy bones. People with OI have fragile bones that break easily and may also experience other symptoms such as blue sclerae (whites of the eyes), hearing loss, and joint laxity.
2. Achondroplasia: This is the most common form of dwarfism, caused by a genetic mutation that affects bone growth. People with achondroplasia have short limbs and a large head relative to their body size.
3. Rickets: A condition caused by vitamin D deficiency or an inability to absorb or use vitamin D properly. This leads to weak, soft bones that can bow or bend easily, particularly in children.
4. Fibrous dysplasia: A rare bone disorder where normal bone is replaced with fibrous tissue, leading to weakened bones and deformities.
5. Scoliosis: An abnormal curvature of the spine that can develop during childhood or adolescence. While not strictly a developmental bone disease, scoliosis can be caused by various underlying conditions such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or spina bifida.

Treatment for developmental bone diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment may include medication, physical therapy, bracing, or surgery to correct deformities and improve function. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to monitor growth, manage symptoms, and prevent complications.

Iodoacetates are salts or esters of iodoacetic acid, an organic compound containing iodine. In medicine, iodoacetates have been used as topical antiseptics and anti-inflammatory agents. However, their use is limited due to potential skin irritation and the availability of safer alternatives.

In a broader context, iodoacetates are also known for their chemical properties. They can act as alkylating agents, which means they can react with proteins and enzymes in living organisms, disrupting their function. This property has been exploited in research to study various cellular processes.

Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and pain.

Piroxicam is available as a prescription medication and is used to treat conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. It is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules, and its effects can last for up to 12 hours.

Like other NSAIDs, piroxicam can cause side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney problems, especially when used at high doses or for long periods of time. It is important to use piroxicam only as directed by a healthcare provider and to follow any recommended precautions.

Keratan sulfate is a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which is a complex carbohydrate found in connective tissues, including the cornea and cartilage. It is composed of repeating disaccharide units of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine, with sulfate groups attached to some of the sugar molecules.

Keratan sulfate is unique among GAGs because it contains a high proportion of non-sulfated sugars and is often found covalently linked to proteins in structures called proteoglycans. In the cornea, keratan sulfate plays important roles in maintaining transparency and regulating hydration. In cartilage, it contributes to the elasticity and resilience of the tissue.

Abnormalities in keratan sulfate metabolism have been associated with several genetic disorders, including corneal dystrophies and skeletal dysplasias.

"Foot joints" is a general term that refers to the various articulations or connections between the bones in the foot. There are several joints in the foot, including:

1. The ankle joint (tibiotalar joint): This is the joint between the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg and the talus bone of the foot.
2. The subtalar joint (talocalcaneal joint): This is the joint between the talus bone and the calcaneus (heel) bone.
3. The calcaneocuboid joint: This is the joint between the calcaneus bone and the cuboid bone, which is one of the bones in the midfoot.
4. The tarsometatarsal joints (Lisfranc joint): These are the joints that connect the tarsal bones in the midfoot to the metatarsal bones in the forefoot.
5. The metatarsophalangeal joints: These are the joints between the metatarsal bones and the phalanges (toes) in the forefoot.
6. The interphalangeal joints: These are the joints between the phalanges within each toe.

Each of these foot joints plays a specific role in supporting the foot, absorbing shock, and allowing for movement and flexibility during walking and other activities.

Rheumatic diseases are a group of disorders that cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or bones. They include conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), gout, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and many others. These diseases can also affect other body systems including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart, kidneys, and nervous system. Rheumatic diseases are often chronic and may be progressive, meaning they can worsen over time. They can cause significant pain, disability, and reduced quality of life if not properly diagnosed and managed. The exact causes of rheumatic diseases are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and immune system dysfunction are believed to play a role in their development.

Physical therapy modalities refer to the various forms of treatment that physical therapists use to help reduce pain, promote healing, and restore function to the body. These modalities can include:

1. Heat therapy: This includes the use of hot packs, paraffin baths, and infrared heat to increase blood flow, relax muscles, and relieve pain.
2. Cold therapy: Also known as cryotherapy, this involves the use of ice packs, cold compresses, or cooling gels to reduce inflammation, numb the area, and relieve pain.
3. Electrical stimulation: This uses electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles, which can help to reduce pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and function.
4. Ultrasound: This uses high-frequency sound waves to penetrate deep into tissues, increasing blood flow, reducing inflammation, and promoting healing.
5. Manual therapy: This includes techniques such as massage, joint mobilization, and stretching, which are used to improve range of motion, reduce pain, and promote relaxation.
6. Traction: This is a technique that uses gentle pulling on the spine or other joints to help relieve pressure and improve alignment.
7. Light therapy: Also known as phototherapy, this involves the use of low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation.
8. Therapeutic exercise: This includes a range of exercises that are designed to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, and help patients recover from injury or illness.

Physical therapy modalities are often used in combination with other treatments, such as manual therapy and therapeutic exercise, to provide a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation and pain management.

A single-blind method in medical research is a study design where the participants are unaware of the group or intervention they have been assigned to, but the researchers conducting the study know which participant belongs to which group. This is done to prevent bias from the participants' expectations or knowledge of their assignment, while still allowing the researchers to control the study conditions and collect data.

In a single-blind trial, the participants do not know whether they are receiving the active treatment or a placebo (a sham treatment that looks like the real thing but has no therapeutic effect), whereas the researcher knows which participant is receiving which intervention. This design helps to ensure that the participants' responses and outcomes are not influenced by their knowledge of the treatment assignment, while still allowing the researchers to assess the effectiveness or safety of the intervention being studied.

Single-blind methods are commonly used in clinical trials and other medical research studies where it is important to minimize bias and control for confounding variables that could affect the study results.

Acetaminophen is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a commonly used over-the-counter drug and is also available in prescription-strength formulations. Acetaminophen works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals.

Acetaminophen is available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and suppositories. It is often found in combination with other medications, such as cough and cold products, sleep aids, and opioid pain relievers.

While acetaminophen is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause serious liver damage or even death if taken in excessive amounts. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully and avoid taking more than the recommended dose, especially if you are also taking other medications that contain acetaminophen.

If you have any questions about using acetaminophen or are concerned about potential side effects, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

An intra-articular fracture is a type of fracture that involves the joint surface or articular cartilage of a bone. These types of fractures can occur in any joint, but they are most commonly seen in the weight-bearing joints such as the knee, ankle, and wrist.

Intra-articular fractures can be caused by high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents or falls from significant heights, or by low-energy trauma, such as a simple fall in older adults with osteoporosis.

These types of fractures are often complex and may involve displacement or depression of the joint surface, which can increase the risk of developing post-traumatic arthritis. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to ensure optimal outcomes and minimize long-term complications. Treatment options for intra-articular fractures may include surgical fixation with plates, screws, or pins, as well as joint replacement in some cases.

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a medical condition that affects the hip joint. It occurs when there is abnormal contact between the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) during normal movement of the hip. This abnormal contact can cause damage to the cartilage and labrum (a ring of cartilage that helps to stabilize the hip joint) leading to pain, stiffness and decreased range of motion.

FAI is classified into two types: cam impingement and pincer impingement. Cam impingement occurs when there is an abnormal shape of the femoral head or neck, which leads to abnormal contact with the acetabulum during hip flexion and internal rotation. Pincer impingement occurs when there is overcoverage of the acetabulum, leading to abnormal contact with the femoral head or neck.

In some cases, both cam and pincer impingement can be present, which is referred to as mixed impingement. Symptoms of FAI may include hip pain, stiffness, limping, and reduced range of motion. Treatment options for FAI may include physical therapy, activity modification, medications, and in some cases, surgery.

A Popliteal cyst, also known as Baker's cyst, is a fluid-filled sac that develops behind the knee, in the popliteal fossa. It forms when synovial fluid from the knee joint extends through a tear in the joint capsule, creating a visible bulge. The cyst may cause discomfort, swelling, or pain, especially when fully extended or flexed. In some cases, it can rupture and cause further complications, such as increased pain and inflammation in the calf region. Treatment options for Popliteal cysts include physical therapy, corticosteroid injections, and, in severe cases, surgical intervention to repair the underlying joint issue and remove the cyst.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a medical condition where bone tissue forms outside the skeleton, in locations where it does not typically exist. This process can occur in various soft tissues, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, or even inside joint capsules. The abnormal bone growth can lead to pain, stiffness, limited range of motion, and, in some cases, loss of function in the affected area.

There are several types of heterotopic ossification, including:

1. Myositis ossificans - This form is often associated with trauma or injury, such as muscle damage from a fracture, surgery, or direct blow. It typically affects young, active individuals and usually resolves on its own within months to a few years.
2. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) - Also known as "traumatic heterotopic ossification," this form is often linked to spinal cord injuries, brain injuries, or central nervous system damage. NHO can cause significant impairment and may require surgical intervention in some cases.
3. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) - This rare, genetic disorder causes progressive heterotopic ossification throughout the body, starting in early childhood. The condition significantly impacts mobility and quality of life, with no known cure.

The exact mechanisms behind heterotopic ossification are not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of factors, including inflammation, tissue injury, and genetic predisposition, contribute to its development. Treatment options may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), radiation therapy, physical therapy, or surgical removal of the abnormal bone growth, depending on the severity and location of the HO.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Collagenases are a group of enzymes that have the ability to break down collagen, which is a structural protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin. Collagen is an important component of the extracellular matrix, providing strength and support to tissues throughout the body.

Collagenases are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, animals, and humans. In humans, collagenases play a crucial role in normal tissue remodeling and repair processes, such as wound healing and bone resorption. However, excessive or uncontrolled activity of collagenases can contribute to the development of various diseases, including arthritis, periodontitis, and cancer metastasis.

Bacterial collagenases are often used in research and medical applications for their ability to digest collagen quickly and efficiently. For example, they may be used to study the structure and function of collagen or to isolate cells from tissues. However, the clinical use of bacterial collagenases is limited due to concerns about their potential to cause tissue damage and inflammation.

Overall, collagenases are important enzymes that play a critical role in maintaining the health and integrity of connective tissues throughout the body.

Sulfones are a group of medications that contain a sulfur atom bonded to two oxygen atoms and one other group, typically a hydrogen or carbon atom. They have various medical uses, including as antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agents. One example of a sulfone is dapsone, which is used to treat bacterial infections such as leprosy and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), as well as some inflammatory skin conditions. It's important to note that sulfones can have significant side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors are a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that specifically target and inhibit the COX-2 enzyme. This enzyme is responsible for the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

COX-2 inhibitors were developed to provide the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of NSAIDs without the gastrointestinal side effects associated with non-selective NSAIDs that inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. However, some studies have suggested an increased risk of cardiovascular events with long-term use of COX-2 inhibitors, leading to restrictions on their use in certain populations.

Examples of COX-2 inhibitors include celecoxib (Celebrex), rofecoxib (Vioxx, withdrawn from the market in 2004 due to cardiovascular risks), and valdecoxib (Bextra, withdrawn from the market in 2005 due to cardiovascular and skin reactions).

In medical terms, the hip is a ball-and-socket joint where the rounded head of the femur (thigh bone) fits into the cup-shaped socket, also known as the acetabulum, of the pelvis. This joint allows for a wide range of movement in the lower extremities and supports the weight of the upper body during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The hip joint is surrounded by strong ligaments, muscles, and tendons that provide stability and enable proper functioning.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Observer variation, also known as inter-observer variability or measurement agreement, refers to the difference in observations or measurements made by different observers or raters when evaluating the same subject or phenomenon. It is a common issue in various fields such as medicine, research, and quality control, where subjective assessments are involved.

In medical terms, observer variation can occur in various contexts, including:

1. Diagnostic tests: Different radiologists may interpret the same X-ray or MRI scan differently, leading to variations in diagnosis.
2. Clinical trials: Different researchers may have different interpretations of clinical outcomes or adverse events, affecting the consistency and reliability of trial results.
3. Medical records: Different healthcare providers may document medical histories, physical examinations, or treatment plans differently, leading to inconsistencies in patient care.
4. Pathology: Different pathologists may have varying interpretations of tissue samples or laboratory tests, affecting diagnostic accuracy.

Observer variation can be minimized through various methods, such as standardized assessment tools, training and calibration of observers, and statistical analysis of inter-rater reliability.

Foot orthoses, also known as orthotic devices or simply orthotics, are custom-made or prefabricated shoe inserts that are designed to support, align, correct, or accommodate various foot and ankle deformities or biomechanical issues. They can be made of different materials such as plastic, rubber, leather, or foam and are inserted into the shoes to provide extra cushioning, arch support, or realignment of the foot structure.

Custom-made foot orthoses are created based on a mold or a digital scan of the individual's foot, taking into account their specific needs and medical condition. These devices are typically prescribed by healthcare professionals such as podiatrists, orthopedic surgeons, or physical therapists to treat various conditions such as plantar fasciitis, flat feet, high arches, bunions, diabetic foot ulcers, or arthritis.

Foot orthoses can help improve foot function, reduce pain and discomfort, prevent further deformities, and enhance overall mobility and quality of life.

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, unbranched polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide units. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix and connective tissues in the body. GAGs are negatively charged due to the presence of sulfate and carboxyl groups, which allows them to attract positively charged ions and water molecules, contributing to their ability to retain moisture and maintain tissue hydration and elasticity.

GAGs can be categorized into four main groups: heparin/heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. These different types of GAGs have varying structures and functions in the body, including roles in cell signaling, inflammation, and protection against enzymatic degradation.

Heparin is a highly sulfated form of heparan sulfate that is found in mast cells and has anticoagulant properties. Chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate are commonly found in cartilage and contribute to its resiliency and ability to withstand compressive forces. Keratan sulfate is found in corneas, cartilage, and bone, where it plays a role in maintaining the structure and function of these tissues. Hyaluronic acid is a large, nonsulfated GAG that is widely distributed throughout the body, including in synovial fluid, where it provides lubrication and shock absorption for joints.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Shortwave therapy (SWT), also known as shortwave diathermy, is a form of electromagnetic radiation therapy in the frequency range of 245 MHz to 1000 MHz. It is used in physical therapy and pain management to produce heat in body tissues, increasing local blood flow, decreasing pain, and promoting healing. The energy is absorbed by body tissues, causing molecular vibrations that result in the production of heat. This modality is often used for conditions such as muscle and joint injuries, bursitis, tendonitis, and other inflammatory conditions. It should be administered under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional due to the potential for adverse effects if not properly applied.

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and is primarily produced by activated macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli. It is a crucial mediator of the innate immune response and plays a key role in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. IL-1β is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and atherosclerosis. It exerts its effects by binding to the interleukin-1 receptor, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various transcription factors and the expression of target genes.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Iodoacetic acid is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather it is a chemical compound with the formula CH2ICO2H. It is a colorless, oily liquid that is used in organic synthesis as an alkylating agent and also has been studied for its potential antibacterial and antifungal properties.

In medical contexts, iodoacetic acid may be mentioned in relation to its use in research or in the discussion of certain chemical reactions that may occur in the body. For example, it can inhibit the enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which plays a crucial role in energy metabolism. However, iodoacetic acid itself is not a medical treatment or therapy.

Radiography is a diagnostic technique that uses X-rays, gamma rays, or similar types of radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the body. It is a non-invasive procedure that can help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including bone fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects lodged in the body.

During a radiography exam, a patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a special film or digital detector. The machine emits a beam of radiation that passes through the body and strikes the film or detector, creating a shadow image of the internal structures. Denser tissues, such as bones, block more of the radiation and appear white on the image, while less dense tissues, such as muscles and organs, allow more of the radiation to pass through and appear darker.

Radiography is a valuable tool in modern medicine, but it does involve exposure to ionizing radiation, which can carry some risks. Healthcare professionals take steps to minimize these risks by using the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to produce a diagnostic image, and by shielding sensitive areas of the body with lead aprons or other protective devices.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Orthotic devices are custom-made or prefabricated appliances designed to align, support, prevent deformity, or improve the function of movable body parts. They are frequently used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as foot and ankle conditions, knee problems, spinal alignment issues, and hand or wrist ailments. These devices can be adjustable or non-adjustable and are typically made from materials like plastic, metal, leather, or fabric. They work by redistributing forces across joints, correcting alignment, preventing unwanted movements, or accommodating existing deformities. Examples of orthotic devices include ankle-foot orthoses, knee braces, back braces, wrist splints, and custom-made foot insoles.

A joint prosthesis, also known as an artificial joint or a replacement joint, is a surgical implant used to replace all or part of a damaged or diseased joint. The most common types of joint prostheses are total hip replacements and total knee replacements. These prostheses typically consist of a combination of metal, plastic, and ceramic components that are designed to replicate the movement and function of a natural joint.

Joint prostheses are usually recommended for patients who have severe joint pain or mobility issues that cannot be adequately managed with other treatments such as physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle changes. The goal of joint replacement surgery is to relieve pain, improve joint function, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Joint prostheses are typically made from materials such as titanium, cobalt-chrome alloys, stainless steel, polyethylene plastic, and ceramics. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, weight, and overall health.

While joint replacement surgery is generally safe and effective, there are risks associated with any surgical procedure, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Patients who undergo joint replacement surgery typically require several weeks of rehabilitation and physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected joint.

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee is a band-like structure located on the inner side of the knee joint. It connects the end of the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps stabilize the knee by controlling side-to-side movement and preventing excessive separation of the bones. The MCL provides resistance to valgus force, which is a pushing or pulling force that attempts to push the bones apart in a direction away from the midline of the body. MCL injuries often occur due to direct impact to the outer knee or sudden changes in direction that strain the ligament.

Hydrotherapy is a type of physical therapy that involves the use of water for pain relief and treatment. The temperature and pressure of the water can be adjusted to help reduce inflammation, improve circulation, and promote relaxation. Common hydrotherapy techniques include whirlpool baths, hot and cold compresses, and underwater massage. Hydrotherapy is often used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, fibromyalgia, and musculoskeletal injuries. It can also be helpful for rehabilitation after surgery or stroke.

Here are some specific ways that hydrotherapy may be beneficial:

* The buoyancy of water can help support weak muscles and reduce the impact on joints, making it easier to exercise and move around.
* The warmth of the water can help relax muscles and improve circulation, which can help reduce pain and stiffness.
* The hydrostatic pressure of water can help reduce swelling in the limbs by encouraging fluid to flow back into the veins.
* The resistance provided by water can help strengthen muscles and improve balance and coordination.

It's important to note that while hydrotherapy can be a helpful treatment option for many people, it may not be appropriate for everyone. If you have any health concerns or medical conditions, it's important to talk to your doctor before starting a new treatment regimen. They can help determine whether hydrotherapy is safe and suitable for you.

The trapezium bone is a carpal bone located in the wrist, more specifically in the proximal row of carpals. It is situated at the radial side (thumb side) of the wrist and articulates with the Scaphoid bone proximally, the First Metacarpal bone distally, and the Trapezoid and Capitate bones laterally. Its unique shape resembles that of a trapezoid, hence its name. The trapezium plays a crucial role in wrist movements, particularly in thumb abduction and opposition.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Acupuncture therapy is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate the flow of energy (Qi), balance the vital force (Chi), and promote healing. It is based on the concept of meridians, or pathways, through which this energy flows. Acupuncture therapy is used to treat a variety of conditions, including pain, stress, anxiety, insomnia, digestive disorders, and reproductive health issues. According to Western medicine, acupuncture may work by stimulating the nervous system, increasing blood flow, and releasing natural pain-relieving chemicals called endorphins. It is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified practitioner using sterile needles.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is produced continuously in various tissues throughout the body and helps maintain the normal function of the stomach and kidneys, among other things. COX-2, on the other hand, is produced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of prostaglandins that contribute to pain, fever, and inflammation.

COX inhibitors can be non-selective, meaning they block both COX-1 and COX-2, or selective, meaning they primarily block COX-2. Non-selective COX inhibitors include drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, while selective COX inhibitors are often referred to as coxibs and include celecoxib (Celebrex) and rofecoxib (Vioxx).

COX inhibitors are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of non-selective COX inhibitors can increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects such as ulcers and bleeding, while selective COX inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of COX inhibitors before using them.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Health status indicators are measures used to assess and monitor the health and well-being of a population. They provide information about various aspects of health, such as mortality rates, morbidity rates, prevalence of chronic diseases, lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare services. These indicators can be used to identify trends and disparities in health outcomes, inform policy decisions, allocate resources, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions. Examples of health status indicators include life expectancy, infant mortality rate, prevalence of diabetes, smoking rates, and access to primary care.

The wrist joint, also known as the radiocarpal joint, is a condyloid joint that connects the distal end of the radius bone in the forearm to the proximal row of carpal bones in the hand (scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones). It allows for flexion, extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation movements of the hand. The wrist joint is surrounded by a capsule and reinforced by several ligaments that provide stability and strength to the joint.

Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) often used for its analgesic (pain-relieving), antipyretic (fever-reducing), and anti-inflammatory effects. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in the production of prostaglandins that cause inflammation and induce pain and fever. Ibuprofen is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of various conditions such as headaches, menstrual cramps, arthritis, mild fever, and minor aches and pains. It is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suspensions, and topical creams or gels.

Thiazines are a class of organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring consisting of nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur atoms. In the context of pharmaceuticals, thiazine rings are often found in various drugs, including some antipsychotic medications such as chlorpromazine and thioridazine. These drugs function by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, helping to manage symptoms associated with certain mental health conditions like schizophrenia.

It is important to note that 'thiazines' are not a medical term per se but rather a chemical classification of compounds. The medical relevance lies in the therapeutic application of specific drugs that have thiazine rings within their structures.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Comfrey is a plant species (Symphytum spp.) that has been used in traditional medicine for its alleged healing properties, particularly for treating inflammation and promoting wound healing. However, it's important to note that the use of comfrey has been associated with serious health risks, including liver damage and cancer.

The active constituents of comfrey include allantoin, rosmarinic acid, and tannins, among others. Allantoin is believed to have anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects, while rosmarinic acid has antioxidant properties. However, comfrey also contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), which can be toxic to the liver and other organs.

Due to these risks, the use of comfrey for medicinal purposes is not recommended by many health organizations, including the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). Topical creams and ointments containing comfrey may be available over-the-counter in some countries, but they should be used with caution and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

In summary, while comfrey has been used historically for its medicinal properties, its use is not recommended due to the potential health risks associated with its toxic compounds.

I'm not a doctor, but I can provide some information on the topic. "Mud therapy," also known as pelotherapy, is a type of alternative or complementary medicine that involves the use of mud or clay as a treatment for various health conditions. The theory behind it is that the minerals and other properties found in certain types of mud can have therapeutic effects when applied to the body.

Mud therapy is often used in spas and wellness centers for relaxation, stress relief, and skin care. It's also used in some medical contexts, such as physical therapy and rehabilitation, where mud packs or mud baths may be applied to reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. Some proponents of mud therapy also claim that it can help boost the immune system, detoxify the body, and improve circulation.

It's important to note that while some people report benefits from mud therapy, there is limited scientific evidence to support many of its claimed health benefits. As with any alternative therapy, it's always a good idea to talk to your doctor before trying mud therapy, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or take medication.

Rheumatology is a subspecialty of internal medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of more than 200 diseases affecting the joints, muscles, and bones. These diseases are often complex, chronic, and systemic, meaning they can affect the whole body. Some common rheumatic diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lupus, gout, osteoporosis, and various forms of vasculitis and connective tissue disorders.

Rheumatologists are medical doctors who have completed additional training in this field, becoming experts in the non-surgical treatment of musculoskeletal diseases. They use a combination of physical examination, patient history, laboratory testing, and imaging to diagnose and manage these conditions. Treatment may involve medications, lifestyle changes, physical therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Ankle arthroplasty, also known as ankle replacement surgery, is a surgical procedure in which the damaged or degenerated joint surfaces of the ankle are removed and replaced with artificial components. The goal of this procedure is to relieve pain, restore range of motion, and improve function in patients with severe end-stage arthritis of the ankle joint.

During the surgery, the surgeon makes an incision over the front or side of the ankle to access the damaged joint. The ends of the tibia and talus bones are then prepared by removing any remaining cartilage and a small amount of bone. The artificial components, which typically consist of metal and plastic parts, are then positioned and fixed in place with cement or screws.

After the surgery, patients will need to undergo physical therapy to help regain strength, range of motion, and mobility in the ankle. It is important to follow the surgeon's instructions carefully during the recovery period to ensure proper healing and optimal outcomes.

Ankle arthroplasty is usually recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as pain medication, physical therapy, or bracing, but have not found relief from their symptoms. It is typically reserved for older adults with low functional demands, as younger, more active patients may be better suited for ankle fusion surgery, which provides greater stability and durability over time.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

The carpus is the region of the forelimb in animals that corresponds to the wrist in humans. It is located between the radius and ulna bones of the forearm and the metacarpal bones of the paw. The carpus is made up of several small bones called carpals, which provide flexibility and support for movement of the limb. The number and arrangement of these bones can vary among different animal species.

Hyaline cartilage is a type of cartilaginous tissue that is primarily found in the articulating surfaces of bones, ribcage, nose, ears, and trachea. It has a smooth, glassy appearance (hence the name "hyaline," derived from the Greek word "hyalos" meaning glass) due to the presence of type II collagen fibers that are arranged in a precise pattern and embedded in a proteoglycan-rich matrix.

The high concentration of proteoglycans, which are complex molecules made up of a protein core and glycosaminoglycan side chains, gives hyaline cartilage its firm yet flexible properties. This type of cartilage is avascular, meaning it does not contain blood vessels, and receives nutrients through diffusion from the surrounding synovial fluid in joints or adjacent tissues.

Hyaline cartilage plays a crucial role in providing structural support, reducing friction between articulating bones, and facilitating smooth movement in joints. It also serves as a template for endochondral ossification, a process by which long bones grow in length during development.

Muscle weakness is a condition in which muscles cannot develop the expected level of physical force or power. This results in reduced muscle function and can be caused by various factors, including nerve damage, muscle diseases, or hormonal imbalances. Muscle weakness may manifest as difficulty lifting objects, maintaining posture, or performing daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of muscle weakness.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

Pyrazoles are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 2. The chemical structure of pyrazoles consists of a pair of nitrogen atoms adjacent to each other in the ring, which makes them unique from other azole heterocycles such as imidazoles or triazoles.

Pyrazoles have significant biological activities and are found in various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and natural products. Some pyrazole derivatives exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer properties.

In the medical field, pyrazoles are used in various drugs to treat different conditions. For example, celecoxib (Celebrex) is a selective COX-2 inhibitor used for pain relief and inflammation reduction in arthritis patients. It contains a pyrazole ring as its core structure. Similarly, febuxostat (Uloric) is a medication used to treat gout, which also has a pyrazole moiety.

Overall, pyrazoles are essential compounds with significant medical applications and potential for further development in drug discovery and design.

In the field of dentistry, braces are devices used to align and straighten teeth and improve jaw position. They are typically made of metal or ceramic brackets that are bonded to the teeth, along with wires and rubber bands that apply pressure and move the teeth into proper alignment over time. The length of treatment with braces can vary but typically lasts from 1-3 years. Regular adjustments are necessary to ensure effective movement of the teeth.

The purpose of wearing braces is to correct malocclusions, such as overbites, underbites, crossbites, and open bites, as well as crowded or crooked teeth. This can lead to improved dental health, better oral function, and a more aesthetically pleasing smile. It's important to maintain good oral hygiene while wearing braces to prevent issues like tooth decay and gum disease. After the braces are removed, retainers may be used to maintain the new alignment of the teeth.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common skeletal disorder in dogs, particularly in large and giant breeds, characterized by the abnormal development and degeneration of the coxofemoral joint - the joint where the head of the femur (thigh bone) meets the acetabulum (hip socket) of the pelvis. This condition is often caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors that lead to laxity (looseness) of the joint, which can result in osteoarthritis (OA), pain, and decreased mobility over time.

In a healthy hip joint, the femoral head fits snugly into the acetabulum, allowing smooth and stable movement. However, in dogs with CHD, the following abnormalities may occur:

1. Shallow acetabulum: The hip socket may not be deep enough to provide adequate coverage of the femoral head, leading to joint instability.
2. Flared acetabulum: The rim of the acetabulum may become stretched and flared due to excessive forces exerted on it by the lax joint.
3. Misshapen or malformed femoral head: The femoral head may not have a normal round shape, further contributing to joint instability.
4. Laxity of the joint: The ligament that holds the femoral head in place within the acetabulum (ligamentum teres) can become stretched, allowing for excessive movement and abnormal wear of the joint surfaces.

These changes can lead to the development of osteoarthritis, which is characterized by the breakdown and loss of cartilage within the joint, as well as the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and thickening of the joint capsule. This results in pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion, making it difficult for affected dogs to perform everyday activities such as walking, running, or climbing stairs.

Canine hip dysplasia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging techniques such as radiographs (X-rays). Treatment options may include conservative management, such as weight management, exercise modification, joint supplements, and pain medication, or surgical intervention, such as total hip replacement. The choice of treatment depends on the severity of the disease, the age and overall health of the dog, and the owner's financial resources.

Preventing canine hip dysplasia is best achieved through selective breeding practices that aim to eliminate affected animals from breeding populations. Additionally, maintaining a healthy weight, providing appropriate exercise, and ensuring proper nutrition throughout a dog's life can help reduce the risk of developing this debilitating condition.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of enzymes responsible for the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, the structural framework of most tissues in the body. These enzymes play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as tissue repair, wound healing, and embryonic development. They also participate in pathological conditions like tumor invasion, metastasis, and inflammatory diseases by breaking down the components of the extracellular matrix, including collagens, elastins, proteoglycans, and gelatins. MMPs are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that require activation from their proenzyme form to become fully functional. Their activity is tightly regulated at various levels, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and enzyme inhibition by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Dysregulation of MMPs has been implicated in several diseases, making them potential therapeutic targets for various clinical interventions.

The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is the most mobile joint in the human body. It is a ball and socket synovial joint that connects the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) to the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade). The shoulder joint allows for a wide range of movements including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. It is surrounded by a group of muscles and tendons known as the rotator cuff that provide stability and enable smooth movement of the joint.

ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) proteins are a family of type I transmembrane proteins that contain several distinct domains, including a prodomain, a metalloprotease domain, a disintegrin-like domain, a cysteine-rich domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. These proteins are involved in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proteolysis, and signal transduction.

ADAM proteins have been found to play important roles in many physiological and pathological conditions, including fertilization, neurodevelopment, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. For example, ADAM12 is involved in the fusion of myoblasts during muscle development, while ADAM17 (also known as TACE) plays a crucial role in the shedding of membrane-bound proteins such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor ligands.

Abnormalities in ADAM protein function have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and arthritis. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of these proteins has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

Osteonecrosis is a medical condition characterized by the death of bone tissue due to the disruption of blood supply. Also known as avascular necrosis, this process can lead to the collapse of the bone and adjacent joint surfaces, resulting in pain, limited mobility, and potential deformity if left untreated. Osteonecrosis most commonly affects the hips, shoulders, and knees, but it can occur in any bone. The condition may be caused by trauma, corticosteroid use, alcohol abuse, certain medical conditions (like sickle cell disease or lupus), or for no apparent reason (idiopathic).

Mobility limitation refers to the partial or complete inability to move or perform functional mobility tasks independently and safely. This condition can affect any part of the body, such as limited joint range of motion, muscle weakness, or neurological impairments, making it difficult for a person to perform activities like walking, standing, transferring, balancing, and reaching. Mobility limitations can be temporary or permanent and vary in severity, significantly impacting a person's quality of life, independence, and overall health.

Exostoses are benign (noncancerous) bone growths that develop on the surface of a bone, usually in response to repeated stress or friction. They are often small and smooth, but can become larger and more irregular over time. In some cases, they may cause pain or discomfort, especially if they continue to grow and put pressure on nearby nerves, muscles, or other bones.

Exostoses can occur in various parts of the body, but they are most commonly found in the long bones of the arms and legs, as well as in the small bones of the feet. They may also develop in response to chronic irritation or injury, such as from jogging or playing sports that involve a lot of running or jumping.

In some cases, exostoses may be surgically removed if they cause persistent pain or other symptoms. However, in many cases, they do not require treatment and can be left alone. If you are concerned about any bone growths or other unusual symptoms, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

X-ray microtomography, often referred to as micro-CT, is a non-destructive imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the internal structure of objects with high spatial resolution. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT), where multiple X-ray images are acquired at different angles and then reconstructed into cross-sectional slices using specialized software. These slices can be further processed to create 3D visualizations, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the internal structure and composition of samples in great detail. Micro-CT is widely used in materials science, biology, medicine, and engineering for various applications such as material characterization, bone analysis, and defect inspection.

The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is the joint in the foot where the metatarsal bones of the foot (the long bones behind the toes) connect with the proximal phalanges of the toes. It's a synovial joint, which means it's surrounded by a capsule containing synovial fluid to allow for smooth movement. The MTP joint is responsible for allowing the flexion and extension movements of the toes, and is important for maintaining balance and pushing off during walking and running. Issues with the MTP joint can lead to conditions such as hallux valgus (bunions) or hammertoe.

Sulfonamides are a group of synthetic antibacterial drugs that contain the sulfonamide group (SO2NH2) in their chemical structure. They are bacteriostatic agents, meaning they inhibit bacterial growth rather than killing them outright. Sulfonamides work by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, which is essential for their survival.

The first sulfonamide drug was introduced in the 1930s and since then, many different sulfonamides have been developed with varying chemical structures and pharmacological properties. They are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and ear infections.

Some common sulfonamide drugs include sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (a combination of a sulfonamide and another antibiotic called trimethoprim). While sulfonamides are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can cause side effects such as rash, nausea, and allergic reactions. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice involving the burning of a mugwort-based herb called "moxa" close to or on specific points on the body, with the intention of stimulating chi (vital energy), encouraging healing, and preventing/treating diseases. The heat generated by moxa sticks or cones is believed to warm the meridians, dispel cold and dampness, and improve circulation. Practitioners may apply moxibustion directly on the skin, through an insulating material, or indirectly above the skin. It's often used in conjunction with acupuncture for various health issues, such as arthritis, digestive disorders, and gynecological conditions.

Proprioception is the unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense" and it's all about knowing where your body parts are, how they are moving, and the effort being used to move them. This information is crucial for motor control, balance, and coordination.

The proprioceptive system includes sensory receptors called proprioreceptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints that send messages to the brain through nerves regarding body position and movement. These messages are then integrated with information from other senses, such as vision and vestibular sense (related to balance), to create a complete understanding of the body's position and motion in space.

Deficits in proprioception can lead to problems with coordination, balance, and fine motor skills.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling. Specifically, IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in the body. It is produced by various cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in response to infection or injury.

IL-1 exists in two forms, IL-1α and IL-1β, which have similar biological activities but are encoded by different genes. Both forms of IL-1 bind to the same receptor, IL-1R, and activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of other cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators.

IL-1 has a wide range of biological effects, including fever induction, activation of immune cells, regulation of hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and modulation of bone metabolism. Dysregulation of IL-1 production or activity has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, IL-1 is an important target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is a broad term used to describe pain arising from the front of the knee, specifically where the patella (kneecap) meets the femur (thigh bone). It is often described as a diffuse, aching pain in the anterior knee, typically worsening with activities that load the patellofemoral joint such as climbing stairs, running, jumping or prolonged sitting.

PFPS can be caused by various factors including overuse, muscle imbalances, poor biomechanics, or abnormal tracking of the patella. Treatment usually involves a combination of physical therapy to improve strength and flexibility, activity modification, and sometimes bracing or orthotics for better alignment.

Acupuncture analgesia is a form of pain relief that involves the stimulation of specific points on the body, called acupoints, using thin needles. This technique is based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) principles, which suggest that energy, or "qi," flows through the body along pathways called meridians. According to TCM, blockages or imbalances in this flow of qi can lead to illness or pain. By inserting needles at specific acupoints, acupuncture is thought to help restore the balance and flow of qi, thereby alleviating pain and promoting healing.

In modern medical terms, acupuncture analgesia is believed to work by stimulating the nervous system and triggering the release of natural painkillers called endorphins. The needles may also cause localized changes in blood flow and inflammation, which can help reduce pain and promote healing in the affected area.

Acupuncture has been shown to be effective for a variety of pain conditions, including osteoarthritis, migraines, and chronic low back pain. However, it is important to note that acupuncture should be performed by a qualified practitioner and may not be suitable for everyone. As with any medical treatment, there are potential risks and side effects associated with acupuncture, including infection, bruising, and bleeding. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment.

Collagen type IX is a type of collagen that is found in the extracellular matrix, particularly in the cartilage and vitreous humor of the eye. It is a heterotrimeric protein made up of three alpha chains (alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3), which are encoded by different genes (COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL9A3). Collagen type IX is thought to play a role in the organization and stability of collagen fibrils, as well as in the interaction between collagen and other extracellular matrix components. It has been implicated in various connective tissue disorders, such as Stickler syndrome and Marshall syndrome.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Paleopathology is the study of ancient diseases and injuries as recorded in bones, mummies, and other archaeological remains. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines knowledge from pathology, epidemiology, anthropology, and archaeology to understand the health and disease patterns of past populations. The findings of paleopathology can provide valuable insights into the evolution of diseases, the effectiveness of ancient medical practices, and the impact of environmental and social factors on human health over time. Examples of conditions that may be studied in paleopathology include infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis or leprosy), nutritional deficiencies, trauma, cancer, and genetic disorders.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for "Bashkortostan" or "Bashkiria." Bashkortostan, also known as Bashkiria, is a republic within the Russian Federation. It's located in the southern Ural Mountains and the northern portion of the West Siberian Plain. The population is diverse, with more than 120 ethnic groups represented, including the majority Bashkirs and Russians.

If you are looking for medical information or resources related to this region, I would be happy to help if you could provide more context or clarify your question.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Chondrogenesis is the process of cartilage formation during embryonic development and in the healing of certain types of injuries. It involves the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, which are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage.

During chondrogenesis, the mesenchymal stem cells condense and form a template for the future cartilaginous tissue. These cells then differentiate into chondrocytes, which begin to produce and deposit collagen type II, proteoglycans, and other extracellular matrix components that give cartilage its unique biochemical and mechanical properties.

Chondrogenesis is a critical process for the development of various structures in the body, including the skeletal system, where it plays a role in the formation of articular cartilage, growth plates, and other types of cartilage. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate chondrogenesis is important for developing therapies to treat cartilage injuries and degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis.

Anthraquinones are a type of organic compound that consists of an anthracene structure (a chemical compound made up of three benzene rings) with two carbonyl groups attached to the central ring. They are commonly found in various plants and have been used in medicine for their laxative properties. Some anthraquinones also exhibit antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, long-term use of anthraquinone-containing laxatives can lead to serious side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, muscle weakness, and liver damage.

Osteochondritis is a joint condition where a piece of cartilage or bone in the joint separates from its attachment due to a lack of blood supply. This can cause pain, stiffness, and potentially restricted movement in the affected joint. It often occurs in weight-bearing joints like the knee or ankle, and is more common in children and adolescents. The separated piece may sometimes float around in the joint space, causing further damage to the cartilage and bone. If left untreated, it can lead to long-term joint problems. Also known as osteochondrosis or osteochondritis dissecans.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Arthrodesis is a surgical procedure to fuse together the bones of a joint, in order to restrict its movement and provide stability. This procedure is typically performed when a joint has been severely damaged by injury, arthritis, or other conditions, and non-surgical treatments have failed to relieve symptoms such as pain and instability.

During the surgery, the cartilage that normally cushions the ends of the bones is removed, and the bones are realigned and held in place with hardware such as plates, screws, or rods. Over time, the bones grow together, forming a solid fusion that restricts joint motion.

Arthrodesis can be performed on various joints throughout the body, including the spine, wrist, ankle, and knee. While this procedure can provide significant pain relief and improve function, it does limit the range of motion in the fused joint, which may impact mobility and daily activities. Therefore, arthrodesis is typically considered a last resort when other treatments have failed.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Spinal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the spinal column, which is made up of vertebrae (bones), intervertebral discs, facet joints, nerves, ligaments, and muscles. These diseases can cause pain, discomfort, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or even paralysis, depending on the severity and location of the condition. Here are some examples of spinal diseases:

1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the intervertebral discs lose their elasticity and height, leading to stiffness, pain, and decreased mobility.
2. Herniated disc: This occurs when the inner material of the intervertebral disc bulges or herniates out through a tear in the outer layer, causing pressure on the spinal nerves and resulting in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal or the neural foramen (the openings where the spinal nerves exit the spinal column), which can cause pressure on the spinal cord or nerves and result in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can occur in children or adults, leading to an abnormal posture, back pain, and decreased lung function.
5. Osteoarthritis: This is a degenerative joint disease that affects the facet joints in the spine, causing pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility.
6. Ankylosing spondylitis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and fusion of the vertebrae.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, causing pain, neurological symptoms, or even paralysis.
8. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can affect the spine, leading to pain, fever, and other systemic symptoms.
9. Trauma: Fractures, dislocations, or sprains of the spine can occur due to accidents, falls, or sports injuries, causing pain, neurological deficits, or even paralysis.

Osteosclerosis is a medical term that refers to an abnormal thickening and increased density of bone tissue. This condition can occur as a result of various diseases or conditions, such as certain types of bone cancer, Paget's disease of bone, fluoride poisoning, or chronic infection of the bone. Osteosclerosis can also be seen in some benign conditions, such as osteopetrosis, which is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an excessively hard and dense skeleton.

In some cases, osteosclerosis may not cause any symptoms and may only be discovered on X-rays or other imaging studies. However, in other cases, it can lead to complications such as bone pain, fractures, or deformities. Treatment for osteosclerosis depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

"Perna" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. However, "Perna canaliculus" is a species of marine mussel that is native to New Zealand and is sometimes referred to as the "green-lipped mussel." This mollusk has been studied for its potential anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and other bioactive compounds.

Extracts from Perna canaliculus have been used in some dietary supplements and alternative medicine practices as a treatment for inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using these extracts.

Therefore, "Perna" in medical terms typically refers to the green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) and its potential anti-inflammatory properties.

Arthrometry is a measurement technique used in the field of orthopedics and rheumatology to assess the integrity and mobility of joints. When qualified with the term "articular," it specifically refers to the measurement of articular motion or range of motion (ROM) within a synovial joint.

Articular arthrometry involves using specialized instruments, such as goniometers, inclinometers, or digital devices like smartphone applications and wearable sensors, to quantify the degree of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, or other movements in a joint. This information can help medical professionals evaluate joint function, diagnose injuries or conditions affecting joint mobility, monitor disease progression, and assess treatment outcomes.

In summary, articular arthrometry is the measurement of articular motion within synovial joints to evaluate joint health and function.

Musculoskeletal manipulations refer to the skilled manual movement of or pressure applied to a joint or joints, muscle, or muscles and connective tissues. The goal is to improve mobility, relieve pain, reduce muscle tension, or restore function in the body. This technique is often used by chiropractors, osteopathic physicians, physical therapists, and some massage therapists as a treatment intervention for various musculoskeletal conditions such as low back pain, neck pain, headaches, and joint disorders.

It's important to note that musculoskeletal manipulations should be performed by trained healthcare professionals, as there are potential risks and contraindications associated with this type of treatment. Patients should consult with their healthcare provider before undergoing any form of manual therapy.

The term "hand bones" refers to the skeletal components that make up the human hand. These bones are divided into three categories: carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.

1. Carpals: There are eight carpal bones arranged in two rows in the wrist region. The proximal row consists of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform bones, while the distal row includes the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones.

2. Metacarpals: There are five metacarpal bones, one for each finger, located in the middle part of the hand between the carpals and phalanges. They are numbered 1 to 5 from the thumb side to the little finger side.

3. Phalanges: These are the bones found in the fingers and thumb. Each finger has three phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal), while the thumb only has two (proximal and distal). In total, there are 14 phalangeal bones in the hand.

Together, these hand bones provide structure, support, and mobility to the hand, enabling various complex movements essential for daily activities.

A zygapophyseal joint, also known as a facet joint, is a type of synovial joint that connects the articulating processes of adjacent vertebrae in the spine. These joints are formed by the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebral bodies and are covered with hyaline cartilage. They allow for smooth movement between the vertebrae, providing stability and limiting excessive motion while allowing flexibility in the spine. The zygapophyseal joints are supported by a capsule and ligaments that help to maintain their alignment and restrict abnormal movements. These joints can become sources of pain and discomfort when they become inflamed or damaged due to conditions such as arthritis, degenerative disc disease, or injury.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

  • Osteoarthritis can cause a crackling noise (called "crepitus") when the affected joint is moved, especially shoulder and knee joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of a joint effusion of the knee. (wikipedia.org)
  • However exercise, including running in the absence of injury, has not been found to increase the risk of knee osteoarthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conflicting evidence exists for the differences in hip and knee osteoarthritis in African Americans and Caucasians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knee osteoarthritis has more than doubled in prevalence since the mid-20th century after occurring at low frequencies since prehistoric times, a study has found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Writing online in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , a team of researchers from Harvard University and other centers concluded that rising levels of knee osteoarthritis -- often considered an inevitable consequence of living longer -- may be the result of modifiable risk factors, such as high body mass index (BMI), that have become more common in recent years. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Thus, the authors suggested, knee osteoarthritis may be more preventable than previously thought. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The researchers studied cadaver-derived skeletal remains to investigate long-term trends in knee osteoarthritis prevalence in the United States and evaluate the effects of longevity and BMI on disease levels by comparing the prevalence among persons who lived in the 19th to early 20th centuries with persons in the late 20th to early 21st centuries. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The researchers also analyzed knee osteoarthritis in a large sample of archaeological skeletons of prehistoric Native American hunter-gatherers and early farmers. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis was based on visual identification of the presence of eburnation on the articular surfaces of the right or left distal femur, proximal tibia, or patella. (medpagetoday.com)
  • After controlling for sex, knee osteoarthritis prevalence in the postindustrial sample was 2.6 and two times higher than in the early industrial and prehistoric samples, respectively. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The researchers tested whether the higher levels of knee osteoarthritis in the postindustrial era are attributable to greater longevity and higher BMIs. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Age and BMI were positively associated with knee osteoarthritis prevalence, but at all ages, prevalence was at least twice as high in the postindustrial sample as in the early industrial sample, even after controlling for BMI. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The recent dramatic increase in knee osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence raises the question of what additional independent risk factors are unique to or amplified in the postindustrial era: "Alleles of genes, such as GDF5, have been shown to influence knee OA susceptibility, but the approximate doubling of knee OA prevalence in just the last few generations proves that recent environmental changes have played a principal role," the authors wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The researchers characterized knee osteoarthritis as a condition that from an evolutionary perspective fits the criteria of a "mismatch disease" -- i.e., one that is more prevalent or severe because bodies are inadequately or imperfectly adapted to modern environments. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Wallace IJ, et al "Knee osteoarthritis has doubled in prevalence since the mid-20th century. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Osteoarthritis most commonly occurs in knee joints, but it can also develop in the elbows, hip, and back. (betternutrition.com)
  • A normal knee looks like a smooth, white cueball, but Stenger had osteoarthritis, a wear-and-tear kind of arthritis, where it looks more like potholed asphalt. (cbsnews.com)
  • It says if you are having pain on the medial side of your knee, and you've been diagnosed with osteoarthritis, fill out the survey. (cbsnews.com)
  • Overweight people are at high risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) and may also be at increased risk of hand and hip OA. (nih.gov)
  • Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of viscosupplementation for pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. (bmj.com)
  • Eligibility criteria for study selection Randomised trials comparing viscosupplementation with placebo or no intervention for knee osteoarthritis treatment. (bmj.com)
  • The efficacy of arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • We conducted a single-center, randomized, controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery in patients with moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis of the knee. (nih.gov)
  • Arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee provides no additional benefit to optimized physical and medical therapy. (nih.gov)
  • TissueGene has completed Phase 2 trials and has reached an agreement with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regarding a Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) on the design, endpoints and statistical analysis plan for a Phase 3 clinical trial for Invossa, an allogeneic cell therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee. (prnewswire.com)
  • Increased vitamin D levels appear to improve muscle strength and physical function for vitamin D-deficient patients with knee osteoarthritis, according to research presented this week. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • While previous studies have associated vitamin D deficiencies with an increased risk for severity of knee osteoarthritis, the new study is thought to be the first look at vitamin levels in relation to pain and disability. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Post-menopausal women have an increased incidence of knee osteoarthritis compared to men. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis, particularly of the knee. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Decreased estrogen as experienced by post-menopausal women increases the risk of knee osteoarthritis as estrogen is protective of bone health specifically reducing oxidative stress to the cartilage. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • In osteoarthritis , cartilage breakdown in the knee often is much greater in the inner part of the knee joint, often resulting in a bowlegged appearance. (healthwise.net)
  • Surgery to shift the weight away from the inner knee is one of the most common uses of osteotomy for osteoarthritis. (healthwise.net)
  • The most common way to use osteotomy for osteoarthritis of the inner knee is to remove a wedge of bone from the outer side of the large lower leg bone (tibia) near the knee. (healthwise.net)
  • Osteotomy for osteoarthritis of the inner knee could also include adding a wedge of bone to the inner tibia, or adding or removing bone from the femur. (healthwise.net)
  • Osteoarthritis of the outer knee is treated in just the opposite way. (healthwise.net)
  • Knee osteoarthritis is a common health condition that causes pain and stiffness in your knee. (bupa.co.uk)
  • You can get osteoarthritis in other joints too, but knee osteoarthritis is one of most common types of osteoarthritis. (bupa.co.uk)
  • If you have knee osteoarthritis, the different structures that make up your knee joint will have been damaged over time. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Doctors don't know why some people develop osteoarthritis in their knee. (bupa.co.uk)
  • There's also thought to be a genetic risk because knee osteoarthritis can run in families. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Knee osteoarthritis seems to develop after an injury or a series of minor injuries to your knee joint. (bupa.co.uk)
  • It may be that the things above combine to make your knee more susceptible to injury or to developing osteoarthritis afterwards. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Knee osteoarthritis usually affects both of your knees and symptoms include the following. (bupa.co.uk)
  • You won't usually feel pain in your knee when you're in bed at night, unless you have severe osteoarthritis. (bupa.co.uk)
  • They'll usually diagnose knee osteoarthritis from examining you and how you describe your symptoms. (bupa.co.uk)
  • There are many things you can do to reduce the pain and stiffness in your knee, and to make living with osteoarthritis a bit easier. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) of the Medial Side of the Knee. (wikidoc.org)
  • Sometimes called degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis accounts for most of the hip and knee replacement surgeries performed in the United States. (healthywomen.org)
  • If not treated, osteoarthritis in the knee can lead to disability. (healthywomen.org)
  • A critical evaluation of the international classification of functioning, disability, and health core sets for osteoarthritis from the perspective of patients with knee osteoarthritis in Singapore. (sgh.com.sg)
  • What health domains and items are important to patients with knee osteoarthritis? (sgh.com.sg)
  • Both Tai Chi and physical therapy positively impact pain, function and other symptoms of knee osteoarthritis - making Tai Chi a viable treatment alternative for people suffering with the degenerative disease, according to new research. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Both Tai Chi and physical therapy positively impact pain, function and other symptoms of knee osteoarthritis -- making Tai Chi a viable treatment alternative for people suffering with the degenerative disease, according to research presented this week at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting in San Francisco. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Weight loss reduces the risk for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in women. (medscape.com)
  • In osteoarthritis of the knee, it usually hurts the most when applying pressure on the knee joint, while hip osteoarthritis often hurts when bending over and may even hurt when resting or sleeping. (lu.se)
  • Title : Knee and hip osteoarthritis as predictors of premature death: a review of the evidence Personal Author(s) : Cleveland, R.J.;Nelson, A.E.;Callahan, L.F. (cdc.gov)
  • A minimally invasive, image-guided procedure that blocks small vessels in the knee with the help of biodegradable microspheres relieves symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA), a small study found. (medscape.com)
  • Patients are initially assessed by using two validated clinical scales for knee pain: the visual analogue scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) for pain and disability. (medscape.com)
  • This data release, Series 11 No. 11A, contains the NHANES III knee osteoarthritis X-ray data file and documentation. (cdc.gov)
  • However, a direct injury to the knee, for example, often leads to osteoarthritis, which means that the disease also affects younger people. (lu.se)
  • He and his colleagues are now trying to look into the 'black hole', the period between the knee injury and the osteoarthritis diagnosis in which the disease has started but is not yet noticed by the patient. (lu.se)
  • The effect of occupational exposure to ergonomic risk factors on osteoarthritis of hip or knee and selected other musculoskeletal diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis from the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of the Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury. (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence from mechanistic data suggests that occupational exposure to ergonomic risk factors may cause selected other musculoskeletal diseases, other than back or neck pain (MSD) or osteoarthritis of hip or knee (OA). (cdc.gov)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of degenerative joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone which affects 1 in 7 adults in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most prevalent kind of arthritis is osteoarthritis , commonly called degenerative joint disease . (medicinenet.com)
  • According to Kolon, Invossa is the world's first cell-mediated gene therapy for osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease affecting more than 150 million people. (prnewswire.com)
  • Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease (DJD), is the most common type of arthritis. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, in which the tissues in the joint break down over time. (nih.gov)
  • Eating broccoli may slow down and even prevent the onset of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease. (themedguru.com)
  • Breakdown of the bony surface of the TMJ condyle has been termed osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease. (tmj.org)
  • Osteoarthritis, sometimes called degenerative joint disease, is a slowly progressive disease in which joint cartilage breaks down. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Osteoarthritis was previously known as degenerative joint disease. (lu.se)
  • Your chance of developing osteoarthritis increases with age. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people inherit genetic changes that increase their chance of developing osteoarthritis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Being a woman increases your chance of developing osteoarthritis. (alive.com)
  • In addition to age and secondary causes such as inflammatory arthritis and prior injury/ trauma, several other risk factors increase the chance of developing osteoarthritis including obesity, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, sex, and genetics. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Also known as "wear-and-tear" arthritis, osteoarthritis is a condition that destroys the smooth outer covering (articular cartilage) of bone. (aaos.org)
  • Posttraumatic arthritis is a form of osteoarthritis that develops after an injury, such as a fracture or dislocation of the shoulder. (aaos.org)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, in osteoarthritis the joints do not become hot or red. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting about 237 million people or 3.3% of the world's population, as of 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of the most frequent types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. (medicinenet.com)
  • Osteoarthritis occurs in hands, hips, knees, feet, spine, and joints that may have been damaged by injury or other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. (alive.com)
  • Aging and weight are the two biggest causes for osteoarthritis," says Dr. Alice Klinkhoff, medical director for the Arthritis Society. (alive.com)
  • Damage as a result of inflammation from other types of arthritis can leave the joint vulnerable to secondary osteoarthritis. (alive.com)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis. (healthline.com)
  • A new study from the Arthritis Research UK Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis, could help to prevent top athletes from developing osteoarthritis in later life. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The Arthritis Research UK Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis is led by Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and is a consortium of seven Universities, including The University of Nottingham , Oxford, Southampton, Bath, Loughborough, Leeds and University College London. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • According to research published in Arthritis & Rheumatology, approximately 27 million adults in the United States aged 25 years and older have a clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) of any joint and directly costs more than $185 billion annually, making it a substantial public health burden. (nata.org)
  • Osteoarthritis is a common form of arthritis characterized by cartilage degeneration. (forbes.com)
  • Since 2019 the research group is supported as Research Center of Excellence Award for their work on osteoarthritis of the hands by the Dutch Arthritis Society. (lumc.nl)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis that can affect the hands, hips, shoulders and knees. (cochrane.org)
  • More than 7 million adults in the UK - 15 per cent of the population - have long-term health problems due to arthritis and related conditions, according to the Arthritis Research Campaign, and 550,000 have moderate to severe osteoarthritis in their knees. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Osteoarthritis is usually called arthritis. (wellspan.org)
  • Unlike some other forms of arthritis, osteoarthritis only affects joints, not internal organs. (healthywomen.org)
  • The initial diagnostic goal is to differentiate osteoarthritis from other arthritides, such as rheumatoid arthritis. (medscape.com)
  • Know the difference: Rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Wondering if you have rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis? (medlineplus.gov)
  • More than 300 million individuals were affected by osteoarthritis in 2017, a figure that is expected to vastly increase as the world's population ages. (medscape.com)
  • Who is more likely to develop osteoarthritis? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why do more women than men develop osteoarthritis? (lu.se)
  • Can I develop osteoarthritis in more than one joint? (lu.se)
  • GH osteoarthritis causes inflammation and stiffness in the shoulder joint as the cartilage wears away over time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease of the joints, characterised by joint pain, stiffness and loss of physical function. (cochrane.org)
  • Stiffness is another big indicator of osteoarthritis. (qualityhealth.com)
  • People with osteoarthritis usually have joint pain and, after rest or inactivity, stiffness for a short period of time. (nih.gov)
  • The most common symptoms of osteoarthritis are stiffness, pain, and swelling of the joint. (lu.se)
  • Damage from mechanical stress with insufficient self repair by joints is believed to be the primary cause of osteoarthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is often the cause of osteoarthritis in younger adults. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is no cure for osteoarthritis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There's no cure for osteoarthritis but there are things you can do to manage the condition and control your symptoms. (bupa.co.uk)
  • What is the cure for osteoarthritis? (lu.se)
  • Additional testing in lab-grown chondrocytes from people with osteoarthritis showed different chemical profiles of TGF-beta signaling during breakdown than during growth, providing the first evidence that the pathway switched function in the presence of adenosine (from assisting in cartilage breakdown to encouraging its repair. (newswise.com)
  • Researchers aren't sure what causes osteoarthritis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • November 7, 2011 (Chicago, Illinois) - Intensive diet and exercise can slash the amount of pain in older adults with osteoarthritis of the knees and improve function and walking speed, according to a study from researchers at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers are finding that family history is an important factor in our predisposition to osteoarthritis. (alive.com)
  • The biological damage in these cases is similar, researchers say, to that sustained in human osteoarthritis. (newswise.com)
  • Researchers continue to study the cause of pain in people who have osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers suspect that genes play a role in some cases of osteoarthritis. (healthywomen.org)
  • What happens in joints when osteoarthritis sets in? (lu.se)
  • The fact is that although there are so many osteoarthritis sufferers, and in spite of the disease's considerable impact on the economy, we still have little detailed knowledge of what happens in the joints when osteoarthritis sets in. (lu.se)
  • Approximately 80% of older adults, ages 55 years and older, have evidence of osteoarthritis on X-ray. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • In contrast, bone scans are often negative in the early stages of multiple myeloma, a cause of bone pain in older adults that can be confused with osteoarthritis. (medscape.com)
  • Quality of life among older adults with osteoarthritis: an explorative study. (lu.se)
  • Osteoarthritis commonly affects the hands, feet, spine, and the large weight-bearing joints, such as the hips and knees, although in theory, any joint in the body can be affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of osteoarthritis is correlated with a history of previous joint injury and with obesity, especially with respect to knees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mayo Clinic Q and A: Managing osteoarthritis for hips and knees Sept. 29, 2022, 12:32 p.m. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Typically, osteoarthritis appears in the large, weight-bearing joints such as the hips and knees. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Osteoarthritis can occur in any joint but most often occurs at the joints in the hands, hips and knees. (healthywomen.org)
  • Then there would be a treatment for osteoarthritis that would allow many of us to avoid pain in our knees, hips and other joints. (lu.se)
  • Osteoarthritis can damage any joint in your body, though it most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips, and spine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As osteoarthritis progresses, movement patterns (such as gait), are typically affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoarthritis is typically diagnosed on the basis of clinical and radiographic evidence. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment options for cervical osteoarthritis typically depend on the severity of symptoms and how often they disrupt daily life. (spine-health.com)
  • Levels of acute-phase reactants are typically within the reference range in patients with osteoarthritis. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9 ] Bone scans in osteoarthritis typically yield a symmetrically patterned, very mildly increased uptake. (medscape.com)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) occurs over time as general use wears down the smooth cartilage that covers bone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that helps cushion the joints (allowing easy movement) wears down over the long run and the bones begin to rub against each other, causing the symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
  • Some younger people get osteoarthritis from a joint injury, but osteoarthritis most often occurs in people over 40. (healthywomen.org)
  • Generalized osteoarthritis" is the term used for when this occurs. (lu.se)
  • It is susceptible to osteoarthritis due to wear and tear from frequent use as a person ages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The most common cause of GH osteoarthritis is wear and tear as people age, and cartilage wears away over time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • With osteoarthritis, the cartilage breaks down and becomes rough. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In osteoarthritis, the surface layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away, which allows bones under the cartilage to rub together. (healthywomen.org)
  • Changes in sex hormone levels may play a role in the development of osteoarthritis, as it is more prevalent among post-menopausal women than among men of the same age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoarthritis at the major knuckle joints, where the fingers meet the hand, is less prevalent. (medicinenet.com)
  • Of the more than 100 diseases and conditions that fall under this category, osteoarthritis is the most prevalent form of joint inflammation. (alive.com)
  • Osteoarthritis is an extremely prevalent joint disease and a significant cause of disability around the world. (medscape.com)
  • The good news is vitamin D levels are easily modifiable through safe, short-term exposure to sun and/or dietary intake, and may lessen the disability and pain of osteoarthritis. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • We can expect half the group to get osteoarthritis that will worsen over time, whereas the others will either get a mild form of osteoarthritis or will remain free of problems. (lu.se)
  • In fact, at least 80 percent of people over age 55 have X-ray evidence of osteoarthritis in at least one joint, but not all of them have symptoms of the disease. (healthywomen.org)
  • Clinical and laboratory observations suggest that a relationship exists between sex hormones and the development of osteoarthritis. (lww.com)
  • Other synovial fluid findings that aid in the differentiation of osteoarthritis from other conditions are negative Gram stains and cultures, as well as the absence of crystals when fluid is viewed under a polarized microscope. (medscape.com)
  • first collected synovial fluid from osteoarthritis patients, and then separated the cells from the fluid. (forbes.com)
  • Nintedanib ameliorates osteoarthritis in mice by inhibiting synovial inflammation and fibrosis caused by M1 polarization of synovial macrophages via the MAPK/PI3K-AKT pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • Synovial inflammation and fibrosis are important pathological changes associated with osteoarthritis (OA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Klinkhoff is referring to the risk factors for developing osteoarthritis. (alive.com)
  • Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for osteoarthritis, the health consultant said. (savedelete.com)
  • The elbow is not commonly affected in osteoarthritis. (medscape.com)
  • More commonly, minor genetic variations may increase the risk of osteoarthritis. (healthywomen.org)
  • The base of the thumb joint is also commonly affected by osteoarthritis. (healthywomen.org)
  • They are also among the joints most commonly affected by osteoarthritis. (healthywomen.org)
  • If your osteoarthritis is causing severe discomfort or disability, your doctor may talk to you about having surgery on the affected area. (qualityhealth.com)
  • So even though you may experience discomfort as you learn how to exercise with osteoarthritis, you'll be much better off in the long run. (hss.edu)
  • Hand osteoarthritis symptoms vary with people and time. (medicinenet.com)
  • Imaging: radiological assessment of hand osteoarthritis. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 , 8 ] One important characteristic of primary osteoarthritis is that the abnormalities found in the load-bearing (ie, highly stressed) areas of the affected joint differ from those found in the non-load-bearing areas. (medscape.com)
  • Osteoarthritis usually affects people over the age of 50 and is more common in the acromioclavicular joint than in the glenohumeral shoulder joint. (aaos.org)
  • These strategies help reduce pain and disability so people with osteoarthritis can pursue the activities that are important to them. (cdc.gov)
  • Osteoarthritis affects people in different ways, and not everyone has pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People living with osteoarthritis often have to make significant changes to their lifestyle. (news-medical.net)
  • GH osteoarthritis can impact a person's quality of life in numerous ways, such as causing or worsening mental health conditions, disrupting sleep, and impacting independence by preventing people from performing certain movements. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As people get older, they are more prone to acquire osteoarthritis. (medicinenet.com)
  • Finally, there is the unknown, which is why people are doing research to try to prevent osteoarthritis. (alive.com)
  • People with osteoarthritis desperately need more treatment options with fewer side effects, and our research advances that effort," says Cronstein, who also serves as the director of the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI). (newswise.com)
  • Developing treatments to halt or slow the disease is important, Cronstein says, because well over 100 million people worldwide are estimated to have osteoarthritis, which is tied to aging, especially in women. (newswise.com)
  • Osteoarthritis is a joint condition which plagues more than 32.5 million people in the United States-around 1 in every 7 American adults. (forbes.com)
  • These studies included over 20 000 people with osteoarthritis and lasted up to 1 year. (cochrane.org)
  • Osteoarthritis is more likely to develop as people age. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Osteotomy is an appropriate treatment for younger, active people with osteoarthritis who are able to delay a total joint replacement. (healthwise.net)
  • For some people, osteoarthritis is relatively mild and does not affect day-to-day activities. (nih.gov)
  • Osteoarthritis mainly affects people over 50, and you're more likely to have it the older you are. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Many people are hesitant to exercise after they've been diagnosed with osteoarthritis , because they're afraid that it's going to cause them more pain. (hss.edu)
  • Another good option for people with osteoarthritis who are having trouble getting around is to use an assistive device such as a cane, walker, or crutches-whatever works best for you. (hss.edu)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 54.4 million (one in four) Americans are afflicted, and 27 million have osteoarthritis, by far the most common form, especially among older people. (healthywomen.org)
  • Since the number of older Americans is increasing, so is the number of people with osteoarthritis. (healthywomen.org)
  • You must strengthen your leg muscles" is what people with osteoarthritis are often told, and they are encouraged to do strength training and go for long walks. (lu.se)
  • Many people with osteoarthritis may not be able to do everything they used to do. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A physiotherapist often participates in caring for patients with osteoarthritis. (news-medical.net)
  • A healthy diet is important for patients with a health condition such as osteoarthritis. (news-medical.net)
  • at the Wake Forest Institute of Regenerative Medicine examined cartilage deterioration in patients with osteoarthritis. (forbes.com)
  • Mike Rice , BioLife President & CEO, remarked, "Kolon's BLA submission seeking approval to market Invossa in Korea is encouraging news for millions of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. (prnewswire.com)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict many of the same characteristics of osteoarthritis that plain radiography can, but it is not necessary in most patients with osteoarthritis, unless additional pathology amenable to surgical repair is suspected. (medscape.com)
  • Osteoarthritis in patients and populations. (medscape.com)
  • To see this at an early stage would be good, he thinks - because even though we do not yet have any drugs against osteoarthritis, we do have good guidelines for patients. (lu.se)
  • Objective: To evaluate through a preliminary study the effectiveness of unsaponifiable soy and avocado (ASU) in patients with arthralgia and osteoarthritis (OA) of the TMJ Patients and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (bvsalud.org)
  • Osteoarthritis is the most common type of joint disease, affecting more than 30 million individuals in the United States alone. (medscape.com)
  • Osteoarthritis is a common form of joint inflammation. (alive.com)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common musculoskeletal disease. (lumc.nl)
  • Unfortunately, osteoarthritis is one of the more common signs that you're getting older. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Before age 55, more men have the condition (often the result of a sports or work injury), while after age 55, osteoarthritis is more common in women. (healthywomen.org)
  • Osteoarthritis is one of the common joint condition in the world. (savedelete.com)
  • Below you will find general information about the joint disease osteoarthritis such as how it is diagnosed and which symptoms are the most common. (lu.se)
  • But he thinks that research into osteoarthritis gets too little support in comparison to other common diseases. (lu.se)
  • In general, the symptoms of osteoarthritis develop slowly over months or years. (alive.com)
  • The changes in osteoarthritis usually occur slowly over many years, though there are occasional exceptions. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The symptoms of osteoarthritis often begin slowly and usually begin with one or a few joints. (nih.gov)
  • Usually, osteoarthritis develops slowly. (healthywomen.org)
  • The risk of osteoarthritis increases with ageing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoarthritis can happen at any age, but the chance of getting it increases in middle-aged adults and older. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Being overweight increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis and will exacerbate your condition and increase your pain. (alive.com)
  • In osteoarthritis, the cartilage in your joints wears away. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our latest study shows that replenishing adenosine stores by injection works well as a treatment for osteoarthritis in animal models of the disease, and with no apparent side effects," says lead study author Carmen Corciulo, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow at NYU Langone. (newswise.com)
  • Cronstein, Corciulo, and NYU Grossman School of Medicine have a patent application pending for the use of adenosine and other agents that help with its binding to chondrocytes, called A2A receptor agonists, for the treatment of osteoarthritis. (newswise.com)
  • The study has the potential to contribute to guideline development for the treatment and prevention of osteoarthritis in later life for high performance athletes. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Most often, nonsurgical treatment options will suffice for managing cervical osteoarthritis. (spine-health.com)
  • This is the first of two stories describing recent progress in understanding the cause and potential treatment for osteoarthritis. (forbes.com)
  • [ 70 ] No single biomarker has proved reliable for diagnosis and monitoring, but combinations of cartilage-derived and bone-derived biomarkers have been used to identify osteoarthritis subtypes, with possible impact on treatment. (medscape.com)
  • This kind of osteoarthritis can be helped by medications, splints or heat treatment. (healthywomen.org)
  • A systematic review of ultrasonography in osteoarthritis. (medscape.com)
  • The current view holds that osteoarthritis involves not only the articular cartilage but the entire joint organ, including the subchondral bone and synovium. (medscape.com)
  • Osteoarthritis refers to the breakdown of cartilage pads, sometimes called articular cartilage, that provide a cushion at joints and prevent bone from rubbing against bone. (betternutrition.com)
  • Osteoarthritis manifests itself by the destruction of the cartilage located at the level of the bone ends, which form the joints. (savedelete.com)
  • It is estimated that 240 million adults worldwide have symptomatic osteoarthritis, including more than 30 million U.S. adults. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Osteoarthritis is the cause of about 2% of years lived with disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and disability in daily life, and a heavy healthcare expense as well. (news-medical.net)
  • Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability and can have a significant impact on the physical and mental well-being of affected individuals. (medscape.com)
  • A multidisciplinary lifestyle program for metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis: the "Plants for Joints" randomized controlled trial. (pcrm.org)
  • For mild osteoarthritis, ice, anti-inflammatory medicine and physical therapy help quite a bit. (cbsnews.com)