The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A condition in which total serum protein level is below the normal range. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by protein malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, EDEMA, or PROTEINURIA.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to a phenyl group. Often used as fungicides and seed treatment agents.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Liquid components of living organisms.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from:
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Goldstein DA; Solomon AK (1960-09-01). "Determination of equivalent pore radius for human red cells by osmotic pressure ...
Some act as sensors of osmotic pressure, volume, stretch, and vibration. Most of the channels are activated or inhibited by ... TRPY, Y for "yeast", is highly localized to the yeast vacuole, which is the functional equivalent of a lysosome in a mammalian ... TRPs act as sensors of osmotic pressure, volume, stretch, and vibration. TRPs have been seen to have complex multidimensional ... and acts as a mechanosensor for vacuolar osmotic pressure. Patch clamp techniques and hyperosmotic stimulation have illustrated ...
It describes the balance between capillary pressure, interstitial pressure, and osmotic pressure. The classic Starling equation ... and enters the interstitial fluid where it would produce a flow of water equivalent to that produced by a hydrostatic pressure ... colloid osmotic pressure πi of the interstitial fluid has been found to have no effect on Jv and the colloid osmotic pressure ... of osmotic pressure across membranes that are at least partly permeable to the solute responsible for the osmotic pressure ...
Pfeffer cell The Pfeffer cell determines the osmotic pressure of a solution. The Pfeffer cell was composed of a porous ... List of publications copied from an equivalent article at the German Wikipedia. Pfeffer, Wilhelm Friedrich Philipp In: Neue ... Osmotic pressure of dissolved sucrose (german: "Rohrzucker") obtained by Pfeffer (Table 9 from "Osmotische Untersuchungen", ... The eponymous "Pfeffer cell" is named for the osmometric device he constructed for determining the osmotic pressure of a ...
... through a selectively permeable membrane and into a solution of greater concentration is equivalent to the osmotic pressure of ... Osmotic pressure is the main cause of support in many plants. The osmotic entry of water raises the turgor pressure exerted ... Osmotic pressure is a colligative property, meaning that the osmotic pressure depends on the molar concentration of the solute ... Osmotic pressure is defined as the external pressure required to be applied so that there is no net movement of solvent across ...
This pressure is equivalent to a column of water (hydraulic head) 270 meters high. However, the optimal working pressure is ... Energy portal Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) Forward osmosis Green energy Osmotic power Osmotic pressure Renewable energy ... "Osmotic power with Pressure Retarded Osmosis: Theory, performance and trends - A review". Journal of Membrane Science. 453: 337 ... Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a technique to separate a solvent (for example, fresh water) from a solution that is more ...
... decline in turgor pressure only when there is no air spaces surrounding it and eventually leads to a greater osmotic pressure ... The equivalent process in animal cells is called crenation. The liquid content of the cell leaks out due to exosmosis. The cell ... Turgor pressure allows plants to stay firm and erect, and plants without turgor pressure (known as flaccid) wilt. A cell will ... can occur if the cell is in a hypotonic solution resulting in a lower external osmotic pressure and a net flow of water into ...
The driving force for this separation is an osmotic pressure gradient, such that a "draw" solution of high concentration. CETO ... Note: "Electrical equivalent" refers to the amount of electrical energy that could be generated using a given quantity of ... Liquids boil when the vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Effectively, ... when the ambient atmospheric pressure is less than usual atmospheric pressure. Thus, because of the reduced pressure, low- ...
... as driven by osmotic pressure. Water retention, ionic changes, and acidification of the cell damages membrane-bound ... there is no metabolic partner for the reducing equivalents in the breakdown of lipids. In terms of autolysis, peroxisomes ...
Introducing the ideal gas law per unit volume for the osmotic pressure, the formula becomes identical to that of Einstein's. ... Similarly, one can derive an equivalent formula for identical charged particles of charge q in a uniform electric field of ... In his original treatment, Einstein considered an osmotic pressure experiment, but the same conclusion can be reached in other ... is the osmotic pressure and k is the ratio of the frictional force to the molecular viscosity which he assumes is given by ...
The thirst center operates similarly when certain cells in the hypothalamus are stimulated by the rising osmotic pressure of ... is equivalent to one of the individuals completing a 10 kilometer run every day. However, this study did not account for the ... If thirst is satisfied, osmotic pressure decreases. All of these functions taken together form a survival mechanism that causes ... That biomass (W) is subjected to deterioration over time from thermodynamic, entropic pressure. Metabolism is essentially ...
... or equivalent liquid). It is mainly caused by lower temperature and by pressure. The temperature component is caused by water ... Sodium, chloride and potassium are excreted in osmotic diuresis, originating from diabetes mellitus (DM). Osmotic diuresis ... The pressure component is caused by the hydrostatic pressure of the water directly increasing blood pressure. Its significance ... The substances cause an increase in the osmotic pressure within the tubule, causing retention of water within the lumen, and ...
The concentration of solutes affects many colligative properties, including increasing the osmotic pressure, and causing ... When both are three the charge structure is equivalent to that of corrundum. The structure also has a variable lattice ... In such cases, the compounds generally have very high melting and boiling points and a low vapour pressure. Trends in melting ... This means that even room temperature ionic liquids have low vapour pressures, and require substantially higher temperatures to ...
and two absorptive forces, plasma protein osmotic pressure (. π. p. {\displaystyle \pi _{p}}. ) and interstitial pressure (. P ... is the hydraulic conductivity of the membrane (SI units of m2·s·kg−1, equivalent to m·s−1·mmHg−1) ... the interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure πi has been found to have no effect on Jv and the colloid osmotic pressure ... capillary pressure (. P. c. {\displaystyle P_{c}}. ) and interstitial protein osmotic pressure (. π. i. {\displaystyle \pi _{i ...
... since there is a decrease in formation of TMA N-oxides to counterbalance the effects of a higher osmotic pressure and ... "Yeast flavin-containing monooxygenase generates oxidizing equivalents that control protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum ... that can counteract an increase in osmotic pressure and peripheral resistance. Individuals with deficient FMO3 activity have a ... There is evidence that FMOs are associated to the regulation of blood pressure. FMO3 is involved in the formation of TMA N- ...
A dose of 40 mg of furosemide is equivalent to 20 mg of torsemide and 1 mg bumetanide. Loop diuretics are principally used in ... Without such a concentrated medulla, water has less of an osmotic driving force to leave the collecting duct system, ultimately ... Musini, VM; Rezapour, P; Wright, JM; Bassett, K; Jauca, CD (2015). "Blood pressure-lowering efficacy of loop diuretics for ... The collective effects of decreased blood volume and vasodilation decrease blood pressure and ameliorate edema. Loop diuretics ...
... given this understanding of the forces involved that studies have shown that Ka varies strongly with osmotic pressure but only ... In a typical cell, an area of bilayer equivalent to the entire plasma membrane will travel through the endocytosis/exocytosis ... A model for osmotic swelling and lysis". Biophys. J. 64 (2): 435-42. Bibcode:1993BpJ....64..435H. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495(93) ... Compared to ions, water molecules actually have a relatively large permeability through the bilayer, as evidenced by osmotic ...
... is the colloid osmotic pressure within the glomerular capillaries. and Π B {\displaystyle \Pi _{B}} is the colloid osmotic ... If one removes 1440 mg in 24 h, this is equivalent to removing 1 mg/min. If the blood concentration is 0.01 mg/mL (1 mg/dL), ... Blood plasma has a good many proteins in it and they exert an inward directed force called the osmotic pressure on the water in ... Pressure = GFR ( P G − P B − Π G + Π B ) {\displaystyle K_{f}={\frac {\textrm {GFR}}{\text{Net Filt. Pressure}}}={\frac {\ ...
Similarly, she showed that Latimeria, like sharks, uses urea to regulate the osmotic pressure of its blood. On the 1951 Galatea ... She received the equivalent of a B.A., a "National Sciences Tripos, Pt.I", since Cambridge University did not grant B.A.s to ... discovering that in killifish prolactin is required to maintain osmotic balance in fresh water; this work was the underpinnings ...
It is equivalent to partial pressure for most environmental purposes. It is the absconding propensity of a material. BCF can be ... Fish, for example uptake chemicals via ingestion and osmotic gradients in gill lamellae. When working with benthic ... Fugacity is another predictive criterion for equilibrium among phases that has units of pressure. ...
Some studies also suggest that forced coughing during an injection stimulates a transient rise in blood pressure which inhibits ... Various materials can be used to manufacture implants including biodegradable polymers, osmotic release systems, and small ... it is considered to be equivalent in efficacy to IV access. It is most commonly used in emergency situations where there is not ...
The swelling pressure due to osmotic effect under constant volume can be as high as 200 bar. If not properly managed, this high ... In American English, "asphalt" is equivalent to the British "bitumen". However, "asphalt" is also commonly used as a shortened ... Under the heat (above 50 °C) and pressure of burial deep in the earth, the remains were transformed into materials such as ... The high concentration of salt in the pore solution inside the bituminised matrix is then responsible for osmotic effects ...
The receptors flatten when exposed to increased osmotic pressure, such as that experienced when swimming in sea water ... The term "crocodile tears" (and equivalents in other languages) refers to a false, insincere display of emotion, such as a ... Brady Barr's Bite Pressure Tests , Dog Facts". 3 February 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2013. Wroe, S.; ... These sense organs are known as domed pressure receptors (DPRs). Post-Cranial: While alligators and caimans have DPRs only on ...
... interface there is a gradient of the hydrostatic pressure equal to the negative of the bulk gradient in the osmotic pressure. ... which is equivalent to the rate of change of the salt concentration, divided by the salt concentration - it is effectively one ... called the osmotic pressure. Thus in the bulk the gradients obey In bulk: 0 = ∂ Π ∂ x + ∂ p s o l v ∂ x {\displaystyle {\mbox{ ... the hydrostatic pressure is, by definition (flow induced by pressure gradients in the bulk is a common but separate physical ...
The battlefield equivalent is to place the bag under the patient. The pressure on the bag sets the infusion pressure. The ... Osmotic pumps are usually recharged with a syringe. Spring-powered clockwork infusion pumps have been developed, and are ... The problem is that the flow varies dramatically with the cuff's pressure (or patient's weight), and the needed pressure varies ... The restrictor and high pressure helps control the flow better than the improvised schemes because the high pressure through ...
This allows the insect to moderate the rate of ice growth, adjust more slowly to the mechanical and osmotic pressures imposed ... glycerol is by far the most common cryoprotectant and can be equivalent to ~20% of the total body mass. Glycerol is distributed ... Glycerol is a relatively polar molecule and therefore attracts water molecules, shifting the osmotic balance and holding some ...
C it has an osmotic pressure of 2.27 MPa (22.4 atm). The osmotic pressure of the plasma affects the mechanics of the ... For example, if Hi is 0.30 or less it is not possible to save a red cell mass equivalent to two units of homologous PRBC even ... Mean Arterial Pressure BPdia = Diastolic blood pressure BPsys = Systolic blood pressure Differences in mean blood pressure are ... the average pressure of blood as it leaves the heart RAP = right atrial pressure (in mmHg), the average pressure of blood as it ...
It reduces the systolic blood pressure but doesn't alter the diastolic blood pressure, so the blood perfusion to the fetus ... The heptahydrate (epsomite) readily loses one equivalent of water to form the hexahydrate. Epsom salt takes its name from a ... Oral magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a saline laxative or osmotic purgative. ...
... blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH; the minimum physiological requirement for sodium is 500 milligrams per day.[225] ... "On Relations Among the Equivalents". Chemical News. 10: 94-95. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 25 ... 4 ions in a sea of delocalised electrons) at very high pressures (though less than the typical pressure where transitions from ... is the point where the vapour pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid[103][104] and all ...
It has been proposed that the archaea evolved from gram-positive bacteria in response to antibiotic selection pressure.[67][69] ... are similar to their bacterial equivalents.[154] In cren-[156][157] and thaumarchaea,[158] however, the cell division machinery ... including thick-walled structures that are resistant to osmotic shock and allow the archaea to survive in water at low salt ... The proposal is that the selective pressure towards resistance generated by the gram-positive antibiotics was eventually ...
The unabsorbed sugars and fermentation products also raise the osmotic pressure of the colon, causing an increased flow of ... of the lactose found in an equivalent volume of milk.[57] However, manufactured cheeses may be produced using processes that do ...
... that is to say that the ratio of solutes to water in the plasma is shifted down whereby reducing osmotic pressure in the plasma ... Likewise, the daily energy turnover rate for an ostrich with access to free water is 12,700 kJ·d−1, equivalent to 0.26 ml O2 g− ... ostrich respiration can be thought of as a high velocity-low pressure system.[62] At rest, there is small pressure differences ... When the plasma osmolality has been measured simultaneously with the maximal osmotic urine, it is seen that the urine:plasma ...
... commercial aircraft are pressurized so that the cabin air is at a pressure equivalent to no more than 8,000 feet (2,400 m) ... In a pressure-demand system, oxygen in the mask is above ambient pressure, permitting breathing above 40,000 feet (12,000 m).[4 ... In a diluter-demand system, as the altitude increases (ambient pressure, and therefore the partial pressure of ambient oxygen, ... Aviators are trained in pressure-demand breathing in altitude chambers. Because they seal tightly, pressure-demand-type oxygen ...
A marine fish has an internal osmotic concentration lower than that of the surrounding seawater, so it tends to lose water and ... The operculum can be important in adjusting the pressure of water inside of the pharynx to allow proper ventilation of the ... The fiber strain (εf) experienced by the longitudinal red muscle fibers is equivalent to the longitudinal strain (εx). The ... In sharks, this includes a rectal gland that secretes salt to help the animal maintain osmotic balance with the seawater. The ...
Equivalent circuit[edit]. See also: Steinmetz equivalent circuit. Referring to the diagram, a practical transformer's physical ... construction or of higher quality designs that include vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI), vacuum pressure encapsulation (VPE ... Transformer equivalent circuit impedance and transformer ratio parameters can be derived from the following tests: open-circuit ... However, all impedances of the equivalent circuit shown are by definition linear and such non-linearity effects are not ...
In this sense, Insecta sensu stricto is equivalent to Ectognatha.[13][16] In the narrowest circumscription, insects are ... Hemolymph pressure may be increased by muscle contractions or by swallowing air into the digestive system to aid in moulting.[ ... These tubules remove nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph of the insect and regulate osmotic balance. Wastes and solutes are ... Insecta sensu strictissimo is then equivalent to Pterygota.[17] For the purposes of this article, the middle definition is used ...
Siltation can fill a reservoir and reduce its capacity to control floods along with causing additional horizontal pressure on ... or equivalent life-cycle greenhouse gases of hydroelectricity projects, to potentially exceed that of coal power stations. ... Compared to fossil fuels generating an equivalent amount of electricity, hydro displaced three billion tonnes of CO2 emissions ...
Talks CDU-SPD under pressure because of herbicide' (in Dutch). NRC Handelsblad, 28 November 2017. ... Some companies report their product as acid equivalent (ae) of glyphosate acid, or some report it as active ingredient (ai) of ... These effects include interference with gill morphology and mortality from either the loss of osmotic stability or asphyxiation ... Given that different salts have different weights, the acid equivalent is a more accurate method of expressing and comparing ...
Osmotic pressure of plasma[edit]. The osmotic pressure of solution is determined by the number of particles present and by the ... For example, if Hi is 0.30 or less it is not possible to save a red cell mass equivalent to two units of homologous PRBC even ... C it has an osmotic pressure of 2.27 MPa (22.4 atm). The osmotic pressure of the plasma affects the mechanics of the ... The ideal blood pressure in the brachial artery, where standard blood pressure cuffs measure pressure, is ,120/80 mmHg. Other ...
The interaction of electrical and osmotic relations in plant cells [ao] indicates an osmotic function of electrical ... Equivalent electrical circuit for the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the action potential. Im and Vm represent the current through, ... In sensory neurons, an external signal such as pressure, temperature, light, or sound is coupled with the opening and closing ... an osmotic loss of salt (KCl), whereas the animal action potential is osmotically neutral, when equal amounts of entering ...
Adult Compendium of Physical Activities - a website containing lists of Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) values for a number ... Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly, albeit transiently ... "Effects of high intensity exercise training on cardiovascular function, oxygen uptake, internal oxygen transport and osmotic ... equivalent to 2.74 g of FA-HMB) ... It may seem difficult for one to reconcile that acute provision of CaHMB, in the absence of ...
Process 2-3: The high-pressure liquid enters a boiler, where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to ... The pressures before and after the compression process Equations[edit]. In general, the efficiency of a simple rankine cycle ... whereas the optimal reheat pressure needed is only one fourth of the original boiler pressure. Among other advantages, this ... Also, unless the pressure and temperature reach super critical levels in the steam boiler, the temperature range the cycle can ...
The reverse process, cytolysis, can occur if the cell is in a hypotonic solution resulting in a lower external osmotic pressure ... The equivalent process in animal cells is called crenation. The liquid content of the cell leaks out due to exosmosis. The cell ... Turgor pressure allows plants to stay firm and erect, and plants without turgor pressure (known as flaccid) wilt. A cell will ... decline in turgor pressure only when there is no air spaces surrounding it and eventually leads to a greater osmotic pressure ...
The alveolar air pressure is therefore always close to atmospheric air pressure (about 100 kPa at sea level) at rest, with the ... an equivalent set of dorsobronchi (Fig. 16).[41] The ends of the intrapulmonary bronchi discharge air into the posterior air ... This is probably brought about by the buildup of lactic acid in the active muscles causing an osmotic gradient, moving the ... A rise in the arterial partial pressure of CO2 and, to a lesser extent, a fall in the arterial partial pressure of O2, will ...
Hydrostatic and osmotic pressure gradients facilitate filtration across a semipermeable membrane. The filtrate includes water, ... Aldosterone plays a central role in regulating blood pressure through its effects on the kidney. It acts on the distal tubules ... The purpose of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels ... Reabsorption of sodium results in retention of water, which increases blood pressure and blood volume. Antidiuretic hormone ( ...
The thirst center operates similarly when certain cells in the hypothalamus are stimulated by the rising osmotic pressure of ... the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation ... That biomass (W) is subjected to deterioration over time from thermodynamic, entropic pressure. Metabolism is essentially ... is equivalent to one of the individuals completing a 10 kilometer run every day.[15] However, this study did not account for ...
In this one-pot reaction bromobenzene is converted to phenyllithium by reaction with 4 equivalents of n-butyllithium, then ... Gadallah, M. A. A. (2000). "Effects of indole-3-acetic acid and zinc on the growth, osmotic potential and soluble carbon and ... "Peculiarities of interaction in the Zn-C system under high pressures and temperatures". Diamond and Related Materials. 9 (2): ... Because of this some of the equivalent salts have the same crystal structure,[43] and in other circumstances where ionic radius ...
... the blood pressure of these individuals tends to be even more responsive to the blood pressure-raising effects of sodium than ... Sodium is an essential nutrient for human health via its role as an electrolyte and osmotic solute.[1][2][3] Excessive salt ... equivalent to 5 grams of salt per day.[5] ... and it is one factor involved in the osmotic regulation of ... He, F.J.; Li, J.; Macgregor, G.A. (3 April 2013). "Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane ...
Lee YP, Puddey IB, Hodgson JM (April 2008). "Protein, fiber and blood pressure: potential benefit of legumes". Clin Exp ... There may also be an added osmotic effect of products of bacterial fermentation on fecal mass. ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Guidelines for Determining Metric Equivalents of Household Measures ...
Liquids boil when the vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Effectively, ... Note: "Electrical equivalent" refers to the amount of electrical energy that could be generated using a given quantity of ... Because the method is free from the use of osmotic membranes it can compete with reverse osmosis method. In addition, unlike ... when the ambient atmospheric pressure is less than usual atmospheric pressure. Thus, because of the reduced pressure, low- ...
It is roughly equivalent to the previous taxon, Euascomycetes. The Pezizomycotina includes most macroscopic "ascos" such as ... Enzymatic activity and turgor pressure act to weaken and extrude the cell wall. New cell wall material is incorporated during ... Other species can resist high osmotic stress and grow, for example, on salted fish, and a few ascomycetes are aquatic. ...
In humans, sodium is an essential mineral that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH. The minimum ... Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical soap. ... and as such are the major contributor to the ECF osmotic pressure and ECF compartment volume.[citation needed] Loss of water ... Reduction of blood pressure and sodium concentration in the kidney result in the production of renin, which in turn produces ...
Variations in blood pressure of newts according to their respiratory conditions. Italian Journal of Zoology. 63:3, 201-206). ... which decreases osmotic permeability, vasotocin increases the permeability and is secreted during the summer months.[31] ... as equivalent to "water-eft" has been in use since at least the 17th century.[4] ...
Sodium levels are directly related to the osmotic pressure of the plasma. In fact, since an anion is always associated with ... Its normal value is 27/1.35 (equivalent to 20/1).. Abnormal results. Positively charged electrolytes High serum sodium levels ( ... Sodium levels are directly related to the osmotic pressure of the plasma. In fact, since an anion is always associated with ... Conditions such as the overuse of diuretics (drugs that promote lower blood pressure ) often result in low levels of both ...
The energy needed to create this equivalent zone free of solute is the work of the solute osmotic pressure times the cleared ... Π is the incremental contribution to the osmotic pressure of the solution from added solute. Osmotic pressure is, of course, a ... To avoid such tangles, only measured osmotic pressures are used in the osmotic stress approach. ... the change in water chemical potential or the osmotic pressure, Π, and the molecular volume of water, V̄w, 8 In the several ...
Determination of equivalent pore radius for human red cells by osmotic pressure measurement. J. Gen. Physiol. 44(1):1-17Google ... Perturbation of red cell volume: Rectification of osmotic flow. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 196:53-65Google Scholar ...
The glycocalyx exoskeleton resists life threatening osmotic pressure.. Bacteria are the cellular equivalent of invertebrates, ( ... Osmotic pressure is the force generated by the desire of water to move through a membrane to "balance" the concentration of ... The capsule physically supports and protects the cells thin membrane from rupturing under the strains of osmotic pressure. ... In the global view of the Earth as a living organism (Gaia), humans are the IMP equivalents in the Earths surface membrane. ...
Thus, restoration of medium conditions was not sensed as a hypo-osmotic stress corresponding to an equivalent change in ... 3). Efflux of K+-ions after hypo-osmotic shock could counteract the osmotic pressure applied and lead to a decrease of turgor ... a change corresponding to only approximately 0.2 bar in osmotic pressure. Like treatment with elicitors, hypo-osmotic shock ... Sensing of Osmotic Pressure Changes in Tomato Cells. Georg Felix, Martin Regenass, Thomas Boller ...
Goldstein DA; Solomon AK (1960-09-01). "Determination of equivalent pore radius for human red cells by osmotic pressure ...
"Osmolarity": The "concentration" equivalent of molarity in osmosis P = i(n/V)RT P is the osmotic pressure in atm R is the gas ... Chapter story: Use of mannitol to increase the osmotic pressure of the filtrate in the kidneys tubules for reducing excess ... Vapor pressure lowering solution with nonvolatile solute has lower vapor pressure than pure solvent (thus, higher temperature ... Pressure Henrys law (Chapter 5): At a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the ...
The movement of solvent through a membrane produces a pressure called the osmotic pressure. This happens when the pressure in ... is raised to the equivalent of the pressure moving through the membrane from the hypotonic side. ( Full Answer ) ...
... they are generally more expensive and the water flux induced by them is lower at equivalent osmotic pressures compared to NaCl. ... Ryans primary research has been on novel osmotic membrane bioreactors that couple low-pressure ultrafiltration and semi- ... A portion of the flux decline can be attributed to a reduction in the osmotic pressure driving force due to the increasing ... The driving force for water flux in OMBRs is the difference in osmotic pressure between the draw solution and the activated ...
Osmotic Pressure and Hydrostatic Pressure Are Functionally Equivalent in Their Ability to Drive Water Movement Through a ... CHAPTER 3, OSMOTIC PRESSURE AND WATER MOVEMENT Osmosis Is the Transport of Solvent Driven by a Difference in Solute ... Osmotic Pressure Drives the Net Transport of Water during Osmosis. ... The Equivalent Circuit of a Membrane Has a Resistor in Parallel with a Capacitor ...
Tetracyclines chelate calcium chloride given through the osmotic pressure. Doxazosin improves encephalopathy have frequent ... GTN, whooping cough is of administration are the equivalent for patients are combined oral contraceptive patch. ... Hormone leukotriene receptor that elevate blood pressure how much tylenol can u take a day when pregnant is used for emergency ... Hormone leukotriene receptor that elevate blood pressure is used for emergency treatment FFA, and chapter. Glucocorticosteroids ...
... other substances with osmotic potential. Extracts at 3-4% (w/v) would be equivalent to −0.2 MPa of osmotic pressure. Values ... Comparison of osmotic and allelopathic effect of grass leaf extracts on grass seed germination and radicle elongation. Plant ... Mimosa bimucronta: allelopathy and osmotic stress. Allelopathy Journal 3: 43-50. [ Links ]. ... Solutions that are highly concentrated can also generate osmotic effects in the bioassay, possibly leading to confusion with ...
SI unit of measurement that defines the number of moles of a chemical compound that contribute to a solutions osmotic pressure ... However, if the concentration is very low, osmolarity and osmolality are considered equivalent. In calculations for these two ... Both sodium and chloride ions affect the osmotic pressure of the solution. ... Φ is the osmotic coefficient, which accounts for the degree of non-ideality of the solution. In the simplest case it is the ...
The increase in colloid osmotic pressure obtained with HES is equivalent to albumin. HES results in 100% volume expansion ... Intravascular volume is known to be regulated by a number of mechanisms including the colloid osmotic pressure which is raised ... In-fusion of the colloids was guided by a predefined algorithm taking central venous pressure and arterial blood pressure into ... Osmolality and oncotic pressure: Almost all colloid solutions have a normal osmolality. The oncocity of the solution will ...
so this productivity is the career of games from success to Business to equivalent. These friends extend much wrong to fight ... The download the osmotic pressure and lowering of the freezing point has from the synthase concept on Kant( and some of the ... download the osmotic pressure and lowering of the freezing point of mixtures of salts with one another and with non 15 takes ... Your download the osmotic pressure and lowering of the freezing point of mixtures of salts with one another and with non ...
... equivalent to a zero osmotic pressure difference across the bilayer). The competition between line tension (λ ∼ 1 pN) and ... The pressure transducer measures and records the pressure (Pin) applied to the bubble through the various hydrostatic pressure ... The pressure transducer measures and records the pressure (Pin) applied to the bubble through the various hydrostatic pressure ... The pressure transducer records the hydrostatic pressure, P. in. , applied to the bubble. The surface tension across the curved ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music ... which are compositional equivalents of cell envelopes ... They flushed in a high-salt solution in the chamber to create an ... Osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow ... Osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow ...
A cell is in an isotonic solution if the osmotic pressure ins ... osmotic pressure inside the cell is equivalent to the osmotic ... Hypertonic solutions also have higher osmotic pressure than red blood cells, causing the cells to shed water. Crenation of red ... Hypotonic solutions have lower osmotic pressure than red blood cells, causing the cells to take in additional water. ... pressure of the solution surrounding the cell. Plasma is the primary isotonic solution for red blood cells. ...
... relationship means that without the reduction of luminal osmotic pressure due to epithelial transport of acid-base equivalents ... Additionally, an osmotic coefficient of 0.7 for CaCO3 was included in the estimate of a reduction on luminal osmotic pressure ... osmotic pressure would be fatal or near fatal to most marine teleosts underscoring the significance of luminal osmotic pressure ... one would therefore expect a reduction on osmotic pressure of 105 mosmol (50 mmol l-1 Ca2++100 mmol l-1 HCO3-×osmotic ...
Albumin is responsible for 70-80% of the colloid osmotic pressure of normal plasma, thus making it useful in regulating and ... This bottle contains 12.5 g albumin from venous plasma in saline and is osmotically equivalent to an equal volume of normal ... Its effectiveness in reversing hypovolemia depends largely upon its colloid osmotic pressure. Although crystalloid solutions ... When BUMINATE 5%, Albumin (Human), 5% Solution is used following injuries or surgery, the quick rise in blood pressure which ...
In one embodiment, means 18 is an osmotically effective solute that exhibits an osmotic pressure gradient across film 18 ... as this example and other equivalents thereof will become apparent to those versed in the art in the light of the present ... expressed per atmosphere of hydrostatic or osmotic pressure difference across film 17 at the temperature of use. The ... Device for dispensing drug by combined diffusional and osmotic operations Abstract. A device is disclosed for delivering an ...
Colligative properties of solutions, Raoult s Law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, osmosis and osmotic pressure; ... Nuclear spin, NMR active nuclei, principle of proton magnetic resonance, equivalent and non-equivalent protons. Measurement of ... Viscosity, temperature and pressure relationships in magmas; IUGS classification of plutonic and volcanic rocks; nucleation and ... Volumetric Analysis: Equivalent weights, different types of solutions, normal and molar solutions. Primary and secondary ...
... to approximate the osmotic pressure of normal lachrymal fluids which is equivalent to a 0.9 percent solution of sodium chloride ... the tonicity agent will be employed in an amount to provide a final osmotic value of 200 to 450 mOsm/kg and more preferably ...
The treating solution for contact lenses is typically maintained at an osmotic pressure similar to that of physiological saline ... i.e., substantially isotonic, or equivalent to 0.9% saline, or with suitable agents alone or in combination to render the ...
... the osmotic pressure, the equivalent conductivity, the interfacial tension and/or the density. Each of these parameters can be ...
It must not be prescribed when other methods like local radiation to the osmotic pressure than the equivalent im dose. Why does ...
... plasma protein concentration and colloid osmotic pressure. Any proteins that are roughly 30 kilodaltons or under can pass ... equivalent to ten times the blood volume daily. Measuring the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a diagnostic test of kidney ... A ) Blood pressure. B ) How much water a person excretes. C ) Total blood volume. D ) pH. E ) all of the above. 7. Why do ... This causes blood pressure as well as blood volume to increase. Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) is released by the atria of ...
Beyond 24 hours, albumin can be used to maintain plasma colloid osmotic pressure. Albuked 25 may be preferred for this purpose. ... 0.5 g per 100 mL with a plasma oncotic pressure of 20 mm Hg (equivalent to a total plasma protein concentration of 5.2 g per ... administration of albumin may serve the double purpose of supporting the colloid osmotic pressure of the plasma as well as ... In neonates or infants, Albuked 5 may be given in large amounts.(7) The recommended dose is 10 to 20 mL/kg equivalent to 0.5 to ...
... osmotic pressure.. Polyelectrolytes: conformation, electrostatic effects, the ionic atmosphere, membrane and osmotic equilibria ... 7. Constrained chain, local conformations, equivalent chain, persistent length of the chain. 8. Thermodynamics of polymer ... osmotic pressure, polydispersity, polyelectrolytes, membrane and osmotic equillibria. 12. Macromolecular gels, covalently ... Conformation statistics, freely-rotating chain, freely-jointed chain, constrained chain, equivalent chain, persistent length of ...
The osmotic pressure of natural ocean water is therefore equivalent to the osmotic pressure of one mole (1 gram molecular ... The osmotic pressure of a dilute ocean solution can also be maintained at the osmotic pressure of natural ocean water by the ... of ocean salt concentrations maintain the osmotic pressure of the solutions at the equivalent of the osmotic pressure of ... to two-fifths of the composition of ocean salt and the osmotic pressure of the solution is maintained at the osmotic pressure ...
  • The capsule physically supports and protects the cell's thin membrane from rupturing under the strains of osmotic pressure. (
  • Osmotic pressure is the force generated by the desire of water to move through a membrane to "balance" the concentration of particles on each side of the membrane barrier. (
  • The cell would swell up with water and the pressure would cause the delicate membrane bilayer to rupture, killing the cell. (
  • The osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) is a hybrid biological-physical treatment process that has been gaining interest for wastewater treatment and water reuse. (
  • The driving force for water production in OMBR is the osmotic pressure difference across the FO membrane between the activated sludge and a concentrated draw solution, which is made with inorganic or organic salts that have a high osmotic pressure at relatively low concentrations. (
  • Ryan's primary research has been on novel osmotic membrane bioreactors that couple low-pressure ultrafiltration and semi-permeable forward osmosis membranes into one integrated process. (
  • Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane . (
  • Potential osmotic pressure is the maximum osmotic pressure that could develop in a solution if it were separated from distilled water by a selectively permeable membrane. (
  • This process will stop once the pressures of the water and sugar water on both sides of the membrane become equal. (
  • Rhizobia exposed to increased salinity can maintain osmotic equilibrium across the membrane by exclusion of salts and via accumulation of compatible solutes, mainly organic osmolytes. (
  • When a reservoir of salt water is brought into contact with a reservoir of fresh water through a special kind of semipermeable membrane, the resulting osmotic phenomena make it possible to produce electricity from the salinity gradients. (
  • This can be done in two different ways: either the osmotic pressure differential between the two reservoirs can drive a turbine, or a membrane that only passes ions can be used to produce an electric current. (
  • An estimate of the equivalent radius of these channels (on the assumption of uniform right cylindrical pores) leads to a value of 3.5 Å, which is viewed as an operational description of the resistance offered by the membrane to the passage of water. (
  • Nominal pumping rates provided for ALZET pumps assume that the fluid surrounding their outer membrane is at normal mammalian osmolality (310 milliosmols/L) which is equivalent to an osmotic pressure of 7.5 atm. (
  • K + is the major intracellular cation, and its concentration affects basic physiological parameters such as turgor pressure, electrical membrane potential, ionic strength, and pH ( 34 ). (
  • The main alternative methods are: visual evoked potentials, phase-contrast magnetic resonance, transcranial Doppler, tympanic membrane displacement, intraocular pressure and acoustoelasticity. (
  • Water flow via membrane could be stopped by equivalent hydrostatic pressure of water volume. (
  • While Morse and Frazer used the same principle as Pfeffer, albeit with a more advanced electrochemical method of depositing the membrane in the pores, Berkeley and Hartley reversed the arrangement of solvent and solution, applying measured pressure to the latter to attain equilibrium. (
  • By 1928, the theoretical model in JAV Butler's popular textbook The Fundamentals of Chemical Thermodynamics was close to the familiar classroom demonstration of osmosis shown at the head of this post, in which the hydrostatic pressure acting on the solution counteracts the tendency of the solvent to pass through the semi-permeable membrane. (
  • In apparatus for the reverse osmosis purification of water or other fluid in a module containing a membrane, the water is forced into the module under pressure using two piston-cylinder assemblies mechanically interconnected with the pressurized fluid from the module applied to the rear face of the piston. (
  • The construction described above enables these high pressures to be obtained economically and efficiently because the return fluid from the membrane is applied to the rear surface of the piston or diaphragm. (
  • The pressure in the system builds up until a pressure is reached at which water will pass through the membrane on each stroke in equivalent volume to the difference in volume between the rear and front ends of the cylinder due to the presence of the operating rod. (
  • They shrink or swell in response to osmosis -- the migration of water across a membrane to equalize pressure inside and out. (
  • When a cell enters a solution with a higher osmotic pressure - such as a sugary liquid - its porous membrane tries to protect the cell by letting water out. (
  • This causes the cell membrane to shrivel up, compacting the cell to withstand the pressure from without. (
  • Salinity gradient through a membrane is the key parameter in osmotic pressure development. (
  • Osmotic Power or Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) is a burgeoning renewable energy source (RES) that converts the pressure differential between water with high salinity and water with lower or no salinity into hydraulic pressure. (
  • Whether it's reverse osmosis desalination, midstream processing in oil and gas, or osmotic power, our energy recovery technologies take this otherwise wasted pressure and capture it for further use - in a closed loop pressurized process or transforming that energy into electrical power. (
  • The revolutionary process of Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) is created by mixing of seawater and freshwater and the resulting osmotic power serves as both a renewable and consistent source of electricity. (
  • The phenomenon is called osmosis, and at equilibrium the osmotic pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure. (
  • This is important because cells live in fluids and hence are subject to the pressure of osmosis. (
  • In this study the applicability of pressure retarded osmosis power generation was investigated in order to fulfil current electricity demand in Sir Lanka. (
  • Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) process is a renewable and green technology with zero carbon emission to the environment. (
  • The colloid osmotic or oncotic properties of albumin at this moment constitute the predominant reason for its clinical use. (
  • Albumin provides the critical colloid osmotic or oncotic pressure that regulates the passage of water through the capillaries by virtue of the fact that it diffuses very poorly through the capillary walls. (
  • Compared with elicitor treatment, induction of responses by hyperosmotic shock was slow and occurred only after increases of approximately 200,000 Pa in osmotic pressure. (
  • PX technology increases the energy output and reduces the energy consumed during the osmotic power generation process - ensuring the net-positive production of electricity. (
  • As salts accumulate in soil, the soil solution osmotic pressure increases. (
  • Subsequent increases in osmotic pressure and tissue acidosis have also been related to altered endothelial morphology and function. (
  • Stirring sugar into coffee, for instance, increases its osmotic pressure. (
  • A. besseyi is able to last for a long time under hypertonic osmotic pressure, which increases the difficulty of preventing and controlling infestations of these nematodes. (
  • Vasopressin plays a key role in electrolyte homeostasis in mammals, and in a healthy adult, above a fixed threshold, vasopressin release increases linearly over a wide range of osmotic pressure. (
  • Although the threshold for osmotic stimulation of oxytocin release is similar to that for vasopressin, oxytocin secretion increases nonlinearly with osmotic pressure, suggesting that there are differences in the underlying osmoreceptor mechanisms. (
  • A colloid is defined as a high molecular weight (MW) substance that largely remains in the intravascular compartment, thereby generating an oncotic pressure. (
  • Clinically available colloids have generally exhibited similar effectiveness in maintaining colloid oncotic pressure. (
  • The Mw determines the viscosity and Mn indicates the oncotic pressure. (
  • (1) This could also be of importance in acute liver failure where albumin might serve the dual role of supporting plasma oncotic pressure, as well as binding excessive plasma bilirubin. (
  • The rationale for this is the Starling concept of the capillary balance of hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients across the capillary walls as the determinant of the fluid - i.e. volume - distribution between the intravascular and the interstitial compartment. (
  • Since the oncotic pressure of AlbuRx ® 25, Albumin (Human) 25% solution is about four times higher than that of normal human serum, it will expand the plasma volume if interstitial water is available for an inflow through the capillary walls. (
  • Albumin constitutes about 75% of the colloidal oncotic (colloidal osmotic) pressure of blood, and its single free cysteine makes up most of the reducing equivalents in blood. (
  • They may be done under the colloidal osmotic pressure resulting from one of insulin for 1. (
  • When confronted with a sudden change in medium osmolality (a hypo-osmotic or hyperosmotic shock), respectively, these cells responded with volume changes and stress symptoms such as rapid extracellular alkalinization, efflux of K + -ions, and induction of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase acid, the key enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis. (
  • Measurable medium alkalinization was induced when medium osmolality was reduced by as little as approximately 10 mosmol, a change corresponding to only approximately 0.2 bar in osmotic pressure. (
  • Exposure of cells to consecutive up- and down-shifts in medium osmolality showed that sensing of osmotic changes occurred within seconds, whereas adaptation to new osmotic conditions proceeded over hours. (
  • However, if the concentration is very low, osmolarity and osmolality are considered equivalent. (
  • Osmolality can be measured using an osmometer which measures colligative properties , such as Freezing-point depression , Vapor pressure , or Boiling-point elevation . (
  • The hemolymph osmolality of soil arthropods, such as Collembola, is usually about 300 mosm/kg ( 5 ), roughly corresponding to an osmotic pressure of −8 bars and 99.4% RH. (
  • The volume of a solvent remains the same regardless of any changes in pressure or temperature, so it is relatively easier to determine the osmolality. (
  • If the concentration of solutes in the given fluid is very low, then osmolality and osmolarity are considered to be equivalent. (
  • 2. Osmolarity deals with the concentration of an osmotic solution, while osmolality deals with the concentration of particles in a fluid. (
  • To achieve this result, the researchers developed a highly novel experimental device that enabled them, for the first time, to study osmotic fluid transport through a single nanotube. (
  • This pattern was repeated in the osmotic pressure of the body fluids, where the dehydrated animals approached water potential equilibrium with their environment at −24 bars ( Fig. 2 ). (
  • In this study we have considered how equilibrium water content of the human nucleus pulposus varies with applied pressure for discs of various spinal levels and of various ages. (
  • In all cases hydration decreased as pressure increased but the level of equilibrium hydration depended on the relative amounts of collagen and PG in the tissue. (
  • At equilibrium, the hydrostatic pressure P is equal to the osmotic pressure. (
  • whereby as water flows into the compartment (2) of the dispenser in a tendency towards osmotic equilibrium with its environment, corresponding pressure is exerted behind the barrier (3) driving it into and diminishing the volume of the compartment (1), in turn continuously ejecting active agent thereout at an osmotically controlled rate over a prolonged period of time. (
  • The vapor-pressure of a liquid is the equilibrium pressure of the gas molecules from that liquid (that is, the results of evaporation) above the liquid itself. (
  • If, rather than pure water, an aqueous solution is positioned in the glass, the equilibrium pressure will be lower than it would be for pure water. (
  • Osmotic stress emphasizes the role of the water that is necessarily included if solutes are excluded. (
  • Conditions that promote increased sodium, called hypernatremia, do so without promoting an equivalent gain in water. (
  • Many other conditions, such as congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and renal disease result in renal retention of sodium, but an equivalent amount of water is retained as well. (
  • The height of the liquid column on that side will then rise (and that on the other side will drop ) proportional to the pressure of the two solutions due to movement of the pure water from the compartment without sugar into the compartment containing the sugar water. (
  • Hypotonic solutions have lower osmotic pressure than red blood cells, causing the cells to take in additional water. (
  • Hypertonic solutions also have higher osmotic pressure than red blood cells, causing the cells to shed water. (
  • Most vertebrates residing in the marine environment maintain extracellular fluid osmotic pressure much below that of the surrounding water and are therefore faced with continuous dehydration ( Marshall and Grosell, 2005 ). (
  • In these animals, ingestion of seawater and subsequent intestinal salt and water absorption offsets the osmotic fluid loss to allow for hydromineral homeostasis and is accompanied by compensatory excretion of monovalent ions by the gill and divalent ions by the kidney ( Marshall and Grosell, 2005 ). (
  • Undissociated, non-toxic, organic compounds and inorganic silicate compounds which are polymerized in the presence of acid phosphate salts added to the solutions having from one-third to two-fifths of ocean salt concentrations maintain the osmotic pressure of the solutions at the equivalent of the osmotic pressure of natural ocean water and provide media for aquariums which will support both fresh water and salt water fish. (
  • The amount of sodium contained in a quart of softened, 18 grain per gallon water is equivalent to a normal slice of white bread. (
  • and a sufficient amount of at least one essentially neutral, water-soluble compatible salt to provide a solution salt content equivalent to about 0.5 to 1.8% sodium chloride. (
  • This RH corresponds to a water potential deficit of about 17 bars between the environment and the normal body fluid osmotic pressure of these animals. (
  • We investigated this phenomenon by monitoring the water content, the hemolymph osmotic pressure, and the sugar and polyol (SP) contents of F. candida over a 7-day period of dehydration in an atmosphere maintained at a constant 98.2% RH. (
  • They lost a third of their initial total water content, equivalent to a loss of half of their osmotically active body water (OAW) ( Fig. 1 ), and became wrinkled in appearance and inactive, responding only to strong tactile stimulation. (
  • A loss of half of their OAW should result in an osmotic pressure of about −15 bars, so these animals should still be suffering from a water potential deficit with their environment. (
  • However, the animals actively increased their osmotic pressure to halt water efflux. (
  • PX Pressure Exchanger devices are an essential component of an osmotic power plant, maintaining high osmotic pressure in the system by recycling the water pressure with extremely high efficiency. (
  • Osmotic power is the process of converting the pressure differential between water with high salinity and water with lower or no salinity into hydraulic pressure. (
  • Diagram of the experimental principle: the osmotic transport of water through a transmembrane boron nitride nanotube. (
  • This figure has been compared with the rate of water entrance under an osmotic pressure gradient, and has been found to be smaller by a factor of 2.5. (
  • When salt levels in the soil become too high, the osmotic pressure within the soil is increased to the point that soil water is held too tightly for plant roots to be able to absorb it. (
  • Traube's compatriot Wilhelm Pfeffer, a botanist, succeded in depositing the latter in the walls of a porous jar, which when filled with a sugar solution, connected to a mercury manometer and then plunged into pure water, provided a means of measuring osmotic pressures. (
  • As is explained in the aforementioned specification, with this arrangement, fluid may be forced into the module at a very high pressure such that water purification can be obtained. (
  • For brackish water, a pressure of the order of 300 to 500 p.s.i. would be necessary whilst for seawater, since the osmotic pressure is higher, a pressure typically of the order of 600 to 1000 p.s.i. might be necessary. (
  • Osmotic pressure causes a cell placed in salt water to shrink. (
  • Plasmolysis vs. turgidity == Both plasmolysis and turgidity are influenced by the osmotic movements of water due to the differing water potential and solute concentrations of two solutions. (
  • Life is based on water, so cells have an internal osmotic pressure. (
  • Water potential may be defined as the difference in free energy per unit volume, between pure water and osmotic ally constrained metrically bound or pressurized water (e.g., solution) at the same temperature. (
  • So, water potential of any system is equivalent to the chemical potential of water in that system. (
  • Water potential is denoted by the symbol of (Psi, a Greek letter) and is measured in terms of pressure e.g., bars or atmospheres. (
  • The term pressure potential is the Hydrostatic pressure that a cell exerts from time to time due to osmotic entry of water into the cell. (
  • i.e., the water potential of plant cells is the sum of solute potential and pressure potential. (
  • Osmoregulatory stress can result when fishes are transported or when they are removed from water of one osmotic pressure and placed into one which is significantly different. (
  • At room temperature, the vapor-pressure of pure water is around 20 Torr, which is around one-fourth of the net atmospheric pressure on a 'normal' day at sea level. (
  • Theoretically it is a pressure increment of 26 bar which is equivalent to 270 m high water column for fixed volume of salt water compartment. (
  • This hydrostatic pressure can be used to generate electricity by sending pressurized water through a turbine. (
  • Both these functions depend on the high water content of the cartilage matrix, allied to a low hydraulic permeability and a high swelling pressure. (
  • In control plants turgor pressure of the expanding cells was about 0.45 MPa while tissue osmotic pressure was equal to 1.1 MPa showing that the cell had a low water potential (-0.6 MPa). (
  • Intrapleural pressure which is a depression on the skin in situ for several oils useful for evaluating skin permeation propylene glycol water gels as a technique (or techniques), which allows an opportunity to rapidly penetrate further a theorized electrical barrier at the same pan to cook for another burst of strenuous exercise Mild exercise it is only a few cups of bone matrix and minerals. (
  • a unit of osmotic pressure equivalent to the amount of solute that dissociates in solution to form one mole (Avogadro's number) of particles (molecules and ions). (
  • Being essentially an attempt to provide hypothesis-free support to van 't Hoff's troubled gaseous theory of solutions, the solute in Rayleigh's cycle was a mole of ideal gas, which was first dissolved in the solution by applied pressure and then recovered from the solution by osmotic pressure to return the system to its original state. (
  • Solute potential is also otherwise known as osmotic potential. (
  • The term solute potential is a new term for osmotic pressure. (
  • The value of solute potential of a solution is same as that of osmotic pressure but with a negative sign and is expressed in bars. (
  • what I mean is that in case of urine analysis we can maintain constant temperature, pressure and obviously we are not goin to add any extra solute in sample…so we can measure osmolaRITY. (
  • In case of blood its under dynamic condition… volume and pressure are changing solutes are added n removed always… once we take a sample and analyse osmolarity 1, on sampling next time we get a value of osmolarity 2… both value are not pure indicator of solute as they are biased by temperature, pressure changes and other solutes which are not our focus…and so is the ERROR. (
  • Lack of digestion of lactose results in an increased number of solute particles in the large bowel with a concomitant increase in osmotic pressure. (
  • Data presented in this study revealed that Orc 6 yeast isolate tolerated osmotic stress above 12% (w/v) sorbitol and 15% (w/v) sucrose equivalent of osmotic pressure thus exhibiting superior osmotolerance than the reference production wine yeast strain. (
  • Following Pfeffer's osmotic pressure measurements using sucrose solutions, on which JH van 't Hoff based his famously flawed gaseous theory of solutions, there were two notable teams of experimentalists - one on each side of the Atlantic - which provided high quality osmotic pressure data to test the ideas of theoreticians. (
  • The pre-inoculum was obtained from yeast cultures maintained on malt-agar slants at 4ºC and inoculated in 50 mL of 15ºP wort (°Plato, equivalent to g of sucrose in 100 g wort). (
  • This bottle contains 12.5 g albumin from venous plasma in saline and is osmotically equivalent to an equal volume of normal human plasma. (
  • Beyond 24 hours, albumin can be used to maintain plasma colloid osmotic pressure. (
  • The effective colloid osmotic pressure of the serum proteins depends very largely on the relatively small and numerous albumin molecules, which therefore play a decisive role in the maintenance of the circulating plasma volume. (
  • Albumin is available in either 5% or 25% solution osmotically equivalent to normal plasma. (
  • The properties are vapour pressure depression, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and osmotic pressure. (
  • Illustrations of Colligative properties comprise vapor pressure reduction, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression and osmotic pressure. (
  • There has been much confusion recently about the relative merits of different approaches, osmotic stress, preferential interaction, and crowding, to describe the indirect effect of solutes on macromolecular conformations and reactions. (
  • And this difference in pressure of the two compartments is the osmotic pressure (ΔΠ ) of solutes. (
  • where ΔP is the difference in hydrostatic pressure, R is ideal gas constant (8.31 J / mol x K), T is the body temperature in Kelvins (37°C = 310.15 °K), ΔC is the difference in molar concentration of solutes. (
  • The volume of a solution will change with the addition of solutes, and also with any change in the temperature or pressure. (
  • Usually, one anticipates that the solutes which are liquids in their pure form (like ethyl alcohol) will encompass some vapor pressure of their own, while ionic compounds (like sodium chloride) will not contribute to the net vapor pressure over the solution. (
  • The osmotic pressure of osmotically active solutes present in the cell wall, nwr was almost negligible i. e. 4 0.1 MPa, in mature cells and so could not contribute to turgor maiýtenance. (
  • Preferential hydration and osmotic stress both are based on the Gibbs-Duhem equation. (
  • Sodium in the body regulates the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma to assure the proper blood volume. (
  • Potassium is the intracellular electrolyte, sodium the extracellular, and osmotic pressure must be balanced. (
  • Our sweet spot is where high fluid and high-pressure flows exist simultaneously. (
  • Dies wird durch das Eintauchen der verpacktenKeywords High pressure processing Á Produkte in ein druckubertragendes Fluid, im Nor- ¨Inactivation of bacteria and their spores Á malfall Wasser, erreicht. (
  • To estimate osmotic pressure between the cerebrospinal fluid and glial/neuronal cytoplasm the above Formula 3 is used. (
  • 5. Apparatus as claimed in claim 4 wherein said controlled valve means are controlled in response to the pressure rise in the supply fluid at the end of a stroke. (
  • this may be a non-return valve or it may be a valve which is controlled by the fluid pressure or by the movement of the ram or in synchronism therewith. (
  • Usually, in the case of beverages with electrolytes only, 280 mOsm (same osmotic pressure as bodily fluid) is absorbed quickest. (
  • Naturally occurring gastrointestinal disease is an important cause of acute hypoproteinemia in adult horses and hydroxyethyl starch colloid fluid treatment is a component of supportive care in these cases to improve plasma volume and maintain colloid osmotic pressure (COP). (
  • 233 234 ALICE MAROUDAS The latter is important in determining ionic equilibria between cartilage and synovial fluid and the swelling pressure of cartilage. (
  • Similarly, abrupt turgor changes imposed by osmotic shock cause crystalloid dispersal. (
  • The diagram shows a solution under hydrostatic pressure P which is equal to the osmotic pressure. (
  • The download the osmotic pressure and lowering of the freezing point of mixtures of salts with escapes the first description of Kant's dropped not the opportune liposome of his m-d-y. view not for a active Critique in our milieu. (
  • When I came about numbered--had this, when I got small clients about it, download the osmotic pressure and lowering of the freezing point of mixtures of salts with one another and with non electrolytes in aqueous solutions has to take it has about a knowing muscle that you would find developing those items out Negative. (
  • Americana kills phantom experiences a otiose download the osmotic pressure and lowering of the freezing point of mixtures of salts with one another and of rhodamine humanities, references and relevant conspiracies. (
  • Increasing salt concentrations have a detrimental effect on rhizobial populations as a result of direct toxicity or through osmotic stress. (
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an osmotic dispenser, and, more especially, to an osmotic dispenser, simple in construction, capable of releasing to its outside environment concentrations of active agent at an osmotically controlled rate over a prolonged period of time. (
  • After the application of the stress the turgor pressure dropped within 15- 20 min of the application of all the concentrations of NaCl. (
  • The concentrations of major ions and sugars were determined to measure their contribution towards the osmotic adjustment. (
  • This medicine is used to treat high blood pressure and chest pain caused by angina. (
  • Dieknowledge and future developments of high pressure Wirksamkeit hoher hydrostatischer Drucke bei der ¨processing (HPP). (
  • Hydrostatic high pressure technol- Behandlung von Lebensmitteln beruht auf der durchogy is relatively new to food industry and is more and technische Systeme erzwungenen Fluidkontraktionmore considered as an alternative to traditional und den damit ausgelosten physikalischen und ¨preservation methods like heat processing. (
  • Application: As a sweetener with high osmotic pressure, maltodextrin can maintain the flavor and extend the shelf life in preserved fruits, glazed fruits, jams etc. (
  • Pancreatic polypeptide, but high circulating equivalent of functional ability of blindness in morning headache as cardiac damage. (
  • The sugar causes a region of high osmotic pressure to effortlessly draw the juice from the onions. (
  • 1975), high osmotic pressure (Nagatani et al. (
  • However, the accumulation was reversed through rapid efflux during osmotic downshock. (
  • The powerful perspectives of osmotic stress, preferential hydration, and crowding grow out of a common origin in solution theory ( 8 ). (
  • In chemistry , the osmole ( Osm ) is a non- SI unit of measurement that defines the number of moles of a chemical compound that contribute to a solution 's osmotic pressure . (
  • Both sodium and chloride ions affect the osmotic pressure of the solution. (
  • Φ is the osmotic coefficient, which accounts for the degree of non-ideality of the solution. (
  • A cell is in an isotonic solution if the osmotic pressure inside the cell is equivalent to the osmotic pressure of the solution surrounding the cell. (
  • the quantity of a substance in solution in the form of molecules, ions, or both (usually expressed in grams) that has the same osmotic pressure as one mole of an ideal nonelectrolyte. (
  • A solution with a specific gravity and an osmotic pressure greater than one, or greater than the solution to which it is being compared. (
  • A solution with the same osmotic pressure as the solution with which it is being compared. (
  • A solution that has a concentration of electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, or both that will exert osmotic pressure equivalent to that of the solution with which it is being compared. (
  • 1] Vaporize 1 mole of the pure solvent at its vapor pressure p 0 , and expand it reversibly so that the vapor pressure falls to p equal to the partial pressure of the solvent in the solution (Butler assumes that p is not affected by P applied to the solution). (
  • Cluster Dextrin contributes little to osmotic pressure, and has a relatively low propensity for retrogradation, sludging, and/or caking of a clear solution. (
  • A solution of Cluster Dextrin has the following characteristics compared to other dextrins of similar Dextrose Equivalent. (
  • Low osmotic pressure of the solution. (
  • That is, if low molecular weight carbohydrates such as glucose are used, osmotic pressure becomes higher even if the concentration is the same (620 mOsm in 10% solution), and only leads to preparation of slow gastric emptying beverages. (
  • An osmole is a quantity of dissolved particles that contributes to the osmotic pressure of a solution. (
  • The more sugar you stir in, the higher the osmotic pressure of the solution. (
  • Osmolarity is the concentration of an osmotic solution. (
  • Both the solutions encompass the similar freezing point, boiling point, vapor pressure and osmotic pressure as those Colligative properties of a solution based only on the number of dissolved particles. (
  • This hydraulic pressure can be used to drive a turbine that produces electrical energy. (
  • In conclusion, suspension-cultured plant cells display rapid, easily measurable macroscopic responses to osmotic shock and provide an interesting model system to study osmoregulation, a key process in plant growth and development. (
  • In this report we compared responses of suspension-cultured tomato ( Lycopersion esculentum ) cells treated with elicitor preparations with the ones observed after hypo-osmotic or hyperosmotic shock. (
  • Cells proved particularly sensitive to hypo-osmotic conditions and responded to pressure changes as small as approximately 0.2 bar. (
  • However, using new techniques to isolate and visualize cells in different environments, the Stanford team proved that cell wall growth occurred regardless of the pressures exerted on the cell - whether from inside or out. (
  • Turgor pressure in th e growing cells did not change after the salt addition (0- 150 mol m-3 NaCl), however, the tissue osmotic pressure continuously increased with time. (
  • Turgor pressure dropped when more -3 than 150 mol m NaCl were applied to the media i. e. 200 and 250 mol m. -3 This is presented as evidence that growing leaf cells - maintained their turgor pressure In response. (
  • A different turgor pressure response was found in the mature cells. (
  • Turgor pressure was about 1.0 MPa, almost twice that in the growing cells, while tissue osmotic pressure was similar to that found in the growing cells i. e. 1.1 MPa. (
  • The possible use of turgor pressure recovery in the mature cells was investigated for assessing the extent of salt tolerance of various Pakistani wheat varieties. (
  • The 25% concentration is oncotically equivalent to approximately five times its volume of normal human plasma. (
  • One test measures the increase in the concentration of glucose in blood following administration of a load of lactose (1 g/kg up to 50 g/kg, equivalent to a liter of milk). (
  • There are enormous benefits with osmotic power, namely that it's the cleanest, most reliable source of renewable energy on the planet, it is always available and more cost-effective than solar or wind power, has a small ecological footprint and it recycles natures resources (seawater or wastewater). (
  • In contrast, hypo-osmotic shock induced responses without measurable lag and faster than elicitor treatments. (
  • Like treatment with elicitors, hypo-osmotic shock induced specific changes in protein phosphorylations as demonstrated by in vivo labeling with [ 33 P]orthophosphate. (
  • The article, which describes a process known as "osmotic shock," was co-authored by Julie Theriot, PhD, a professor of biochemistry and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford's School of Medicine. (
  • Perturbation of red cell volume: Rectification of osmotic flow. (
  • The plasma volume has a direct effect on the total blood volume, which has a direct effect on your blood pressure. (
  • Albuked 5 is oncotically equivalent volume for volume to normal human plasma. (
  • When administered intravenously to an adequately hydrated subject, the oncotic (colloid osmotic) effect of Albuked 5 is to expand the circulating blood volume by an amount approximately equal to the volume infused. (
  • In closed and rigid cranium, the change of compartmental volume will lead to a pressure difference. (
  • La osmolalidad de una solucion es el numero de osmoles de soluto por kg de solvente, en tanto que osmolaridad es el numero de osmoles de soluto por litro de solucion. (
  • sg] depends on the total osmotic load consumed and the number of osmoles in vitamin tablets is small compared to the total osmotic load of daily food intake, vitamin ingestion does not influence [U. (
  • A plant cell, for instance, is normally turgid due to the [[turgor pressure]] of the protoplasm. (
  • Asymmetric cell shape depends on the ability of oriented layers of cellulose microfibrils to channel the nondirectional drive of turgor pressure. (
  • Turgor pressure recovery, due to osmotic adjustment, started after about 10-12 h of the stress initiation. (
  • Nevertheless, in a moistened soil environment, A. besseyi is constantly exposed to various osmotic conditions and little is known about the ability of A. besseyi to withstand osmotic stresses. (
  • The degree of hydrolysis expressed as dextrose equivalent (DE) is not less than 20 (nominal value). (
  • The paradox is that, even though the theoretical basis as presented in osmotic stress is incorrect, the experiments have produced correct numerical values of changes in preferential hydration, δ(∂ m 1 /∂ m 2 ), because the plots used [equations such as Eqs. (
  • Concentrated at the mouths of rivers, the Earth s osmotic energy potential has a theoretical capacity of at least 1 terawatt the equivalent of 1,000 nuclear reactors. (
  • Rayleigh's approach, using a zero-sum cycle of operations, was thermodynamically sound and continued to form the basis of theoretical development in its next phase, which in Europe focused on vapor pressure following the influential papers of Alfred Porter in 1907 and Hugh Callendar in 1908. (
  • While still the in the early stages, the best estimates of global production potential of osmotic power exceed 1,600 terawatt hours, or the equivalent of half of Europe's entire energy demand. (
  • The LRS group had a significantly lower colloid osmotic pressure than the other two groups, and the HES group had a substantially higher blood viscosity. (
  • No obviously different phenotype was observed from any of the genes silenced individually or simultaneously, but the survival under hypertonic osmotic pressure reduced significantly and the recovery was delayed. (
  • Contact area (CA), mean contact pressure (MCP), and peak contact pressure (PCP) measurements were recorded with the pressure sensing system. (
  • This is because the higher osmolarity outside the cell relative to inside creates osmotic pressure directed towards the outside of the cell. (
  • Our approach is through the Gibbs-Duhem relation, the universal constraint on the number of ways it is possible to change the temperature, pressure, and chemical potentials of the several components in any thermodynamically defined system. (
  • For the synthesis of PEG-PDLLA, keep the ratio of catalyst to initiator bellow 0.5 equivalents to obtain polymers with low PDI. (
  • The popular and instructive application of osmotic stress ( 1 ) has been used to measure the changes in macromolecular hydration for several reactions. (
  • Pressure Henry's law (Chapter 5): At a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid (e.g. (
  • A team led by physicists at the Institut Lumi re Mati re in Lyon (CNRS/Universit Claude Bernard Lyon 1), in collaboration with the Institut N el (CNRS), has discovered a new means of harnessing this energy: osmotic flow through boron nitride nanotubes generates huge electric currents, with 1,000 times the efficiency of any previous system. (
  • The spherical polymerosomes were then transformed to nanotubes by inducing osmotic pressure. (
  • This gene encodes a major glycine betaine/proline betaine transporter from the betaine choline carnitine transporter family and is required for early osmotic adjustment. (
  • Two transport systems for betaines have been fully characterized: the Hut system, an ATP-binding cassette histidine transporter also involved in low-affinity glycine betaine transport ( 4 ), and the BetS system, a betaine choline carnitine transporter (BCCT) required for early osmotic adjustment ( 5 ). (
  • Tissue osmotic pressure increased continuously with time. (
  • Its effectiveness in reversing hypovolemia depends largely upon its colloid osmotic pressure. (
  • However, our research revealed that gastric emptying when the beverages contain carbohydrates, with a low osmotic pressure beverage of approximately 150 mOsm, is the shortest in proportion to the osmotic pressure of the beverage and gastric emptying (transfer time from stomach to intestine)*1). (
  • Therefore, I present a precise molecular concept of the intracranial pressure genesis. (
  • Just because a hypothesis has been around for decades does not necessarily imply that it is correct," Suel said, adding that the link between internal pressure and cell growth had emerged from less sophisticated experiments, while the Stanford team used modern techniques to "provide a new molecular understanding of bacterial cell growth. (
  • that is, if two thirds of the molecules are solvent molecules, the vapor pressure because of the solvent is around two-thirds of what it would be for pure solvent at that temperature. (
  • One effect of this lowering in vapor pressure might be noticed in a spilled can of soda. (
  • and, (e) wherein, when the device is in operation in the environment of use, the device continuously delivers agent by combined diffusional and osmotic operations, to the environment of use over a prolonged period of time. (
  • We performed similar experiments in rats made chronically hyponatremic ( Verbalis, 1984 ), to study neuronal responses outside the normal range of osmotic pressure changes. (
  • Both plasmolysis and cytolysis are influenced by osmotic movement due to different osmotic pressures. (