The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A condition in which total serum protein level is below the normal range. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by protein malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, EDEMA, or PROTEINURIA.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to a phenyl group. Often used as fungicides and seed treatment agents.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Liquid components of living organisms.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.

Aggregation of deoxyhemoglobin S at low concentrations. (1/2823)

The self-association of deoxyhemoglobin S was measured in dilute solutions (0 to 5 g/dl) by Rayleigh light scattering at 630 nm and osmometry in 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.35). Weight and number average molecular weights (Mw and Mn, respectively) and the second or higher virial coefficients, B' were determined. No experimentally significant differences were observed between oxy- and deoxy-Hb S up to the concentration of 2 g/dl; their apparent average molecular weights were within experimental error. Above that concentration, both Mn and Mw of deoxy-Hb S were significantly different from that of oxy-Hb S. The negative second viral coefficent of deoxy-Hb S, observed by both techniques, is consistent with the self-association of this protein. The lack of effect of 0.4 M propylurea on the state of aggregation and the significant influence of 0.1 M NaCl suggests that polar interactions are involved in formation of these aggregates.  (+info)

Volume regulation following hypotonic shock in isolated crypts of mouse distal colon. (2/2823)

1. A video-imaging technique of morphometry was used to measure the diameter as an index of cell volume in intact mouse distal colon crypts submitted to hypotonic shock. 2. Transition from isotonic (310 mosmol l-1) to hypotonic (240 mosmol l-1) saline caused a pronounced increase in crypt diameter immediately followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). 3. Exposure of crypts to Cl--free hyposmotic medium increased the rapidity of both cell swelling and RVD. Exposure of crypts to Na+-free hyposmotic medium reduced the total duration of swelling. Return to initial diameter was followed by further shrinkage of the crypt cells. 4. The chloride channel inhibitor NPPB (50 microM) delayed the swelling phase and prevented the subsequent normal decrease in diameter. 5. The K+ channel blockers barium (10 mM), charybdotoxin (10 nM) and TEA (5 mM) inhibited RVD by 51, 44 and 32 %, respectively. 6. Intracellular [Ca2+] rose from a baseline of 174 +/- 17 nM (n = 8) to 448 +/- 45 nM (n = 8) during the initial swelling phase 7. The Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil (50 microM) and nifedipine (10 microM), the chelator of intracellular Ca2+ BAPTA AM (30 microM), or the inhibitor of Ca2+ release TMB-8 (10 microM), dramatically reduced volume recovery, leading to 51 % (n = 9), 25 % (n = 7), 37 % (n = 6), 32 % (n = 8) inhibition of RVD, respectively. TFP (50 microM), an antagonist of the Ca2+-calmodulin complex, significantly slowed RVD. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) provoked a dramatic reduction of the duration and amplitude of cell swelling followed by extensive shrinkage. The release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores using bradykinin (1 microM) or blockade of reabsorption with thapsigargin (1 microM) decreased the duration of RVD. 8. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 5 microM) slightly delayed RVD, whereas leukotriene D4 (LTD4, 100 nM) and arachidonic acid (10 microM) reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of phospholipase A2 by quinacrine (10 microM) inhibited RVD by 53 %. Common inhibition of PGE2 and LTD4 synthesis by ETYA (50 microM) or separate blockade of PGE2 synthesis by 1 microM indomethacin reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of LTD4 synthesis by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) did not produce any significant effect on cell swelling or subsequent RVD. 9. Staurosporine (1 microM), an inhibitor of protein kinases, inhibited RVD by 58 %. Taken together the experiments demonstrate that the RVD process is under the control of conductive pathways, extra- and intracellular Ca2+ ions, protein kinases, prostaglandins and leukotrienes.  (+info)

Mechanosensitive channel functions to alleviate the cell lysis of marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, by osmotic downshock. (3/2823)

The mechanosensitive channel with large conductance of Escherichia coli is the first to be cloned among stretch-activated channels. Although its activity was characterized by a patch clamp method, a physiological role of the channel has not been proved. The marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, is sensitive to osmotic stress and cell lysis occurs under osmotic downshock. We introduced an mscL gene into Vibrio alginolyticus, and the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance functions was found to alleviate cell lysis by osmotic downshock. This is the first report to show a physiological role of the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance.  (+info)

Stress- and cell type-dependent regulation of transfected c-Jun N-terminal kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase isoforms. (4/2823)

The cJun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are encoded by three genes generating ten protein kinase polypeptides and are activated in settings of cell stress, mitogenesis, differentiation and morphogenesis. The specific role of the JNK family members in these diverse cell programmes is largely undefined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that individual JNK isoforms would exhibit distinct patterns of regulation within cells. The cDNAs encoding five haemagglutinin (HA)-tagged JNK isoforms (p46JNK1alpha, p54JNK2alpha, p54JNK2beta, p46JNK3 and p54JNK3) were expressed in cultured rat PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells and human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. In addition, HA-tagged forms of the dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), MKK4 and MKK7, which are specific activators of the JNK enzymes, were similarly expressed. Reverse transcription and PCR revealed that JNK3 is endogenously expressed in SCLC cells, but not in either chromaffin or neuronally differentiated PC12 cells. MKK4 and MKK7 were endogenously expressed in both PC12 cells and SHP77 cells. Immunoprecipitation and analysis of the JNKs expressed in SCLC cells revealed strong stimulation of all five JNK isoforms by UV radiation. Hypertonic stress, elicited by mannitol, also significantly stimulated these same JNKs, although the JNK3 isoforms were most strongly activated. In PC12 cell transfectants, however, selective and equal activation of p54JNK2alpha and p54JNK3 by UV and osmotic stress was observed, with little or no activation of JNK1alpha or JNK2beta. In contrast with the broad activation of the JNK enzymes by UV in SCLC cells, only HA-MKK4 was stimulated by UV exposure in these cells, whereas osmotic stress stimulated both HA-MKK4 and HA-MKK7. These findings indicate selective activation of JNK and MKK isoforms in a manner that is dependent upon the specific cell stress and the cell type.  (+info)

Osmosensing by bacteria: signals and membrane-based sensors. (5/2823)

Bacteria can survive dramatic osmotic shifts. Osmoregulatory responses mitigate the passive adjustments in cell structure and the growth inhibition that may ensue. The levels of certain cytoplasmic solutes rise and fall in response to increases and decreases, respectively, in extracellular osmolality. Certain organic compounds are favored over ions as osmoregulatory solutes, although K+ fluxes are intrinsic to the osmoregulatory response for at least some organisms. Osmosensors must undergo transitions between "off" and "on" conformations in response to changes in extracellular water activity (direct osmosensing) or resulting changes in cell structure (indirect osmosensing). Those located in the cytoplasmic membranes and nucleoids of bacteria are positioned for indirect osmosensing. Cytoplasmic membrane-based osmosensors may detect changes in the periplasmic and/or cytoplasmic solvent by experiencing changes in preferential interactions with particular solvent constituents, cosolvent-induced hydration changes, and/or macromolecular crowding. Alternatively, the membrane may act as an antenna and osmosensors may detect changes in membrane structure. Cosolvents may modulate intrinsic biomembrane strain and/or topologically closed membrane systems may experience changes in mechanical strain in response to imposed osmotic shifts. The osmosensory mechanisms controlling membrane-based K+ transporters, transcriptional regulators, osmoprotectant transporters, and mechanosensitive channels intrinsic to the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli are under intensive investigation. The osmoprotectant transporter ProP and channel MscL act as osmosensors after purification and reconstitution in proteoliposomes. Evidence that sensor kinase KdpD receives multiple sensory inputs is consistent with the effects of K+ fluxes on nucleoid structure, cellular energetics, cytoplasmic ionic strength, and ion composition as well as on cytoplasmic osmolality. Thus, osmoregulatory responses accommodate and exploit the effects of individual cosolvents on cell structure and function as well as the collective contribution of cosolvents to intracellular osmolality.  (+info)

Functional consensus for mammalian osmotic response elements. (6/2823)

The molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to hyperosmotic stress through the accumulation of organic osmolytes are largely unknown. Yet, among organisms, this is an almost universal phenomenon. In mammals, the cells of the renal medulla are uniquely exposed to high and variable salt concentrations; in response, renal cells accumulate the osmolyte sorbitol through increased transcription of the aldose reductase (AR) gene. In cloning the rabbit AR gene, we found the first evidence of an osmotic response region in a eukaryotic gene. More recently, we functionally defined a minimal essential osmotic response element (ORE) having the sequence CGGAAAATCAC(C) (bp -1105 to -1094). In the present study, we systematically replaced each base with every other possible nucleotide and tested the resulting sequences individually in reporter gene constructs. Additionally, we categorized hyperosmotic response by electrophoretic mobility shift assays of a 17-bp sequence (-1108 to -1092) containing the native ORE as a probe against which the test constructs would compete for binding. In this manner, binding activity was assessed for the full range of osmotic responses obtained. Thus we have arrived at a functional consensus for the mammalian ORE, NGGAAAWDHMC(N). This finding should accelerate the discovery of genes previously unrecognized as being osmotically regulated.  (+info)

Membrane fusion promoters and inhibitors have contrasting effects on lipid bilayer structure and undulations. (7/2823)

It has been established that the fusion of both biological membranes and phospholipid bilayers can be modulated by altering their lipid composition (Chernomordik et al., 1995 .J. Membr. Biol. 146:3). In particular, when added exogenously between apposing membranes, monomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (MMPC) inhibits membrane fusion, whereas glycerol monoleate (GMO), oleic acid (OA), and arachidonic acid (AA) promote fusion. This present study uses x-ray diffraction to investigate the effects of MMPC, GMO, OA, and AA on the bending and stability of lipid bilayers when bilayers are forced together with applied osmotic pressure. The addition of 10 and 30 mol% MMPC to egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) bilayers maintains the bilayer structure, even when the interbilayer fluid spacing is reduced to approximately 3 A, and increases the repulsive pressure between bilayers so that the fluid spacing in excess water increases by 5 and 15 A, respectively. Thus MMPC increases the undulation pressure, implying that the addition of MMPC promotes out-of-plane bending and decreases the adhesion energy between bilayers. In contrast, the addition of GMO has minor effects on the undulation pressure; 10 and 50 mol% GMO increase the fluid spacing of EPC in excess water by 0 and 2 A, respectively. However, x-ray diffraction indicates that, at small interbilayer separations, GMO, OA, or AA converts the bilayer to a structure containing hexagonally packed scattering units approximately 50 A in diameter. Thus GMO, OA, or AA destabilizes bilayer structure as apposing bilayers are brought into contact, which could contribute to their role in promoting membrane fusion.  (+info)

Mechanism of exercise-induced ocular hypotension. (8/2823)

PURPOSE: Although acute dynamic exercise reduces intraocular pressure (IOP), the factors that provoke this response remain ill-defined. To determine whether changes in colloid osmotic pressure (COP) cause the IOP changes during exercise, standardized exercise was performed after dehydration and hydration with isosmotic fluid. METHODS: Progressive cycle ergometer exercise to volitional exhaustion was performed after 4 hours' dehydration, and after hydration with 946 ml isosmotic liquid (345 mOsM). In each experiment, venous blood taken before and immediately after exercise was analyzed for hematocrit, plasma protein concentration, total plasma osmolality, and plasma COP. RESULTS: Exercise in both experiments significantly reduced IOP and elevated COP (each P < 0.01). Dehydration, compared with hydration, also significantly reduced IOP and elevated COP, when measured before and after exercise (P < 0.05). The correlation of mean IOP with mean COP, over the entire range created by varying exercise and hydration statuses, was statistically significant (r = -0.99; P < 0.001). In contrast, other indexes of hydration status, including hematocrit, total plasma osmolality, and plasma protein concentration, failed to change as IOP changed and failed to correlate with IOP, on either a group or individual basis, in conditions of varying levels of exercise and hydration. CONCLUSIONS: Acute dynamic exercise and isosmotic fluid ingestion each seem to change IOP through changes in COP.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Scale-up study of high osmotic pressure chromatography for separation of poly(ε-caprolactone). AU - Lee, Dean. AU - Teraoka, Iwao. PY - 2003/5/9. Y1 - 2003/5/9. N2 - Methods to prepare fractions of poly(ε-caprolactone) with a narrow molecular mass distribution in large quantities have been examined using high osmotic pressure chromatography under the theta condition. Effects of column dimension and coupling columns in series on the separation resolution were studied. We found that use of a thicker column can improve the resolution if adverse effects of viscous fingering are avoided. We also demonstrated that coupling the columns results in a better separation if the second column does not adsorb high-molecular-mass components purified in the first column.. AB - Methods to prepare fractions of poly(ε-caprolactone) with a narrow molecular mass distribution in large quantities have been examined using high osmotic pressure chromatography under the theta condition. Effects of ...
Osmotic pressure is the basis of reverse osmosis, a process commonly used to purify water. The water to be purified is placed in a chamber and put under an amount of pressure greater than the osmotic pressure exerted by the water and the solutes dissolved in it. Part of the chamber opens to a differentially permeable membrane that lets water molecules through, but not the solute particles. The osmotic pressure of ocean water is about 27 atm. Reverse osmosis desalinators use pressures around 50 atm to produce fresh water from ocean salt water. Osmotic pressure is necessary for many plant functions. It is the resulting turgor pressure on the cell wall that allows herbaceous plants to stand upright, and how plants regulate the aperture of their stomata. In animal cells which lack a cell wall however, excessive osmotic pressure can result in cytolysis. ...
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Biological systems of bacteria were investigated at the single-cell and single-molecule level. Additionally, aspects of the techniques employed were studied. A unifying theme in each project is the reliance on optical imaging techniques coupled to microfluidic devices. Hypo-osmotic shock experiments with an Escherichia coli mechanosensitive channel deletion mutant were carried out at the single-cell level. E. coli MJF465 cells in which the three major mechanosensitive channel genes are deleted (∆mscL, ∆mscS, ∆mscK) show only 10% cell viability upon hypo-osmotic shock (from LB + 0.5 M NaCl into distilled water), compared to 90% viability of the wild-type strain. Bacterial cells were trapped with optical tweezers in microfluidic devices, enabling the first direct observation of single-cell behaviour upon hypo-osmotic shock. Phase-contrast microscopy revealed intra-population diversity in the cells response: Different features of lysis included cells bursting rapidly and leakage of ribosomes, ...
Actin reorganization following hypoosmotic stress is essential for the FAK-mediated activation of the PI-3-K/PKB/AP-1 proliferative cascade. These data delineate a possible mechanism by which the cell swelling-induced cytoskeletal changes can initiate proliferative signal transduction in human liver …
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
What is the Difference Between Osmotic Pressure and Oncotic Pressure? Oncotic pressure is the contribution made to total osmolality by colloids. Osmotic pressure
It had been long been believed that water could not pass through the membrane due to the hydrophobic property of the lipid bilayer in the membrane. However, it has been recently found that a 28 kD protein family on the membrane, namely, the AQP protein, that has a structure like other channel proteins, can adjust the transcellular permeability of water. The basic function of AQP is to mediate the transcellular transport of free water molecules. The major difference from other ion channels is that the osmotic pressure gradient only regulates the transport of water (i.e., the water molecules could be diffused through the AQP along the osmotic pressure gradient) instead of the so-called turn-on or turn-off phases. Thus, water molecules could be directly allowed into and out of the cells. Once the endothelial cells are injured, the expression of AQP increases, which augments capillary permeability and is believed to be closely associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. To date, there are 13 ...
For most cells, a sudden decrease in external osmolarity results in fast water influx that can burst the cell. To survive, cells rely on the passive response of mechanosensitive channels, which open under increased membrane tension and allow the release of cytoplasmic solutes and water. Although the gating and the molecular structure of mechanosensitive channels found in Escherichia coli have been extensively studied, the overall dynamics of the whole cellular response remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize E. colis passive response to a sudden hypoosmotic shock (downshock) on a single-cell level. We show that initial fast volume expansion is followed by a slow volume recovery that can end below the initial value. Similar response patterns were observed at downshocks of a wide range of magnitudes. Although wild-type cells adapted to osmotic downshocks and resumed growing, cells of a double-mutant ( ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increased extracellular leucine concentration on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle cells when exposed to 3 different osmotic stresses. L6 skeletal muscle cells were incubated in either a normal or supplemental leucine (1.5mM) medium set to hypo-osmotic (230 ± 10 Osm), iso-osmotic (330 ± 10 Osm) or hyper-osmotic (440 ± 10 Osm) conditions. 3H-tyrosine was used to quantify protein synthesis. Western blotting analysis was performed to determine the activation of mTOR, p70S6k, ubiquitin, actin, and μ-calpain. Hypo-osmotic stress resulted in the greatest increase in protein synthesis rate under the normal-leucine condition while iso-osmotic stress has the greatest increase under the elevated-leucine condition. Elevated-leucine condition had a decreased rate in protein degradation over the normal condition within the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (p,0.05). Leucine and hypo-osmotic stress therefore creates a favourable environment for ...
Definitions of osmotic pressure. What is osmotic pressure: The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions with different concentrations of solute.. Synonyms: pressure, hypertonicity, pressure level, force per unit area, hypotonicity
I am a PhD student working the group of Zoya Ignatova. Cellular and extracellular changes like crowding and osmotic stress conditions play a major role in protein aggregation. A change in the cytoplasmic composition is the result of an interplay between high osmotic pressures outside the cell volume and the cellular response to it in terms of uptake of K+ and secondary organic osmolytes. My research focuses on elucidating the role of natural osmolytes (known also as chemical chaperones or compatible ...
I am a PhD student working the group of Zoya Ignatova. Cellular and extracellular changes like crowding and osmotic stress conditions play a major role in protein aggregation. A change in the cytoplasmic composition is the result of an interplay between high osmotic pressures outside the cell volume and the cellular response to it in terms of uptake of K+ and secondary organic osmolytes. My research focuses on elucidating the role of natural osmolytes (known also as chemical chaperones or compatible ...
Osmotic pressure maintained by liver or kidney tissue measured by its water equilibrium with solutions of sodium chloride remains unchanged from 5 minutes up to 1½ hours following removal of the tissue from the body. Then with autolytic increase of molecular concentration within the cytoplasm of cells it reaches a higher level. Osmotic pressure maintained by pancreas or submaxillary gland, as ascertained in the same way, remains unchanged during ½ hour and later increases. Liver tissue of rat, mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, and cat maintains an osmotic pressure greater than twice that of the blood, and kidney tissue maintains an osmotic pressure somewhat less than twice that of blood. Fasting throughout a period of 7 days has little influence upon osmotic pressure maintained by cells of liver or kidney. Low protein diet has been found to depress osmotic pressure of liver cells after about 4 weeks, and with degenerative changes in the parenchyma, notably fatty infiltration, this pressure has ...
Osmotic pressure is the pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. The osmotic pressure of an ideal solution, with low concentration can be approximate calculated by the molarity and the temperature of the solution
Osmotic Pressure Definition - Osmotic Pressure is the minimum amount of pressure that is applied on a solution to stop the inward flow of a liquid...
At 300 K, 36 g of glucose present in a litre of its solution has a osmotic pressure of 4.98 bar. If the osmotic pressure of the solution is 1.52 bar at the same temp
Author: Halozan, D. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2007; Keywords: polyelectrolyte hollow capsule; Donnan equilibrium; osmotic pressure; Title: Donnan equilibrium and osmotic pressure in hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules
results when a two solutions of differing concentrations are placed on either side of a semipermeable membrane; solvent flows down a concentration gradient from a solution with a high concentration (and a high osmotic pressure) to a solution with a low concentration (low osmotic pressure). Lesson 25 - Glossary Terms. equilibrium ...
The osmotic pressure for a macrogel is described by Flory-Rehner theory: where the left side of the Equation 1 represents the total osmotic pressure, and the right side represents the mixing and elastic contributions to osmostic pressure, respectively. As the particles are compressed by the applied pressure, the particles become squeezed together, forming a tightly packed network. As the network compresses, the elastic contribution to osmotic pressure dominates the Flory-Rehner equation giving rise to the sharp increase in osmotic pressure for low polymer concentrations. However, as the pressure is increased further, the polymer matrix becomes fully compressed, and the only way for the matrix to further contract is through the expulsion of entrapped solvent (raising the polymer concentration). As the solvent escapes the gel matrix and begins to mix with the rest polymer of the polymer, the osmotic pressure contribution as a result of mixing increases. Thus, at high polymer concentration when the ...
Osmophillic organisms are extremophiles that are able to grow in environments with a high sugar concentration. Osmophiles are similar to halophillic (salt-loving) organisms because a critical aspect of both types of environment is their low water activity, aW. High sugar concentrations represent a growth-limiting factor for many microorganisms, yet osmophiles protect themselves against this high osmotic pressure by the synthesis of osmoprotectants such as alcohols and amino acids. Nearly all osmophillic microorganisms fall under the yeast genus.. Osmophile yeasts are important because they cause spoilage in the sugar and sweet goods industry, with products such as fruit juices, fruit juice concentrates, liquid sugars (such as golden syrup), honey and in some cases marzipan.. Among the most osmophillic are:. ...
Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by various stress factors. The molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in plant species have been well established. Metabolic pathways involving the synthesis of metabolites such as polyamines, carbohydrates, proline and glycine betaine have been shown to be associated with stress tolerance. Introduction of the stress-induced genes involved in these pathways from tolerant species to sensitive plants seems to be a promising approach to confer stress tolerance in plants. In cases where single gene is not enough to confer tolerance, metabolic engineering necessitates the introduction of multiple transgenes in plants ...
Some dikaryan anamorphs (especially coelomycetes) grow in dead leaves and stems of desert plants, and other moulds are the most drought tolerant of all organisms, able to grow at water activities below 0.70 (for example, on jams, salt fish and other substrates of extremely high osmotic pressure - see Chapter 20). While many zygomycetes can assimilate only accessible substrates like sugars and starch, ascomycetes can often exploit cellulose, and many basidiomycetes can digest both cellulose and lignin, carbon sources that are available to remarkably few other organisms. Though fungi cannot fix atmospheric nitrogen (this talent seems to be restricted to the bacteria), dikaryan fungi can use many different forms of combined nitrogen: some ascomycetes even specialize in metabolizing the protein keratin, which is the main component of hair and skin. In case you were wondering if members of this group constitute a health hazard -- they do. Some other orders of ascomycetes are obligate parasites of ...
They are but im concerned with how someone can have high osomtic blood pressure which means(i think) not having enough water and too much salt. Wouldnt not having enough enough water in your blood NOT cause presure. Or...Does high osmotic pressure refer to what will happen: that the blood with try to retain more water to dilute all the Na in it(that makes sense to me). But then again....all that has to happen to begin with to solve this problem is to inhibit aldolsterone which will stop Na reabsorption ...
I dare say most of you will remember this classroom demonstration, in which water passes through a semi-permeable membrane and causes the liquid level to rise in the stem of the thistle funnel. The phenomenon is called osmosis, and at equilibrium the osmotic pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure. Historical background This experiment has…
A method and system for the extracorporeal treatment of blood to remove fluid from the fluid overloaded patient is disclosed that non-invasively measures osmotic pressure across a filter membrane of a blood filter. The filter is permeable to water and electrolytes, but not to blood protein. The osmotic pressure indicates the protein concentration in the blood. Osmotic pressure is used to detect when hypotension is about to occur in a patient, as a result of excessive blood volume reduction during treatment of the blood. Using the osmotic pressure measurement as a feedback signal, the rate of fluid extraction is automatically controlled to achieve the desired clinical outcome and avoid precipitating a hypotensive crisis in the patient.
This example problem demonstrates how to calculate the amount of solute to add to create a specific osmotic pressure in a solution.
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An osmotic active agent dispenser is comprised of: (1) a first helical compartment of relatively impervious material containing an active agent and provided with a dispensing head for releasing active agent to the exterior of the dispenser; (2) a second helical compartment of controlled permeability to water containing a solution of an osmotically effective solute which exhibits an osmotic pressure gradient against water, the second compartment being interconnected with said first compartment to define a continuous helix therewith; and (3) a movable barrier member separating the first from the second compartment. The barrier member is slidably responsive to an increase in volume in the second compartment via absorption of water by osmosis therein; whereby as water flows into the compartment (2) of the dispenser in a tendency towards osmotic equilibrium with its environment, corresponding pressure is exerted behind the barrier (3) driving it into and diminishing the volume of the compartment (1), in turn
Tonicity is a measure of the osmotic pressure (as defined by the water potential of the two solutions) of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane. It is commonly used when describing the response of cells immersed in an external solution. Like osmotic pressure, tonicity is influenced only by solutes that cannot cross the membrane, as only these exert an osmotic pressure. Solutes able to freely cross the membrane do not affect tonicity because they will always be in equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane ...
An osmotic device is disclosed for delivering two beneficial drugs to an environment of use. The device comprises a wall surrounding a lumen divided into a first compartment containing a drug that is separated by a hydrogel partition from a second compartment containing a different drug. An orifice through the wall communicates with the first compartment for delivering drug formulation from the first compartment, and another orifice through the wall communicates with the second compartment for delivering drug formulation from the second compartment. In operation, drug formulation is dispensed separately from each compartment by fluid being imbibed through the wall into each compartment at a rate controlled by the permeability of the wall and the osmotic pressure gradient across the wall against the drug formulation in each compartment thereby producing in each compartment a solution containing drugs, and by the expansion and swelling of the hydrogel, whereby drug formulation is dispensed through their
Cordell E Logan. Aquagen™ may be one of the greatest discoveries since air. Since 1776, it is estimated that the oxygen in our atmosphere has declined about 11%. Oxygen is needed now more than ever before. Oxygen is a healer and a preventer of disease. Aquagen™ is a stabilized water-oxygen-salt mixture typically used by putting 10-15 drops in pure drinking water as a nutritional supplement.. A lack of oxygen has been assisted with almost all degenerative disease conditions. Lack of oxygen impairs nutrient transport by the red blood cells. Oxygen prevents build up of excess fluid around the cells. Excessive fluid causes oxygen to be pulled in from the blood stream as well as pulling blood proteins into this excess fluid (osmotic pressure gradient changes). This results in less oxygen in the blood and lymphatic congestion. Lack of oxygen contributes to pain. One final stage is when the cells, in a last ditch effort to survive, turns more or less into a plant cell. Plant cells don t use ...
Changes in osmotic and hydrostatic pressure were found to modulate NMDA responses of cultured embryonic mouse neurons recorded in various patch-clamp configurations. In nucleated patches, NMDA currents were potentiated by reductions in external osmolarity and were reduced in hyper-osmotic solutions. …
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Date: Thu, 15 Jan 2004 15:58:37 -0500 From: -S ,-s at adelphia.net, Subject: re: Yeast Washing/Osmotic Pressure Travis Dahl asks, ,So for the microbiology geeks in the crowd: Not a biologist but ... , Can osmotic pressure differences harm yeast. Yes, obviously. Some basics [ref Microbial Water Stress Technology, A.D.Brown]. the concept of osmotic pressure in biological systems is confusing and at least a bit of that confusion begins with its calculation. First we need to consider Water Activity (Aw). Water activity is literally the mole fraction of water in a solution. A kilogram of water (a liter more or less) at a MW of 18 contains 55.51 moles. If we have a 1 molal solution of some non-electrolyte solute then the water activity is just: Aw = 55.51 / (55.51 + 1) = 0.9823 I can understand that this solution comes to equilibrium with air at 98.23% relative humidity. I have a little harder time understanding its exact meaning at the biological membrane level ... Ill leave that to a real ...
To study the effect of osmotic forces on bacteria, we apply osmotic shock to a variety of organisms and monitor the effect on cell growth and division.
To study the effect of osmotic forces on bacteria, we apply osmotic shock to a variety of organisms and monitor the effect on cell growth and division.
d) 27 atm. 21) 100 cc of 1.5% solution of urea is found to have an osmotic pressure of 6.0 atm and 100 cc of 3.42% solution of cane sugar is found to have an osmotic pressure of 2.4 atm. If the two solutions are mixed, the osmotic pressure of the resulting solution will be ...
Steady-state levels of PI3,5P2 are dependent on both its rate of synthesis and turnover. In the studies reported here, the large increases in the levels of PI3,5P2 observed after hyperosmotic shock or in the presence of the activated Fab1p mutants were accompanied by a decrease in the levels of PI3P (Fig. 7 B). Decreases in PI3P could be caused by the activation of Fab1p and a corresponding depletion of its substrate or caused by the inhibition of a PI3,5P2 5-phosphatase and a corresponding loss in the production of its product. Strains that are defective in normal hyperosmotic shock-induced PI3,5P2 elevation, including fab1Δ in which no PI3,5P2 is produced, have up to 35% higher levels of PI3P than wild-type cells (Fig. 7 D). This observation strongly suggests that the steady-state levels of PI3P are caused by its synthesis from PI rather than from the turnover of PI3,5P2. Also, in wild-type cells under basal conditions, the levels of PI3,5P2 are 20-fold lower than the levels of PI3P, making ...
One of the reasons (among others that are too lengthy to describe here) you are having problems with your proceedures is related to the disequalibrium in osmotic pressure between the solutions and the fluid trapped behind the yeast cell walls. This condition will cause the cell structures to rupture. The beer solution should be avoided due to the difficulty of adjusting for pressure and is unnecessary anyway as they need no nutrition or alcohol protection at these temperatures. The ASBC research I have read relating to cryogenic storage has utilized distilled water that is adjusted to match the osmotic pressure with saline. Now... how to determine how much to use is out of my league. If you are really into this concept, I can find out how this is done, but I think there is a cheaper, safer option. If you are only looking for 12 months of shelf life, simply transfer a single colony of yeast into a slant tube of media composed of agar and hopped wort and refrigerate it at about 35 deg. F. This is ...
When a solution of higher concentration and a solution of lower concentration are separated by a semi-permeable membrane, one through which solvent mo...
I got this answer correct, but Im not sure why C isnt also correct. Here is my reasoning for each option. A was wrong because if you increase the input...
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View, run, and discuss the Child of Osmotic Pressure model, written by Nathan Holbert. The Modeling Commons contains more than 2,000 other NetLogo models, contributed by modelers around the world.
Adrover, M. À.; Zi, Z.; Duch, A.; Schaber, J.; González-Novo, A.; Jimenez, J.; Nadal-Ribelles, M.; Clotet, J.; Klipp, E.; Posas, F.: Time-dependent quantitative multicomponent control of the G1-S network by the stress-activated protein kinase Hog1 upon osmostress. Science Signaling 4 (192), p. ra63 (2011 ...
Yeast cells are exposed to a wide variety of environment stresses, among them changes in the osmotic conditions. An osmolar upshift leads to fast loose of intracellular water, so living cells have developed mechanisms to ...
Making use of the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water and seawater is an attractive, renewable and clean way to generate power and is known as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of plasma colloid osmotic pressure in neonatal foals under intensive care. T2 - Comparison of direct and indirect methods and the association of COP with selected clinical and clinicopathologic variables. AU - Magdesian, K G. AU - Fielding, C. Langdon. AU - Madigan, John E. PY - 2004/6. Y1 - 2004/6. N2 - Objectives: To describe and compare admission colloid osmotic pressure (COP) measurement using both direct and indirect methods in neonatal foals under intensive care, and to evaluate for associations between COP and clinical/clinicopathologic parameters. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Intensive care unit at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Animals: Twenty-six critically ill neonatal foals were studied. A control group consisted of 9 clinically healthy neonatal foals. Interventions: Clinicopathologic data were collected at the time of admission. COP was measured directly using a colloid osmometer. Indirect COP was calculated using equations by both ...
PubMed journal article: Effects of a hydroxyethylstarch solution on plasma colloid osmotic pressure in acutely ill patients. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
The regulation of glycine betaine accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The accumulation of glycine betaine was regulated by the osmotic pressure of the medium and the low affinity transport system played the major role in this regulation. Mutants were isolated that lack the low affinity, osmotically activated glycine betaine/proline transport system. Such mutants accumulated glycine betaine via the high affinity system but the glycine betaine pool was smaller and responded poorly to osmotic pressure changes. The regulation of glycine betaine transport has revealed that at the steady state net influx is reduced and that this is achieved by inhibition of both the low affinity and the high affinity transport systems. Cells pre-loaded with glycine betaine exhibited a reduced V max for both systems: the low affinity system was reduced in activity fivefold and the high affinity system was reduced 10-fold and became virtually undetectable. Although glycine betaine transport at the steady
The decision about which side of the membrane to call high osmotic pressure is a troublesome one. The choice made here is the opposite of that made in many biology texts, which attribute high osmotic pressure to the solution and zero osmotic pressure to pure water. The rationale for the choice is that the energy which drives the fluid transfer is the thermal energy of the water molecules, and that energy density is higher in the pure solvent since there are more water molecules. The thermal energy of the solute molecules does not contribute to transport, presuming that the membrane is impermeable to them. The choice is also influenced by the observed direction of fluid movement, since under this choice the fluid transport is from high pressure to low, congruent with normal fluid flow through pipes from high pressure to low. The final rationale has to do with the measurement of osmotic pressure by determining how much hydrostatic pressure on the solution is required to prevent the transport ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - TRPV4-mediated detection of hyposmotic stress by skin keratinocytes activates developmental immunity. AU - Galindo-Villegas, Jorge. AU - Montalban-Arques, Ana. AU - Liarte, Sergio. AU - De Oliveira, Sofia. AU - Pardo-Pastor, Carlos. AU - Rubio-Moscardo, Fanny. AU - Meseguer, Jose. AU - Valverde, Miguel A.. AU - Mulero, Victoriano. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2016/1/15. Y1 - 2016/1/15. N2 - As an organism is exposed to pathogens during very early development, specific defense mechanisms must take effect. In this study, we used a germ-free zebrafish embryo model to show that osmotic stress regulates the activation of immunity and host protection in newly hatched embryos.Mechanistically, skin keratinocytes were responsible for both sensing the hyposmolarity of the aquatic environment and mediating immune effector mechanisms. This occurred through a transient ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pause-and-stop. T2 - The effects of osmotic stress on cell proliferation during early leaf development in Arabidopsis and a role for ethylene signaling in cell cycle arrest. AU - Skirycz, Aleksandra. AU - Claeys, Hannes. AU - de Bodt, Stefanie. AU - Oikawa, Akira. AU - Shinoda, Shoko. AU - Andriankaja, Megan. AU - Maleux, Katrien. AU - Eloy, Nubia Barbosa. AU - Coppens, Frederik. AU - Yoo, Sang Dong. AU - Saito, Kazuki. AU - Inzé, Dirk. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - Despite its relevance for agricultural production, environmental stress-induced growth inhibition, which is responsible for-significant yield reductions, is only poorly understood. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying cell-cycle inhibition in young proliferating leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana when subjected to mild osmotic stress. A detailed cellular analysis demonstrated that as soon as osmotic stress is sensed, ...
Read Effects of Purinergic Stimulation, CFTR and Osmotic Stress on Amiloride-sensitive Na+ Transport in Epithelia and Xenopus Oocytes, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
This project will evaluate fluid balance and oedema formation in children with the same congenital heart disease (Atrial Septal Defect) who will either go through heart surgery with the use of Cardio Pulmonary Bypass and hypothermia or through interventional catheterization. The investigators will measure interstitial colloid osmotic pressure, distribution of proteins and cytokines. The study hypothesis is that Oedema developed during heart surgery is caused by reduced colloid osmotic pressure gradient through the capillary membrane ...
The behavior of monoclonal antibodies at high concentrations is important in downstream processing, drug formulation, and drug delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the osmotic pressure of a highly purified monoclonal antibody at concentrations up to 250 g/L over a range of pH and ionic strength, and in the presence of specific excipients, using membrane osmometry. Independent measurements of the second virial coefficient were obtained using self-interaction chromatography, and the net protein charge was evaluated using electrophoretic light scattering. The osmotic pressure at pH 5 and low ionic strength was ,50 kPa for antibody concentrations above 200 g/L. The second virial coefficients determined from the oncotic pressure (after subtracting the Donnan contribution) were in good qualitative agreement with those determined by self-interaction chromatography. The second virial coefficient decreased with increasing ionic strength and increasing pH due to the reduction in ...
Yeast cells adapt to hyperosmotic shock by accumulating glycerol and altering expression of hundreds of genes. This transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to osmotic shock encompasses genes whose products are implicated in protection from oxidative damage. We addressed the question of whether osmotic shock caused oxidative stress. Osmotic shock did not result in the generation of detectable levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To preclude any generation of ROS, osmotic shock treatments were performed in anaerobic cultures. Global gene expression response profiles were compared by employing a novel two-dimensional cluster analysis. The transcriptional profiles following osmotic shock under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were qualitatively very similar. In particular, it appeared that expression of the oxidative stress genes was stimulated upon osmotic shock even if there was no apparent need for their function. Interestingly, cells adapted to osmotic shock much more rapidly under
Know about Osmosis and Osmotic pressure definition, equation, osmotic pressure formula and reverse osmosis along with examples and much more in detail at Byjus
The cyclic (1----2)-beta-D-glucans produced by species of Agrobacterium and Rhizobium resemble the membrane-derived oligosaccharides of Escherichia coli in their periplasmic localization, intermediate size, and (1----2)-beta-D-glucan backbones. The regulation of the biosynthesis of cyclic (1----2)-beta-D-glucan by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is now shown to parallel the osmotic regulation of membrane-derived oligosaccharide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. This result suggests a general role for periplasmic oligosaccharides in the osmotic adaptation of Gram-negative bacteria as ecologically diverse as enteric and soil bacteria. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypertonic shock inhibits growth factor receptor signaling, induces caspase-3 activation, and causes reversible fragmentation of the mitochondrial network. AU - Copp, Jeremy. AU - Wiley, Sandra. AU - Ward, Manus. AU - Van Der Geer, Peter. PY - 2005/2/1. Y1 - 2005/2/1. N2 - Hyperosmotic stress can be encountered by the kidney and the skin, as well as during treatment of acute brain damage. It can lead to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Exactly how mammalian cells detect hyperosmolarity and how the cell chooses between cell cycle arrest or death remains to be established. It has been proposed that hyperosmolarity is detected directly by growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinases. To investigate this, we tested whether growth factors and osmotic stress cooperate in the activation of signaling pathways. Receptors responded normally to the presence of growth factors, and we observed normal levels of GTP-bound Ras under hyperosmotic conditions. In contrast, activation of Raf, Akt, ...
Sensing the osmolarity of the environment is a critical response for all organisms. Whereas bacteria will migrate away from high osmotic conditions, most eukaryotic cells are not motile and use adaptive metabolic responses for survival. The p38 MAPK pathway is a crucial mediator of survival during cellular stress. We have discovered a novel scaffold protein that binds to actin, the GTPase Rac, and the upstream kinases MEKK3 and MKK3 in the p38 MAPK phospho-relay module. RNA interference (RNAi) demonstrates that MEKK3 and the scaffold protein are required for p38 activation in response to sorbitol-induced hyperosmolarity. FRET identifies a cytoplasmic complex of the MEKK3 scaffold protein that is recruited to dynamic actin structures in response to sorbitol treatment. Through its ability to bind actin, relocalize to Rac-containing membrane ruffles and its obligate requirement for p38 activation in response to sorbitol, we have termed this protein osmosensing scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM). The Rac-OSM-MEKK3
Ser431 is a major in vivo K8 phosphorylation site, which localizes at the K8 tail domain (Fig. 8). This site is conserved among mouse, rat and human K8 but is not found in other type II keratins, which suggests a unique function related to glandular epithelia (Ku and Omary, 1997). Limited information is known regarding specific phosphatases that may dephosphorylate K8 or other keratins, but several other studies previously showed that exposure of cells or tissues to phosphatase inhibitors causes dramatic hyperphosphorylation of K8 and K18 (Omary et al., 1996; Favre et al., 1997; Eriksson et al., 1998; Toivola et al., 2002). Keratin (and other IF protein) hyperphosphorylation occurs in association with most if not all injury situations that have been tested in cultured cells and animals, and in hepatocytes of patients with liver disease (Coulombe and Omary, 2002; Toivola et al., 2004). The study herein adds osmotic stress (both hypo and hyper) as inducers of increased phosphorylation of human K8 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Osmotic shrinkage of giant egg-lecithin vesicles. AU - Boroske, E.. AU - Elwenspoek, M.. AU - Helfrich, W.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Osmotic shrinkage of giant egg-lecithin vesicles was observed by phase- contrast microscopy. The vesicles remained or became spherical when shrinking. Small and thick-walled vesicles formed visible fingers attached to the sphere. The water permeability of the single bilayer was found to be 41 micrometers/s. A variety of observations indicate that osmosis induces a parallel lipid flow between the monolayers of the bilayer, leading to a strong positive spontaneous curvature. They also suggest the formation of mostly submicroscopic daughter vesicles. The estimated coupling constant, 2 . 10(-6) mol/mol, is large enough to be biologically significant.. AB - Osmotic shrinkage of giant egg-lecithin vesicles was observed by phase- contrast microscopy. The vesicles remained or became spherical when shrinking. Small and thick-walled vesicles formed visible ...
Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, aiming to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.. Often I speak in metaphors which may seem out of place in the current conversation. My brain likes to dig up particularly esoteric or far-fetched descriptions for me to use when I am trying to better convey a certain feeling or state of affairs. This happens frequently at work, and while I register the lack of comprehension, Im somewhat at a loss to replace my outlandish metaphors with more down-to-earth descriptions. Heave forbid I come off prosaic.. So here is my metaphor from today. I could feel the osmotic pressure of my Within and my Without this morning- the tug and swirl of the happiness experienced through self-discovery and creative effort over the weekend (Inside), contending with the lack of challenge and inability to focus on a long-term goal of the mundane Monday (Outside).. I just sort ...
Patrick McCarter, a graduate student in Henrik Dohlman and Tim Elstons labs, and Andrew Crowther, a graduate student in Juan Songs lab, will be presenting research seminars.. Patrick McCarter - Temporal separation of counter-acting feedback loops leads to robust hyper-osmotic stress adaptation in S. Cerevisiae. Andrew Crowther - A viral-based toolkit for targeting and manipulating quiescent neural stem cells in the adult hippocampus. Come early to get a seat!. ...
At low levels, sucrose is an excellent substrate for the growth of microorganisms. The most important fermentation in which sucrose is used is in the production of alcohol. In the process of fermentation, sucrose is inverted to glucose and fructose. In the production of wine, sucrose is sometimes added when the natural sugar content of the grape juice is too low. Sucrose is also added to increase fermentation in yogurt and bread dough.. Sucrose is practical in the sense that at high concentrations it binds water, which makes the water unavailable for microbial growth. Sugar is often used as a preservative in foods because of the high osmotic pressure generated by sugar solutions. Sucrose is used as a preservative in canning, fruit preservation and in meat curing. Not only does sucrose affect the water activity of fruit products, it also influences enzyme activity, carbonyl-amine reactions and fat oxidation. ...
The main difference between halophiles and osmophiles is that halophiles are microorganisms that inhabit environments with high salinity whereas osmophiles are microorganisms that inhabit environments with high osmotic pressure.
A field mushroom improves its odds by manic seeding, producing 16 billion spores that are released at a rate of 100 million an hour. Some fungi have evolved methods to disperse spores a few inches higher, improving their odds of picking up a favorable breeze. Puffball mushrooms launch their spores upward into the air when the fruiting body is pressed by a raindrop or the foot of an animal. (See picture- Note cloud from Earth Star). Recent research has identified ways some plants have developed to launch their spores. Gibberella zeae, a fungal pathogen of wheat is currently the reigning champion in acceleration. By producing chemicals that create high osmotic pressure in the cells, it is able to accelerate the spores to 870,000 times the acceleration of gravity, reaching 80 miles per hour. This translates to traveling 2,000,000 spore lengths per second. They are shot into the air to an amazing altitude of -are you ready for this?- quarter of an inch. (Remember, they are infinitesimally light ...
The Fudge 2012 was created from desiccated grapes, which were terming petrified. We managed to pin down winemaker Clayton Reabow mid-harvest to ask him all about this luscious dessert wine, made with 100% chardonnnay.. We crimp the bunches stem so that all water translocation to the bunch is cut off. This occurs on the vine. The grapes begin to desiccate or dehydrate to the point that they look like raisins. The sugar level in the grape at harvest is close to 500g/L. When we harvest, we de stem the grapes and then place the stems back into the press so that they act abrasively on the grapes and assist with juice extraction. We press over 24 hours as it is difficult to extract juice from a raison. The first juice that runs off we disregard, and we rather keep the syrup The juice is not settled and transferred directly into barrel for wild fermentation. The ferment stops naturally due to the high osmotic pressure of the sugar on the yeast which eventually kills it off. The wine is matured in ...
Maple syrups are classed as non-hazardous and non-perishable, which means they generally do not age or go rancid over time like wines, vinegar, and oils. Dense minerals, like salts and sugars, maintain high osmotic pressure. Microorganisms cannot grow inside such fluid. Sometimes however, especially after extended storage, mold can form on the surface of the syrup. Surface molds that form on maple syrup are generally considered harmless. Do not throw your syrup away! You can remove the mold by heating the syrup in a pot to just below boiling, skim the mold off the surface, and return it to the clean bottle. While heating the syrup, add a little water, just enough to compensate for the evaporation. (DO NOT LEAVE THE POT UNATTENDED.) To delay or avoid molds, you can store syrup in your fridge or even in the freezer. The syrup will not freeze solid ...
Kal Renganathan Sharma: Transport Phenomena in Biomedical Engineering: Artifical organ Design and Development, and Tissue Engineering. Osmotic Pressure, Solvent Permeability, and Solute Transport, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2010), AccessEngineering Export ...
Introduction. Osmosis Aim To find the osmotic pressure of potato cells. I can find this out, when there is no net movement (change of mass in potato cylinder) when placed in different concentrations of sugar solution. Background Information Arrangement and movement of particles in solids, liquids and gases. Solids have strong forces of attraction between molecules. The molecules are held in fixed positions, in a very regular lattice arrangement. They keep a definite shape and volume. Solids cant be compressed because the molecules are very close together. Solids are generally very dense. Liquids have some force of attraction between molecules. The molecules are free to move. Liquids dont keep a definite shape. The molecules are constantly moving in random motion. Liquids cant be compressed because the molecules are already packed closely together; liquids are quite dense. Gases do not have a force of attraction between their molecules. The molecules are free to move. Gases dont keep a ...
2 Expert Answer(s) - 254613 - Osmotic pressure of dilute solution is a directly proportional to temp b independent of temp and mo. Answer this question and win exciting prizes
Unlike reverse osmosis (RO) that is dominated by the hydraulic pressure differential, forward osmosis (FO) uses the osmotic pressure gradient as the driving force between a dilute feed solution and a concentrated draw solution across a membrane. High pressure is not required in FO, which means that FO can be used as an alternative to RO as an energy-saving separation process in desalination technology. However, a major limiting factor of the FO process is the internal concentration polarization (ICP). Because of the stagnant environment inside the porous supporting layer of a FO membrane, it is difficult to mitigate the ICP by simply increasing the shear stress or promoting turbulence ...
Figure 1 .11 (A) Plots of h(g-water/g-protein) versus the inverse of osmotic pressure1/P gives linear plots for which the slope varies as the inverse of the effective molecular weight and the constant is the solute solvent interaction parameter expressing hydration encapsulated by the protein henc (Fullerton et a/., 1993). The value henc includes water bridges, dielectric water clusters, and bulk water fraction that are encapsulated inside the protein such that they are excluded from thermodynamic solution expressions for osmotic pressure and freezing depression. Encapsulated water molecules never interact with the osmotic membrane but can change dramatically, as shown in Figure 1.12 with solution parameters and most especially with pH. Under native condition, however, the measured henc -, hM(nat) as it does here for hemoglobin. (B) Reevaluation of RBC volume measurements as a function of osmotic pressure show that the henc = hM(nat) = 1.7 g/g in the isotonic region. There are changes in the ...
A population of proliferating and differentiating cells from normal bone marrow of the Long-Evans rat has been isolated and maintained in long-term suspension culture. This population of cells has been used to investigate the effects of cellular maturation on membrane function and the osmotic properties of cells. A hypothesis has been formulated which states that in normal proliferating and differentiating cells, the cell interior behaves as a mixture model where water and electrolytes exist both in the free and the bound state; this state is determined by the activity of functioning biological macromolecules. The population of cells has all the distinguishing morphological characteristics of the megakaryocyte. These cells are acetylcholinesterase positive, increase in volume with maturation, and range in ploidy from 2N to greater than 16N. Electron microscopy has revealed the presence of the following: 1. A specialized membrane system of tubules or channels similar if not identical to the ...
The experimental evidence presented here indicates that the SOS pathway controls expression of only a few salt stress-specific tolerance determinant genes among the numerous genes (six of 89 in this study) that are regulated in the plant response to NaCl treatment (Zhu et al., 1997). This is similar to the paradigm that has been established recently for the salt stress response of the unicellular eukaryote yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Genome-wide array analysis determined that osmotic upshock causes a rapid and multi-fold increase in mRNA of between 186 and 1,359 genes and reduced transcript abundance of more than 100 genes depending on the severity of osmotic shock, the osmotic agent (NaCl or sorbitol), and time after treatment (Posas et al., 2000; Rep et al., 2000; J. Yale and H.J. Bohnert, unpublished data). Salt-induced expression of most is either partially or completely controlled by the high osmolarity glycerol and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The yeast calcineurin ...
Osmotic Challenges Osmoconformers, consisting only of some marine animals, are isoosmotic with their surroundings and do not regulate their osmolarity Osmoregulators expend energy to control water uptake and loss in a hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment Most animals are stenohaline; they cannot tolerate substantial changes in external osmolarity Euryhaline animals can survive large fluctuations in external osmolarity
The soil-dwelling nematode C. elegans is a powerful system for comparative molecular analyses of environmental stress response mechanisms. Infection of worms with bacterial and fungal pathogens causes the activation of well-characterized innate immune transcriptional programs in pathogen-exposed hypodermal and intestinal tissues. However, the pathophysiological events that drive such transcriptional responses are not understood. Here, we show that infection-activated transcriptional responses are, in large part, recapitulated by either physiological or genetic activation of the osmotic stress response. Microarray profiling of wild type worms exposed to non-lethal hypertonicity identified a suite of genes that were also regulated by infection. Expression profiles of five different osmotic stress resistant (osr) mutants under isotonic conditions reiterated the wild type transcriptional response to osmotic stress and also showed substantial similarity to infection-induced gene expression under isotonic
Osmosis (also Active water absorption) is the flow of one constituent of a solution through a membrane while the other constituents are blocked and unable to pass through the membrane.
నెల్లూరు: మనుబోలు మండలం బద్వేలు క్రాస్‌రోడ్డు దగ్గర కారు బోల్తా, ముగ్గురికి గాయాలు,కర్నూలు: 16 వ రోజు జగన్ ప్రజా సంకల్ప యాత్ర,రంగారెడ్డి: మైలార్‌దేవ్‌పల్లిలో కింగ్స్‌ కాలనీలో ముస్తఫా అనే వ్యక్తిపై దుండగుల కాల్పులు,కడప: జగన్ సీఎం అయితే తన ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి..చంద్రబాబు సీఎంగా ఉంటే ప్రజల ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి: మంత్రి సోమిరెడ్డి,సిరిసిల్ల: అన్ని గ్రామాల్లో కేసీఆర్ గ్రామీణ ప్రగతి ...
A sample of helium gas initially at 37.0 degrees C, 785 torr and 2.00 L was heated to 58.0 degrees C while the volume expanded to 3.24 L. What is the final pressure in atm? a)1.79 b)3.21 c)0.681 d).517 e)none of the above please explain--I need to know how to do this--this is ... ...
One of the most important features of a healthy red blood cells in your dog is the ability to maintain maximum hydration. This is also referred to as osmotic pressure. Under a microscope, this essential characteristic is similar to a fully inflated basketball. Where the cell becomes round and tight. Because electromagnetically charging the cells enhances their osmotic pressure; it induces rapid cellular hydration and the ability to carry oxygen, vitamins, and minerals into the cells ...
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Journal de Physique II, Journal de Physique Archives représente une mine dinformations facile à consulter sur la manière dont la physique a été publiée depuis 1872.
Cloning, sequence analysis, and purification of choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis: a bacterial enzyme involved in osmotic stress tolerance ...
Mechanosensative cation-selective channel with a conductance of 100 pS, YnaI (344aas; 4TMSs). Protects against hypoosmotic shock (Edwards et al. 2012). The structure has been solved by cryo-electron microscopy to a resolution of 13 A (Böttcher et al. 2015). While the cytosolic vestibule is structurally similar to that in MscS, additional density is seen in the transmembrane region, consistent with the presence of two additional TMSs predicted for YnaI. The location of this density suggests that the extra TMSs are tilted, which could induce local membrane curvature extending the tension-sensing paddles seen in MscS. Off-center lipid-accessible cavities are seen that resemble gaps between the sensor paddles in MscS. The conservation of the tapered shape and the cavities in YnaI suggest a mechanism similar to that of MscS (Böttcher et al. 2015). The voltage dependence of inactivation occurs independently of the positive charges of R46, R54, and R74 (Nomura et al. 2016). A 3.8 Å structure by ...
The S. cerevisiae genome encodes multiple MAP kinase orthologs. One (Fus3) mediates cellular response to peptide pheromones. Another (Kss1) permits adjustment to nutrient limiting conditions. A third (Hog1) is necessary for survival under hyperosmotic conditions. A fourth (Slt2/Mpk1) is required for repair of injuries to the cell wall. As in mammalian cells, these pathways consist of a conserved module in which three kinases phosphorylate each other in sequence. The MAPK is phosphorylated by the MAPK/ERK kinase (MAPKK/MEK), which is itself phosphorylated by a MEK kinase (MAPKKK/MEKK ...
Dear Stefan, did you get any replys? I have a feeling that periplasmic spaces are reasonable uniform, but this is just based on bias. Regards, Mike. On Sun, 8 Jul 2001, Stefan Jakobs wrote: , Hi All, , , I am looking for gram negative bacteria, which have a large , periplasmatic space. I. e. the distance between the outer and the , cytoplasmic membrane should be larger than in E. coli under normal , osmotic conditions. Is anybody aware of such an organism? , Any help is greatly appreciated, , , Thanks, Stefan. , , , , ...
Hypertonic solutions have higher osmotic pressure. This means that a cell surrounded by a hypertonic solution will have a lower concentration of solute than the solution does, forcing water to diffus
10X KRB-IBMX Buffer solution is recommended for use in the preparation of cells (either suspension or adherent cells) intended for cAMP analysis using either Mediomics Bridge-ItTM cAMP designer fluorescent assay or Bridge-ItTM cAMP all in one fluorescent assay. While the 1X balanced salt solution KRB serves to provide cells with water and essential inorganic ions to maintain pH and osmotic balance, the IBMX is a potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor that will block the degradation of cAMP ...
Although blood plasma is about 92% water, it does contain three types of plasma proteins as well as small amounts of other substances.. Aside from water, the major components of the plasma are albumin and and globulins. Albumin binds to lipids and transports them through the hydrophilic plasma. It also serves to regulate osmotic pressure. Globulins, or gamma globulins, are immunoglobins, i.e., antibodies, about which more shortly.. Blood serves many purposes, but the most important (although it could not go on without the others) is the transport of oxygen, nutrients and waste matter, such as carbon dioxide.. The transport of oxygen is carried out by erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBC), which make up 99% of the formed elements. They are so numerous, they make up approximately 25% by number of all the cells in the body.. As an erythrocyte develops in the marrow of large bones, it ejects most of its organelles, including the nucleus and the mitochondria. Without mitochondria, it is only capable ...
ALBU_HUMAN] Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.[5] ...
AGROXILATO-K® is a fertiliser with high organic content of Potassium carboxilate. It has been developed to guarantee an efficient and fast assimilation of Potassium, even in situations of saline stress. Its application through the soil regulates and improves the osmotic pressure in the roots, which allows a better uptake of water and nutrients and its distribution from ...
Dacolyt Box 10 Sachet by DAC, these minerals help maintain the osmotic pressure in the birds cells, ensuring the absorption of nutrients into the body as well as their transport and exchange by the bloodstream. Dacolyt shortens the recuperation time of
20:07, 21 October 2013 (diff , hist) N Albumin ‎ (Created page with Albumin is a protein found in plasma. It regulates colloidal osmotic pressure by binding bilirubin, cations and fatty acids in the blood. ,ref,SMART. [online] Available at:...) ...
Bousfield, W. R. (1914). "Note on Osmotic Pressure". Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering ... Bousfield, W. R.; Bousfield, C. E. (1923). "Vapour Pressure and Density of Sodium Chloride Solutions". Proceedings of the Royal ... Bousfield, W. R. (1914). "The Osmotic Data in Relation to Progressive Hydration". Proceedings of the Royal Society A: ...
Δπ is the difference in osmotic pressures on the two sides of the membrane, and ΔP is the difference in hydrostatic pressure ( ... The first separation step of FO, driven by an osmotic pressure gradient, does not require a significant energy input (only ... Brine concentration using forward osmosis may be achieved using a high osmotic pressure draw solution with a means to recover ... Some situations that may be envisaged to exploit it are using the differential osmotic pressure between a low brackish river ...
These include, biodegradation, osmotic pressure, diffusion, etc. Each one will depend on the composition of the capsule made ... Many walls are ruptured easily by pressure or shear stress, as in the case of breaking dye particles during writing to form a ...
The thirst center operates similarly when certain cells in the hypothalamus are stimulated by the rising osmotic pressure of ... If thirst is satisfied, osmotic pressure decreases. All of these functions taken together form a survival mechanism that causes ... That biomass (W) is subjected to deterioration over time from thermodynamic, entropic pressure. Metabolism is essentially ... lower blood pressure, and increased resting or basal metabolic rate.[citation needed] By measuring heart rate we can then ...
Sucrose increases the liquid's osmotic pressure, which prevents microorganism growth. The sweetened evaporated milk is cooled ...
Other colligative properties, such as osmotic pressure may also be used. Activity coefficients can be determined by ... In detail: Raoult's law states that the partial pressure of component B is related to its vapor pressure (saturation pressure) ... Analogously, expressions involving gases can be adjusted for non-ideality by scaling partial pressures by a fugacity ... Ge, Xinlei; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Mei; Seetharaman, Seshadri (2007). "Correlation and Prediction of Activity and Osmotic ...
She specialized in colloid osmotic pressure and circulatory reactions to gravity. In one of her studies, Turner worked with ... She specialized in colloid osmotic pressure and circulatory reactions to gravity. Turner was born in Nashua, New Hampshire. She ...
a] Assuming an operating pressure of 5.5 MPa and allow for an osmotic pressure of 2.4 MPa. CNT density of the membrane was ... Role of biofilm-enhanced osmotic pressure". Journal of Membrane Science. Elsevier BV. 295 (1-2): 11-20. doi:10.1016/j.memsci. ... Pressure does not increase the chemical potential inside the CNTs, but it increases it in the bulk material (100 MPa causes a ~ ... The water molecules are driven through the pores by a pressure difference created by a pump. As the molecules begin to travel ...
Hydrostatic and osmotic pressure gradients facilitate filtration across a semipermeable membrane. The filtrate includes water, ... Aldosterone plays a central role in regulating blood pressure through its effects on the kidney. It acts on the distal tubules ... The purpose of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels ... Reabsorption of sodium results in retention of water, which increases blood pressure and blood volume. Antidiuretic hormone ( ...
The osmotic pressure and the principal ions of the hemocoelic fluid". Physiological zoology 45(3): 261-269. Bilgin F. H. (1973 ...
The low salinity and high osmotic pressure makes them so different. Few fish can be found in all three ecological systems. ...
Pfeffer cell The Pfeffer cell determines the osmotic pressure of a solution. The Pfeffer cell was composed of a porous ... Osmotic pressure of dissolved sucrose (german: "Rohrzucker") obtained by Pfeffer (Table 9 from "Osmotische Untersuchungen", ... The eponymous "Pfeffer cell" is named for the osmometric device he constructed for determining the osmotic pressure of a ... Osmotic studies) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Oxydationsvorgänge in lebenden Zellen - 1889 (Contributions to the knowledge of the ...
He co-authored 10 papers with Henry Horatio Dixon on osmotic pressure. He was involved in research into aeroplane materials ...
Cell disruption Crenation Lysis Osmotic pressure Plasmolysis Water intoxication Alberts, Bruce (2014). Essential Cell Biology ( ... Play media Cytolysis, or osmotic lysis, occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to ... Osmotic lysis would be expected to occur when bacterial cells are treated with a hypotonic solution with added lysozyme, which ...
Some may be individual red blood cells swollen due to osmotic pressure. Others may be chains of red blood cells stuck together ... for instance caused by pressure applied to the closed eyes. A phenomenon that could be entoptical if the eyelashes are ...
It is typically determined by measurements of the osmotic pressure of the polymer. The weight-average degree of polymerization ...
The maintenance of precise gradients across cell membranes maintains osmotic pressure and pH. Ions are also critical for nerves ...
But these experiments have in common to apply physical variables (surface tension, osmotic pressure ...) that cannot be used in ... The mechanical signals can be forces, pressures ("pull", "push" and "shear" designating the forces / pressures that push, pull ... It summarizes in a mathematical expression all the pressures involved in a volume. Here, it is the volume of the tumor with a ... This results in a change in fluid flow in the tumor with an increase in intratumoral interstitial pressure. The internal ...
Water diffusion from the food to the humectant solution is caused by osmotic pressure. The water is replaced by the humectant, ... Osmotic drying using a humectant results in a soft texture in the final product. Dry infusion is the combination of partial ... Osmotic dehydration process results in two way mass transfer in regards to the moisture lost and the solids gained, with ... Osmotic dehydration is the process of soaking food in highly concentrated solutions of humectant. Salt and sugar are commonly ...
Adair, G. S. (1925). "A Critical Study of the Direct Method of Measuring the Osmotic Pressure of Haemoglobin". Proceedings of ... Gilbert Smithson Adair FRS (1896-1979) was an early protein scientist who used osmotic pressure measurements to establish that ...
The concentrations of these electrolytes must be carefully balanced, paying attention to osmotic pressure. The acidity of the ...
... which increases the osmotic pressure inside relative to the outside of the cell. The increased osmotic pressure forces water to ... Chemical equilibrium Nernst equation Double layer (biology) Osmotic pressure Diffusion equilibrium "Gibbs-Donnan effect". ... the effect relieves the osmotic pressure of plasma proteins, which is why sodium pumping is less important for maintaining the ... The Donnan effect is tactic pressure attributable to cations (Na+ and K+) attached to dissolved plasma proteins. The presence ...
Adair, Gilbert Smithson (1925). "A critical study of the direct method of measuring the osmotic pressure of hǣmoglobin". Proc. ... The partial pressure of the system also affects O2 affinity where, at high partial pressures of oxygen (such as those present ... Gilbert Smithson Adair confirmed Engelhart's results in 1925 by measuring the osmotic pressure of hemoglobin solutions. The ... Inversely, at low partial pressures (such as those present in respiring tissues), the (low affinity, T) tense state is favoured ...
Potassium is required for the gelatinous layer to retain its osmotic pressure and retain water; high concentrations of the ...
... levels vary as an inverse function of sodium intake as sensed via osmotic pressure. The slope of the response of ... These specialized receptors are sensitive to changes in mean arterial pressure. An increase in sensed pressure results in an ... Pressure-sensitive baroreceptors are found in the vessel walls of nearly all large arteries in the thorax and neck, but are ... If decreased blood pressure is detected, the adrenal gland is stimulated by these stretch receptors to release aldosterone, ...
isotonic solution Refers to two solutions having the same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane. This state allows ... behavioral ecology The study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures. bile A dark green to ...
Two opposing forces achieve this balance; hydrostatic pressure and colloid osmotic pressure, using the intercellular clefts are ... Fluid is push out through the intercellular cleft at the arterial end of the capillary because that's where the pressure is the ... The larger the intercellular cleft, the lesser the pressure and the more fluid will flow out the cleft. This enlargement of the ...
Neurons in the VOLT are osmoreceptors sensitive to the sodium content and osmotic pressure of blood. Neurons of the lamina ...
The total osmotic pressure acting on the system is the sum osmotic pressure of the gel. It is further shown that the phase ... The positive osmotic pressure of (+) hydrogen ions The negative pressure due to polymer-polymer affinity The rubber-like ... The phase transition is a manifestation of competition among the three forces which contribute to the osmotic pressure in the ... but is incompressible upon application of hydrostatic pressure. This combination of fluidity and rigidity is explained in terms ...
Mechanisms for homogenization include grinding, mincing, chopping, pressure changes, osmotic shock, freeze-thawing, and ultra- ... Tissue is typically homogenized in a buffer solution that is isotonic to stop osmotic damage. ...
Sue Meyer of the pressure group Genewatch, told The Independent that she believed, "If you change the basic biochemistry, you ... Tobacco osmotic genes overexpressed in tomatoes produced plants that held a higher water content than wildtype plants ...
This negative pressure generates airflow because of the pressure difference between the atmosphere and alveolus. Air enters, ... which results in expansion of the intrapleural space and an increase in negative pressure according to Boyle's law. ...
... blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH; the minimum physiological requirement for sodium is 500 milligrams per day.[225] ... 4 ions in a sea of delocalised electrons) at very high pressures (though less than the typical pressure where transitions from ... is the point where the vapour pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid[103][104] and all ... Various phases are known, such as LiB10, NaB6, NaB15, and KB6.[111][112] Under high pressure the boron-boron bonding in the ...
and two absorptive forces, plasma protein osmotic pressure (. π. p. {\displaystyle \pi _{p}}. ) and interstitial pressure (. P ... the interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure πi has been found to have no effect on Jv and the colloid osmotic pressure ... capillary pressure (. P. c. {\displaystyle P_{c}}. ) and interstitial protein osmotic pressure (. π. i. {\displaystyle \pi _{i ... of osmotic pressure across membranes that are at least partly permeable to the solute responsible for the osmotic pressure ...
It has been proposed that the archaea evolved from gram-positive bacteria in response to antibiotic selection pressure.[67][69] ... including thick-walled structures that are resistant to osmotic shock and allow the archaea to survive in water at low salt ... The proposal is that the selective pressure towards resistance generated by the gram-positive antibiotics was eventually ... or any other competitive selective pressure, could also explain their adaptation to extreme environments (such as high ...
They accomplish this process of gaining access to the cell via: osmotic pressure, diffusion, concentration gradients, and ...
Osmotic diuretics glucose (especially in uncontrolled diabetes), mannitol Promotes osmotic diuresis 2. proximal tubule, ... On the other hand, the long-term effect is due to an unknown vasodilator effect that decreases blood pressure by decreasing ... Osmotic diureticsEdit. Osmotic diuretics (e.g. mannitol) are substances that increase osmolarity but have limited tubular ... It was previously believed that the primary mechanism of osmotic diuretics such as mannitol is that they are filtered in the ...
Water from the roots can be pushed up only a few meters by osmotic pressure but can reach extreme heights by using large ... negative pressures[citation needed] in the tree's xylem (the water tubules) and sub-pressure from evaporating water at the ...
Colloids preserve a high colloid osmotic pressure in the blood, while, on the other hand, this parameter is decreased by ... Pressure bags[edit]. A rapid infuser can be used if the patient requires a high flow rate and the IV access device is of a ... with a syringe at higher pressures) or infusions (typically using only the pressure supplied by gravity). Intravenous infusions ... They are also longer and, as reflected by Poiseuille's law, require higher pressure to achieve the same flow, all other ...
Gram-negative bacteria, such as E.coli are a subject to outer cell lysis by osmotic shock and the action of enzyme lysozyme and ... Martinac, B., Buechner, M., Delcour, A. H., Adler, J., and Kung, C. (1987) Pressure-sensitive ion channel in Escherichia coli. ... Neu, Harold C.; Heppel, Leon A. (September 1, 1965). "The release of enzymes from Escherichia coli by osmotic shock and during ... renders the cells vulnerable to easy lysis with detergents or rapid osmolar pressure changes. ...
for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[1] ... for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[27] ...
... that is to say that the ratio of solutes to water in the plasma is shifted down whereby reducing osmotic pressure in the plasma ... ostrich respiration can be thought of as a high velocity-low pressure system.[62] At rest, there is small pressure differences ... When the plasma osmolality has been measured simultaneously with the maximal osmotic urine, it is seen that the urine:plasma ... In times of water deprivation, urine electrolyte and osmotic concentration increases while urination rate decreases. Under ...
Blood pressure[edit]. As of 2017[update], only limited evidence indicated any direct link between high blood pressure and gut ... with decreased short-chain fatty acid absorption and osmotic diarrhea as a result. A 2015 Cochrane review concluded that a ...
In a pressure-demand system, oxygen in the mask is above ambient pressure, permitting breathing above 40,000 feet (12,000 m).[4 ... In a diluter-demand system, as the altitude increases (ambient pressure, and therefore the partial pressure of ambient oxygen, ... Aviators are trained in pressure-demand breathing in altitude chambers. Because they seal tightly, pressure-demand-type oxygen ... Bottled oxygen (climbing) - Oxygen stored in portable high pressure cylinders. References[edit]. *^ a b c Stephenson RN, ...
The increased pressure causes milk to flow through the duct system and be released through the nipple. This response can be ... is the main factor maintaining tight junctions of the ductal epithelium and regulating milk production through osmotic balance ... Some feel a slight tingling, others feel immense amounts of pressure or slight pain/discomfort, and still others do not feel ... The increased intra-aveolar pressure forces milk into the lactiferous sinuses, into the lactiferous ducts (a study found that ...
Submerged pressure differential[edit]. Submerged pressure differential based converters are a comparatively newer technology [ ... Osmotic power. *Pelamis wave energy converter. *SDE Sea Waves Power Plant. *Wind power (offshore) ... This pressure difference is usually used to produce flow, which drives a turbine and electrical generator. Submerged pressure ... These converters use the difference in pressure at different locations below a wave to produce a pressure difference within a ...
for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[8] ... for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[34] ...
Decreased serum protein reduces the osmotic pressure of the blood, leading to loss of fluid from the intravascular compartment ...
Osmotic pressure is detected by osmoreceptors in the median preoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Measurement of the plasma ... monitor the arterial blood pressure.[46] Rising pressure is detected when the walls of the arteries stretch due to an increase ... Arterial blood pressure[edit]. Main articles: Baroreflex and Renin-angiotensin system. The brain can regulate blood flow over a ... The partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the arterial blood is monitored by the peripheral chemoreceptors (PNS) in ...
Adair, Gilbert Smithson (1925). "A critical study of the direct method of measuring the osmotic pressure of hǣmoglobin". Proc. ... Gilbert Smithson Adair confirmed Engelhard's results in 1925 by measuring the osmotic pressure of hemoglobin solutions.[16] ... The partial pressure of the system also affects O2 affinity where, at high partial pressures of oxygen (such as those present ... Birds' unique circulatory lungs also promote efficient use of oxygen at low partial pressures of O2. These two adaptations ...
... foam also destabilizes due to osmotic pressure causes drainage from the lamellas to the Plateau borders due to internal ... The hydrostatic pressure balances the capillary pressure, which is shown below: p. −. p. 0. −. (. ρ. 2. −. ρ. 1. ). g. z. =. γ ... Finally, the difference in the top and bottom pressure equal the change in hydrostatic pressure: (. ρ. 2. −. ρ. 1. ). g. z. =. ... The capillary pressure Pc is given by the equation of: P. c. =. γ. (. 1. R. 1. +. 1. R. 2. ). {\displaystyle P_{c}=\gamma \left ...
Micrographs of the effects of osmotic pressure. *Hemolysis is the general term for excessive breakdown of red blood cells. It ... Eryptosis can be elicited by osmotic shock, oxidative stress, energy depletion as well as a wide variety of endogenous ...
This is a non-SI unit of measurement that defines the number of moles of solute that contribute to the osmotic pressure of a ... This value allows the measurement of the osmotic pressure of a solution and the determination of how the solvent will diffuse ... Both sodium and chloride ions affect the osmotic pressure of the solution.[2] ... Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity,[1] is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of ...
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and its counterpart Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy ... "Osmotic demyelination syndrome". BMJ. 331 (7520): 829-30. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7520.829. PMC 1246086. PMID 16210283 ...
The bacterial cell wall provides strength and rigidity to counteract internal osmotic pressure, and protection against the ...
Rees CE (11 September 1937). "Penetration of tissue by fuel oil under high pressure from diesel engine". JAMA. 109 (11): 866-7 ... The jet stream is usually generated by the pressure of a piston in an enclosed liquid-filled chamber. The piston is usually ... Retrograde flow happens after the jet stream penetrates the skin and creates a hole, if the pressure of the jet stream causes ... 1935: Arnold K. Sutermeister, a mechanical engineer, witnessed a worker injure his hand from a high-pressure jet stream and ...
Soil salinization affects the plants using osmotic potential by net solute accumulation. The osmotic pressure in the plant is ...
Osmotic coefficient of NaCl is about 0.93; therefore 0.154 × 1000 × 2 × .93 = 286.44) Nonetheless, the osmolarity of normal ... acutely increased intracranial pressure, or severe hyponatremia.[22] Inhalation of hypertonic saline has also been shown to ... excessive use may result in osmotic demyelination syndrome.[2] Saline is in the crystalloid family of medications.[3] It is ... if you take into account the osmotic coefficient, a correction for non-ideal solutions, then the saline solution is much closer ...
osmotic pressure. *. π. {\displaystyle \pi }. represents: *Archimedes' constant, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its ... vertical velocity in pressure-based coordinate systems (commonly used in atmospheric dynamics) ...
... resulting in pressure on the cell wall from within called turgor pressure. The osmotic pressure π of a dilute solution can be ... Osmotic pressure is the hydrostatic pressure produced by a solution in a space divided by a semipermeable membrane due to a ... The osmotic pressure of ocean water is about 27 atm. Reverse osmosis desalinators use pressures around 50 atm to produce fresh ... Osmotic pressure is necessary for many plant functions. It is the resulting turgor pressure on the cell wall that allows ...
... is called the osmotic pressure. A pressure greater than the osmotic pressure will cause solvent molecules to flow from the more ... If we apply pressure to the side containing the more concentrated solution, we can slow or stop the flow of solvent. This is ... The precise amount of pressure necessary to stop the flow of solvent, ... due to the fact that more solvent molecules in the concentrated solution are colliding with the membrane since the pressure, or ...
D was wrong because if there is increased pressure in the dialysis unit, there will be higher pressure pushing against the ... A is wrong because increased inflow would increase hydrostatic pressure and thus cause downstream increases in pressure. B is ... Would D be true just due to the fact that with a higher pressure in the dialysis chamber, there would be more toxins/waste ... Their reasoning for why C wasnt the option was that proteins are too large to pass through the membrane, and thus the osmotic ...
... we apply osmotic shock to a variety of organisms and monitor the effect on cell growth and division. ... To study the effect of osmotic forces on bacteria, ...
This example problem demonstrates how to calculate the amount of solute to add to create a specific osmotic pressure in a ... Osmotic pressure is the pressure that stops the process of osmosis. Osmotic pressure is a colligative property of a substance ... Osmotic Pressure Example Problem How much glucose (C6H12O6) per liter should be used for an intravenous solution to match the ... where Π is the osmotic pressure in atm, i = van t Hoff factor of the solute, M = molar concentration in mol/L, R = universal ...
Download Clkers Osmotic Pressure On Blood Cells Diagram clip art and related images now. Multiple sizes and related images are ... Osmotic Pressure On Blood Cells Diagram clip art. Embed this Art into your website:. 1. Select a size,. 2. Copy the HTML from ... pressure_on_blood_cells_diagram.svg.thumb.png" alt=Osmotic Pressure On Blood Cells Diagram clip art/,,/a, ... pressure_on_blood_cells_diagram.svg.med.png" alt=Osmotic Pressure On Blood Cells Diagram clip art/,,/a, ...
... osmotic pressure; Title: Donnan equilibrium and osmotic pressure in hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules ... Donnan equilibrium and osmotic pressure in hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules Halozan, D., Sukhorukov, G. B., Brumen, M., ... equilibrium and osmotic pressure in hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules. Acta Chimica Slovenica, 54(3), 598-604. ...
Arti dan makna apa itu osmotic pressure adalah dalam istilah Kamus Bahasa Inggris. Kamus, arti dan daftar istilah Kamus Bahasa ... osmotic pressure. Bagikan: Apa itu osmotic pressure?. Arti dan makna osmotic pressure dalam istilah Kamus Bahasa Inggris:. ... 5 Ghani Rozaqi 11/10/2019 2:27:00 osmotic pressure osmotic pressure ...
The osmotic pressure of an ideal solution, with low concentration can be approximate calculated by the molarity and the ... Osmotic pressure is the pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a ... Osmotic pressure is the pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a ... The osmotic pressure of an ideal solution, with low concentration can be approximate calculated by the molarity and the ...
Solving problems involving osmotic pressure * Determining molar mass of solute from osmotic pressure ...
... etc on the concept on Osmotic Pressure ...
What is osmotic pressure: The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions ... with different concentrations of solute.. Synonyms: pressure, hypertonicity, pressure level, force per unit area, hypotonicity ... Definition of osmotic pressure []. * The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a semipermeable membrane separating ...
The phenomenon is called osmosis, and at equilibrium the osmotic pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure. Historical ... The osmotic pressure is defined as the excess pressure Psoln - p01. As can be seen from the diagram below, this is the pressure ... we can regard osmotic pressure as the excess pressure required to increase either the chemical potential or the vapor pressure ... where P is the osmotic pressure, ΔV is the partial molal volume of the solvent in the solution, p0 is the vapor pressure of the ...
Osmotic Pressure is the minimum amount of pressure that is applied on a solution to stop the inward flow of a liquid... ... Osmotic Pressure Definition - What does Osmotic Pressure mean? Osmotic Pressure is the minimum amount of pressure that is ... Petropedia explains Osmotic Pressure. In any osmotic system such as reservoirs, there are low salinity regions and high ... At times osmotic pressure is the measure of the tendency to absorb water back into any solution because of osmosis process. A ...
... of the dispenser in a tendency towards osmotic equilibrium with its environment, corresponding pressure is exerted behind the ... of controlled permeability to water containing a solution of an osmotically effective solute which exhibits an osmotic pressure ... An osmotic active agent dispenser is comprised of: (1) a first helical compartment of relatively impervious material containing ... Osmotic pump with remotely controlled osmotic pressure generation. US9056164 *. 31 Oct 2007. 16 Jun 2015. Bayer Medical Care ...
Oncotic pressure is the contribution made to total osmolality by colloids. Osmotic pressure ... What is the Difference Between Osmotic Pressure and Oncotic Pressure? ... Difference Between Osmotic Pressure and Oncotic Pressure. Definition. Osmotic pressure is the pressure needed to stop the net ... The main difference between Osmotic Pressure and Oncotic Pressure is that osmotic pressure is the pressure needed to stop the ...
Child of Osmotic Pressure model, written by Nathan Holbert. The Modeling Commons contains more than 2,000 other NetLogo models ...
Osmotic Pressure.... by Mesa Maltworks » Wed Jan 30, 2002 12:15 pm ... you are having problems with your proceedures is related to the disequalibrium in osmotic pressure between the solutions and ... The beer solution should be avoided due to the difficulty of adjusting for pressure and is unnecessary anyway as they need no ... research I have read relating to cryogenic storage has utilized distilled water that is adjusted to match the osmotic pressure ...
Potential osmotic pressure is the maximum osmotic pressure that could develop in a solution if it were separated from its pure ... Osmotic pressure measurement may be used for the determination of molecular weights. Osmotic pressure is an important factor ... In animal cells excessive osmotic pressure can result in cytolysis. Osmotic pressure is the basis of filtering ("reverse ... Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent ...
Osmotic pressure is the difference between blood in the capillaries and interstitial fluid between the cells, according to ... An increased amount of salt in the blood causes the cells to release more water due to osmotic pressure. Blood pressure that is ... What Causes Blood Pressure?. A: Blood pressure is caused by the force of the blood as it pushes against artery walls, according ... Osmotic pressure is the difference between blood in the capillaries and interstitial fluid between the cells, according to ...
osmotic pressure synonyms, osmotic pressure pronunciation, osmotic pressure translation, English dictionary definition of ... osmotic pressure. n. The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions with ... Related to osmotic pressure: osmotic potential. osmotic pressure. n.. The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a ... Osmotic pressure - definition of osmotic pressure by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/osmotic+pressure ...
Osmotic pressure is the force caused by a solution passing through a semi permeable surface by osmosis, which is equal to the ... osmotic pressure. the pressure exerted by a solvent passing through a semipermeable membrane in osmosis, equal to the pressure ... osmotic pressure. noun. The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions ... "osmotic pressure." YourDictionary, n.d. Web. 05 December 2018. ,https://www.yourdictionary.com/osmotic-pressure,. ...
... Author(s). Masic, Admir; Bertinetti, Luca; Schuetz, Roman; Chang, ... DownloadMasic-2015-Osmotic Pressure.pdf (1.207Mb). PUBLISHER_CC Publisher with Creative Commons License. Creative Commons ... "Osmotic Pressure Induced Tensile Forces in Tendon Collagen." Nature Communications 6 (January 22, 2015): 5942. ... stresses comparable to muscle contraction already occur at small osmotic pressures common in biological environments. We ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music ... Osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow ... Osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow ... Potential osmotic pressure is the maximum osmotic pressure that could develop in a solution if it were separated from distilled ...
Colloid Osmotic Pressure in Patients With Fontan Circulation. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure [ Time Frame: Ten years after completed Fontan surgery ]. ... Interstitial Colloid Osmotic Pressure in Children With Fontan Circulation After Fontan Surgery. ... This project will evaluate whether increased micro vascular leakage and change in interstitial colloid osmotic pressure are ...
... clinicaltrials.gov The purpose of this study is to identify normal values of colloid osmotic pressure in interstitial fluid and ... Effcient Osmotic Pressure Calculations using Coarse-Grained Molecular Simulations.. Osmotic pressure data is increasingly used ... Here, we show that the osmotic pressure can .... Osmotic pressure between arbitrarily charged planar surfaces: A revisited ... Osmotic Fragility. RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of ...
Understanding Osmotic and Oncotic Pressure. Includes full solutions and score reporting. ... This fluid transfer is moderated by two factors: hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure is the " ... the hydrostatic pressure is stronger than the interstitial osmotic pressure and fluid is forced into the interstitium. Osmotic ... Hydrostatic pressure is the force of the fluid volume against a membrane, while osmotic pressure is related to the protein ...
... we apply osmotic shock to a variety of organisms and monitor the effect on cell growth and division. ... To study the effect of osmotic forces on bacteria, ... To study the effect of osmotic forces on bacteria, we apply ... This project aims to test the hypothesis that bacteria exploit osmotic pressure as a physical driving force for growth and ... osmotic shock to a variety of organisms and monitor the effect on cell growth and division. ...
3). Efflux of K+-ions after hypo-osmotic shock could counteract the osmotic pressure applied and lead to a decrease of turgor ... a change corresponding to only approximately 0.2 bar in osmotic pressure. Like treatment with elicitors, hypo-osmotic shock ... Sensing of Osmotic Pressure Changes in Tomato Cells. Georg Felix, Martin Regenass, Thomas Boller ... Alternatively, osmotic changes could be sensed via hydrostatic pressure, corresponding to the turgor of the cell, by a ...
... a change corresponding to only approximately 0.2 bar in osmotic pressure. Like treatment with elicitors, hypo-osmotic shock ... Sensing of Osmotic Pressure Changes in Tomato Cells. Georg Felix, Martin Regenass, Thomas Boller ... In contrast, hypo-osmotic shock induced responses without measurable lag and faster than elicitor treatments. Measurable medium ... of responses by hyperosmotic shock was slow and occurred only after increases of approximately 200,000 Pa in osmotic pressure. ...
Performance Investigation of Membranes Suitable for Osmotic Membrane Pressure Actuators. Trondsen, Gaute Tolås ... In experiments conducted in PRO mode pressure was generated on the draw side when hydrocarbons were mixed together with water ... PRO experiments using pure water in the feed were performed at different pressure differences. The results showed no linear ... Forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) experiments were performed with different ratios of hydrocarbons. The ...
The osmotic pressure at pH 5 and low ionic strength was ,50 kPa for antibody concentrations above 200 g/L. The second virial ... The osmotic pressure of highly concentrated monoclonal antibody solutions: Effect of solution conditions. Authors. *. Elaheh ... The objective of this study was to evaluate the osmotic pressure of a highly purified monoclonal antibody at concentrations up ... coefficients determined from the oncotic pressure (after subtracting the Donnan contribution) were in good qualitative ...
Effects of a hydroxyethylstarch solution on plasma colloid osmotic pressure in acutely ill patients. Download Prime PubMed App ... Effects of a Hydroxyethylstarch Solution On Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure in Acutely Ill Patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. ... Effects of a hydroxyethylstarch solution on plasma colloid osmotic pressure in acutely ill patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. ... Effects of a hydroxyethylstarch solution on plasma colloid osmotic pressure in acutely ill patients.. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. ...
... isolation method based on hypo-osmotic swelling, which is applicable to various size-based CTC isolation devices. The previous ... Enhancement of isolation sensitivity for the viable heterogeneous circulating tumor cells swelled by hypo-osmotic pressure ... Enhancement of isolation sensitivity for the viable heterogeneous circulating tumor cells swelled by hypo-osmotic pressure J. ... In contrast, hypo-osmotic swelling is applicable regardless of the cancer cell types. The size increments of both epithelial- ...
Wide Variation in the In-Vitro Colloid Osmotic Pressure of Plasma Substitutes S.A. Barclay; S.A. Barclay ... S.A. Barclay, E.D. Bennett; Wide Variation in the In-Vitro Colloid Osmotic Pressure of Plasma Substitutes. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 ... Albumin/Globulin Ratios, Colloid Osmotic Pressures and Lowry Protein Microanalysis in Rat Plasma Clin Sci Mol Med (December, ...
What is colloid osmotic pressure? Meaning of colloid osmotic pressure medical term. What does colloid osmotic pressure mean? ... Looking for online definition of colloid osmotic pressure in the Medical Dictionary? colloid osmotic pressure explanation free ... colloid osmotic pressure. Also found in: Acronyms, Encyclopedia. colloid osmotic pressure. See oncotic pressure. ... Colloid osmotic pressure , definition of colloid osmotic pressure by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
... osmotic, pressure, science , Glogster EDU - Interactive multimedia posters ... Osmotic Pressure: biology, bioogy, blood, cell, cells, en, osmosis, ... Osmotic Pressure (π) determines whether or not osmosis will occur, often described by πV = nRT. If the solutions on either side ... In terms of concentration, the Osmotic Pressure may be written as such:π = (nRT)/V = (n/V)RT = MRT(M) stands for Molarity, a ...
Standard approach to membrane transport generated by osmotic andhydrostatic pressures, developed by Kedem and Katchalsky, is ... Standard approach to membrane transport generated by osmotic andhydrostatic pressures, developed by Kedem and Katchalsky, is ...
Osmosis Aim To find the osmotic pressure of potato cells. I can find this out, when there is no net movement (change of mass in ... it creates a high pressure upon the outside that forces the water into the cell where the pressure is ...
Ionic Stress and Osmotic Pressure Induce Different Alterations in the Lipopolysaccharide of a Rhizobium meliloti Strain.. J ... Ionic Stress and Osmotic Pressure Induce Different Alterations in the Lipopolysaccharide of a Rhizobium meliloti Strain. ... Ionic Stress and Osmotic Pressure Induce Different Alterations in the Lipopolysaccharide of a Rhizobium meliloti Strain. ... Ionic Stress and Osmotic Pressure Induce Different Alterations in the Lipopolysaccharide of a Rhizobium meliloti Strain. ...
The existence of water and osmotic pressure significantly aggravates the rheological behavior of rocks, which greatly affects ... The research shows that the existence of osmotic pressure shortens the time required for the mudstone to reach steady-state ... The existence of water and osmotic pressure significantly aggravates the rheological behavior of rocks, which greatly affects ... The triaxial rheological deformation of mudstone under different osmotic pressures was discussed, and a new viscoelastic- ...
The analysis of the osmotic pressures of the serum proteins, and the molecular weights of albumins and globulins. Gilbert ... The analysis of the osmotic pressures of the serum proteins, and the molecular weights of albumins and globulins ... The analysis of the osmotic pressures of the serum proteins, and the molecular weights of albumins and globulins ... The analysis of the osmotic pressures of the serum proteins, and the molecular weights of albumins and globulins ...
  • A pressure greater than the osmotic pressure will cause solvent molecules to flow from the more concentrated solution to the more dilute solution. (blausen.com)
  • If we apply pressure to the side containing the more concentrated solution, we can slow or stop the flow of solvent. (blausen.com)
  • This is due to the fact that more solvent molecules in the concentrated solution are colliding with the membrane since the pressure, or force per unit area, is increasing. (blausen.com)
  • The precise amount of pressure necessary to stop the flow of solvent, is called the osmotic pressure. (blausen.com)
  • I figured B was the answer, because if hydrostatic pressure in the dialysis chamber is increased, and more fluid volume is flowing out into the drainage pipe/dialysate fluid pipe (see figure), that will decrease the concentration of proteins because the amount of solute is remaining the same while the amount of solvent is increasing. (studentdoctor.net)
  • While Morse and Frazer used the same principle as Pfeffer, albeit with a more advanced electrochemical method of depositing the membrane in the pores, Berkeley and Hartley reversed the arrangement of solvent and solution, applying measured pressure to the latter to attain equilibrium. (wordpress.com)
  • 1] Vaporize 1 mole of the pure solvent at its vapor pressure p 0 , and expand it reversibly so that the vapor pressure falls to p equal to the partial pressure of the solvent in the solution (Butler assumes that p is not affected by P applied to the solution). (wordpress.com)
  • Their reasoning for why C wasn't the option was that proteins are too large to pass through the membrane, and thus the osmotic concentration wouldn't change. (studentdoctor.net)
  • But still, wouldn't the increased fluid volume passing into the outflow still decrease the osmotic concentration, even if the amount of protein isn't changing? (studentdoctor.net)
  • Osmotic pressure is a colligative property of a substance since it depends on the concentration of the solute and not its chemical nature. (thoughtco.com)
  • where Π is the osmotic pressure in atm, i = van 't Hoff factor of the solute, M = molar concentration in mol/L, R = universal gas constant = 0.08206 L·atm/mol·K, and T = absolute temperature in Kelvin. (thoughtco.com)
  • If the osmotic pressure of the solution is 1.52 bar at the same temperature, what would be its concentration? (goprep.co)
  • As we pass the dialysis membranes, the high pressure forces significant amounts of fluid and small solutes through the membranes and out via the drain. (studentdoctor.net)
  • It's important to remember that there may be other solutes in the solution that affect osmotic pressure. (thoughtco.com)
  • Low protein diet has been found to depress osmotic pressure of liver cells after about 4 weeks, and with degenerative changes in the parenchyma, notably fatty infiltration, this pressure has remained at a diminished level during approximately 90 days. (rupress.org)
  • If the solution is hypotonic with respect to the osmotic pressure of the cytoplasm, water will rush into the cells to try to reach equilibrium. (thoughtco.com)
  • Osmotic pressure maintained by liver or kidney tissue measured by its water equilibrium with solutions of sodium chloride remains unchanged from 5 minutes up to 1½ hours following removal of the tissue from the body. (rupress.org)
  • Rayleigh's approach, using a zero-sum cycle of operations, was thermodynamically sound and continued to form the basis of theoretical development in its next phase, which in Europe focused on vapor pressure following the influential papers of Alfred Porter in 1907 and Hugh Callendar in 1908. (wordpress.com)
  • When this osmotic homeostasis is impaired by severe injury the pressure maintained by the tissue returns to its former level with recovery from the injury. (rupress.org)
  • This example problem demonstrates how to calculate the amount of solute to add to create a specific osmotic pressure in a solution. (thoughtco.com)
  • How much glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) per liter should be used for an intravenous solution to match the 7.65 atm at 37 degrees Celsius osmotic pressure of blood? (thoughtco.com)
  • Traube's compatriot Wilhelm Pfeffer, a botanist, succeded in depositing the latter in the walls of a porous jar, which when filled with a sugar solution, connected to a mercury manometer and then plunged into pure water, provided a means of measuring osmotic pressures. (wordpress.com)
  • Being essentially an attempt to provide hypothesis-free support to van 't Hoff's troubled gaseous theory of solutions, the solute in Rayleigh's cycle was a mole of ideal gas, which was first dissolved in the solution by applied pressure and then recovered from the solution by osmotic pressure to return the system to its original state. (wordpress.com)
  • The beer solution should be avoided due to the difficulty of adjusting for pressure and is unnecessary anyway as they need no nutrition or alcohol protection at these temperatures. (beertools.com)
  • Increase of pressure within the common bile duct and the changes following biliary obstruction are accompanied by depression of the osmotic pressure maintained by liver tissue and ligation of the ureter diminishes the osmotic pressure maintained by kidney tissue. (rupress.org)
  • This is why during enhanced oil recovery techniques, water or steam is injected into the well, so that it can push the hydrocarbons further because of osmotic pressure creation beneath and improve the production levels. (petropedia.com)
  • The ASBC research I have read relating to cryogenic storage has utilized distilled water that is adjusted to match the osmotic pressure with saline. (beertools.com)
  • Following Pfeffer's osmotic pressure measurements using sucrose solutions, on which JH van 't Hoff based his famously flawed gaseous theory of solutions, there were two notable teams of experimentalists - one on each side of the Atlantic - which provided high quality osmotic pressure data to test the ideas of theoreticians. (wordpress.com)
  • One of the reasons (among others that are too lengthy to describe here) you are having problems with your proceedures is related to the disequalibrium in osmotic pressure between the solutions and the fluid trapped behind the yeast cell walls. (beertools.com)
  • In any osmotic system such as reservoirs, there are low salinity regions and high salinity regions. (petropedia.com)
  • Methods to prepare fractions of poly(ε-caprolactone) with a narrow molecular mass distribution in large quantities have been examined using high osmotic pressure chromatography under the theta condition. (elsevier.com)
  • Lee, D & Teraoka, I 2003, ' Scale-up study of high osmotic pressure chromatography for separation of poly(ε-caprolactone) ', Journal of Chromatography A , vol. 996, no. 1-2, pp. 71-83. (elsevier.com)
  • Osmotic pressure maintained by pancreas or submaxillary gland, as ascertained in the same way, remains unchanged during ½ hour and later increases. (rupress.org)
  • Liver tissue of rat, mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, and cat maintains an osmotic pressure greater than twice that of the blood, and kidney tissue maintains an osmotic pressure somewhat less than twice that of blood. (rupress.org)
  • Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential osmotic pressure is the maximum osmotic pressure that could develop in a solution if it were separated from its pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions with different concentrations of solute. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The pressure that must be applied to a solution, when separated from a more dilute solution by a semipermeable membrane, to prevent the inflow of solvent molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This process will stop once the pressures of the water and sugar water on both sides of the membrane become equal. (wn.com)
  • Osmotic pressure is the hydrostatic pressure produced by a solution in a space divided by a semipermeable membrane due to a differential in the concentrations of solute. (wikidoc.org)
  • When a biological cell is in a hypotonic environment (the cell interior contains a lower concentration of water and a higher concentration of other molecules than its exterior), water flows across the cell membrane into the cell, causing it to expand due to osmotic pressure. (wikidoc.org)
  • This is due to the fact that more solvent molecules in the concentrated solution are colliding with the membrane since the pressure, or force per unit area, is increasing. (blausen.com)
  • Their reasoning for why C wasn't the option was that proteins are too large to pass through the membrane, and thus the osmotic concentration wouldn't change. (studentdoctor.net)
  • Hydrostatic pressure is the force of the fluid volume against a membrane, while osmotic pressure is related to the protein concentration on either side of a membrane pulling water toward the region of greater concentration. (varsitytutors.com)
  • If the solutions on either side of a semipermeable membrane (comparing inside and outside the cell) have the same value for Osmotic Pressure, no osmosis will occur. (glogster.com)
  • Membrane Transport Generated by the Osmotic and Hydrostatic Pressure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Standard approach to membrane transport generated by osmotic andhydrostatic pressures, developed by Kedem and Katchalsky, is based onprinciples of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Osmotic pressure is a colligative property of solutions that is observed using a semipermeable membrane, a barrier with pores small enough to allow solvent molecules to pass through but not solute molecules or ions. (libretexts.org)
  • The net flow of water through the membrane can be prevented by applying a pressure to the right arm that is equal to the osmotic pressure of the glucose solution. (libretexts.org)
  • download the osmotic pressure and lowering of the freezing point of mixtures of salts with one another and with non electrolytes in ': ' This membrane were often work. (oden-i.com)
  • Osmotic pressure increases with temperature because temperature affects the number of solvent-membrane collisions per minute. (vcalc.com)
  • Examination of the protein and ionic concentrations of these fluids strongly points to the conclusion that neither colloid osmotic pressure, increased capillary permeability, nor membrane damage can be the primary cause of these abnormal fluid collections. (aaccjnls.org)
  • An alteration of the osmotic pressure difference across the membrane of a blood cell causes a shift of water and a change of cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) Pressure that occurs when two solutions of differing concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane, such as a cellular wall, and the lower concentration solute is drawn across the membrane into the higher concentration solute (osmosis). (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • If pure water were on both sides of the membrane, the osmotic pressure difference would be zero. (gsu.edu)
  • But if normal human blood were on the right side of the membrane, the osmotic pressure would be about seven atmospheres! (gsu.edu)
  • This illustrates how potent the influence of osmotic pressure is for membrane transport in living organisms. (gsu.edu)
  • The decision about which side of the membrane to call "high" osmotic pressure is a troublesome one. (gsu.edu)
  • The final rationale has to do with the measurement of osmotic pressure by determining how much hydrostatic pressure on the solution is required to prevent the transport of water from a pure source across a semi-permeable membrane into the soluton. (gsu.edu)
  • While Morse and Frazer used the same principle as Pfeffer, albeit with a more advanced electrochemical method of depositing the membrane in the pores, Berkeley and Hartley reversed the arrangement of solvent and solution, applying measured pressure to the latter to attain equilibrium. (wordpress.com)
  • By 1928, the theoretical model in JAV Butler's popular textbook The Fundamentals of Chemical Thermodynamics was close to the familiar classroom demonstration of osmosis shown at the head of this post, in which the hydrostatic pressure acting on the solution counteracts the tendency of the solvent to pass through the semi-permeable membrane. (wordpress.com)
  • The osmotic pressure of a solution is the minimum amount of pressure needed to prevent water from flowing into it across a semipermeable membrane. (thoughtco.com)
  • Osmotic pressure also reflects how readily water can enter the solution via osmosis, as across a cell membrane. (thoughtco.com)
  • Osmotic Pressure is the minimum amount of pressure that is applied on a solution to stop the inward flow of a liquid such as water across a semipermeable membrane. (petropedia.com)
  • Osmotic pressure can be defined as the minimum pressure that must be applied to a solution to halt the flow of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane (osmosis). (byjus.com)
  • If sufficient pressure is applied to the solution side of the semipermeable membrane, the process of osmosis is halted. (byjus.com)
  • In the illustration provided above, it can be observed that the solvent molecules tend to pass through the semipermeable membrane into the solution side until the osmotic pressure (of the solution) is applied to the solution side. (byjus.com)
  • The phenomenon of osmotic pressure arises from the tendency of a pure solvent to move through a semi-permeable membrane and into a solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable. (wikia.org)
  • Osmotic pressure is defined as the pressure needed to stop the net movement of water across a permeable membrane which separates the solvent and solution. (clickspay.ru)
  • It is the minimum pressure required to prevent the flow of a fluid through a semi-permeable membrane. (sciencestruck.com)
  • Whenever a solute movement is blocked by the membrane it will transfer momentum to it and, therefore, generate pressure on it [2 - 3]. (tripod.com)
  • The conservation law of momentum requires that solute molecules, that generate osmotic pressure on the semi-permeable membrane, must generate, via the volume of the solution, the same osmotic pressure on all the solution boundaries, including its free surface. (tripod.com)
  • During water flow through the membrane, the osmotic pressure, that operates also on the moving free surface of the solution, will push it upward. (tripod.com)
  • That is, the direction of water flow through the membrane can be reversed at any moment by proper control of the external pressure on the solution. (tripod.com)
  • Up to this point, we have considered the case of osmotic flow across a semipermeable membrane-that is, one that is permeable to solvent but impermeable to the solute so that interdiffusion is completely prevented. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Under this condition, for a given concentration difference the volume displacement, or osmotic flow, will be somewhere between zero and the maximum that would be observed with an ideal semipermeable membrane. (barnardhealth.us)
  • We then apply pressure to the piston, force fluid through the membrane, and collect the filtrate. (barnardhealth.us)
  • If a membrane is equally permeable to the solvent (water) and the solute (i), then (ji = 0, and the presence of a concentration difference for i across the membrane will not generate an osmotic pressure. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Conversely, if the membrane is impermeant to i, then interdiffusion is prohibited, and the effective osmotic pressure across the membrane will be given by van't Hoffs equation. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Osmotic power works by separating saltwater and seawater in two chambers separated by a polymer membrane that will only allow freshwater to pass through. (popsci.com)
  • The salinity of the seawater draws the freshwater through the membrane, creating a great deal of pressure on the seawater side. (popsci.com)
  • Just as technological innovations made Hywind and Snovhit possible, advancements in membrane technology have vastly increased the efficiency, as well as lowered the cost, of osmotic power. (popsci.com)
  • The osmotic fragility curve of red cells not only reflects the average membrane and cytoplasmic properties, but may also provide information on the distribution of those properties within the sample [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The Pfeffer cell was developed for the measurement of osmotic pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • One approach to the measurement of osmotic pressure is to measure the amount of hydrostatic pressure necessary to prevent fluid transfer by osmosis . (gsu.edu)
  • The actual measurement of osmotic pressure had to wait for over a century, until the German chemist Moritz Traube showed in 1867 that artificial semipermeable membranes could be made using gelatin tannate or copper ferrocyanide. (wordpress.com)
  • The measurement of osmotic pressure can also be used to determine molecular weights of compounds. (byjus.com)
  • To study the effect of osmotic forces on bacteria, we apply osmotic shock to a variety of organisms and monitor the effect on cell growth and division. (simtk.org)
  • Aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of osmotic stress on cell cycle progression. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Recent studies, aimed at elucidating the effect of osmotic pressure, showed that collagen contracts upon water removal. (uni-potsdam.de)
  • Colloids are suspensions of particles of various sizes that aim to maintain plasma volume by maintaining the colloid osmotic pressure in plasma and thus retain the administered volume within the circulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When confronted with a sudden change in medium osmolality (a hypo-osmotic or hyperosmotic shock), respectively, these cells responded with volume changes and stress symptoms such as rapid extracellular alkalinization, efflux of K + -ions, and induction of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase acid, the key enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In contrast, hypo-osmotic shock induced responses without measurable lag and faster than elicitor treatments. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Like treatment with elicitors, hypo-osmotic shock induced specific changes in protein phosphorylations as demonstrated by in vivo labeling with [ 33 P]orthophosphate. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this report we compared responses of suspension-cultured tomato ( Lycopersion esculentum ) cells treated with elicitor preparations with the ones observed after hypo-osmotic or hyperosmotic shock. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cells proved particularly sensitive to hypo-osmotic conditions and responded to pressure changes as small as approximately 0.2 bar. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We present a viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) isolation method based on hypo-osmotic swelling, which is applicable to various size-based CTC isolation devices. (rsc.org)
  • In contrast, hypo-osmotic swelling is applicable regardless of the cancer cell types. (rsc.org)
  • The triaxial rheological deformation of mudstone under different osmotic pressures was discussed, and a new viscoelastic-plastic rheological constitutive model was proposed. (springer.com)
  • 20] That colloid osmotic pressure does not play the role it was assigned by Ernest Starling is known to many burn surgeons, as burn oedema usually resolves in the face of dropping albumin levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To study the correlation between colloid osmotic pressure, albumin and the loss of vascular integrity in terms of endothelial dysfunction in patients with ESLD undergoing OLT and its impac. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Albumin proteins are the main source of osmotic pressure in capillaries, pulling water into the blood. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions can represent an alternative to human albumin solutions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, but their effects on the plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) have not been well defined. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Priming of cardiopulmonary bypass with human albumin or Ringer lactate: effect on colloid osmotic pressure and extravascular lung water. (pptaglobal.org)
  • In blood plasma and capillaries, albumin is responsible for about 75% the total oncotic pressure. (clickspay.ru)
  • Osmotic pressure is the basis of filtering ("reverse osmosis"), a process commonly used in water purification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osmotic pressure is the basis of reverse osmosis , a process commonly used to purify water. (wikidoc.org)
  • Reverse osmosis desalinators use pressures around 50 atm to produce fresh water from ocean salt water . (wikidoc.org)
  • Another important application of osmotic pressure is in the desalination and purification of seawater, which involves the process of reverse osmosis. (byjus.com)
  • We extend Van't Hoff's law for the osmotic pressure to a suspension of active Brownian particles. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To learn more about osmotic pressure and other colligative properties (such as boiling point elevation ), register with BYJU'S and download the mobile application on your smartphone. (byjus.com)
  • This mock test of Test: Colligative Properties IV (Osmotic Pressure) for Class 12 helps you for every Class 12 entrance exam. (edurev.in)
  • This contains 20 Multiple Choice Questions for Class 12 Test: Colligative Properties IV (Osmotic Pressure) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. (edurev.in)
  • The solved questions answers in this Test: Colligative Properties IV (Osmotic Pressure) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. (edurev.in)
  • Class 12 students definitely take this Test: Colligative Properties IV (Osmotic Pressure) exercise for a better result in the exam. (edurev.in)
  • You can find other Test: Colligative Properties IV (Osmotic Pressure) extra questions, long questions & short questions for Class 12 on EduRev as well by searching above. (edurev.in)
  • X-ray scattering experiments further showed that changes in osmotic pressure affect both the molecular length as well as the higher order organization of CMPs. (uni-potsdam.de)
  • Calculation of the first derivative of the haemolysis curve allowed us to visualise the changes in osmotic fragility distribution after exposure to NIR. (hindawi.com)
  • The popular and instructive application of osmotic stress ( 1 ) has been used to measure the changes in macromolecular hydration for several reactions. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, Timasheff ( 12 ) has questioned the application of osmotic stress to single molecules. (pnas.org)
  • Osmotic pressure is the difference between blood in the capillaries and interstitial fluid between the cells, according to Kimball's Biology Pages. (reference.com)
  • Decreased serum protein decreases the osmotic pressure of the blood, leading to loss of fluid from the intravascular compartment, or the blood vessels, to the interstitial tissues, resulting in oedema. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A circulation with cause problems with body fluid balance.This project will evaluate changes in interstitial colloid osmotic pressure in patients 10 year after completion of a three step Fontan surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This project will evaluate whether increased micro vascular leakage and change in interstitial colloid osmotic pressure are present in patients after ten years with a Fontan circulation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Measurements of colloid osmotic pressure (COP) by sampling of interstitial fluid from subcutaneous tissue and plasma are well documented in animal models and human adult studies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to measure colloid osmotic pressure in interstitial fluid and plasma in healthy children under two years, in asphyxiated babies and in children undergoing hear. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The colloid osmotic pressure of plasma (COPp) and interstitial fluid (COPi) are dete. (bioportfolio.com)
  • An increase in interstitial osmotic pressure. (varsitytutors.com)
  • A decrease in interstitial hydrostatic pressure. (varsitytutors.com)
  • As a result, an increase in the interstitial osmotic pressure would cause less fluid to enter the interstitium, because there is less area in the bed where the capillary hydrostatic pressure is greater than the interstitial osmotic pressure. (varsitytutors.com)
  • At the arteriole end of the capillary, the hydrostatic pressure is stronger than the interstitial osmotic pressure and fluid is forced into the interstitium. (varsitytutors.com)
  • At that point, the interstitial osmotic pressure becomes stronger than the capillary's hydrostatic pressure. (varsitytutors.com)
  • 11] The transcapillary fluid migration is governed by capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial tissue colloid osmotic pressure , which tend to favor movement of water out of the capillary, whereas plasma colloid osmotic pressure and interstitial tissue hydrostatic pressure tend to favor movement of water into the capillary. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The total osmotic pressure (osmolarity) of each of a series of true body fluids has been measured and compared with that of the corresponding serum. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Nasirzadeh, Karamat , Neueder, Roland and Kunz, Werner (2004) Vapor pressures, osmotic and activity coefficients for (LiBr + acetonitrile) between the temperatures (298.15 and 343.15) K. Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 36 (6), pp. 511-517. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Vapor pressures, osmotic and activity coefficients of electrolytes in protic solvents at different temperatures. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • As fluid moves through the capillary, the hydrostatic pressure decreases from the arteriole end to the venule end (fluid exits the capillary along the gradient). (varsitytutors.com)
  • Transcapillary colloid osmotic pressure gradient and body fluid volumes in renal failure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Perturbation of the osmotic gradient also led to changes in rounding pressure and volume. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The report then estimates 2018-2023 market development trends of Osmotic Pressure Gauge industry. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • Osmotic pressure experiments on three blends of lysozyme and ovalbumin at 30 and 37 degrees C could be interpreted in two ways. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) experiments were performed with different ratios of hydrocarbons. (bibsys.no)
  • The paradox is that, even though the theoretical basis as presented in osmotic stress is incorrect, the experiments have produced correct numerical values of changes in preferential hydration, δ(∂ m 1 /∂ m 2 ), because the plots used [equations such as Eqs. (pnas.org)
  • The aim of our experiments was to characterise and to validate the osmotic fragility test when applied to human blood samples with no significant alterations of osmotic fragility but with a differentiating shape of the haemolysis curve. (hindawi.com)
  • Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff first proposed a formula for calculating the osmotic pressure, but this was later improved upon by Harmon Northrop Morse . (wikia.org)
  • In this study, we fabricated three different fabric-reinforced thin-film composite (TFC) flat-sheet PRO membranes for osmotic power harvesting. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In 1951, the Dutch physical chemist Staverman provided a quantitative expression for the osmotic pressure across nonideal membranes, which was based on the following reasoning: Let us perform the ultrafiltration experiment illustrated in Fig. 14. (barnardhealth.us)
  • In the Ringer lactate group, a significantly greater decrease in colloid osmotic pressure occurred immediately after onset of cardiopulmonary bypass. (pptaglobal.org)
  • Since reduction of the osmotic pressure is associated with decrease in rounding pressure and volume and defects in cell rounding, we hypothesized that hypertonic stress could have adverse effects on the establishment of a bipolar spindle. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • abstract = "The Authors considered 12 patients submitted to surgery of different durations and took their colloid-osmotic pressure (COP) by Weil's oncometer at different times. (elsevier.com)
  • Osmotic pressure measurements of ovalbumin and lysozyme mixtures. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Following Pfeffer's osmotic pressure measurements using sucrose solutions, on which JH van 't Hoff based his famously flawed gaseous theory of solutions, there were two notable teams of experimentalists - one on each side of the Atlantic - which provided high quality osmotic pressure data to test the ideas of theoreticians. (wordpress.com)
  • EFB1 showed alterations on its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure that can be related to salt stress: (i) silver-stained electrophoretic profiles showed a different mobility that was dependent on ionic stress but not on osmotic pressure, and (ii) a monoclonal antibody, JIM 40, recognized changes in LPS that were dependent on osmotic stress. (asm.org)
  • The osmotic pressure of the plasma affects the mechanics of the circulation in several ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, at 20° C helium and xenon are completely miscible at pressures below 200 atmospheres but become increasingly immiscible as the pressure rises. (britannica.com)
  • The washed erythrocytes were exposed to near-infrared radiation (NIR) or ozonated, and the osmotic fragility test was applied. (hindawi.com)
  • The osmotic fragility, calculated from the experimental haemolysis curve for the control and cells irradiated for 15 min, is the same within the empirical error. (hindawi.com)
  • By contrast, significant changes both to the osmotic fragility value and the distribution of osmotic properties were observed after an erythrocytes ozonation procedure. (hindawi.com)
  • The osmotic fragility test is also useful for diagnosis of certain haematological diseases, for example, haemolytic anaemia, hereditary spherocytosis, and elliptocytosis, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and sickle cell anaemia, as well as for RBCs from uremic or diabetic patients [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Change in osmotic pressure during cryopreservation exerts osmotic stress (Watson, 2000) that results in intra and extra cellular ice crystals formation and leads to irreversible damage to spermatozoa integrity (Hammerstedt et al. (thefreedictionary.com)