The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A condition in which total serum protein level is below the normal range. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by protein malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, EDEMA, or PROTEINURIA.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to a phenyl group. Often used as fungicides and seed treatment agents.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Liquid components of living organisms.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from:
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.

Aggregation of deoxyhemoglobin S at low concentrations. (1/2823)

The self-association of deoxyhemoglobin S was measured in dilute solutions (0 to 5 g/dl) by Rayleigh light scattering at 630 nm and osmometry in 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.35). Weight and number average molecular weights (Mw and Mn, respectively) and the second or higher virial coefficients, B' were determined. No experimentally significant differences were observed between oxy- and deoxy-Hb S up to the concentration of 2 g/dl; their apparent average molecular weights were within experimental error. Above that concentration, both Mn and Mw of deoxy-Hb S were significantly different from that of oxy-Hb S. The negative second viral coefficent of deoxy-Hb S, observed by both techniques, is consistent with the self-association of this protein. The lack of effect of 0.4 M propylurea on the state of aggregation and the significant influence of 0.1 M NaCl suggests that polar interactions are involved in formation of these aggregates.  (+info)

Volume regulation following hypotonic shock in isolated crypts of mouse distal colon. (2/2823)

1. A video-imaging technique of morphometry was used to measure the diameter as an index of cell volume in intact mouse distal colon crypts submitted to hypotonic shock. 2. Transition from isotonic (310 mosmol l-1) to hypotonic (240 mosmol l-1) saline caused a pronounced increase in crypt diameter immediately followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). 3. Exposure of crypts to Cl--free hyposmotic medium increased the rapidity of both cell swelling and RVD. Exposure of crypts to Na+-free hyposmotic medium reduced the total duration of swelling. Return to initial diameter was followed by further shrinkage of the crypt cells. 4. The chloride channel inhibitor NPPB (50 microM) delayed the swelling phase and prevented the subsequent normal decrease in diameter. 5. The K+ channel blockers barium (10 mM), charybdotoxin (10 nM) and TEA (5 mM) inhibited RVD by 51, 44 and 32 %, respectively. 6. Intracellular [Ca2+] rose from a baseline of 174 +/- 17 nM (n = 8) to 448 +/- 45 nM (n = 8) during the initial swelling phase 7. The Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil (50 microM) and nifedipine (10 microM), the chelator of intracellular Ca2+ BAPTA AM (30 microM), or the inhibitor of Ca2+ release TMB-8 (10 microM), dramatically reduced volume recovery, leading to 51 % (n = 9), 25 % (n = 7), 37 % (n = 6), 32 % (n = 8) inhibition of RVD, respectively. TFP (50 microM), an antagonist of the Ca2+-calmodulin complex, significantly slowed RVD. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) provoked a dramatic reduction of the duration and amplitude of cell swelling followed by extensive shrinkage. The release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores using bradykinin (1 microM) or blockade of reabsorption with thapsigargin (1 microM) decreased the duration of RVD. 8. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 5 microM) slightly delayed RVD, whereas leukotriene D4 (LTD4, 100 nM) and arachidonic acid (10 microM) reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of phospholipase A2 by quinacrine (10 microM) inhibited RVD by 53 %. Common inhibition of PGE2 and LTD4 synthesis by ETYA (50 microM) or separate blockade of PGE2 synthesis by 1 microM indomethacin reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of LTD4 synthesis by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) did not produce any significant effect on cell swelling or subsequent RVD. 9. Staurosporine (1 microM), an inhibitor of protein kinases, inhibited RVD by 58 %. Taken together the experiments demonstrate that the RVD process is under the control of conductive pathways, extra- and intracellular Ca2+ ions, protein kinases, prostaglandins and leukotrienes.  (+info)

Mechanosensitive channel functions to alleviate the cell lysis of marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, by osmotic downshock. (3/2823)

The mechanosensitive channel with large conductance of Escherichia coli is the first to be cloned among stretch-activated channels. Although its activity was characterized by a patch clamp method, a physiological role of the channel has not been proved. The marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, is sensitive to osmotic stress and cell lysis occurs under osmotic downshock. We introduced an mscL gene into Vibrio alginolyticus, and the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance functions was found to alleviate cell lysis by osmotic downshock. This is the first report to show a physiological role of the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance.  (+info)

Stress- and cell type-dependent regulation of transfected c-Jun N-terminal kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase isoforms. (4/2823)

The cJun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are encoded by three genes generating ten protein kinase polypeptides and are activated in settings of cell stress, mitogenesis, differentiation and morphogenesis. The specific role of the JNK family members in these diverse cell programmes is largely undefined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that individual JNK isoforms would exhibit distinct patterns of regulation within cells. The cDNAs encoding five haemagglutinin (HA)-tagged JNK isoforms (p46JNK1alpha, p54JNK2alpha, p54JNK2beta, p46JNK3 and p54JNK3) were expressed in cultured rat PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells and human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. In addition, HA-tagged forms of the dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), MKK4 and MKK7, which are specific activators of the JNK enzymes, were similarly expressed. Reverse transcription and PCR revealed that JNK3 is endogenously expressed in SCLC cells, but not in either chromaffin or neuronally differentiated PC12 cells. MKK4 and MKK7 were endogenously expressed in both PC12 cells and SHP77 cells. Immunoprecipitation and analysis of the JNKs expressed in SCLC cells revealed strong stimulation of all five JNK isoforms by UV radiation. Hypertonic stress, elicited by mannitol, also significantly stimulated these same JNKs, although the JNK3 isoforms were most strongly activated. In PC12 cell transfectants, however, selective and equal activation of p54JNK2alpha and p54JNK3 by UV and osmotic stress was observed, with little or no activation of JNK1alpha or JNK2beta. In contrast with the broad activation of the JNK enzymes by UV in SCLC cells, only HA-MKK4 was stimulated by UV exposure in these cells, whereas osmotic stress stimulated both HA-MKK4 and HA-MKK7. These findings indicate selective activation of JNK and MKK isoforms in a manner that is dependent upon the specific cell stress and the cell type.  (+info)

Osmosensing by bacteria: signals and membrane-based sensors. (5/2823)

Bacteria can survive dramatic osmotic shifts. Osmoregulatory responses mitigate the passive adjustments in cell structure and the growth inhibition that may ensue. The levels of certain cytoplasmic solutes rise and fall in response to increases and decreases, respectively, in extracellular osmolality. Certain organic compounds are favored over ions as osmoregulatory solutes, although K+ fluxes are intrinsic to the osmoregulatory response for at least some organisms. Osmosensors must undergo transitions between "off" and "on" conformations in response to changes in extracellular water activity (direct osmosensing) or resulting changes in cell structure (indirect osmosensing). Those located in the cytoplasmic membranes and nucleoids of bacteria are positioned for indirect osmosensing. Cytoplasmic membrane-based osmosensors may detect changes in the periplasmic and/or cytoplasmic solvent by experiencing changes in preferential interactions with particular solvent constituents, cosolvent-induced hydration changes, and/or macromolecular crowding. Alternatively, the membrane may act as an antenna and osmosensors may detect changes in membrane structure. Cosolvents may modulate intrinsic biomembrane strain and/or topologically closed membrane systems may experience changes in mechanical strain in response to imposed osmotic shifts. The osmosensory mechanisms controlling membrane-based K+ transporters, transcriptional regulators, osmoprotectant transporters, and mechanosensitive channels intrinsic to the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli are under intensive investigation. The osmoprotectant transporter ProP and channel MscL act as osmosensors after purification and reconstitution in proteoliposomes. Evidence that sensor kinase KdpD receives multiple sensory inputs is consistent with the effects of K+ fluxes on nucleoid structure, cellular energetics, cytoplasmic ionic strength, and ion composition as well as on cytoplasmic osmolality. Thus, osmoregulatory responses accommodate and exploit the effects of individual cosolvents on cell structure and function as well as the collective contribution of cosolvents to intracellular osmolality.  (+info)

Functional consensus for mammalian osmotic response elements. (6/2823)

The molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to hyperosmotic stress through the accumulation of organic osmolytes are largely unknown. Yet, among organisms, this is an almost universal phenomenon. In mammals, the cells of the renal medulla are uniquely exposed to high and variable salt concentrations; in response, renal cells accumulate the osmolyte sorbitol through increased transcription of the aldose reductase (AR) gene. In cloning the rabbit AR gene, we found the first evidence of an osmotic response region in a eukaryotic gene. More recently, we functionally defined a minimal essential osmotic response element (ORE) having the sequence CGGAAAATCAC(C) (bp -1105 to -1094). In the present study, we systematically replaced each base with every other possible nucleotide and tested the resulting sequences individually in reporter gene constructs. Additionally, we categorized hyperosmotic response by electrophoretic mobility shift assays of a 17-bp sequence (-1108 to -1092) containing the native ORE as a probe against which the test constructs would compete for binding. In this manner, binding activity was assessed for the full range of osmotic responses obtained. Thus we have arrived at a functional consensus for the mammalian ORE, NGGAAAWDHMC(N). This finding should accelerate the discovery of genes previously unrecognized as being osmotically regulated.  (+info)

Membrane fusion promoters and inhibitors have contrasting effects on lipid bilayer structure and undulations. (7/2823)

It has been established that the fusion of both biological membranes and phospholipid bilayers can be modulated by altering their lipid composition (Chernomordik et al., 1995 .J. Membr. Biol. 146:3). In particular, when added exogenously between apposing membranes, monomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (MMPC) inhibits membrane fusion, whereas glycerol monoleate (GMO), oleic acid (OA), and arachidonic acid (AA) promote fusion. This present study uses x-ray diffraction to investigate the effects of MMPC, GMO, OA, and AA on the bending and stability of lipid bilayers when bilayers are forced together with applied osmotic pressure. The addition of 10 and 30 mol% MMPC to egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) bilayers maintains the bilayer structure, even when the interbilayer fluid spacing is reduced to approximately 3 A, and increases the repulsive pressure between bilayers so that the fluid spacing in excess water increases by 5 and 15 A, respectively. Thus MMPC increases the undulation pressure, implying that the addition of MMPC promotes out-of-plane bending and decreases the adhesion energy between bilayers. In contrast, the addition of GMO has minor effects on the undulation pressure; 10 and 50 mol% GMO increase the fluid spacing of EPC in excess water by 0 and 2 A, respectively. However, x-ray diffraction indicates that, at small interbilayer separations, GMO, OA, or AA converts the bilayer to a structure containing hexagonally packed scattering units approximately 50 A in diameter. Thus GMO, OA, or AA destabilizes bilayer structure as apposing bilayers are brought into contact, which could contribute to their role in promoting membrane fusion.  (+info)

Mechanism of exercise-induced ocular hypotension. (8/2823)

PURPOSE: Although acute dynamic exercise reduces intraocular pressure (IOP), the factors that provoke this response remain ill-defined. To determine whether changes in colloid osmotic pressure (COP) cause the IOP changes during exercise, standardized exercise was performed after dehydration and hydration with isosmotic fluid. METHODS: Progressive cycle ergometer exercise to volitional exhaustion was performed after 4 hours' dehydration, and after hydration with 946 ml isosmotic liquid (345 mOsM). In each experiment, venous blood taken before and immediately after exercise was analyzed for hematocrit, plasma protein concentration, total plasma osmolality, and plasma COP. RESULTS: Exercise in both experiments significantly reduced IOP and elevated COP (each P < 0.01). Dehydration, compared with hydration, also significantly reduced IOP and elevated COP, when measured before and after exercise (P < 0.05). The correlation of mean IOP with mean COP, over the entire range created by varying exercise and hydration statuses, was statistically significant (r = -0.99; P < 0.001). In contrast, other indexes of hydration status, including hematocrit, total plasma osmolality, and plasma protein concentration, failed to change as IOP changed and failed to correlate with IOP, on either a group or individual basis, in conditions of varying levels of exercise and hydration. CONCLUSIONS: Acute dynamic exercise and isosmotic fluid ingestion each seem to change IOP through changes in COP.  (+info)

In the medical field, colloids are suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a liquid medium. They are often used as a means of delivering medication or nutrients to the body, particularly in cases where the patient is unable to absorb nutrients through their digestive system. Colloids can be classified into two main categories: hydrophilic colloids and hydrophobic colloids. Hydrophilic colloids are those that are soluble in water and are often used as plasma expanders to increase blood volume. Examples of hydrophilic colloids include gelatin, dextran, and albumin. Hydrophobic colloids, on the other hand, are insoluble in water and are often used to deliver medications or nutrients directly to the bloodstream. Examples of hydrophobic colloids include liposomes and micelles. Colloids are commonly used in medical treatments such as chemotherapy, blood transfusions, and fluid replacement therapy. They are also used in diagnostic procedures such as radiography and computed tomography (CT) scans. However, it is important to note that colloids can also have potential side effects and risks, and their use should be carefully monitored by medical professionals.

Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

Hypoproteinemia is a medical condition characterized by a decrease in the concentration of proteins in the blood. The normal range of total protein concentration in the blood is 6.0-8.0 grams per deciliter (g/dL) for adults. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including malnutrition, liver disease, kidney disease, cancer, and certain medications. It can also be a side effect of certain medical treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Symptoms of hypoproteinemia may include swelling in the legs and feet, shortness of breath, fatigue, and a decreased appetite. Treatment for hypoproteinemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, medications, or other medical interventions.

In the medical field, "salts" typically refers to compounds that contain ions of metals or other elements combined with non-metallic elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or phosphorus. These compounds are often used in various medical applications, including: 1. Electrolyte balance: Salts are essential for maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body. Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge and are necessary for many bodily functions, including muscle and nerve function, hydration, and acid-base balance. 2. Medications: Salts are often used as active ingredients in medications. For example, sodium chloride (table salt) is used as an ingredient in many over-the-counter pain relievers and cold medicines. 3. Antiseptics: Salts such as silver sulfadiazine are used as antiseptics to prevent infection in wounds. 4. Diuretics: Salts such as potassium chloride are used as diuretics to increase urine production and help remove excess fluids from the body. 5. Supplements: Salts such as magnesium sulfate are used as supplements to provide essential minerals that may be lacking in the diet. Overall, salts play an important role in many medical applications and are essential for maintaining proper bodily function.

Phenylmercury compounds are a class of organic mercury compounds that contain a phenyl group (C6H5) attached to a mercury atom. These compounds are typically used as fungicides, preservatives, and antiseptics in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and agriculture. In the medical field, phenylmercury compounds have been used as antiseptics and disinfectants, particularly in the treatment of skin infections and wounds. However, their use has been largely discontinued due to their toxicity and potential for accumulation in the body, which can lead to serious health problems, including neurological damage and kidney failure. Phenylmercury compounds are also used as preservatives in some vaccines, such as the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. However, concerns about their safety and potential for adverse effects have led to the development of alternative preservatives for use in vaccines. Overall, the use of phenylmercury compounds in the medical field is limited due to their toxicity and potential for adverse effects.

Sucrose is a disaccharide sugar that is commonly found in many foods and beverages, including fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. In the medical field, sucrose is often used as a source of energy for patients who are unable to consume other sources of calories, such as solid foods. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. In some cases, sucrose may be used as a medication to treat certain medical conditions, such as low blood sugar levels. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of sucrose can lead to weight gain and other health problems, so it should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels, heart, and other organs over time, and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Hypertension is typically defined as having a systolic blood pressure (the top number) of 140 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) of 90 mmHg or higher. However, some people may be considered hypertensive if their blood pressure is consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as a diet high in salt and saturated fat, lack of physical activity, and smoking), and certain medical conditions (such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea). It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing management through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood pressure levels.

Dextrans are a group of polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) that are derived from cornstarch. They are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a thickening agent in intravenous fluids, as a diagnostic tool for measuring kidney function, and as a component of certain medications. Dextrans are also used in some medical devices, such as catheters and wound dressings. They are generally considered safe and well-tolerated, but like all medications and medical treatments, they can have potential side effects and risks.

Serum albumin is a type of protein that is found in the blood plasma of humans and other animals. It is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 50-60% of the total protein content. Serum albumin plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood, transporting hormones, fatty acids, and other molecules, and serving as a buffer to regulate pH. It is also an important indicator of liver function, as the liver is responsible for producing most of the serum albumin in the body. Abnormal levels of serum albumin can be an indication of liver disease, kidney disease, or other medical conditions.

Betaine is a naturally occurring compound that is found in many foods, including beets, spinach, and wheat germ. It is also available as a dietary supplement and is sometimes used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. In the medical field, betaine is primarily used to treat homocystinuria, a rare genetic disorder that causes high levels of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is an amino acid that is produced when proteins are broken down in the body. When levels of homocysteine become too high, it can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Betaine works by helping the body to convert homocysteine into other amino acids that are less harmful to the body. It is also sometimes used to treat other conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, and depression. Betaine is generally considered safe when taken in recommended doses, but it can cause side effects in some people, such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking betaine, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking other medications.

In the medical field, glycols refer to a class of organic compounds that contain two alcohol groups (-OH) attached to a single carbon atom. These compounds are commonly used as solvents, antifreeze agents, and in the production of various medical products. One common glycol used in medicine is propylene glycol, which is a colorless, odorless liquid that is used as a solvent in various medications, including injectable drugs and inhalation solutions. It is also used as a humectant in skin care products and as an antifreeze agent in medical equipment. Another glycol used in medicine is ethylene glycol, which is a toxic compound that is used as an antifreeze agent in some medications. It is also used as a solvent in the production of certain drugs and as a preservative in some medical products. Glycols can also be used as a carrier for medications, allowing them to be more easily absorbed into the body. They can also be used as a stabilizer to prevent the degradation of certain drugs over time. It is important to note that while glycols have many useful applications in medicine, they can also be toxic if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. As such, they should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

Blood proteins are proteins that are found in the blood plasma of humans and other animals. They play a variety of important roles in the body, including transporting oxygen and nutrients, regulating blood pressure, and fighting infections. There are several different types of blood proteins, including albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen. Each type of blood protein has a specific function and is produced by different cells in the body. For example, albumin is produced by the liver and helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood, while globulins are produced by the immune system and help to fight infections. Fibrinogen, on the other hand, is produced by the liver and is involved in the clotting of blood.

Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.

Pulmonary edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the lungs. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including heart failure, kidney failure, severe dehydration, and certain medications. Pulmonary edema can cause shortness of breath, coughing, and difficulty breathing, and can be life-threatening if left untreated. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the edema and providing supportive care to help the body eliminate the excess fluid.

Edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the body's tissues. It can occur in any part of the body, but is most commonly seen in the feet, ankles, legs, and hands. Edema can be caused by a variety of factors, including heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as cancer or lymphedema. Edema can be diagnosed through physical examination and medical imaging, and treatment depends on the underlying cause.

In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.

Electrolytes are minerals that are essential for the proper functioning of the body's cells, tissues, and organs. They are ions that carry an electrical charge and are necessary for maintaining the balance of fluids in the body, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating muscle contractions. In the medical field, electrolytes are often measured in blood and urine tests to assess the body's electrolyte balance. The most common electrolytes measured in these tests are sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Electrolyte imbalances can occur due to various factors, including dehydration, kidney disease, heart failure, certain medications, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and thyroid disorders. Electrolyte imbalances can lead to a range of symptoms, including muscle cramps, weakness, confusion, and in severe cases, cardiac arrest or seizures. Therefore, it is important to maintain proper electrolyte balance through a balanced diet and appropriate medical treatment when necessary.

Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) is a synthetic polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a water-soluble adhesive in medical tapes, dressings, and other medical devices. It is a hydrophilic polymer, meaning it is attracted to water, and is known for its biocompatibility and non-toxicity. PVA is also used as a thickening agent in various medical products, such as eye drops, nasal sprays, and oral solutions. It can help to stabilize the formulation and improve its viscosity, making it easier to apply or use. In addition, PVA has been investigated for its potential use in drug delivery systems, as it can act as a carrier for drugs and help to control their release over time. It has also been used in tissue engineering applications, as it can be used to create hydrogels that mimic the properties of natural tissue. Overall, PVA is a versatile polymer with a wide range of applications in the medical field, thanks to its unique properties and biocompatibility.

In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.

Albumins are a group of water-soluble proteins that are found in the blood plasma of animals, including humans. They are the most abundant proteins in the blood, accounting for about 50-60% of the total protein content. Albumins play a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining osmotic pressure, transporting hormones and other molecules, and serving as a reservoir of amino acids for the liver to use in the production of other proteins. In the medical field, albumin levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess overall health and to monitor patients with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, or malnutrition. Low albumin levels (hypalbuminemia) can be a sign of underlying health problems and may require further evaluation and treatment. High albumin levels (hyperalbuminemia) are less common but can also be a cause for concern, particularly if they are accompanied by other symptoms or if they are the result of an underlying medical condition.

Mannitol is a naturally occurring sugar alcohol that is used in the medical field as a diuretic and osmotic agent. It is used to increase urine output and reduce intracranial pressure in patients with conditions such as brain injury, stroke, and elevated intracranial pressure. Mannitol is also used to treat dehydration, as well as to prevent and treat kidney stones. It is available in oral and intravenous forms and is generally considered safe when used as directed.

Serum Albumin, Bovine is a type of albumin, which is a type of protein found in the blood plasma of mammals. It is derived from the blood of cows and is used as a source of albumin for medical purposes. Albumin is an important protein in the body that helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of blood and transport various substances, such as hormones, drugs, and fatty acids, throughout the body. It is often used as a plasma expander in patients who have lost a significant amount of blood or as a replacement for albumin in patients with liver disease or other conditions that affect albumin production.

Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a simple sugar alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a lubricant, a moisturizer, and a preservative. It is a clear, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is derived from fats and oils. In the medical field, glycerol is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. As a lubricant: Glycerol is used as a lubricant in various medical procedures, such as colonoscopies, cystoscopies, and endoscopies, to reduce friction and discomfort. 2. As a moisturizer: Glycerol is used as a moisturizer in skin care products, such as lotions and creams, to hydrate and soothe dry, irritated skin. 3. As a preservative: Glycerol is used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and nasal sprays, to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. 4. As an antifreeze: Glycerol is used as an antifreeze in some medical equipment, such as dialysis machines, to prevent the equipment from freezing during cold weather. Overall, glycerol is a safe and effective ingredient that is widely used in the medical field for a variety of purposes.

Camphor 5-monooxygenase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of camphor, a naturally occurring compound found in various plants. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of camphor to 5-exo-hydroxycamphor, a metabolite that is further converted to other compounds in the body. In the medical field, camphor 5-monooxygenase is of interest because it is involved in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxins. For example, some drugs that are metabolized by this enzyme include the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin. In addition, camphor 5-monooxygenase is also involved in the metabolism of certain environmental toxins, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins. Disruptions in the activity of camphor 5-monooxygenase can lead to changes in the metabolism of these compounds, which may have implications for drug efficacy and toxicity. For example, genetic variations in the gene that encodes for this enzyme can affect its activity and may be associated with altered drug responses in individuals. Understanding the role of camphor 5-monooxygenase in drug metabolism and toxicity is important for the development of safer and more effective drugs.

Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.

In the medical field, "gels" typically refer to a type of semi-solid or liquid substance that is used for various purposes, such as topical application, injection, or ingestion. Gels can be made from a variety of materials, including water, oils, and other substances, and can be used for a wide range of medical applications. For example, hydrogels are a type of gel that are made from water and polymers, and are often used in wound dressings and other medical devices. Injectable gels are used in various medical procedures, such as cosmetic procedures and orthopedic surgeries. Gels can also be used as drug delivery systems, allowing medications to be absorbed into the body more slowly and evenly over time. Overall, gels are a versatile and widely used tool in the medical field, with a wide range of applications and uses.

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a group of water-soluble polymers that are commonly used in the medical field as solvents, dispersants, and stabilizers. They are made by polymerizing ethylene oxide and have a hydroxyl (-OH) group at each end of the molecule. PEGs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a carrier for drugs and other therapeutic agents, as a lubricant for medical devices, and as an ingredient in various medical products such as ointments, creams, and lotions. They are also used in diagnostic imaging agents, such as contrast agents for X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PEGs are generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses or prolonged exposure may cause irritation or allergic reactions. They are also used in food and personal care products, and are generally recognized as safe for these applications as well.

Dehydration is a medical condition that occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of water and electrolytes in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms and complications. Dehydration can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and not drinking enough fluids. It can also occur in people who are sick or have an underlying medical condition that affects their ability to retain fluids. Symptoms of dehydration can include thirst, dry mouth, dark urine, fatigue, dizziness, headache, and confusion. In severe cases, dehydration can lead to more serious complications, such as seizures, coma, and even death. Treatment for dehydration typically involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids, depending on the severity of the dehydration and the underlying cause. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may be dehydrated, as prompt treatment can prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Vasopressins are a group of hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. They play a key role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. There are two main types of vasopressins: arginine vasopressin (AVP) and desmopressin (DDAVP). AVP is primarily responsible for regulating water balance in the body, while DDAVP is used to treat certain types of bleeding disorders. Vasopressins work by constricting blood vessels, which increases blood pressure. They also stimulate the kidneys to retain water, which helps to maintain blood volume and blood pressure. In addition, vasopressins can affect the heart rate and contractility, as well as the permeability of blood vessels. Abnormal levels of vasopressins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by excessive thirst and urination, and central diabetes insipidus, which is caused by a deficiency of AVP. Vasopressin levels can also be affected by certain medications, such as diuretics, and by certain medical conditions, such as heart failure and kidney disease.

Calcium chloride is a salt that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication and a dietary supplement. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water and is used to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood and to treat certain medical conditions. In the medical field, calcium chloride is used to treat hypocalcemia, which is a condition in which the blood calcium level is too low. It is also used to treat eclampsia, which is a serious complication of pregnancy that can cause seizures and other symptoms. Calcium chloride is also used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation. Calcium chloride is available as a dietary supplement and can be taken by mouth to increase the body's calcium levels. It is also used as a food additive and is used to preserve food and to enhance the flavor of certain foods. However, it is important to note that calcium chloride should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Chondroitin sulfates are a group of complex carbohydrates that are found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, including cartilage, bone, and blood vessels. They are composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and galactosamine, which are linked by a sulfate group. In the medical field, chondroitin sulfates are often used as dietary supplements to support joint health and reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis. They are thought to work by inhibiting the activity of enzymes that break down cartilage, promoting the production of proteoglycans, and reducing inflammation in the joints. Chondroitin sulfates are also used in some medical treatments, such as the treatment of certain types of cancer and the prevention of blood clots. However, their effectiveness and safety in these applications are still being studied, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential benefits and risks.

Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a type of phospholipid, which is a molecule that is essential for the structure and function of cell membranes. It is composed of two fatty acid chains, each containing 16 carbon atoms, and a phosphate group attached to a choline molecule. DMPC is a common component of biological membranes and is often used in scientific research to study the properties of cell membranes and the behavior of membrane proteins. It is also used in the production of liposomes, which are small, spherical structures that can be used to deliver drugs and other molecules into cells.

In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.

In the medical field, lipid bilayers refer to the two layers of phospholipid molecules that form the basic structure of cell membranes. The lipid bilayer is composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail. The hydrophilic heads face outward, towards the aqueous environment of the cell, while the hydrophobic tails face inward, towards each other. This arrangement creates a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment, while also allowing for the selective passage of molecules in and out of the cell. The lipid bilayer is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of cells, and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and transport.

Urea is a chemical compound that is produced in the liver as a waste product of protein metabolism. It is then transported to the kidneys, where it is filtered out of the blood and excreted in the urine. In the medical field, urea is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure kidney function. High levels of urea in the blood can be a sign of kidney disease or other medical conditions, while low levels may indicate malnutrition or other problems. Urea is also used as a source of nitrogen in fertilizers and as a raw material in the production of plastics and other chemicals.

In the medical field, anions are negatively charged ions that are found in the body fluids, such as blood and urine. They are important for maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body and play a role in various physiological processes, including nerve function, muscle contraction, and acid-base balance. Anions can be classified into different types based on their chemical composition, such as chloride ions (Cl-), bicarbonate ions (HCO3-), and phosphate ions (PO43-). Each type of anion has a specific function in the body and can be affected by various medical conditions, such as kidney disease, acidosis, and electrolyte imbalances. In some cases, anions can be used as diagnostic markers for certain medical conditions, such as high levels of chloride ions in the blood may indicate dehydration or kidney disease, while low levels of bicarbonate ions may indicate acidosis. Therefore, monitoring the levels of anions in the body fluids is an important part of medical diagnosis and treatment.

Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a laxative and as a sweetener in various medical products. It is a white, crystalline powder that is odorless and has a sweet taste. Sorbitol is often used in place of sugar in products for people with diabetes or other conditions that require a low-sugar diet. In the medical field, sorbitol is used as a laxative to treat constipation. It works by drawing water into the colon, which helps to soften stools and make them easier to pass. Sorbitol is also used as a sweetener in various medical products, such as oral medications, cough syrups, and throat lozenges. Sorbitol is generally considered safe for most people when taken in moderate amounts. However, it can cause side effects such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea in some people, particularly those who are sensitive to it. In rare cases, sorbitol can cause more serious side effects, such as dehydration or electrolyte imbalances, particularly in people with certain medical conditions or who are taking certain medications.

Chlorides are a type of anion that are commonly found in the human body. They are produced when chlorine combines with other elements, such as sodium or potassium, to form compounds. In the body, chlorides are primarily found in the fluid that surrounds cells, known as extracellular fluid, and in the fluid that fills the lungs and other cavities, known as intracellular fluid. Chlorides play an important role in maintaining the balance of fluids in the body and in regulating the pH of the blood. They also help to transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body. Chlorides are an essential component of many bodily functions, including the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which aids in the digestion of food. In the medical field, chlorides are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess the overall health of the body. Abnormal levels of chlorides in the blood can be a sign of a variety of medical conditions, including kidney disease, liver disease, and respiratory disorders.

Hemoglobins are a group of proteins found in red blood cells (erythrocytes) that are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Hemoglobin is composed of four subunits, each of which contains a heme group that binds to oxygen. The oxygen binds to the iron atom in the heme group, allowing the hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin also plays a role in regulating the pH of the blood and in the immune response. Abnormalities in hemoglobin can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia.

Potassium chloride is a medication used to treat low potassium levels in the blood (hypokalemia). It is also used to treat certain heart rhythm problems and to help manage certain types of heart failure. Potassium chloride is available as a tablet, oral solution, and injection. It is usually taken by mouth, but can also be given intravenously (into a vein) or by injection into a muscle. Potassium chloride is a salt that contains potassium, which is an important mineral that helps regulate the heartbeat and maintain proper muscle and nerve function. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking potassium chloride, as high levels of potassium in the blood can be dangerous.

Hypotension is a medical condition characterized by low blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is typically expressed as two numbers, systolic pressure (the pressure when the heart beats) and diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats). Hypotension is defined as a systolic blood pressure below 90 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure below 60 mmHg. In some cases, a lower blood pressure may be considered normal or even desirable, depending on the individual's age, health status, and other factors. Hypotension can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, medication side effects, heart problems, blood loss, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, and hormonal imbalances. Symptoms of hypotension may include dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting, and fatigue. Treatment for hypotension depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.

In the medical field, cations are positively charged ions that are found in the body fluids, such as blood and extracellular fluid. They are important for maintaining the proper balance of electrolytes in the body and for regulating various physiological processes, such as nerve function, muscle contraction, and fluid balance. Cations are classified based on their charge and chemical properties. The most common cations in the body include sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and hydrogen (H+). These ions play important roles in various bodily functions, and imbalances in their levels can lead to a range of health problems, such as muscle cramps, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. In medical testing, cations are often measured in blood or urine samples using various analytical techniques, such as ion-selective electrodes or atomic absorption spectroscopy. Monitoring cation levels is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as kidney disease, acid-base disorders, and electrolyte imbalances.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Potential osmotic pressure is the maximum osmotic pressure that could develop in a solution if it were separated from its pure ... Osmotic pressure measurement may be used for the determination of molecular weights. Osmotic pressure is an important factor ... In animal cells excessive osmotic pressure can result in cytolysis. Osmotic pressure is the basis of filtering ("reverse ... Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent ...
This is a non-SI unit of measurement that defines the number of moles of solute that contribute to the osmotic pressure of a ... This value allows the measurement of the osmotic pressure of a solution and the determination of how the solvent will diffuse ... Both sodium and chloride ions affect the osmotic pressure of the solution. Another example is magnesium chloride (MgCl2), which ... also known as osmotic concentration). In simpler terms, osmolality is an expression of solute osmotic concentration per mass of ...
... seawater is pumped into a pressure chamber that is at a pressure lower than the difference between the pressures of saline ... Osmotic pressure is the "chemical potential of concentrated and dilute solutions of salt". When looking at relations between ... As a result of the osmotic pressure difference between both solutions, the water from solution B thus will diffuse through the ... In order to pull ions away from the charged electrode, osmotic pressure must do work. This work done increases the electrical ...
Bousfield, W. R. (1914). "Note on Osmotic Pressure". Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering ... Bousfield, W. R.; Bousfield, C. E. (1923). "Vapour Pressure and Density of Sodium Chloride Solutions". Proceedings of the Royal ... Bousfield, W. R. (1914). "The Osmotic Data in Relation to Progressive Hydration". Proceedings of the Royal Society A: ...
RO applies pressure to overcome osmotic pressure that favors even distributions. RO can remove dissolved or suspended chemical ... This is called osmotic pressure. It reduces as the solvent moves into the more concentrated solution. Applying an external ... Seawater has around 27 bar (390 psi) natural osmotic pressure that must be overcome. Membrane pore sizes vary from 0.1 to 5,000 ... The high pressure pump pushes water through the membrane. Typical pressures for brackish water range from 1.6 to 2.6 MPa (225 ...
The osmotic pressure in chemistry. The viscous stress tensor in continuum mechanics and fluid dynamics. The lowercase letter π ...
Reid EW (1905). "Osmotic pressure of solutions of hæmoglobin". The Journal of Physiology. 33 (1): 12-19. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ...
Apparatus for the Osmotic Compensation of the Pressure of Wealth during the Contemplation of Poverty, MACBA, Barcelona. 2016 ... "Alice Creischer: works and collaborations ...for the osmotic compensation of wealth pressure". TRANSFORM. Retrieved 16 April ...
Δπ is the difference in osmotic pressures on the two sides of the membrane, and ΔP is the difference in hydrostatic pressure ( ... The first separation step of FO, driven by an osmotic pressure gradient, does not require a significant energy input (only ... Brine concentration using forward osmosis may be achieved using a high osmotic pressure draw solution with a means to recover ... Some situations that may be envisaged to exploit it are using the differential osmotic pressure between a low brackish river ...
DPD is governed by two factors i.e. turgor pressure and osmotic pressure. Turgor pressure can be denoted as wall pressure in ... As the cell absorbs more and more water its turgor pressure increases and osmotic pressure decreases. When a cell is fully ... Beck WA (October 1928). "OSMOTIC PRESSURE, OSMOTIC VALUE, AND SUCTION TENSION". Plant Physiology. 3 (4): 413-440. doi:10.1104/ ... Suction pressure is also called Diffusion Pressure Deficit. If some solute is dissolved in solvent, its diffusion pressure ...
... colloid osmotic pressure πi of the interstitial fluid has been found to have no effect on Jv and the colloid osmotic pressure ... of osmotic pressure across membranes that are at least partly permeable to the solute responsible for the osmotic pressure ... plasma protein osmotic pressure ( π p {\displaystyle \pi _{p}} ) and interstitial pressure ( P i {\displaystyle P_{i}} ). The ... capillary pressure ( P c {\displaystyle P_{c}} ) and interstitial protein osmotic pressure ( π i {\displaystyle \pi _{i}} ), ...
These include, biodegradation, osmotic pressure, diffusion, etc. Each one will depend on the composition of the capsule made ... Many walls are ruptured easily by pressure or shear stress, as in the case of breaking dye particles during writing to form a ...
The thirst center operates similarly when certain cells in the hypothalamus are stimulated by the rising osmotic pressure of ... If thirst is satisfied, osmotic pressure decreases. All of these functions taken together form a survival mechanism that causes ... That biomass (W) is subjected to deterioration over time from thermodynamic, entropic pressure. Metabolism is essentially ... lower blood pressure, and increased resting or basal metabolic rate.[citation needed] By measuring heart rate we can then ...
... t Hoff published his landmark paper regarding the analogy between gas pressure and the osmotic pressure of solutions, for which ... In the first half of the 20th century he was best known for his study of osmotic pressure, for which he was awarded the ... In a modern formulation, van 't Hoff's equation states that ΠV = nRT, where Π is the osmotic pressure, V is the volume of the ... This led him to study osmotic pressure. In the first half of the 20th century, the Morse name was mainly associated with his ...
"Osmotic Pressure Inhibition of DNA Ejection from Phage". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100 (16): 9292-95. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.9292E ... Early results included: the first measurement of pressure inside DNA viruses, establishing that it is as high as tens of ...
The opening of these channels is central to a neuron's response to pressure, often osmotic pressure and blood pressure, to ... They can also regulate internal functions of our body including, but not limited to, osmotic pressure in cells, blood pressure ... when activated by changes in the osmotic pressure. MscM is activated first at really low pressures followed by MscS, and ... MscM, MscS, and MscL channels (mechanosensitive channels of mini, small, and large conductance) regulate osmotic pressure in ...
... probably by osmotic pressure added at the roots; and possibly at other locations inside the plant, especially when gathering ... Capillary fringe - Subsurface layer in which groundwater seeps up from a water table by capillary action Capillary pressure - ... Poudel, Sajag; Zou, An; Maroo, Shalabh C. (2022-06-15). "Disjoining pressure driven transpiration of water in a simulated tree ... Pressure between two fluids from forces between the fluids and tube walls Capillary wave - Wave on the surface of a fluid, ...
Maximum osmotic pressure has been reported in Atriplex conf. where it is about 202.5 atm. Shadscale is a common, often dominant ...
This creates osmotic pressure and draws water into CSF, facilitated by aquaporins. CSF contains many fewer protein anions than ... This creates an osmotic pressure difference with the plasma. CSF has less potassium, calcium, glucose and protein. Choroid ... For example, when CSF pressure is higher, there is less of a pressure difference between the capillary blood in choroid ... When lying down, the CSF pressure as estimated by lumbar puncture is similar to the intracranial pressure. Hydrocephalus is an ...
Their low concentration minimizes their effect on osmotic pressure. The unusual properties of AFPs are attributed to their ...
... , or colloid osmotic-pressure, is a type of osmotic pressure induced by the plasma proteins, notably albumin, ... Oncotic pressure values are approximately 290 mOsm per kg of water, which slightly differs from the osmotic pressure of the ... Decreased colloidal osmotic pressure, most notably seen in hypoalbuminemia, can cause edema and decrease in blood volume as ... Because large plasma proteins cannot easily cross through the capillary walls, their effect on the osmotic pressure of the ...
Glycine betaine, an osmolyte, stabilizes osmotic pressure in cells. Choline is a precursor for the neurotransmitter ...
Michelin-Jamois, Millan; Picard, Cyril; Vigier, Gérard; Charlaix, Elisabeth (2015). "Giant Osmotic Pressure in the Forced ...
Sucrose increases the liquid's osmotic pressure, which prevents microorganism growth. The sweetened evaporated milk is cooled ...
Osmotic gas effects due to intramedullary pressure effects.[citation needed] fat embolism[citation needed] hemoconcentration ...
The pressure flow mechanism depends upon: Turgor pressure Difference of osmotic pressure gradient along the direction of flow ... Starch is insoluble and exerts no osmotic effect. Consequently, the osmotic pressure of the contents of phloem decreases. ... This creates turgor pressure, also known as hydrostatic pressure, in the phloem. Movement of phloem sap occurs by bulk flow ( ... Water moves out of the sieve tube cells by osmosis, lowering the hydrostatic pressure within them. Thus the pressure gradient ...
... where potassium plays a key component in regulating osmotic pressure. This osmotic pressure helps maintain the shape of the ...
Rubinstein SM, Kolodkin-Gal I, McLoon A, Chai L, Kolter R, Losick R, Weitz DA (October 2012). "Osmotic pressure can regulate ... pressure, or pH), and often produce toxic byproducts. Furthermore, the quantities produced are small, and the resultant ...
Osmotic shock Tables containing osmotic pressure data for use in the osmotic stress technique v t e (Biochemistry methods, All ... The osmotic stress technique is a method for measuring the effect of water on biological molecules, particularly enzymes. Just ... In the osmotic stress technique, flexible neutral polymers such as polyethylene glycol and dextran are added to the solution ...
... and the resulting osmotic pressure is used to push the active drug through the laser drilled opening(s) in the tablet and into ... The Elementary Osmotic Pump (EOP) was developed by ALZA in 1974, and was the first practical example of an osmotic pump based ... OROS is a trademarked name owned by ALZA Corporation, which pioneered the use of osmotic pumps for oral drug delivery. Osmotic ... or xylitol are added to both the drug and push layers to increase the osmotic pressure. The initial design developed in 1982 by ...
Osmotic Pressure and Reverse Osmosis, Chemistry online video lecture for JEE main & advanced, NEET & CBSE Class 12 students, ... Solution - Osmotic Pressure and Reverse Osmosis, Chemistry online video lecture for JEE main & advanced, NEET & CBSE Class 12 ... Osmotic Pressure and Reverse Osmosis: Chemistry for JEE, NEET & CBSE. Published on 28, Mar 2018 ... This video lecture describe topics like Osmotic Pressure and Reverse Osmosis, types of solutions from chapter Solution of ...
The Effect of Osmotic Pressure on GS-NS0 Antibody Production Cell Line. It has been widely reported that metabolism, cell ... Effects of varying osmotic pressure on the GS-NS0 antibody production process. Current understanding of mammalian cell cultures ... A working model describing the antibody production pathway in the GS-NS0 system in relation to different osmotic pressures is ... However, due to the suppressed cell growth under non-iso-osmotic pressure, enhanced antibody productivity per cell does not ...
Diuretics, Osmotic Agents. Class Summary. Mannitol produces osmotic diuresis and reduces intracranial pressure (ICP). ... Mannitol may reduce subarachnoid-space pressure by creating an osmotic gradient between CSF in the arachnoid space and plasma. ...
May reduce inflammation in cornea by creating an osmotic gradient across an intact blood barrier. ... These agents reduce elevated and normal intraocular pressure, with or without glaucoma. ...
Changes in osmotic pressure and swelling in horseshoe crab embryos during development Submitted by admin_notgoodus... on Mon, ... Changes in osmotic pressure and swelling in horseshoe crab embryos during development . Development Growth & Differentiation 27 ... Read more about Changes in osmotic pressure and swelling in horseshoe crab embryos during development ...
... mannitol is not suitable to use when plasma osmotic pressure is ,320 mOsm because high plasma osmotic pressure leads to ... but mannitol can increase osmotic pressure of hematoma and reverse the osmotic pressure gradient [69]. Meantime, the early use ... Kuroiwa T, Shibutani M, Tajima T, Hirasawa H, Okeda R: Hydrostatic pressure versus osmotic pressure in the development of ... When BBB is not disrupted (within 6 h after ICH generally) or plasma osmotic pressure is ,320 mOsm, mannitol especially ...
The water pressure corresponding to this height difference is called the osmotic pressure. Very important! The two tendencies ... There is a height difference, i.e, a pressure difference that is trying to drive the water back to the other vessel. The level ... theres a pressure difference making it flow. But when they are the same level they will never of their own accord rise on one ... the mixing tendency and the mechanical (pressure equalisation) one work against each other - but reach a calculable equilibrium ...
... maintenance of osmotic pressure and pH; and binding of exogenous toxins and products of lipid oxidation (1). Over time, ... as defined by filter porosity and a proper rate of flow as regulated by applied differential pressure (ΔP) over… ...
In addition, high protein intake would promote water intake by increasing osmotic pressure of plasma [3]. A better diet quality ... Water plays an essential role in the bodily functions, modulating normal osmotic pressure, maintaining body temperature, and ...
Osmotic diuresis with mannitol is routinely used for decreasing brain bulk and intracranial pressure. It has been shown to ... Heart rate, invasive arterial blood pressure from the right radial artery, peripheral O2 saturation, end tidal CO2 values, ... A left lateral tilt to decrease pressure to the inferior vena cava and 15 degrees reverse Trendelenburg to decrease ... Here, main symptoms of increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema were severe headache, nausea / vomiting and apathy. ...
hypertonic: having a greater osmotic pressure than another. *hypotonic: Having a lower osmotic pressure than another; a cell in ...
Masic, A.; Bertinetti, L.; Schütz, R.; Chang, S.-W.; Metzger, T. H.; Buehler, M. J.; Fratzl, P.: Osmotic pressure induced ...
The bristles connect to a set of neurons tuned to sugary and bitter tastes, along with changes in osmotic pressure. ...
Problem : How is turgor pressure created in the sieve elements? Turgor pressure is created at the source by the osmotic influx ... the source is characterized by high osmotic concentration and high water pressure, or turgor pressure. The sink, on the other ... How do sources and sinks compare to one another in relation to osmotic concentration and water pressure (turgor pressure)? ... has low osmotic concentration and low water pressure. ... water exerts on the cell walls gives rise to turgor pressure. ...
A solution containing a high amount of solutes has a high osmotic pressure, and water has a greater tendency to move into the ... The pressure the blood exerts against the inner walls of the blood vessels is known as blood pressure. This pressure is ... The systolic pressure is recorded first, followed by the diastolic pressure. Average young adults have a blood pressure reading ... normal blood pressure can range from 90 to 135 mmHg for the systolic pressure and 60 to 85 mmHg for the diastolic pressure. ...
Osmotic pressure between the hypotonic filtrate and hypertonic medullary cells pushes water out of the filtrate and into the ... Sodium ions in the body help to manage the bodys osmotic pressure by drawing water towards areas of high sodium concentration ... While these solutes are being exchanged, osmotic pressure pushes water from the dilute, hypotonic filtrate back into the ... Blood Pressure Homeostasis. The kidneys help to control blood pressure in the body by regulating the excretion of sodium ions ...
albumen (60-80%) osmotic pressure. Term. organic molecules of plasma. Definition. proteins globulins (15-35%). fibrinogen (4 ... occurs when pressure in ventricle drops lower than the. pressure in the atrium, allowing the AV valves to open and blood to ... the pressure in the ventricle is higher than in the aorta, so that the semilunar valve opens and blood flows out of the ... occurs at the beginning of systole when pressure increases, causes the AV valves to close, but is not yet high enough to push ...
They also used tiny piezoelectric pressure transducers to measure osmotic pressure changes in the system. Their conclusion: In ... "The ions create an imbalance between osmotic pressure inside and outside the larger particles, pushing them to de-swell - expel ... osmotic pressure and ionic balance. This is a mechanism that doesnt really involve the other particles in the assembly. It ... increasing the osmotic pressure which then works to shrink the oversized particle. ...
The elastic pressure of the gels was measured through the indentation test, whereas the ionic osmotic pressure was determined ... In this study, the balance between the elastic pressure and ionic osmotic pressure of charged gels has been verified using ... swollen charged gel has been thought to be determined by the balance between its elastic pressure and ionic osmotic pressure. ... The volume fraction of the linear polymer was set to be the same as that of the gel so as to satisfy the iso-osmotic pressure ...
The protocol "Ex 2-9 Effect of Osmotic Pressure on Microbial Growth" outlined in the lab manual was followed except for a few ... Ex 2-11 Effect of Osmotic Pressure on Microbial Growth 0%- 2% NaCl optimal growth ...
And the "osmotic" pressure of immigration drawn by both that prosperity and individual freedom is relentless. ... Nonetheless, the trend through the early fifth century was pressurepressure of the Huns on the Gothic groups, pressure of ... By the fourth quarter of the fourth century, the pressure of the Huns on the eastern flanks of Europe had become unbearable and ... Persians, Goths, and Huns became a relentless and effective external pressure … and for the West, the incursions into Gaul, ...
It usually flows in a downward direction, from the leaves to the roots, driven by osmotic pressure. ... The ___ of ___ ___ the pressure in the leaves and water ___ ___ from the ___ where there is a ___ ___. When the ___ moves ___ ... Transpiration plays a crucial role in the movement of water within plants, as it creates a negative pressure gradient that ...
... causing rupture of the microbial cell membrane by loss of control of osmotic pressure gradients. This combination is approved ...
... of varying volumes of crystalloid administration before cesarean delivery on maternal hemodynamics and colloid osmotic pressure ... Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Am J Obstet ... reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline or a systolic blood pressure , 100 mm Hg. Hypotension is the consequence of ... Reports of rectal pressure with progressive descent of the fetal head may indicate that sacral analgesia is inadequate for ...
... youll have lower osmotic pressure. With high D.E. and a lower molecular weight, then you have a correspondingly higher osmotic ... A 50 D.E. corn syrup will contribute properties - osmotic pressure, etc. - similar to sucrose. If you go with a lower D.E. and ... In certain high sugar products, such as jams and jellies, the osmotic pressure is so great that if certain microorganisms come ... Water activity is the equilibrium vapor pressure of water in a food. The lower it is, the greater the degree to which water is ...
In the second system, we used osmotic pressure caused by the ion concentration change in the bathing solutions for the ... The pressure measured inside the water pipe and that on the specimen surface was calibrated. This system was easily to apply C- ... Results showed that the system could reliably map the strain distribution induced by the osmotic loading. We extract intrinsic ...
... extracellular osmotic pressure, thus leading to inflammatory cell death. As a result, a large number of inflammatory factors in ...
... resulting in changes in the osmotic pressure and causing hyperosmotic stress in plants," says Dr Manoj Prasad, the lead ... Researchers find key elements affecting osmotic stress in plants Tweet India Science Wire ... the researchers found that the gene SEU exhibited enhanced susceptibility to osmotic stress treatments and lesser survival ... rates when compared to the wild type plants indicating SEU as a positive regulator of tolerance against osmotic stress. ...
  • It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules. (
  • A left lateral tilt to decrease pressure to the inferior vena cava and 15 degrees reverse Trendelenburg to decrease intracranial pressure were applied to the operation table. (
  • Regional anesthesia is contraindicated in the presence of actual or anticipated serious maternal hemorrhage , refractory maternal hypotension, coagulopathy, untreated bacteremia , raised intracranial pressure, skin or soft tissue infection at the site of the epidural or spinal placement, and anticoagulant therapy. (
  • In the second system, we used osmotic pressure caused by the ion concentration change in the bathing solutions for the articular cartilage to deform them. (
  • May reduce inflammation in cornea by creating an osmotic gradient across an intact blood barrier. (
  • One of the major consequences of these abiotic stresses, especially due to drought and salinity, resulting in changes in the osmotic pressure and causing hyperosmotic stress in plants," says Dr Manoj Prasad, the lead researcher. (
  • It is crucial to have a proper understanding of perception and the following stress responses for improving plants so that they can maintain the osmotic status of the cell even under stressful conditions. (
  • Working with Arabidopsis mutant plants, which are widely used for basic research in genetics and molecular biology, the researchers found that the gene SEU exhibited enhanced susceptibility to osmotic stress treatments and lesser survival rates when compared to the wild type plants indicating SEU as a positive regulator of tolerance against osmotic stress. (
  • For osmotic pressure control and water distribution. (
  • You know that when they are connected water will flow from where it's higher into the lower vessel until the level is the same height in both, there's a pressure difference making it flow. (
  • There is a height difference, i.e, a pressure difference that is trying to drive the water back to the other vessel. (
  • Movement of water and dissolved materials through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. (
  • The pressure measured inside the water pipe and that on the specimen surface was calibrated. (
  • (2) , and a reduction in daily salt intake of 4.4 g can results increases food safety by reducing the water activity of a in lower blood pressure (3) . (
  • Osteoporosis, a provide information on the health and acid-base balance, osmotic pressure, and disease affecting more than 28 million nutritional status of the civilian, normal water balance (1,4,6-8). (
  • Furthermore, the risk of cardiovascular diseases increases in parallel with increases in blood pressure. (
  • Given es in parallel with increases in blood pressure. (
  • Currently, treatments for ICH are focusing on the primary injury including reducing intracranial hypertension, blood pressure control, and rehabilitation. (
  • It also helps control blood pressure in women with preeclampsia by alleviating labor pain, and it blunts the hemodynamic effects of uterine contractions and the associated pain response in patients with other medical complications. (
  • Heart rate, invasive arterial blood pressure from the right radial artery, peripheral O 2 saturation, end tidal CO 2 values, central blood pressure from vena basilica and body core temperature were monitored throughout the anesthesia. (
  • According to extensive research, there is a direct relationship between salt consumption and blood pressure (2), and a reduction in daily salt intake of 4.4 g can results in lower blood pressure (3). (
  • High blood pressure is one of the main factors associated with death in adults globally. (
  • In addition to its effect on blood pressure, salt can lead to other health conditions, such as kidney stones, urinary calcium excretion, disorders of bone metabolism, gastric cancer, cataracts and asthma (2,4). (
  • According to extensive research, there is a direct re- regulating the osmotic pressure of a living cell and pro- lationship between salt consumption and blood pressure ducing palatable food. (
  • High blood pressure is one of food. (
  • These can decrease intraocular pressure by decreasing aqueous production. (
  • These agents reduce elevated and normal intraocular pressure, with or without glaucoma. (
  • Results showed that the system could reliably map the strain distribution induced by the osmotic loading. (
  • This video lecture describe topics like Osmotic Pressure and Reverse Osmosis, types of solutions from chapter Solution of Chemistry class 11th CBSE, NCERT. (
  • Osmotic diuretics, such as mannitol, may be used to decrease intracranial pressure. (
  • Osmotic diuretics reverse pressure gradient across the blood-brain barrier, reducing intracranial pressure. (
  • Patient should not be on diuretics, hypertension, or blood pressure medication, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection of specimen. (
  • Using a series of measurements of the osmotic pressure of sucrose solutions of various strengths, van't Hoff found that at constant temperature the osmotic pressure ( P ) was related to the volume ( V ) containing one gram molecule in precisely the same way as the pressure and volume of a gas vary in accordance with Boyle's law . (
  • However, it remains very challenging to perform in situ and in vivo measurements of osmotic pressure. (
  • Here we introduce double emulsion droplet sensors that enable local measurements of osmotic pressure intra- and extra-cellularly within 3D multicellular systems, including living tissues. (
  • Osmotic Pressure Measurements. (
  • Further experimental proof was offered on the basis of osmotic pressure measurements by K. Banerjee and M.A. Lauffer (Biochemistry 5: 1957, 1966). (
  • Inhibits tubular reabsorption of electrolytes by increasing osmotic pressure of glomerular filtrate. (
  • 430. As indicated in the figure, it paypao also observed that at moderate concentrations of electrolytes, osmotic pres- sures were less than that expected based on complete dissociation. (
  • cells, such as increased vascular permeability, increased intravascular hydrostatic pressure, decreased intravascular osmotic pressure, and decreased lymphatic drainage. (
  • In addition, Dr. Burg's group has furthered our understanding of how organisms survive osmotic stress caused by dehydration and by high concentrations of salt and urea. (
  • The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. (
  • Osmosis occurs when water molecules move through a membrane to balance solute concentrations, creating osmotic pressure that drives the movement. (
  • high blood pressure, high hydrostatic pressure - high GFR, more Na filtered so not all can be reabsorbed in proximal, higher concentration in distal - detected by macula densa cells. (
  • low blood pressure, low hydrostatic pressure, low GFR. (
  • These release prostaglandins, act on juxtaglomerular cells to cause dilation of the afferent arteriole to increase hydrostatic pressure and GFR. (
  • In patients with myoglobinuria, administer a sodium chloride solution for volume depletion as 0.9% NaCl solution, lactated Ringers solution, or a solution of 0.45% NaCl and sodium bicarbonate 50 mEq/L. Mannitol may be administered to facilitate osmotic diuresis. (
  • Water influx into hypotonic plant cells creates pressure against cell walls. (
  • The gas law relationship of osmotic pressures is valid only for dilute solutions. (
  • This behavior is pressure.5,6 The large size of the aggrecan bottlebrush prevented typical for dilute systems in which the osmotic pressure is governed by penetration into the swol en gel. (
  • In plant cells, the phone divider confines the extension, bringing about weight on the phone divider from inside called turgor pressure. (
  • Turgor pressure permits herbaceous plants to stand upstanding. (
  • It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. (
  • To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. (
  • Osmosis maintains turgor pressure in plant cells, ensuring rigidity and preventing wilting. (
  • Pfeffer himself had shown that by increasing the concentration of the stronger solution its osmotic pressure rose. (
  • Wilhelm Pfeffer published his book Osmotische Untersuchungen: Studien Zur Zellmechanik (Osmotic Investigations: Studies on Cell Mechanics) in 1877 during his time as a professor of botany at the University of Basel in Basel, Switzerland. (
  • The thin descending limb is permeable to water so water is reabsorbed here to the medulla to balance the osmotic gradient. (
  • These are substances derived from fluid in the tissues and which are driven across a membrane e.g. vaginal wall by a pressure gradient - usually blood pressure but could be osmotic . (
  • The movement of water creates osmotic pressure, the force that drives water molecules across the membrane until equilibrium is achieved. (
  • In fact the osmotic pressure of a solution may be regarded as the pressure which the dissolved substance would exert if it were a gas occupying the same volume as the solution at the same temperature (on the absolute scale). (
  • These agents raise the osmolality of plasma and renal tubular fluid, which creates an osmotic inhibition of water transport in the proximal tubule. (
  • Osmoregulation is the homeostasis system of a living being to arrive at balance in osmotic weight. (
  • 1. Balance of osmotic pressures determines the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio of the cell. (
  • The dissolved molecules bombard the membrane and create a pressure. (
  • Beyond active forces and material properties, osmotic pressure is believed to control essential cell and tissue characteristics. (
  • Reduces cerebral edema with help of osmotic forces and decreases blood viscosity, resulting in reflex vasoconstriction and lowering of intracranial pressure. (
  • Osmotic pressure induced tensile forces in tendon collagen. (
  • If the dissolved substance does dissociate, the osmotic pressure is higher than predicted because the number of particles in solution is larger than is all the molecules of the dissolved substance had remained unionized. (
  • The smaller the volume, the greater the pressure for the same mass of gas, because the rate of bombardment is greater. (
  • This variation follows exactly the same pattern as the changes in pressure of a gas which is heated while its volume is kept constant. (
  • Osmotic weight is the base weight which should be applied to an answer for forestall the internal progression of its unadulterated dissolvable over a semipermeable layer. (
  • Potential osmotic weight is the most extreme osmotic weight that could create in an answer in the event that it were isolated from its unadulterated dissolvable by a semipermeable layer. (
  • Osmotic weight estimation might be utilized for the assurance of sub-atomic loads. (
  • Osmotic weight is a significant factor influencing cells. (
  • In creature cells over the top osmotic weight can bring about cytolysis. (
  • This may be done using a mercury column, or the solvent itself may be used to provide the pressure head. (
  • It is also used together with crystalloid treatment to correct lower osmotic pressure in the blood and to replace protein loss caused by severe burns after the first 24 hours. (
  • Dependence of the osmotic pressure amounts of CaCl as a function of 2 (0 - 100 mM). (
  • Secretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone is primarily controlled by the osmotic pressure of the plasma. (