Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
Pulmonary Wedge Pressure
Saline Solution, Hypertonic
Glucose Solution, Hypertonic
Serum Albumin, Bovine
Central Venous Pressure
Cell Membrane Permeability
Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
Aggregation of deoxyhemoglobin S at low concentrations. (1/2823)The self-association of deoxyhemoglobin S was measured in dilute solutions (0 to 5 g/dl) by Rayleigh light scattering at 630 nm and osmometry in 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.35). Weight and number average molecular weights (Mw and Mn, respectively) and the second or higher virial coefficients, B' were determined. No experimentally significant differences were observed between oxy- and deoxy-Hb S up to the concentration of 2 g/dl; their apparent average molecular weights were within experimental error. Above that concentration, both Mn and Mw of deoxy-Hb S were significantly different from that of oxy-Hb S. The negative second viral coefficent of deoxy-Hb S, observed by both techniques, is consistent with the self-association of this protein. The lack of effect of 0.4 M propylurea on the state of aggregation and the significant influence of 0.1 M NaCl suggests that polar interactions are involved in formation of these aggregates. (+info)
Volume regulation following hypotonic shock in isolated crypts of mouse distal colon. (2/2823)1. A video-imaging technique of morphometry was used to measure the diameter as an index of cell volume in intact mouse distal colon crypts submitted to hypotonic shock. 2. Transition from isotonic (310 mosmol l-1) to hypotonic (240 mosmol l-1) saline caused a pronounced increase in crypt diameter immediately followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). 3. Exposure of crypts to Cl--free hyposmotic medium increased the rapidity of both cell swelling and RVD. Exposure of crypts to Na+-free hyposmotic medium reduced the total duration of swelling. Return to initial diameter was followed by further shrinkage of the crypt cells. 4. The chloride channel inhibitor NPPB (50 microM) delayed the swelling phase and prevented the subsequent normal decrease in diameter. 5. The K+ channel blockers barium (10 mM), charybdotoxin (10 nM) and TEA (5 mM) inhibited RVD by 51, 44 and 32 %, respectively. 6. Intracellular [Ca2+] rose from a baseline of 174 +/- 17 nM (n = 8) to 448 +/- 45 nM (n = 8) during the initial swelling phase 7. The Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil (50 microM) and nifedipine (10 microM), the chelator of intracellular Ca2+ BAPTA AM (30 microM), or the inhibitor of Ca2+ release TMB-8 (10 microM), dramatically reduced volume recovery, leading to 51 % (n = 9), 25 % (n = 7), 37 % (n = 6), 32 % (n = 8) inhibition of RVD, respectively. TFP (50 microM), an antagonist of the Ca2+-calmodulin complex, significantly slowed RVD. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) provoked a dramatic reduction of the duration and amplitude of cell swelling followed by extensive shrinkage. The release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores using bradykinin (1 microM) or blockade of reabsorption with thapsigargin (1 microM) decreased the duration of RVD. 8. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 5 microM) slightly delayed RVD, whereas leukotriene D4 (LTD4, 100 nM) and arachidonic acid (10 microM) reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of phospholipase A2 by quinacrine (10 microM) inhibited RVD by 53 %. Common inhibition of PGE2 and LTD4 synthesis by ETYA (50 microM) or separate blockade of PGE2 synthesis by 1 microM indomethacin reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of LTD4 synthesis by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) did not produce any significant effect on cell swelling or subsequent RVD. 9. Staurosporine (1 microM), an inhibitor of protein kinases, inhibited RVD by 58 %. Taken together the experiments demonstrate that the RVD process is under the control of conductive pathways, extra- and intracellular Ca2+ ions, protein kinases, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. (+info)
Mechanosensitive channel functions to alleviate the cell lysis of marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, by osmotic downshock. (3/2823)The mechanosensitive channel with large conductance of Escherichia coli is the first to be cloned among stretch-activated channels. Although its activity was characterized by a patch clamp method, a physiological role of the channel has not been proved. The marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, is sensitive to osmotic stress and cell lysis occurs under osmotic downshock. We introduced an mscL gene into Vibrio alginolyticus, and the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance functions was found to alleviate cell lysis by osmotic downshock. This is the first report to show a physiological role of the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance. (+info)
Stress- and cell type-dependent regulation of transfected c-Jun N-terminal kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase isoforms. (4/2823)The cJun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are encoded by three genes generating ten protein kinase polypeptides and are activated in settings of cell stress, mitogenesis, differentiation and morphogenesis. The specific role of the JNK family members in these diverse cell programmes is largely undefined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that individual JNK isoforms would exhibit distinct patterns of regulation within cells. The cDNAs encoding five haemagglutinin (HA)-tagged JNK isoforms (p46JNK1alpha, p54JNK2alpha, p54JNK2beta, p46JNK3 and p54JNK3) were expressed in cultured rat PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells and human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. In addition, HA-tagged forms of the dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), MKK4 and MKK7, which are specific activators of the JNK enzymes, were similarly expressed. Reverse transcription and PCR revealed that JNK3 is endogenously expressed in SCLC cells, but not in either chromaffin or neuronally differentiated PC12 cells. MKK4 and MKK7 were endogenously expressed in both PC12 cells and SHP77 cells. Immunoprecipitation and analysis of the JNKs expressed in SCLC cells revealed strong stimulation of all five JNK isoforms by UV radiation. Hypertonic stress, elicited by mannitol, also significantly stimulated these same JNKs, although the JNK3 isoforms were most strongly activated. In PC12 cell transfectants, however, selective and equal activation of p54JNK2alpha and p54JNK3 by UV and osmotic stress was observed, with little or no activation of JNK1alpha or JNK2beta. In contrast with the broad activation of the JNK enzymes by UV in SCLC cells, only HA-MKK4 was stimulated by UV exposure in these cells, whereas osmotic stress stimulated both HA-MKK4 and HA-MKK7. These findings indicate selective activation of JNK and MKK isoforms in a manner that is dependent upon the specific cell stress and the cell type. (+info)
Osmosensing by bacteria: signals and membrane-based sensors. (5/2823)Bacteria can survive dramatic osmotic shifts. Osmoregulatory responses mitigate the passive adjustments in cell structure and the growth inhibition that may ensue. The levels of certain cytoplasmic solutes rise and fall in response to increases and decreases, respectively, in extracellular osmolality. Certain organic compounds are favored over ions as osmoregulatory solutes, although K+ fluxes are intrinsic to the osmoregulatory response for at least some organisms. Osmosensors must undergo transitions between "off" and "on" conformations in response to changes in extracellular water activity (direct osmosensing) or resulting changes in cell structure (indirect osmosensing). Those located in the cytoplasmic membranes and nucleoids of bacteria are positioned for indirect osmosensing. Cytoplasmic membrane-based osmosensors may detect changes in the periplasmic and/or cytoplasmic solvent by experiencing changes in preferential interactions with particular solvent constituents, cosolvent-induced hydration changes, and/or macromolecular crowding. Alternatively, the membrane may act as an antenna and osmosensors may detect changes in membrane structure. Cosolvents may modulate intrinsic biomembrane strain and/or topologically closed membrane systems may experience changes in mechanical strain in response to imposed osmotic shifts. The osmosensory mechanisms controlling membrane-based K+ transporters, transcriptional regulators, osmoprotectant transporters, and mechanosensitive channels intrinsic to the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli are under intensive investigation. The osmoprotectant transporter ProP and channel MscL act as osmosensors after purification and reconstitution in proteoliposomes. Evidence that sensor kinase KdpD receives multiple sensory inputs is consistent with the effects of K+ fluxes on nucleoid structure, cellular energetics, cytoplasmic ionic strength, and ion composition as well as on cytoplasmic osmolality. Thus, osmoregulatory responses accommodate and exploit the effects of individual cosolvents on cell structure and function as well as the collective contribution of cosolvents to intracellular osmolality. (+info)
Functional consensus for mammalian osmotic response elements. (6/2823)The molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to hyperosmotic stress through the accumulation of organic osmolytes are largely unknown. Yet, among organisms, this is an almost universal phenomenon. In mammals, the cells of the renal medulla are uniquely exposed to high and variable salt concentrations; in response, renal cells accumulate the osmolyte sorbitol through increased transcription of the aldose reductase (AR) gene. In cloning the rabbit AR gene, we found the first evidence of an osmotic response region in a eukaryotic gene. More recently, we functionally defined a minimal essential osmotic response element (ORE) having the sequence CGGAAAATCAC(C) (bp -1105 to -1094). In the present study, we systematically replaced each base with every other possible nucleotide and tested the resulting sequences individually in reporter gene constructs. Additionally, we categorized hyperosmotic response by electrophoretic mobility shift assays of a 17-bp sequence (-1108 to -1092) containing the native ORE as a probe against which the test constructs would compete for binding. In this manner, binding activity was assessed for the full range of osmotic responses obtained. Thus we have arrived at a functional consensus for the mammalian ORE, NGGAAAWDHMC(N). This finding should accelerate the discovery of genes previously unrecognized as being osmotically regulated. (+info)
Membrane fusion promoters and inhibitors have contrasting effects on lipid bilayer structure and undulations. (7/2823)It has been established that the fusion of both biological membranes and phospholipid bilayers can be modulated by altering their lipid composition (Chernomordik et al., 1995 .J. Membr. Biol. 146:3). In particular, when added exogenously between apposing membranes, monomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (MMPC) inhibits membrane fusion, whereas glycerol monoleate (GMO), oleic acid (OA), and arachidonic acid (AA) promote fusion. This present study uses x-ray diffraction to investigate the effects of MMPC, GMO, OA, and AA on the bending and stability of lipid bilayers when bilayers are forced together with applied osmotic pressure. The addition of 10 and 30 mol% MMPC to egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) bilayers maintains the bilayer structure, even when the interbilayer fluid spacing is reduced to approximately 3 A, and increases the repulsive pressure between bilayers so that the fluid spacing in excess water increases by 5 and 15 A, respectively. Thus MMPC increases the undulation pressure, implying that the addition of MMPC promotes out-of-plane bending and decreases the adhesion energy between bilayers. In contrast, the addition of GMO has minor effects on the undulation pressure; 10 and 50 mol% GMO increase the fluid spacing of EPC in excess water by 0 and 2 A, respectively. However, x-ray diffraction indicates that, at small interbilayer separations, GMO, OA, or AA converts the bilayer to a structure containing hexagonally packed scattering units approximately 50 A in diameter. Thus GMO, OA, or AA destabilizes bilayer structure as apposing bilayers are brought into contact, which could contribute to their role in promoting membrane fusion. (+info)
Mechanism of exercise-induced ocular hypotension. (8/2823)PURPOSE: Although acute dynamic exercise reduces intraocular pressure (IOP), the factors that provoke this response remain ill-defined. To determine whether changes in colloid osmotic pressure (COP) cause the IOP changes during exercise, standardized exercise was performed after dehydration and hydration with isosmotic fluid. METHODS: Progressive cycle ergometer exercise to volitional exhaustion was performed after 4 hours' dehydration, and after hydration with 946 ml isosmotic liquid (345 mOsM). In each experiment, venous blood taken before and immediately after exercise was analyzed for hematocrit, plasma protein concentration, total plasma osmolality, and plasma COP. RESULTS: Exercise in both experiments significantly reduced IOP and elevated COP (each P < 0.01). Dehydration, compared with hydration, also significantly reduced IOP and elevated COP, when measured before and after exercise (P < 0.05). The correlation of mean IOP with mean COP, over the entire range created by varying exercise and hydration statuses, was statistically significant (r = -0.99; P < 0.001). In contrast, other indexes of hydration status, including hematocrit, total plasma osmolality, and plasma protein concentration, failed to change as IOP changed and failed to correlate with IOP, on either a group or individual basis, in conditions of varying levels of exercise and hydration. CONCLUSIONS: Acute dynamic exercise and isosmotic fluid ingestion each seem to change IOP through changes in COP. (+info)
In the medical field, colloids are suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a liquid medium. They are often used as a means of delivering medication or nutrients to the body, particularly in cases where the patient is unable to absorb nutrients through their digestive system. Colloids can be classified into two main categories: hydrophilic colloids and hydrophobic colloids. Hydrophilic colloids are those that are soluble in water and are often used as plasma expanders to increase blood volume. Examples of hydrophilic colloids include gelatin, dextran, and albumin. Hydrophobic colloids, on the other hand, are insoluble in water and are often used to deliver medications or nutrients directly to the bloodstream. Examples of hydrophobic colloids include liposomes and micelles. Colloids are commonly used in medical treatments such as chemotherapy, blood transfusions, and fluid replacement therapy. They are also used in diagnostic procedures such as radiography and computed tomography (CT) scans. However, it is important to note that colloids can also have potential side effects and risks, and their use should be carefully monitored by medical professionals.
Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
Hypoproteinemia is a medical condition characterized by a decrease in the concentration of proteins in the blood. The normal range of total protein concentration in the blood is 6.0-8.0 grams per deciliter (g/dL) for adults. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including malnutrition, liver disease, kidney disease, cancer, and certain medications. It can also be a side effect of certain medical treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Symptoms of hypoproteinemia may include swelling in the legs and feet, shortness of breath, fatigue, and a decreased appetite. Treatment for hypoproteinemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, medications, or other medical interventions.
In the medical field, "salts" typically refers to compounds that contain ions of metals or other elements combined with non-metallic elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or phosphorus. These compounds are often used in various medical applications, including: 1. Electrolyte balance: Salts are essential for maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body. Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge and are necessary for many bodily functions, including muscle and nerve function, hydration, and acid-base balance. 2. Medications: Salts are often used as active ingredients in medications. For example, sodium chloride (table salt) is used as an ingredient in many over-the-counter pain relievers and cold medicines. 3. Antiseptics: Salts such as silver sulfadiazine are used as antiseptics to prevent infection in wounds. 4. Diuretics: Salts such as potassium chloride are used as diuretics to increase urine production and help remove excess fluids from the body. 5. Supplements: Salts such as magnesium sulfate are used as supplements to provide essential minerals that may be lacking in the diet. Overall, salts play an important role in many medical applications and are essential for maintaining proper bodily function.
Phenylmercury compounds are a class of organic mercury compounds that contain a phenyl group (C6H5) attached to a mercury atom. These compounds are typically used as fungicides, preservatives, and antiseptics in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and agriculture. In the medical field, phenylmercury compounds have been used as antiseptics and disinfectants, particularly in the treatment of skin infections and wounds. However, their use has been largely discontinued due to their toxicity and potential for accumulation in the body, which can lead to serious health problems, including neurological damage and kidney failure. Phenylmercury compounds are also used as preservatives in some vaccines, such as the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. However, concerns about their safety and potential for adverse effects have led to the development of alternative preservatives for use in vaccines. Overall, the use of phenylmercury compounds in the medical field is limited due to their toxicity and potential for adverse effects.
Sucrose is a disaccharide sugar that is commonly found in many foods and beverages, including fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. In the medical field, sucrose is often used as a source of energy for patients who are unable to consume other sources of calories, such as solid foods. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. In some cases, sucrose may be used as a medication to treat certain medical conditions, such as low blood sugar levels. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of sucrose can lead to weight gain and other health problems, so it should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels, heart, and other organs over time, and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Hypertension is typically defined as having a systolic blood pressure (the top number) of 140 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) of 90 mmHg or higher. However, some people may be considered hypertensive if their blood pressure is consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as a diet high in salt and saturated fat, lack of physical activity, and smoking), and certain medical conditions (such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea). It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing management through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood pressure levels.
Dextrans are a group of polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) that are derived from cornstarch. They are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a thickening agent in intravenous fluids, as a diagnostic tool for measuring kidney function, and as a component of certain medications. Dextrans are also used in some medical devices, such as catheters and wound dressings. They are generally considered safe and well-tolerated, but like all medications and medical treatments, they can have potential side effects and risks.
Serum albumin is a type of protein that is found in the blood plasma of humans and other animals. It is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 50-60% of the total protein content. Serum albumin plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood, transporting hormones, fatty acids, and other molecules, and serving as a buffer to regulate pH. It is also an important indicator of liver function, as the liver is responsible for producing most of the serum albumin in the body. Abnormal levels of serum albumin can be an indication of liver disease, kidney disease, or other medical conditions.
Betaine is a naturally occurring compound that is found in many foods, including beets, spinach, and wheat germ. It is also available as a dietary supplement and is sometimes used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. In the medical field, betaine is primarily used to treat homocystinuria, a rare genetic disorder that causes high levels of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is an amino acid that is produced when proteins are broken down in the body. When levels of homocysteine become too high, it can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Betaine works by helping the body to convert homocysteine into other amino acids that are less harmful to the body. It is also sometimes used to treat other conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, and depression. Betaine is generally considered safe when taken in recommended doses, but it can cause side effects in some people, such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking betaine, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking other medications.
In the medical field, glycols refer to a class of organic compounds that contain two alcohol groups (-OH) attached to a single carbon atom. These compounds are commonly used as solvents, antifreeze agents, and in the production of various medical products. One common glycol used in medicine is propylene glycol, which is a colorless, odorless liquid that is used as a solvent in various medications, including injectable drugs and inhalation solutions. It is also used as a humectant in skin care products and as an antifreeze agent in medical equipment. Another glycol used in medicine is ethylene glycol, which is a toxic compound that is used as an antifreeze agent in some medications. It is also used as a solvent in the production of certain drugs and as a preservative in some medical products. Glycols can also be used as a carrier for medications, allowing them to be more easily absorbed into the body. They can also be used as a stabilizer to prevent the degradation of certain drugs over time. It is important to note that while glycols have many useful applications in medicine, they can also be toxic if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. As such, they should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Blood proteins are proteins that are found in the blood plasma of humans and other animals. They play a variety of important roles in the body, including transporting oxygen and nutrients, regulating blood pressure, and fighting infections. There are several different types of blood proteins, including albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen. Each type of blood protein has a specific function and is produced by different cells in the body. For example, albumin is produced by the liver and helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood, while globulins are produced by the immune system and help to fight infections. Fibrinogen, on the other hand, is produced by the liver and is involved in the clotting of blood.
Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.
Pulmonary edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the lungs. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including heart failure, kidney failure, severe dehydration, and certain medications. Pulmonary edema can cause shortness of breath, coughing, and difficulty breathing, and can be life-threatening if left untreated. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the edema and providing supportive care to help the body eliminate the excess fluid.
Edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the body's tissues. It can occur in any part of the body, but is most commonly seen in the feet, ankles, legs, and hands. Edema can be caused by a variety of factors, including heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as cancer or lymphedema. Edema can be diagnosed through physical examination and medical imaging, and treatment depends on the underlying cause.
In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.
Electrolytes are minerals that are essential for the proper functioning of the body's cells, tissues, and organs. They are ions that carry an electrical charge and are necessary for maintaining the balance of fluids in the body, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating muscle contractions. In the medical field, electrolytes are often measured in blood and urine tests to assess the body's electrolyte balance. The most common electrolytes measured in these tests are sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Electrolyte imbalances can occur due to various factors, including dehydration, kidney disease, heart failure, certain medications, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and thyroid disorders. Electrolyte imbalances can lead to a range of symptoms, including muscle cramps, weakness, confusion, and in severe cases, cardiac arrest or seizures. Therefore, it is important to maintain proper electrolyte balance through a balanced diet and appropriate medical treatment when necessary.
Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) is a synthetic polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a water-soluble adhesive in medical tapes, dressings, and other medical devices. It is a hydrophilic polymer, meaning it is attracted to water, and is known for its biocompatibility and non-toxicity. PVA is also used as a thickening agent in various medical products, such as eye drops, nasal sprays, and oral solutions. It can help to stabilize the formulation and improve its viscosity, making it easier to apply or use. In addition, PVA has been investigated for its potential use in drug delivery systems, as it can act as a carrier for drugs and help to control their release over time. It has also been used in tissue engineering applications, as it can be used to create hydrogels that mimic the properties of natural tissue. Overall, PVA is a versatile polymer with a wide range of applications in the medical field, thanks to its unique properties and biocompatibility.
In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.
Albumins are a group of water-soluble proteins that are found in the blood plasma of animals, including humans. They are the most abundant proteins in the blood, accounting for about 50-60% of the total protein content. Albumins play a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining osmotic pressure, transporting hormones and other molecules, and serving as a reservoir of amino acids for the liver to use in the production of other proteins. In the medical field, albumin levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess overall health and to monitor patients with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, or malnutrition. Low albumin levels (hypalbuminemia) can be a sign of underlying health problems and may require further evaluation and treatment. High albumin levels (hyperalbuminemia) are less common but can also be a cause for concern, particularly if they are accompanied by other symptoms or if they are the result of an underlying medical condition.
Mannitol is a naturally occurring sugar alcohol that is used in the medical field as a diuretic and osmotic agent. It is used to increase urine output and reduce intracranial pressure in patients with conditions such as brain injury, stroke, and elevated intracranial pressure. Mannitol is also used to treat dehydration, as well as to prevent and treat kidney stones. It is available in oral and intravenous forms and is generally considered safe when used as directed.
Serum Albumin, Bovine is a type of albumin, which is a type of protein found in the blood plasma of mammals. It is derived from the blood of cows and is used as a source of albumin for medical purposes. Albumin is an important protein in the body that helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of blood and transport various substances, such as hormones, drugs, and fatty acids, throughout the body. It is often used as a plasma expander in patients who have lost a significant amount of blood or as a replacement for albumin in patients with liver disease or other conditions that affect albumin production.
Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a simple sugar alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a lubricant, a moisturizer, and a preservative. It is a clear, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is derived from fats and oils. In the medical field, glycerol is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. As a lubricant: Glycerol is used as a lubricant in various medical procedures, such as colonoscopies, cystoscopies, and endoscopies, to reduce friction and discomfort. 2. As a moisturizer: Glycerol is used as a moisturizer in skin care products, such as lotions and creams, to hydrate and soothe dry, irritated skin. 3. As a preservative: Glycerol is used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and nasal sprays, to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. 4. As an antifreeze: Glycerol is used as an antifreeze in some medical equipment, such as dialysis machines, to prevent the equipment from freezing during cold weather. Overall, glycerol is a safe and effective ingredient that is widely used in the medical field for a variety of purposes.
Camphor 5-monooxygenase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of camphor, a naturally occurring compound found in various plants. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of camphor to 5-exo-hydroxycamphor, a metabolite that is further converted to other compounds in the body. In the medical field, camphor 5-monooxygenase is of interest because it is involved in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxins. For example, some drugs that are metabolized by this enzyme include the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin. In addition, camphor 5-monooxygenase is also involved in the metabolism of certain environmental toxins, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins. Disruptions in the activity of camphor 5-monooxygenase can lead to changes in the metabolism of these compounds, which may have implications for drug efficacy and toxicity. For example, genetic variations in the gene that encodes for this enzyme can affect its activity and may be associated with altered drug responses in individuals. Understanding the role of camphor 5-monooxygenase in drug metabolism and toxicity is important for the development of safer and more effective drugs.
Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. It is the most abundant positively charged ion in the body and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating muscle contractions, transmitting nerve impulses, and supporting the proper functioning of the heart. In the medical field, potassium is often measured in blood tests to assess its levels and determine if they are within the normal range. Abnormal potassium levels can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Addison's disease or hyperaldosteronism. Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia) can cause muscle weakness, cramps, and arrhythmias, while high levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and even cardiac arrest. Treatment for potassium imbalances typically involves adjusting the patient's diet or administering medications to correct the imbalance.
In the medical field, "gels" typically refer to a type of semi-solid or liquid substance that is used for various purposes, such as topical application, injection, or ingestion. Gels can be made from a variety of materials, including water, oils, and other substances, and can be used for a wide range of medical applications. For example, hydrogels are a type of gel that are made from water and polymers, and are often used in wound dressings and other medical devices. Injectable gels are used in various medical procedures, such as cosmetic procedures and orthopedic surgeries. Gels can also be used as drug delivery systems, allowing medications to be absorbed into the body more slowly and evenly over time. Overall, gels are a versatile and widely used tool in the medical field, with a wide range of applications and uses.
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a group of water-soluble polymers that are commonly used in the medical field as solvents, dispersants, and stabilizers. They are made by polymerizing ethylene oxide and have a hydroxyl (-OH) group at each end of the molecule. PEGs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a carrier for drugs and other therapeutic agents, as a lubricant for medical devices, and as an ingredient in various medical products such as ointments, creams, and lotions. They are also used in diagnostic imaging agents, such as contrast agents for X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PEGs are generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses or prolonged exposure may cause irritation or allergic reactions. They are also used in food and personal care products, and are generally recognized as safe for these applications as well.
Dehydration is a medical condition that occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of water and electrolytes in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms and complications. Dehydration can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and not drinking enough fluids. It can also occur in people who are sick or have an underlying medical condition that affects their ability to retain fluids. Symptoms of dehydration can include thirst, dry mouth, dark urine, fatigue, dizziness, headache, and confusion. In severe cases, dehydration can lead to more serious complications, such as seizures, coma, and even death. Treatment for dehydration typically involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids, depending on the severity of the dehydration and the underlying cause. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may be dehydrated, as prompt treatment can prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Vasopressins are a group of hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. They play a key role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. There are two main types of vasopressins: arginine vasopressin (AVP) and desmopressin (DDAVP). AVP is primarily responsible for regulating water balance in the body, while DDAVP is used to treat certain types of bleeding disorders. Vasopressins work by constricting blood vessels, which increases blood pressure. They also stimulate the kidneys to retain water, which helps to maintain blood volume and blood pressure. In addition, vasopressins can affect the heart rate and contractility, as well as the permeability of blood vessels. Abnormal levels of vasopressins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by excessive thirst and urination, and central diabetes insipidus, which is caused by a deficiency of AVP. Vasopressin levels can also be affected by certain medications, such as diuretics, and by certain medical conditions, such as heart failure and kidney disease.
Calcium chloride is a salt that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication and a dietary supplement. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water and is used to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood and to treat certain medical conditions. In the medical field, calcium chloride is used to treat hypocalcemia, which is a condition in which the blood calcium level is too low. It is also used to treat eclampsia, which is a serious complication of pregnancy that can cause seizures and other symptoms. Calcium chloride is also used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation. Calcium chloride is available as a dietary supplement and can be taken by mouth to increase the body's calcium levels. It is also used as a food additive and is used to preserve food and to enhance the flavor of certain foods. However, it is important to note that calcium chloride should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.
Chondroitin sulfates are a group of complex carbohydrates that are found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, including cartilage, bone, and blood vessels. They are composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and galactosamine, which are linked by a sulfate group. In the medical field, chondroitin sulfates are often used as dietary supplements to support joint health and reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis. They are thought to work by inhibiting the activity of enzymes that break down cartilage, promoting the production of proteoglycans, and reducing inflammation in the joints. Chondroitin sulfates are also used in some medical treatments, such as the treatment of certain types of cancer and the prevention of blood clots. However, their effectiveness and safety in these applications are still being studied, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential benefits and risks.
Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a type of phospholipid, which is a molecule that is essential for the structure and function of cell membranes. It is composed of two fatty acid chains, each containing 16 carbon atoms, and a phosphate group attached to a choline molecule. DMPC is a common component of biological membranes and is often used in scientific research to study the properties of cell membranes and the behavior of membrane proteins. It is also used in the production of liposomes, which are small, spherical structures that can be used to deliver drugs and other molecules into cells.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
In the medical field, lipid bilayers refer to the two layers of phospholipid molecules that form the basic structure of cell membranes. The lipid bilayer is composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail. The hydrophilic heads face outward, towards the aqueous environment of the cell, while the hydrophobic tails face inward, towards each other. This arrangement creates a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment, while also allowing for the selective passage of molecules in and out of the cell. The lipid bilayer is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of cells, and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and transport.
Urea is a chemical compound that is produced in the liver as a waste product of protein metabolism. It is then transported to the kidneys, where it is filtered out of the blood and excreted in the urine. In the medical field, urea is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure kidney function. High levels of urea in the blood can be a sign of kidney disease or other medical conditions, while low levels may indicate malnutrition or other problems. Urea is also used as a source of nitrogen in fertilizers and as a raw material in the production of plastics and other chemicals.
In the medical field, anions are negatively charged ions that are found in the body fluids, such as blood and urine. They are important for maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body and play a role in various physiological processes, including nerve function, muscle contraction, and acid-base balance. Anions can be classified into different types based on their chemical composition, such as chloride ions (Cl-), bicarbonate ions (HCO3-), and phosphate ions (PO43-). Each type of anion has a specific function in the body and can be affected by various medical conditions, such as kidney disease, acidosis, and electrolyte imbalances. In some cases, anions can be used as diagnostic markers for certain medical conditions, such as high levels of chloride ions in the blood may indicate dehydration or kidney disease, while low levels of bicarbonate ions may indicate acidosis. Therefore, monitoring the levels of anions in the body fluids is an important part of medical diagnosis and treatment.
Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a laxative and as a sweetener in various medical products. It is a white, crystalline powder that is odorless and has a sweet taste. Sorbitol is often used in place of sugar in products for people with diabetes or other conditions that require a low-sugar diet. In the medical field, sorbitol is used as a laxative to treat constipation. It works by drawing water into the colon, which helps to soften stools and make them easier to pass. Sorbitol is also used as a sweetener in various medical products, such as oral medications, cough syrups, and throat lozenges. Sorbitol is generally considered safe for most people when taken in moderate amounts. However, it can cause side effects such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea in some people, particularly those who are sensitive to it. In rare cases, sorbitol can cause more serious side effects, such as dehydration or electrolyte imbalances, particularly in people with certain medical conditions or who are taking certain medications.
Chlorides are a type of anion that are commonly found in the human body. They are produced when chlorine combines with other elements, such as sodium or potassium, to form compounds. In the body, chlorides are primarily found in the fluid that surrounds cells, known as extracellular fluid, and in the fluid that fills the lungs and other cavities, known as intracellular fluid. Chlorides play an important role in maintaining the balance of fluids in the body and in regulating the pH of the blood. They also help to transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body. Chlorides are an essential component of many bodily functions, including the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which aids in the digestion of food. In the medical field, chlorides are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess the overall health of the body. Abnormal levels of chlorides in the blood can be a sign of a variety of medical conditions, including kidney disease, liver disease, and respiratory disorders.
Hemoglobins are a group of proteins found in red blood cells (erythrocytes) that are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Hemoglobin is composed of four subunits, each of which contains a heme group that binds to oxygen. The oxygen binds to the iron atom in the heme group, allowing the hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin also plays a role in regulating the pH of the blood and in the immune response. Abnormalities in hemoglobin can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia.
Potassium chloride is a medication used to treat low potassium levels in the blood (hypokalemia). It is also used to treat certain heart rhythm problems and to help manage certain types of heart failure. Potassium chloride is available as a tablet, oral solution, and injection. It is usually taken by mouth, but can also be given intravenously (into a vein) or by injection into a muscle. Potassium chloride is a salt that contains potassium, which is an important mineral that helps regulate the heartbeat and maintain proper muscle and nerve function. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking potassium chloride, as high levels of potassium in the blood can be dangerous.
Hypotension is a medical condition characterized by low blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is typically expressed as two numbers, systolic pressure (the pressure when the heart beats) and diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats). Hypotension is defined as a systolic blood pressure below 90 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure below 60 mmHg. In some cases, a lower blood pressure may be considered normal or even desirable, depending on the individual's age, health status, and other factors. Hypotension can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, medication side effects, heart problems, blood loss, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, and hormonal imbalances. Symptoms of hypotension may include dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting, and fatigue. Treatment for hypotension depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.
In the medical field, cations are positively charged ions that are found in the body fluids, such as blood and extracellular fluid. They are important for maintaining the proper balance of electrolytes in the body and for regulating various physiological processes, such as nerve function, muscle contraction, and fluid balance. Cations are classified based on their charge and chemical properties. The most common cations in the body include sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and hydrogen (H+). These ions play important roles in various bodily functions, and imbalances in their levels can lead to a range of health problems, such as muscle cramps, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. In medical testing, cations are often measured in blood or urine samples using various analytical techniques, such as ion-selective electrodes or atomic absorption spectroscopy. Monitoring cation levels is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as kidney disease, acid-base disorders, and electrolyte imbalances.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
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Researchers find key elements affecting osmotic stress in plants
- It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules. (bvsalud.org)
- A left lateral tilt to decrease pressure to the inferior vena cava and 15 degrees reverse Trendelenburg to decrease intracranial pressure were applied to the operation table. (ispub.com)
- Regional anesthesia is contraindicated in the presence of actual or anticipated serious maternal hemorrhage , refractory maternal hypotension, coagulopathy, untreated bacteremia , raised intracranial pressure, skin or soft tissue infection at the site of the epidural or spinal placement, and anticoagulant therapy. (medscape.com)
- In the second system, we used osmotic pressure caused by the ion concentration change in the bathing solutions for the articular cartilage to deform them. (who.int)
- May reduce inflammation in cornea by creating an osmotic gradient across an intact blood barrier. (medscape.com)
- One of the major consequences of these abiotic stresses, especially due to drought and salinity, resulting in changes in the osmotic pressure and causing hyperosmotic stress in plants," says Dr Manoj Prasad, the lead researcher. (vigyanprasar.gov.in)
- It is crucial to have a proper understanding of perception and the following stress responses for improving plants so that they can maintain the osmotic status of the cell even under stressful conditions. (vigyanprasar.gov.in)
- Working with Arabidopsis mutant plants, which are widely used for basic research in genetics and molecular biology, the researchers found that the gene SEU exhibited enhanced susceptibility to osmotic stress treatments and lesser survival rates when compared to the wild type plants indicating SEU as a positive regulator of tolerance against osmotic stress. (vigyanprasar.gov.in)
- For osmotic pressure control and water distribution. (medscape.com)
- You know that when they are connected water will flow from where it's higher into the lower vessel until the level is the same height in both, there's a pressure difference making it flow. (physicsforums.com)
- There is a height difference, i.e, a pressure difference that is trying to drive the water back to the other vessel. (physicsforums.com)
- Movement of water and dissolved materials through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. (encyclopedia.com)
- The pressure measured inside the water pipe and that on the specimen surface was calibrated. (who.int)
- (2) , and a reduction in daily salt intake of 4.4 g can results increases food safety by reducing the water activity of a in lower blood pressure (3) . (who.int)
- Osteoporosis, a provide information on the health and acid-base balance, osmotic pressure, and disease affecting more than 28 million nutritional status of the civilian, normal water balance (1,4,6-8). (cdc.gov)
- Currently, treatments for ICH are focusing on the primary injury including reducing intracranial hypertension, blood pressure control, and rehabilitation. (karger.com)
- It also helps control blood pressure in women with preeclampsia by alleviating labor pain, and it blunts the hemodynamic effects of uterine contractions and the associated pain response in patients with other medical complications. (medscape.com)
- Heart rate, invasive arterial blood pressure from the right radial artery, peripheral O 2 saturation, end tidal CO 2 values, central blood pressure from vena basilica and body core temperature were monitored throughout the anesthesia. (ispub.com)
- According to extensive research, there is a direct relationship between salt consumption and blood pressure (2), and a reduction in daily salt intake of 4.4 g can results in lower blood pressure (3). (who.int)
- High blood pressure is one of the main factors associated with death in adults globally. (who.int)
- In addition to its effect on blood pressure, salt can lead to other health conditions, such as kidney stones, urinary calcium excretion, disorders of bone metabolism, gastric cancer, cataracts and asthma (2,4). (who.int)
- According to extensive research, there is a direct re- regulating the osmotic pressure of a living cell and pro- lationship between salt consumption and blood pressure ducing palatable food. (who.int)
- High blood pressure is one of food. (who.int)
- These can decrease intraocular pressure by decreasing aqueous production. (medscape.com)
- These agents reduce elevated and normal intraocular pressure, with or without glaucoma. (medscape.com)
- Results showed that the system could reliably map the strain distribution induced by the osmotic loading. (who.int)
- This video lecture describe topics like Osmotic Pressure and Reverse Osmosis, types of solutions from chapter Solution of Chemistry class 11th CBSE, NCERT. (misostudy.com)
- Osmotic diuretics, such as mannitol, may be used to decrease intracranial pressure. (medscape.com)
- Osmotic diuretics reverse pressure gradient across the blood-brain barrier, reducing intracranial pressure. (medscape.com)
- Patient should not be on diuretics, hypertension, or blood pressure medication, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection of specimen. (interscienceinstitute.com)
- Using a series of measurements of the osmotic pressure of sucrose solutions of various strengths, van't Hoff found that at constant temperature the osmotic pressure ( P ) was related to the volume ( V ) containing one gram molecule in precisely the same way as the pressure and volume of a gas vary in accordance with Boyle's law . (daviddarling.info)
- However, it remains very challenging to perform in situ and in vivo measurements of osmotic pressure. (nih.gov)
- Here we introduce double emulsion droplet sensors that enable local measurements of osmotic pressure intra- and extra-cellularly within 3D multicellular systems, including living tissues. (nih.gov)
- Osmotic Pressure Measurements. (nih.gov)
- Further experimental proof was offered on the basis of osmotic pressure measurements by K. Banerjee and M.A. Lauffer (Biochemistry 5: 1957, 1966). (nih.gov)
- Inhibits tubular reabsorption of electrolytes by increasing osmotic pressure of glomerular filtrate. (medscape.com)
- 430. As indicated in the figure, it paypao also observed that at moderate concentrations of electrolytes, osmotic pres- sures were less than that expected based on complete dissociation. (forextrading-madeeasy.com)
- cells, such as increased vascular permeability, increased intravascular hydrostatic pressure, decreased intravascular osmotic pressure, and decreased lymphatic drainage. (nih.gov)
- In addition, Dr. Burg's group has furthered our understanding of how organisms survive osmotic stress caused by dehydration and by high concentrations of salt and urea. (nih.gov)
- The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. (bvsalud.org)
- Osmosis occurs when water molecules move through a membrane to balance solute concentrations, creating osmotic pressure that drives the movement. (tukymax.com)
- high blood pressure, high hydrostatic pressure - high GFR, more Na filtered so not all can be reabsorbed in proximal, higher concentration in distal - detected by macula densa cells. (brainscape.com)
- low blood pressure, low hydrostatic pressure, low GFR. (brainscape.com)
- These release prostaglandins, act on juxtaglomerular cells to cause dilation of the afferent arteriole to increase hydrostatic pressure and GFR. (brainscape.com)
- In patients with myoglobinuria, administer a sodium chloride solution for volume depletion as 0.9% NaCl solution, lactated Ringers solution, or a solution of 0.45% NaCl and sodium bicarbonate 50 mEq/L. Mannitol may be administered to facilitate osmotic diuresis. (medscape.com)
- Water influx into hypotonic plant cells creates pressure against cell walls. (tukymax.com)
- In plant cells, the phone divider confines the extension, bringing about weight on the phone divider from inside called turgor pressure. (pureaqua.com)
- Turgor pressure permits herbaceous plants to stand upstanding. (pureaqua.com)
- It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. (nih.gov)
- To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. (nih.gov)
- Osmosis maintains turgor pressure in plant cells, ensuring rigidity and preventing wilting. (tukymax.com)
- Pfeffer himself had shown that by increasing the concentration of the stronger solution its osmotic pressure rose. (daviddarling.info)
- Wilhelm Pfeffer published his book Osmotische Untersuchungen: Studien Zur Zellmechanik (Osmotic Investigations: Studies on Cell Mechanics) in 1877 during his time as a professor of botany at the University of Basel in Basel, Switzerland. (asu.edu)
- The thin descending limb is permeable to water so water is reabsorbed here to the medulla to balance the osmotic gradient. (brainscape.com)
- These are substances derived from fluid in the tissues and which are driven across a membrane e.g. vaginal wall by a pressure gradient - usually blood pressure but could be osmotic . (urbandictionary.com)
- The movement of water creates osmotic pressure, the force that drives water molecules across the membrane until equilibrium is achieved. (tukymax.com)
- The forces which causes osmosis is known as osmotic pressure . (daviddarling.info)
- In fact the osmotic pressure of a solution may be regarded as the pressure which the dissolved substance would exert if it were a gas occupying the same volume as the solution at the same temperature (on the absolute scale). (daviddarling.info)
- These agents raise the osmolality of plasma and renal tubular fluid, which creates an osmotic inhibition of water transport in the proximal tubule. (medscape.com)
- The dissolved molecules bombard the membrane and create a pressure. (daviddarling.info)
- Beyond active forces and material properties, osmotic pressure is believed to control essential cell and tissue characteristics. (nih.gov)
- Reduces cerebral edema with help of osmotic forces and decreases blood viscosity, resulting in reflex vasoconstriction and lowering of intracranial pressure. (medscape.com)
- Osmotic pressure induced tensile forces in tendon collagen. (mpg.de)
- If the dissolved substance does dissociate, the osmotic pressure is higher than predicted because the number of particles in solution is larger than is all the molecules of the dissolved substance had remained unionized. (daviddarling.info)
- Osmotic weight is the base weight which should be applied to an answer for forestall the internal progression of its unadulterated dissolvable over a semipermeable layer. (pureaqua.com)
- Potential osmotic weight is the most extreme osmotic weight that could create in an answer in the event that it were isolated from its unadulterated dissolvable by a semipermeable layer. (pureaqua.com)
- Osmotic weight estimation might be utilized for the assurance of sub-atomic loads. (pureaqua.com)
- Osmotic weight is a significant factor influencing cells. (pureaqua.com)
- In creature cells over the top osmotic weight can bring about cytolysis. (pureaqua.com)
- So osmotic pressures obey similar laws to gas pressures. (daviddarling.info)
- This may be done using a mercury column, or the solvent itself may be used to provide the pressure head. (daviddarling.info)
- It is also used together with crystalloid treatment to correct lower osmotic pressure in the blood and to replace protein loss caused by severe burns after the first 24 hours. (drugs.com)
- Dependence of the osmotic pressure amounts of CaCl as a function of 2 (0 - 100 mM). (nih.gov)
- Secretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone is primarily controlled by the osmotic pressure of the plasma. (interscienceinstitute.com)
- Detoxi 300HRS salt balances each cell's osmotic pressure level. (thebiomatstore.com)