A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
Conclusions derived from the nursing assessment that establish a health status profile for the patient and from which nursing interventions may be ordered.
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.
Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Measurement of the thickness of the CORNEA.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.
Educational institutions.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.

Increased insensible water loss in newborn infants nursed under radiant heaters. (1/9547)

Urine osmolality was studied in 38 babies nursed in conventional incubators or cots and 18 nursed under an overhead radiant heat shield. Among 50 babies receiving a similar fluid intake in the first 48 hours of life mean urinary osmolality was significantly higher in the radiant heater group. In babies weighing less than 1500 g a trend towards higher urinary osmolalities was recorded in those nursed under radiant heaters even though they had received amost double the fluid intake of the incubator group. Severe hypernatraemia occurred in four of the five babies weighing less than 1000 g who were nursed under radiant heaters but in none of the seven babies of similar birth weight nursed in incubators. These findings are consistent with previous observations of an increase in insensible water loss in babies nursed under radiant heaters and emphasise the importance of providing enough extra water for these infants and the need for close monitoring of their fluid balance. The latter may be done at the bedside by measuring urinary specific gravity with a hand refractometer.  (+info)

Reduced water permeability and altered ultrastructure in thin descending limb of Henle in aquaporin-1 null mice. (2/9547)

It has been controversial whether high water permeability in the thin descending limb of Henle (TDLH) is required for formation of a concentrated urine by the kidney. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM) of rat TDLH has shown an exceptionally high density of intramembrane particles (IMPs), which were proposed to consist of tetramers of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels. In this study, transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused segments (0.5-1 mm) of TDLH in wild-type (+/+), AQP1 heterozygous (+/-), and AQP1 null (-/-) mice. Pf was measured at 37 degrees C using a 100 mM bath-to-lumen osmotic gradient of raffinose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran as the luminal volume marker. Pf was (in cm/s): 0.26 +/- 0.02 ([+/+]; SE, n = 9 tubules), 0.21 +/- 0.01 ([+/-]; n = 12), and 0.031 +/- 0.007 ([-/-]; n = 6) (P < 0.02, [+/+] vs. [+/-]; P < 0.0001, [+/+] vs. [-/-]). FFEM of kidney medulla showed remarkably fewer IMPs in TDLH from (-/-) vs. (+/+) and (+/-) mice. IMP densities were (in microm-2, SD, 5-12 micrographs): 5,880 +/- 238 (+/+); 5,780 +/- 450 (+/-); and 877 +/- 420 (-/-). IMP size distribution analysis revealed mean IMP diameters of 8.4 nm ([+/+] and [+/-]) and 5.2 nm ([-/-]). These results demonstrate that AQP1 is the principal water channel in TDLH and support the view that osmotic equilibration along TDLH by water transport plays a key role in the renal countercurrent concentrating mechanism. The similar Pf and AQP1 expression in TDLH of (+/+) and (+/-) mice was an unexpected finding that probably accounts for the unimpaired urinary concentrating ability in (+/-) mice.  (+info)

Relaxin is a potent renal vasodilator in conscious rats. (3/9547)

The kidneys and other nonreproductive organs vasodilate during early gestation; however, the "pregnancy hormones" responsible for the profound vasodilation of the renal circulation during pregnancy are unknown. We hypothesized that the ovarian hormone relaxin (RLX) contributes. Therefore, we tested whether the administration of RLX elicits renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in conscious adult, intact female rats. After several days of treatment with either purified porcine RLX or recombinant human RLX 2 (rhRLX), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 20%-40%. Comparable renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration was also observed in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen and progesterone are unnecessary for the renal response to rhRLX. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester completely abrogated the increase in ERPF and GFR elicited by chronic administration of purified porcine RLX. In contrast, the renal vasoconstrictory response to angiotensin II was attenuated by the RLX treatment. Short-term infusion of purified porcine RLX to conscious rats over several hours failed to increase ERPF and GFR. Plasma osmolality was consistently reduced by the chronic administration of both RLX preparations. In conclusion, the renal and osmoregulatory effects of chronic RLX administration to conscious rats resemble the physiological changes of pregnancy in several respects: (a) marked increases in ERPF and GFR with a mediatory role for nitric oxide; (b) attenuation of the renal circulatory response to angiotensin II; and (c) reduction in plasma osmolality.  (+info)

The sodium concentration of enteral diets does not influence absorption of nutrients but induces intestinal secretion of water in miniature pigs. (4/9547)

Contradictory opinions exist as to whether the sodium concentration of enteral diets influences absorption of macronutrients and transepithelial movement of sodium and water. Therefore, we investigated the effects of various sodium concentrations of enteral diets on absorption of macronutrients and on net fluxes of sodium and water. In unanesthetized miniature pigs, a 150-cm jejunal segment was perfused with an oligopeptide (Peptisorb), an oligomeric and a polymeric diet. The polymeric diet was supplemented with pancreatic enzymes. The sodium concentrations varied between 30 and 150 mmol/L. The energy density was 3.4 MJ/L. The sodium concentration of the diets did not influence absorption of macronutrients and of total energy. However, increasing sodium concentrations of the diets were associated with increasing osmolality of the solutions, resulting in a linear increase in net secretion of water and flow rate of chyme. With all diets and sodium concentrations net secretion of sodium occurred. The sodium secretion was independent of the initial sodium concentration of the diets. It was linearly correlated with net flux of water and was largest in miniature pigs infused with the oligomeric diet. The sodium concentration of the jejunal effluent did not correspond to the initial sodium concentration of the diets. The present results indicate that enteral feeding of diets with high energy density inevitably increases net secretion of water and sodium as sodium concentration increases. Therefore, the sodium concentration of diets should be as low as possible to meet only the minimal daily requirement of sodium. Low sodium concentrations of diets have no negative effects on absorption of macronutrients.  (+info)

Treating the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion with isotonic saline. (5/9547)

It has been widely accepted that there is little use for saline treatment in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). However, having observed that most SIADH patients increased their plasma sodium (PNa) after 2 l isotonic saline over 24 h, we investigated whether urine osmolality or the sum of urinary sodium and potassium (UNa + K) predicted this response, in 17 consecutive patients with chronic SIADH. The initial measure of urinary sodium plus potassium (UNa + K t0) was weakly correlated to the change in PNa (DPNa) after infusion (r = -0.51; p < 0.05), while initial urine osmolality (UOSM t0) was a much better predictor (y = -0.024x + 12.90; r = -0.81; p < 0.001). The lack of predictive value for UNa + K t0 was probably because urine electrolyte concentrations were not maximal for the corresponding initial UOSM. This reflects differences in salt intake between the patients. The theoretical maximal value for UNa + K t0 (th max UNa + K t0) for a given USOM t0, was as good a predictor as UOSM t0 (th max UNa + K vs. DPNa: r = -0.81; p < 0.001). A theoretical model describing the effect of 2 l isotonic saline infusion on DPNa as a function of UNa + K, produced values comparable to those observed in our patients. Only 6/17 patients, those with UOSM > 530 mOsm/kg, had their hyponatraemia aggravated by 2 l isotonic saline. Many SIADH patients have lower UOSM; in most such patients, 2 l of isotonic saline will improve PNa.  (+info)

MENT, a heterochromatin protein that mediates higher order chromatin folding, is a new serpin family member. (6/9547)

Terminal cell differentiation is correlated with the extensive sequestering of previously active genes into compact transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. In vertebrate blood cells, these changes can be traced to the accumulation of a developmentally regulated heterochromatin protein, MENT. Cryoelectron microscopy of chicken granulocyte chromatin, which is highly enriched with MENT, reveals exceptionally compact polynucleosomes, which maintain a level of higher order folding above that imposed by linker histones. The amino acid sequence of MENT reveals a close structural relationship with serpins, a large family of proteins known for their ability to undergo dramatic conformational transitions. Conservation of the "hinge region" consensus in MENT indicates that this ability is retained by the protein. MENT is distinguished from the other serpins by being a basic protein, containing several positively charged surface clusters, which are likely to be involved in ionic interactions with DNA. One of the positively charged domains bears a significant similarity to the chromatin binding region of nuclear lamina proteins and with the A.T-rich DNA-binding motif, which may account for the targeting of MENT to peripheral heterochromatin. MENT ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line is transported into nuclei and is associated with intranuclear foci of condensed chromatin.  (+info)

A method for analyzing enzyme kinetics with substrate activation and inhibition and its application to the alpha-chymotrypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of phenyl acetates. (7/9547)

A general kinetic method was developed to analyze enzyme-catalyzed systems complicated by the presence of activation or inhibition by substrate. The method was applied to the alpha-chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.21.1]-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-chlorophenyl and p-methoxyphenyl acetates. Deacylation rate constants which were not complicated by substrate activation were obtained. The analysis shows that the abnormal substituent dependence of kcat in the steady state hydrolysis is due not to substrate activation but to inappropriateness of the two-step mechanism or the existence of more than one acetyl-enzyme intermediate.  (+info)

H5 Histone and DNA-relaxing enzyme of chicken erythrocytes. Interaction with superhelical DNA. (8/9547)

The interaction of closed circular duplex DNA with the lysine-rich H5 histone fraction of avian erythrocytes has been studied. H5, like H1 histone, interacts preferentially with superhelical DNA. The extent of interaction increases with increasing negative or positive superhelicity. Salt-extracted lysine-rich histones show the same specificity for interaction with superhelices as do acid-extracted preparations. Chicken erythrocyte nuclei contain DNA-relaxing enzyme. This enzyme is extracted from the nuclei at lower salt concentrations than those required to extract H1 and H5 histones and is, therefore, probably a function of a protein distinct from H1 and H5 histones.  (+info)

inproceedings{2017HistidineTB, title={Histidine Tagging Both Allows Convenient Single-step Purification of Bovine Rhodopsin and Exerts Ionic Strength-dependent Effects on Its Photochemistry*}, author={}, year={2017 ...
A packed-bed chromatographic model developed in this study includes adsorption isotherms considering steric mass action (SMA) as well as non-linearity in liquid/solid phases, adsorption kinetics and mass transport. For solving the nonlinear and nonequilibrium adsorption model described by a partial differential algebraic equation (PDAE) system, a fast and accurate numerical method (i.e., conservation element/solution element (CE/SE) method), is proposed. Sensitivity and elasticity of the model parameters (e.g., steric/shape factors, adsorption heat coefficient, effective protein charge, equilibrium constant, mass transfer coefficient, axial dispersion coefficient and bed voidage) are analyzed for a BSA-salt system in a low protein concentration range. Within a low concentration range of bovine serum albumin (BSA) where linear adsorption isotherms are shown, the adsorption heat coefficient, shape and steric factors have little effect on adsorption isotherms and the retention time. However, the ...
Low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) techniques permit a safe and substantial reduction in incubation time and have therefore become the method of choice for antibody detection and compatibility testing in many transfusion laboratories. Consequently, the supply of reagent red cells (RBCs) in a low-ionic-strength preservative solution would remove the daily need for laboratories to wash and resuspend cells in LISS before use. However, the storage of fresh RBCs at low ionic strength in the presence of aminoglycoside antibiotics can cause a rapid loss of certain antigens, possibly as a result of the release of proteolytic enzymes from contaminating white cells. This article describes a low-ionic-strength solution that achieves preservation of antigens on liquid nitrogen-frozen-thawed RBCs for 21 days storage at 4°C. ...
The goal was to characterize a hydrophobic cytokine with respect to oxidation and aggregation, as well as its adsorption to the container at different pH and ionic strength conditions. The tendency of the cytokine to adsorb on surfaces and its low solubility at physiological pH were the main challenges during the development of HSA-free formulations for the cytokine. When the formulation pH exceeded 5.5 precipitation led to significantly higher turbidity. This turbidity increase and elevated aggregation as determined by HP-SEC and DLS was more pronounced at higher glycine and NaCl concentrations. With rising pH protein adsorption was more distinct compared to pH 3.0. However, protein adsorption could be minimized by polysorbate 20 or the use of glass type I(+). FTIR revealed a reduced thermal stability at higher pH values indicated by a declining denaturation temperature. Five liquid formulations in the pH range 3.5-4.5 and five lyophilized formulations at pH 4.0-5.0 were stored for 6 months and ...
Dive into the research topics of Effect of ionic strength on the conformation of myosin subfragment 1-nucleotide complexes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Osmotic Challenges Osmoconformers, consisting only of some marine animals, are isoosmotic with their surroundings and do not regulate their osmolarity Osmoregulators expend energy to control water uptake and loss in a hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment Most animals are stenohaline; they cannot tolerate substantial changes in external osmolarity Euryhaline animals can survive large fluctuations in external osmolarity
Osmoreceptors are sensory receptor primarily found in hypothalamus of most homoeothermic organisms that detects changes in osmotic pressure. T
WHEN I PENNED The Green Consumer in 1990, I helped advance the notion that we could solve our planets environmental problems by making good purchasing choices. That we could, in other words, shop our way to environmental health. By choosing carefully, you can have a positive impact on the environment without significantly compromising your way of life, I wrote. Thats what being a Green Consumer is all about.. I fought the good fight. Twenty years later, Im thinking of waving the white flag. Green consumerism, it seems, was one of those well-intended passing fancies, testament to Americans never-ending quest for simple, quick, and efficient solutions to complex problems.. Today, its become clear that good purchasing choices are relatively few and far between, in terms of products whose environmental benefits are both obvious and significant. True, there are green cleaners, organic socks, energy-efficient lightbulbs, and fuel-efficient cars, but such products are scarce compared with the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of polysterene sulfonate on polymethylene single cristals at high ionic strength. AU - Papenhuijzen, J.. AU - Fleer, G.J.. AU - Bijsterbosch, B.H.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. M3 - Article. VL - 104. SP - 530. EP - 539. JO - Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. JF - Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. SN - 0021-9797. ER - ...
If the solute concentration in the blood is too high, osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus sense this and signal the pituitary gland to produce a hormone called ADH (anti-diuretic hormone). ADH causes special pores called aquaporins in the collecting duct to open, allowing water to be reabsorbed back into the blood, thus making the blood more dilute. If the solute concentration in the blood is too low, osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus sense this and signal the pituitary gland to reduce its production of ADH. This causes the aquaporins in the collecting duct to close, keeping the excess water in the filtrate, which excreted as dilute urine. This is called osmoregulation ...
Whether or not this statement is correct will depend on how dark the urine is, because the depth of color in urine will vary inversely with the urinary volume. Although the volume varies greatly among individuals, in our student laboratory (see above, under Other Data Since 8 × 8) the mean value was 1,520 ml/24 h (Table 3), with a mean urine osmolality of 590 mosmol/kgH2O. Both values are those generally cited as being normal, namely, 1,500 ml/24 h and 600 mosmol/kgH2O, respectively (73, 92). At a urine osmolality ∼600 mosmol/kgH2O, the concentration of solutes in the urine is such that the urine has a moderately yellow color, which might be interpreted as dark, especially when contrasted against pale yellow or clear, which is specified in most of the lay literature (26). Yet, at the above-cited normal urinary volume and osmolality, the plasma osmolality will be well within the normal range and nowhere near the values of 300 mosmol/kgH2O and higher, which are seen in meaningful ...
Plasma osmolality measures the bodys electrolyte-water balance. There are several methods for arriving at this quantity through measurement or calculation. Osmolality and osmolarity are measures that are technically different, but functionally the same for normal use. Whereas osmolality (with an l) is defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per kilogram of solvent (osmol/kg or Osm/kg), osmolarity (with an r) is defined as the number of osmoles of solute per liter (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L). As such, larger numbers indicate a greater concentration of solutes in the plasma.. ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Our results reveal that hyperosmolarity is associated with increased hospital mortality of patients who are critically ill, presenting as a U-shaped association. However, this pattern was not observed for patients with respiratory admission disease, and only extreme hyperosmolarity was related to increased risk of death in this subgroup. In addition, vasopressin is strongly associated with a higher mortality rate in all six subgroups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study using subgroup analysis to establish a link between osmolarity imbalance and mortality in patients in mixed ICU.. Water balance inside the body is of vital importance for patients who are critically ill , and serum osmolarity plays an important role in extracellular and intracellular water distribution. Perturbation of osmolarity is common in patients admitted to ICU, which is related to intracellular dehydration or oedema, potentially leading to adverse outcomes.17 Holtfreter et al recently examined the ...
Osmolality determination- Osmolality of blood increases with dehydration and decreases with overhydration. Normal range: 285-295 mOsm/kg
Osmolality is a test that measures the concentration of all chemical particles found in the fluid part of blood. Osmolality can also be measured with a urine test.
Osmolarity is a measurement of the number of particles in a solute, typically expressed in osmoles. Researchers need to know this...
Looking for online definition of blood osmolality in the Medical Dictionary? blood osmolality explanation free. What is blood osmolality? Meaning of blood osmolality medical term. What does blood osmolality mean?
Authors: Lisovskaya, I.L. , Shurkhina, E.S. , Yakovenko, E.E. , Tsvetaeva, N.V. , Kolodei, S.V. , Shcherbinina, S.P. , Ataullakhanov, F.I. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: We have previously proposed the osmofiltration method based on a modified Hanss hemorheometer to analyze distributions of erythrocytes in their ability to pass through membrane filters with 3 \mu m pores. Upon decrease in medium osmolality (u ) the erythrocyte volume increases. When cell volume becomes V=V_{\mathrm{cr}} at u=u_{\mathrm{cr}} , such cell loses its ability to pass through a 3 \mu m pore. The flow rate of erythrocyte suspension containing cells with different u_{\mathrm{cr}} through a filter gradually decreases with decreasing medium osmolality. This rate becomes zero at some u=\Omega , …when the number of non‐filterable cells in the applied sample approaches the number of pores in filter. Experimental determination of the dependencies of the filtration rate on medium osmolality for various hematocrit ...
The physical properties of weak polyelectrolytes may be tailored via hydrophobic modification to exhibit useful properties under appropriate pH and ionic strength conditions as a consequence of the often inherently competing effects of electrostatics and hydrophobicity. Pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR (PGSE-NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) surface tension, fluorescence, and pH titration have been used to examine the solution conformation and aggregation behavior of a series of hydrophobically modified hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) polymers in aqueous solution, and their interaction with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). PGSE-NMR gave a particularly insightful picture of the apparent molecular weight distribution. The presence of the hydrophobes led to a lower effective charge on the polymer at any given pH, compared to the (parent) nonmodified samples. Analysis of the SANS data showed that the propensity to form highly elliptical or rod-like ...
UOSMU : Osmolality is an index of the solute concentration. Urine osmolality is a measure of the concentration of osmotically active particles, principally sodium, chloride, potassium, and urea; glucose can contribute significantly to the osmolality when present in substantial amounts in urine. Urinary osmolality corresponds to urine specific gravity in nondisease states.   The ability of the kidney to maintain both tonicity and water balance of the extracellular fluid can be evaluated by measuring the osmolality of the urine either routinely or under artificial conditions. More information concerning the state of renal water handling or abnormalities of urine dilution or concentration can be obtained if urinary osmolality is compared to serum osmolality and if urine electrolyte studies are performed. Normally, the ratio of urine osmolality to serum osmolality is 1.0 to 3.0, reflecting a wide range of urine osmolality.
Intracellular measurements of the resting potential were made in fibers of the frog sartorius muscle in solutions of varying salt composition and concentration to determine the effects of low ionic strength extracellular solutions on the resting potential. Changes in the glass microelectrode tip potential in low ionic strength solutions were minimized by adding ThCl4 to the extracellular solution. These experimental conditions allowed measurement of the relationship of the resting potential to the concentration of the salt in the extracellular solution by replacing it with the nonionic substance, sucrose. Substitution of sucrose for the extracellular NaCl produced a stable depolarization which was logarithmically related to the NaCl concentration. Substitution of sucrose for choline Cl, instead of NaCl, produced the same degree of depolarization. When Na salts of anions less permeable than chloride (Br, I, NO3) were used, the resting potentials in 116 mM solutions were close to those with ...
The production of materials such as microfibrillated cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals is gathering significant research interest by combining mechanical strength and toughness with a low density, biodegradability and renewability. However, one of the challenges with production on an industrial scale is to obtain an energy-efficient solid liquid separation which is difficult because of the high specific filtration resistance of these materials. This study investigates electroassisted filtration as a method to facilitate the dewatering of cellulosic materials and the influence of ionic strength on the electrofiltration behavior. Electroassisted filtration is found to improve the dewatering rate of the studied cellulosic material, and the potential improvement compared to pressure filtration increased with the specific surface area of the solid material. Increasing the ionic strength of the system increased the power demand of the electroassisted filtration, and the major potential for industrial
Plasma osmolality measures the bodys electrolyte-water balance. There are several methods for arriving at this quantity through measurement or calculation. Osmolality and osmolarity are measures that are technically different, but functionally the same for normal use. Whereas osmolality (with an ℓ) is a measure of the osmoles (Osm) of solute per kilogram of solvent (osmol/kg or Osm/kg), osmolarity (with an r) is defined as the number of osmoles of solute per liter (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L). As such, larger numbers indicate a greater concentration of solutes in the plasma. Osmolality can be measured on an analytical instrument called an osmometer. It works on the method of depression of freezing point. Osmolarity is affected by changes in water content, as well as temperature and pressure. In contrast, osmolality is independent of temperature and pressure. For a given solution, osmolarity is slightly less than osmolality, because the total solvent weight (the divisor used for ...
The serum osmolality calculator determines blood osmolarity, by using the BUN, glucose and ethanol value and the equation that delivers the mOsm/Kg answer.
View Notes - PSY260_CHP9 from PSYCH 260 at Penn State. a. Diabetes Mellitus b. Osmoreceptors 12. The OVLT and Osmoreception 13. Mechanisms of Hypovolemic Thirst a. Heart, Kideys, and Baroreceptors
The yield strength dependence on strain rate was studied for molybdenum-alloy nanofibers with varying initial dislocation density at three different pre-strain levels. In-situ tensile experiments at three displacement rates were carried out in a scanning electron microscope. Yield strength and its scatter decreased as a function of the pre-strain level for different displacement rates. A statistical model was used to analyze the results, and a negative strain rate dependence was inferred from the yield experiments. This finding suggests the need for theoretical investigations since classical models such as dynamic strain aging may have limitations at such nanoscales. ...
The mean age was: 30.6±7.7 years in the LASEK group (n=33), 34.3±8.7 in LASIK (n=34), 34.6±8.6 in FSBK (n=35), 67.3±11 in the glaucoma treated patients (n=18), 70.6±8 in the senile population (n=73), and 46,3±16,9 years in normals. We did not find statistically significant differences in the mean osmolarity values between groups (p=0.8) (LASEK=304.7±20.2 mOsm/L, LASIK=306.7±17.7 mOsm/L, FSBK=307.8±17.6 mOsm/L, Senile population=306.6±14.1 mOsm/L, glaucoma=310.1±11.7 mOsm/L, normal mean value=300.8±7.8 mOsm/L). No differences were found when comparing the percentage of hyperosmolar eyes (>312mOsm/L) between groups (p=0.3) (LASEK=30,3%, LASIK=44,1%, FSBK=37.1%, Senile=32.8%, glaucoma=55.5 ...
Ca2+ uptake in brush-border vesicles isolated from rat duodena was studied by a rapid-filtration technique. Ca2+ uptake showed saturation kinetics, was dependent on the pH and ionic strength of the medium and was independent of metabolic energy. Uptake activity was readily inhibited by Ruthenium Red, La3+, tetracaine, EGTA, choline chloride and Na+ or K+. The effect of variations in medium osmolarity on Ca2+ uptake and the ionophore A23187-induced efflux of the cation from preloaded vesicles indicated that the Ca2+-uptake process involved binding to membrane components, as well as transport into an osmotically active space. Scatchard-plot analyses of the binding data suggested at least two classes of Ca2+-binding sites. The high-affinity sites, Ka = (2.7 +/- 1.1) x 10(4) M-1 (mean +/- S.D.) bound 3.2 +/- 0.8 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein, whereas the low-affinity sites (Ka = 60 +/- 6 M-1) bound 110 +/- 17 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein. In the presence of 100 mM-NaCl, 1.7 and 53 nmol of Ca2+/mg of ...
In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p = 0.005) and 5% (p , 0.001) ETBW losses, while FR decreased serum osmolality at the 5% loss of ETBW time point (p = 0.009). In DHYD, KE muscle volume declined from 1,464 ± 446 ml to 1,406 ± 425 ml (3.9%, p , 0.001) at 3% ETBW loss and to 1,378 ± 421 ml (5.9%, p , 0.001) at 5% ETBW loss. The largest decline in KE volume in DYHD occurred in the mid-belly (31 ml, p = 0.001) and proximal (24 ml, p = 0.001) regions of the grouped vasti muscles. There were no changes in volume for the biceps/triceps (p = 0.35) or deltoid (p = 0.92) during DHYD. FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430 ± 435 ml, p = 0.074) and 5% (1,431 ± 439 ml, p = 0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445 ± 436 ml).. ...
Each of the four test identities was used as an adapter-with itself and each of the other three other identities as probes. The adapting images were the 6 anti-expressions for each identity, and the probe was always the identity prototype for the relevant identity. To keep testing sessions to within an hour, each experimental session comprised testing one identity adapter (with each of its six anti-expressions), with an identity-congruent probe (i.e., the same identity as the adapter) and one identity-incongruent probe. In half of the sessions, the incongruent probe was the same sex as the adapter; in the other half, it was the opposite sex. To test all combinations of adapters and probes, 12 different session types were required. Each participant completed one session, and each session type was completed by four participants with adapters at 100% strength and by two participants with adapters at 50% and 25% strength. The inclusion of the 25% adapter strength condition is an important ...
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The kidneys can normally concentrate urine to an Osmolality of , 800 mmol/kg within 12 h of fluid restriction (Water deprivation test).. Comparison of serum and urine osmolalities may help to determine the cause of polyuria, to diagnose SIADH and to distinguish pre-renal from renal causes of impaired renal function.. See Osmolality.. ...
Urine density has long been considered as a practical surrogate marker of urine osmolality. It has even been proposed that simple equations be used in clinical practice to obtain Uosm directly from UD [8-11], whereas a website offers such calculations online [12]. In the present study, we challenged the concept that UD is a reliable marker of urine osmolality. For better accuracy, UD measurements were made utilizing a refractometer, instead of the semi-quantitative dipstick method more commonly employed. Even so, the correlation obtained between UD and Uosm, though statistically significant, was relatively weak (r = 0.462). A closer examination casts serious doubts about the clinical usefulness of UD. If an UD of 1.020 kg/L or higher were regarded as a test to detect individuals with an Uosm of at least 600 mOsm/kg [8-10], the sensitivity of such a test would be only 36%, whereas its specificity would be 81%. In other words, 64% of the subjects with concentrated urines would be missed by such ...
nbsp;Osmolality (ℓ) is the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per kilogram of solvent (mOsmol/kg), it is measured using an osmometer. This value is not affected by temperature and pressure. This differs from [[Osmolarity,Osmolarity]] (r) which is the number of osmoles of solute per litre of solution (mOsmol/L) and is affected by changes in water content, temperature and pressure. The difference between the actual osmolality and the calculated osmolality is known as the osmotic gap ,ref>Patient. Osmolality, Osmolarity and Fluid Homeostasis. 2016 [cited: 05/12/17]; Available from: https://patient.info/doctor/osmolality-osmolarity-and-fluid-homeostasis,/ref> . ,references ...
The global fitting of the aggregation curves above provides an explanation of the observed changes in half times and scaling exponents: the differential effect of a change in ionic strength on the rates of the individual processes in the aggregation reaction leads to shifts in the dominant mechanism of aggregate multiplication. In order to rationalize this difference in susceptibility to electrostatic shielding we consider the variation of each rate constant with ionic strength. In the plots in Fig. 6a and b we show the logarithm of the various rate constant versus the square root of ionic strength (this latter value includes the contribution from the added salt as well as the buffer; in the absence of added salt the buffer alone (4 mM sodium phosphate, 40 uM EDTA, pH 8.0) results in an ionic strength of approximately 12 mM). In a simple Debye-Hückel (DH)16,32-34 model of the effect of ionic strength, these points would be expected to lie on a straight line. However, DH is accurate only at low ...
Information from ISBN 0-19-963142-5 pg 321. 1) Chose the pH range you want. Use a buffer that is within pK± 1 because the buffering capacity will be low outside that range. The range that is used may be varied if it is known that a buffer has only to counter the effects of acid or base but not both. (Is only H+ produced?) The edge of a working range can be more satisfactorily used if the change in pH is towards the pK. 2) Stability of the buffer, whether it interacts with the substrates, cofactors, or metal ions, the temperature coefficients of its pK, the ionic strength at which it is used, its absorbance in the UV region of the spectrum, its cost, and its availability free from contaminants. Most of the newer zwitterionic buffers do not appreciably bind divalent metal ions, are chemically stable, do not appreciably absorb light at wavelengths longer than 240nm, and can be made up as a concentrated stock solutions. Many of the buffers which have been in longer use have one or more ...
Information from ISBN 0-19-963142-5 pg 321. 1) Chose the pH range you want. Use a buffer that is within pK± 1 because the buffering capacity will be low outside that range. The range that is used may be varied if it is known that a buffer has only to counter the effects of acid or base but not both. (Is only H+ produced?) The edge of a working range can be more satisfactorily used if the change in pH is towards the pK. 2) Stability of the buffer, whether it interacts with the substrates, cofactors, or metal ions, the temperature coefficients of its pK, the ionic strength at which it is used, its absorbance in the UV region of the spectrum, its cost, and its availability free from contaminants. Most of the newer zwitterionic buffers do not appreciably bind divalent metal ions, are chemically stable, do not appreciably absorb light at wavelengths longer than 240nm, and can be made up as a concentrated stock solutions. Many of the buffers which have been in longer use have one or more ...
In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevesiae, phosphorelay signaling systems that involve a three-step His-Asp-His-Asp phosphotransfer are involved in transmitting signals in response to cellular stress. The animation shows one example of such a phosphorelay system involved in yeast responses to changes in osmolarity. Under conditions of low osmolarity, a histidine-aspartate phosphorelay pathway transmits information that deactivates one signaling pathway and activates gene expression through another pathway. In response to high osmolarity, the Sln1 kinase that initiates the phosphorelay is inhibited and the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is active. ...
Tytu : Osmotic concentration of gooseberry fruits - the influence of temperature, time, and pretreatment methods on mass transfer and total polyphenol and organic acid content. ...
Sterility tests are performed on each lot of medium using current USP methods. Each lot of medium is also checked for its ability to support the growth of several different cell lines using both sequential subcultures and plating efficiencies. Additional test results are listed in the Certificate of Analysis. Test* Specification pH 7.0 to 7.4 Osmolality 246 to 306 mOsm/kg H 2 O Sterility Testing Pass Endotoxin ≤ 0.5 EU/mL Mycoplasma Pass Growth Promotion Pass *Please consult the Certificate of Analysis for lot-specific test results.
Online molarity calculator from Sigma-Aldrich.com makes calculating molarity and normality for common acid and base stock solutions easy with most common values pre-populated.
Doctors give unbiased, helpful information on indications, contra-indications, benefits, and complications: Dr. Legha on porphyrins fractionated plasma: These refer to the concentration of electrolytes in the body/plasma, or the electrolyte-water balance. These measure the same thing, only that osmolality is the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent or osm/kg, while osmolarity is the number of osmoles per liter of solution or osm/ltr. Osmolality excludes the solute, while osmolarity includes it, so osmolality has a slightly higher reading.
Yeast cells are exposed to a wide variety of environment stresses, among them changes in the osmotic conditions. An osmolar upshift leads to fast loose of intracellular water, so living cells have developed mechanisms to ...
cellular edema edema attributable to the entry of water into your cells, causing them to swell. This may manifest because of lowered osmolality in the fluid surrounding the cells, as in hypotonic fluid overload, or greater osmolality on the intracellular fluid, as in situations that decrease the exercise with the sodium pump of the cell membrane, letting the focus of sodium ions within the cell to boost ...
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✅ Answered - [isotonic] [hypertonic] [hypotonic] [None of the above] are the options of mcq question Two solutions with the same osmolarity are realted topics , Transport in Plant topics with 0 Attempts, 0 % Average Score, 1 Topic Tagged and 0 People Bookmarked this question which was asked on Feb 23, 2019 19:01
quote=In a problem that involves M1V1=M2V2 you must first identify which you are trying to solve for. If you are solving for final molarity, you know that the molarity the problem gives is the initial molarity. Of the two volumes, the one that comes first is usually the initial volume. If it does not state explicitly what the final volume is, you usually add the amount of water added to the solution to the initial volume to get the final volume ...
Sunum: Periferal uygulama için 1440 ml, 1920 ml, 2400 mllik infüzyon torbaları. Ozmolarite: Ozmolarite: 750 mosm/L. Raf Ömrü: 24 Ay. Karışımlar buzdolabında 2-6ºCde 6 gün ve takip eden 24 saat süresince 25ºC oda sıcaklığında stabil kalır ...
An iso-osmolar solution can be hypotonic if the solute is able to penetrate the cell membrane. For example, an iso-osmolar urea ... In biology, a solution outside of a cell is called hypotonic if it has a lower concentration of solutes relative to the cytosol ... In biology, the solutions on either side of a cell membrane are isotonic if the concentration of solutes outside the cell is ... This is due to urea entering the cell down its concentration gradient, followed by water. The osmolarity of normal saline, 9 ...
Concentrations vary from low to normal to high. High concentrations are used rarely in medicine but frequently in molecular ... Since NaCl dissociates into two ions - sodium and chloride - 1 molar NaCl is 2 osmolar. Thus, NS contains 154 mEq/L of Na+ and ... was the concentration of salt in human blood (rather than 0.6%, the true concentration).[30] ... Concentrations[edit]. Saline solution for irrigation. This solution is used for irrigating wounds, tissues, body cavities, and ...
... (INN, trade names Iopamiro, Isovue, Iopamiron, and Niopam) is a nonionic, low-osmolar iodinated contrast agent, ... It is available in various concentrations, from 200 to 370 mgI/mL. ...
It is the only iso-osmolar contrast agent, with an osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg H2O, the same as blood. It is sold in 2 main ... concentrations 270 mgI/ml and 320 mgI/ml - hence the name Visipaque 270 or 320. It is sold in single dose units and a large ...
Concentrations vary from low to normal to high. High concentrations are used rarely in medicine but frequently in molecular ... Since NaCl dissociates into two ions - sodium and chloride - 1 molar NaCl is 2 osmolar. Thus, NS contains 154 mEq/L of Na+ and ... was the concentration of salt in human blood (rather than 0.6%, the true concentration). Normal saline has become widely used ... Higher and lower concentrations may also occasionally be used. Saline is acidic, with a pH of 5.5 (due mainly to dissolved ...
... and the approved dosing regimen maintains therapeutic concentrations without the need to monitor blood concentrations of the ... However, a normal osmolar gap does not rule out ethylene glycol exposure because of wide individual variability. The increased ... Additionally low calcium concentrations in the blood, overactive muscle reflexes, muscle spasms, QT interval prolongation, and ... Additionally, as a side effect of the first two steps of metabolism, an increase in the blood concentration of lactic acid ...
The resulting "osmolar gap" can be thought of as either osmolar or osmolal, since both units have been used in its derivation. ... However, at low concentrations (below about 500 mM), the mass of the solute is negligible compared to the mass of the solvent, ... The osmolar gap is the difference between the measured osmolality and the calculated osmolarity. The difference in units is ... Osmotic concentration Urine osmolality Serum Osmolarity vs. Osmolality "Osmolality," Lab Tests Online, accessed 2012-01-11. ...
In a study performed in 1974, it was determined that the optimal osmolar concentration for growth in C. meneghiniana in a ... Marine diatoms and algae in general tend to flourish in higher osmolar concentrations due to the increased presence of carbon ... Nutrient concentration in the habitats of Cyclotella spp. varies. C. sensulato has been described as a dominant member of both ... and concentration. Frustules contain areolas, that is orifices that mediate the passage of nutrients and exudates across the ...
Characteristic concentrations of sodium in model organisms are: 10mM in E. coli, 30mM in budding yeast, 10mM in mammalian cell ... as water moves suddenly into cells with high osmolar content. In humans, a high-salt intake was demonstrated to attenuate ... Sodium is also the principal cation in seawater, although the concentration there is about 3.8 times what it is normally in ... "Cell Biology by the Numbers: What are the concentrations of different ions in cells?". book.bionumbers.org. Retrieved 8 March ...
As ions leave the lumen via the Na-K-2Cl symporter and the Na-H antiporter, the concentration becomes more and more hypotonic ... As flow increases, the ability of the loop to maintain its osmolar gradient is reduced. The vasa recta (capillary loops) also ... The 300 mOsm/L fluid from the loop loses water to the higher concentration outside the loop and increases in tonicity until it ... This gives the lumen of the fluid in the loop a positive charge in comparison and creates a Na concentration gradient, which ...
... "osmolar"), in the same way that the molarity of a solution is expressed as "M" (pronounced "molar"). Whereas molarity measures ... Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles ( ... separating two solutions of different osmotic concentration. The unit of osmotic concentration is the osmole. This is a non-SI ... also known as osmotic concentration). In simpler terms, osmolality is an expression of solute osmotic concentration per mass of ...
It is in the low osmolar family. Iohexol was approved for medical use in 1985. It is on the World Health Organization's List of ... It is available in various concentrations, from 140[citation needed] to 350 milligrams of iodine per milliliter. World Health ...
... "osmolar"), in the same way that the molarity of a solution is expressed as "M" (pronounced "molar"). Whereas molarity measures ... Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity,[1] is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of ... The unit of osmotic concentration is the osmole. This is a non-SI unit of measurement that defines the number of moles of ... In simpler terms, osmolality is an expression of solute osmotic concentration per mass of solvent, whereas osmolarity is per ...
The old radiocontrast agents caused anaphylaxis in 1% of cases while the newer, lower-osmolar agents cause reactions in 0.01- ... These are frequently the same as the intravenous contrast agents, merely diluted to approximately 10% of the concentration. ...
Concentration. by weight (w/w) Molarity Concentration. mass/volume (w/v) Classification R-phrases ... Kirschbaum, B; Sica, D; Anderson, F. P. (1999). "Urine electrolytes and the urine anion and osmolar gaps". The Journal of ... The maximum concentration of ammonia in water (a saturated solution) has a density of 0.880 g/cm3 and is often known as '.880 ... LC50 (median concentration). 40,300 ppm (rat, 10 min). 28,595 ppm (rat, 20 min). 20,300 ppm (rat, 40 min). 11,590 ppm (rat, 1 ...
The most significant study, proving that injections of ionic (high osmolar) agents are at least as safe as the newer, very ... These contrast agents are sold as clear, colorless water solutions, with the concentration usually expressed as mg I/ml. Modern ... Anaphylaxis to ionic (high osmolar) contrast agent injections occurred in two clusters of reactions on two occasions (1983 and ... Katayama's 1990 article in Radiology showed that a new type of nonionic (low osmolar) contrast agent was associated with ...
... high concentrations of ATP, and high concentrations of NADH. Divalent cations like Mg2+ also inhibit MPT, because they can ... draw water in by increasing the organelle's osmolar load. This event may lead mitochondria to swell and may cause the outer ... However, these factors cannot open the pore without Ca2+, though at high enough concentrations, Ca2+ alone can induce MPT. ... The presence of free radicals, another result of excessive intracellular calcium concentrations, can also cause the MPT pore to ...
In salt intoxication, the urine sodium concentrations are very high and fractional excretion of sodium is greater than 1%. ... ADH secretion is one of the primary mechanisms by which sodium and osmolar homeostasis are regulated, ADH is also secreted when ... Patients may have mild stable elevations of serum sodium concentrations, along with elevations in both BUN and creatinine ... It involves an increased osmolality or concentration of solute in the urine, which stimulates secretion of antidiuretic hormone ...
Extravascular extravasation of radiographic contrast media: effects of conventional and low-osmolar agents in the rat thigh. ... due to the higher concentration of CO2. In that sense, venous blood has a greater ability to reflect light. When an arterial- ...
Molecules begin to interact as their concentration increases. During absorption, water must be absorbed at a rate commensurate ... "A randomized controlled trial of glucose versus amylase resistant starch hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution for adult acute ... Adding viscous polysaccharides to carbohydrate meals can reduce post-prandial blood glucose concentrations. Wheat and maize but ... The variables include chemical structure, polymer concentration, molecular weight, degree of chain branching, the extent of ...
The current standard (hypo-osmolar) WHO ORS, with lower sodium and glucose content, was developed in order to reduce the ... The reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution has lower concentrations of glucose and sodium chloride than the original ... solution, but the concentrations of potassium and citrate are unchanged. The reduced osmolarity solution has been criticized by ...
... which increases its osmolar load and draws water into the area. Increased porosity of blood vessels also facilitates the entry ... active chemicals that play an important role in wound healing are modeled with Fickian diffusion to generate concentration ...
The old radiocontrast agents caused anaphylaxis in 1% of cases while the newer, lower-osmolar agents cause reactions in 0.01- ... These are frequently the same as the intravenous contrast agents, merely diluted to approximately 10% of the concentration. ...
... which increases its osmolar load and draws water into the area.[3] Increased porosity of blood vessels also facilitates the ... active chemicals that play an important role in wound healing are modeled with Fickian diffusion to generate concentration ...
Molecules begin to interact as their concentration increases. During absorption, water must be absorbed at a rate commensurate ... "A randomized controlled trial of glucose versus amylase resistant starch hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution for adult ... Adding viscous polysaccharides to carbohydrate meals can reduce post-prandial blood glucose concentrations. Wheat and maize but ... The variables include chemical structure, polymer concentration, molecular weight, degree of chain branching, the extent of ...
Osmolar Concentration. The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute ... All MeSH CategoriesPhenomena and Processes CategoryChemical PhenomenaOsmolar ConcentrationOsmotic PressureSalinity ...
400 or greater mg/ml iodine concentration, per ml as maintained by CMS falls under Contrast Agent ... HCPCS Code Q9964 for High osmolar contrast material, ... High osmolar contrast material, 400 or greater mg/ml iodine ... HCPCS Code for High osmolar contrast material, 400 or greater mg/ml iodine concentration, per ml Q9964 HCPCS code Q9964 for ... High osmolar contrast material, 400 or greater mg/ml iodine concentration, per ml ...
Hemodialysis efficiently lowers propylene glycol serum concentrations in a manner analogous to extracorporeal therapy for other ... Removal of propylene glycol and correction of increased osmolar gap by hemodialysis in a patient on high dose lorazepam ...
Osmolar concentration‎ (16 F). S. *. ► Solubility‎ (2 C, 17 F). Media in category "Solutions". The following 39 files are in ...
Osmolar Concentration * Phosphoprotein Phosphatases* * Polysaccharides, Bacterial / biosynthesis * Polysaccharides, Bacterial ... As the NaCl concentration in the growth medium was increased, transcription of iagA, invF and sipB was found to be markedly ...
Low osmolar contrast material, 300-399 mg/ml iodine concentration, per ml. A provider may appear on this list twice if he or ...
Osmolar Concentration • Periodicity • Permeability • Potassium • Rats • Rats, Inbred SHR • Signal Transduction • Sodium • ...
Osmolar Concentration • Oxidative Stress • Oxygen • Oxygen Consumption • Phenothiazines • Phenotype • Phosphofructokinases • ... Hydrogen-Ion Concentration • Hydrolases • Immunohistochemistry • Infant • Inflammation • Inheritance Patterns • Injections • ...
... osmolar solution explanation free. What is osmolar solution? Meaning of osmolar solution medical term. What does osmolar ... Looking for online definition of osmolar solution in the Medical Dictionary? ... osmolar solution. osmolar solution. the solute concentration expressed in the number of osmoles per liter of solution. ... Osmolar solution , definition of osmolar solution by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Disorders of Sodium Concentration. Hyperosmolar Disorders & Osmolar Gaps. Disorders of Potassium Concentration. Disorders of ... Disorders of Phosphorus Concentration. Disorders of Magnesium Concentration. Acid-Base Disorders. Fluid Management. 22. Kidney ...
Osmolar Concentration. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects*. Renin / blood. Vascular Resistance. Water-Electrolyte Balance / drug ...
The ability to concentrate urine depends on the difference between osmolar clearance and clearance of water. This is the free ... What does ADH do to the concentration of the corticopapillary osmotic gradient ? ...
Osmolar Concentration. Semen Preservation / methods, veterinary*. Sperm Motility. Spermatozoa / physiology*. From MEDLINE®/ ...
When erythritol was administered with high-electrolyte concentrations, the blood urea nitrogen was reduced to concentrations ... Urinary osmolar excretion was significantly ( p , 0.005) higher in the group given the high dose of erythritol between 2 and 8 ... effective concentrations (ED50) of erythritol in volunteers Concentration Men Women NOEL (g/kg bw per day) Erythritol 0.66 0.80 ... and the concentrations in the stomach were 25 times higher than those in plasma. Thereafter, the concentrations in the stomach ...
Osmolar Concentration. 1. 2011. 757. 0.110. Why? Surface Properties. 1. 2012. 1263. 0.100. Why? ...
Osmolar Concentration; Polycystic Kidney Diseases; Potassium; Renin; Sodium; Urinalysis ...
... hypo-osmolar medium was prepared by dilution of Neurobasal medium while maintaining 1× concentration of B27, glutamine, and ... Hypo-osmolar exposure.. Hypo-osmolar medium was prepared by diluting medium with sterile water to obtain the desired osmolarity ... Sp1 DNA binding activity is increased in hypo-osmolar conditions. A , B , HEK293 cells ( A ) or primary cortical neurons ( B ) ... Hypo-Osmolar Stress Induces p75NTR Expression by Activating Sp1-Dependent Transcription. Alberto Ramos, Wai Chi Ho, Stephanie ...
... osmolar concentration, respectively, 263, 270, or 284 mOsmol/liter (calc.). The pH is 3.0 (2.5 to 5.5). May contain ... Example 1: for a 60 kg person at an initial dose of 0.5 µg/kg/min using a 500 µg/mL concentration, the infusion rate would be ... Example 2: for a 80 kg person at a dose of 10 µg/kg/min using a 2,000 µg/mL concentration, the infusion rate would be as ... Alteration of synaptic concentrations of catecholamines with either reserpine or tricyclic antidepressants does not alter the ...
May contain acetic acid for pH adjustment; the pH is 6.5 (6.0 to 7.0). The osmolar concentration is 4 mOsmol/mL (calc). ... It comprises more than 90% of total cations at its normal plasma concentration of approximately 140 mEq/liter. The sodium ion ... The container requires no vapor barrier to maintain the proper drug concentration. ... can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of other serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, ...
Concentration and Intravenous Infusion Rate *The concentration of the diluted solution and the infusion rate is dependent upon ... Serum Phosphorus Concentrationa. Phosphorus Dosageb,c. Corresponding Potassium Content. 1.8 mg/dL to 2.4 mg/dL. 0.16 mmol/kg to ... check the serum potassium concentration prior to administration. If the potassium concentration is 4 mEq/dL or more, do not ... Serum phosphorus concentrations may vary depending on the assay used and the laboratory reference range.. b Weight is in terms ...
Concentrations vary from low to normal to high. High concentrations are used rarely in medicine but frequently in molecular ... Since NaCl dissociates into two ions - sodium and chloride - 1 molar NaCl is 2 osmolar. Thus, NS contains 154 mEq/L of Na+ and ... was the concentration of salt in human blood (rather than 0.6%, the true concentration).[30] ... Concentrations[edit]. Saline solution for irrigation. This solution is used for irrigating wounds, tissues, body cavities, and ...
... osmolar clearance decreased and urine flow was unchanged. There was no change in plasma aldosterone concentration, which was ... With saturating concentrations of anti-D there was a reduction in the expected number of IgG sites, indicating that alpha-MD ... The concentration at which LDL produced its half-maximal effect in elevating cellular sterol content (30 mug/ml of LDL- ... The blood glucose concentration was not significantly altered, and there was no change in the filtered load of glucose; ...
... osmolar clearance decreased and urine flow was unchanged. There was no change in plasma aldosterone concentration, which was ... The blood glucose concentration was not significantly altered, and there was no change in the filtered load of glucose; ... There was also a statistically significant but small reduction in plasma phosphate concentration which was not considered ... and plasma aldosterone concentration. The effect of insulin on CH2O suggests that insulins effect on sodium excretion is due ...
Osmolar Concentration Potassium Sodium Triglycerides Species. Mink Locations. United States. Alaska. Prudhoe Bay (bay). ... Effects of dietary exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil in ranch-raised mink ...
Osmolar Concentration. *Pentagastrin (pharmacology) *Polyethylene Glycols (administration & dosage) *Rats. *Rats, Inbred ...
Osmolar Concentration. *Phospholipids (analysis) *Pregnancy. *Prostaglandins (metabolism) *Prostaglandins F (biosynthesis) Join ...
In all cases, iodixanol (an iso-osmolar, nonionic contrast agent) was administered. The primary end point was an increase of , ... or = 25% in the creatinine concentration 48 hours after the procedure (CIN). The amount of contrast media administered (179+/- ...
Calcium concentration. The dialysate calcium concentration (typical range in dialysate is 1.0-1.75 mmol/L) may also have an ... Reduced osmolar shift allows for more plasma refilling to occur. Do not employ this strategy in patients with hyponatremia due ... Dialysate calcium concentration. Consider using higher dialysate calcium concentration (e.g., 1.5 or 1.75 mmol/L) for ... Dialysate sodium concentration. Use higher dialysate sodium concentration for intermittent therapies (HD and SLED): e.g., ≥ 145 ...
  • At normally used concentrations, 25-76%, nonionic monomers have 290-860 mOsm/kg. (medscape.com)
  • There is a direct relationship between the serum level of propylene glycol and the osmolar gap (mg/dl = 84.6 + 78 osmolar gap in mOsm/kg). (inchem.org)
  • It is the only iso-osmolar contrast agent, with an osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg H2O, the same as blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in the osmolar gap of 10 mOsm/L would be expected to be caused by a concentration of the drug listed in the figure. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • For example, if isopropanol were to cause an increase in the osmolar gap of 10 mOsm/L then the expected concentration of isopropanol would be 60 mg/dL. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • All patients had an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis and osmolar gap, (excluding one patient for whom data were unavailable) with a mean anion gap of 21 meq/l (range 15 to 31) and mean osmolar gap of 48 mOsm/l (range 29 to 81) correspondingly. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • an osmole gap as low as 10 mOsm/L is consistent with toxic concentrations of methanol. (mhmedical.com)
  • The baseline osmolar loads excreted by ADPKD (1096 mosm/d) and normal (1039 mosm/kg H 2 O) subjects were also similar and typical of most individuals at large ( 4 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Enzymatically-dispersed cells shrank when challenged with =10 mOsM added D-M, urea or NaCl with a concentration-dependence that mimics relaxation of the of isolated perfused tracheas (IPT). (cdc.gov)
  • Since NaCl dissociates into two ions - sodium and chloride - 1 molar NaCl is 2 osmolar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because infusing a solution of low osmolality can cause problems such as hemolysis , intravenous solutions with reduced saline concentrations typically have dextrose ( glucose ) added to maintain a safe osmolality while providing less sodium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of insulin on the renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate were studied in man while maintaining the blood glucose concentration at the fasting level by negative feedback servocontrol of a variable glucose infusion. (jci.org)
  • There was no alteration in osmolar clearance and in fractional excretion of sodium. (scielo.br)
  • The concentration of the substances like chloride, sodium, potassium, glucose and urea are calculated. (differencebetween.net)
  • Some LDIVC is given in hyperosmolar concentrations and as such can have a dehydrating effect in the patient largely due to the short-term sodium load that has to be excreted following the IV. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • how do you calculate the mass of sodium ions in a 500ml bag of saline solution concentration 20.0 mmol l-1. (jiskha.com)
  • Rapid changes in extracellular Sodium concentration can seriously impact cell fluid (esp. (fpnotebook.com)
  • But since sodium chloride aerosol is a known osmolar stimulus, and it can cause hyperactivity in the airways, HT must carefully monitor the concentration and gradual administration of DSCA. (naturalnews.com)
  • Located in the terminal nephron, the IMCD samples up to 5% of filtered sodium load and bears ultimate responsibility for the regulation of urinary sodium concentration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because plasma sodium levels were equal in patients and control subjects, the increased urea concentration probably accounts for the consistent elevation of plasma osmolality in ADPKD patients compared with control subjects. (asnjournals.org)
  • It remains unclear however, whether this is the optimum sodium concentration. (bmj.com)
  • Some studies have found patients with blood sodium concentrations above the normal level of 150 mmol/l. 5 Laboratory work suggests that lower concentrations of sodium and glucose enhance solute induced water absorption. (bmj.com)
  • The change in UKV was associated with a significant reduction in plasma potassium concentration. (jci.org)
  • As the NaCl concentration in the growth medium was increased, transcription of iagA, invF and sipB was found to be markedly increased, whereas transcription of genes involved in Vi antigen biosynthesis was greatly reduced. (nih.gov)
  • Since normal saline contains 9 grams of NaCl, the concentration is 9 grams per litre divided by 58.5 grams per mole, or 0.154 mole per litre. (wikipedia.org)
  • H. werneckii is unique in its adaptability to fluctuations in salt concentrations, as it can grow without NaCl as well as in the presence of up to 5 M NaCl. (frontiersin.org)
  • H. werneckii is naturally adapted to fluctuating salt concentrations in its environment, and it can grow without salt and in up to saturated NaCl. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast A. carbonarius usually cannot be found in NaCl rich environments, but it occurs in another environment with high concentration of solutes, e.g., in sugar rich substrates like grapes and grape juices. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast to the Penicillia, higher NaCl concentrations lead to a rapid cessation of growth by A. carbonarius. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, at a given iodine concentration, nonionic monomers have approximately one half the osmolality of ionic monomers in solution. (medscape.com)
  • Osmolality deals with the concentration of the particles that is dissolved in a fluid. (differencebetween.net)
  • The difference between the calculated osmolarity and measured osmolality is known as the osmolar gap. (differencebetween.net)
  • The abbreviation for measured osmolality is MO, and that for calculated osmolarity is CO. The osmolar gap is represented as OG. (differencebetween.net)
  • If the concentration of solutes in the given fluid is very low, then osmolality and osmolarity are considered to be equivalent. (differencebetween.net)
  • 2. Osmolarity deals with the concentration of an osmotic solution, while osmolality deals with the concentration of particles in a fluid. (differencebetween.net)
  • 5. Osmolality is used to determine medical conditions like diabetes, shock and dehydration, while osmolarity is used for the detection of the concentration of dissolved particles in urine. (differencebetween.net)
  • 7. When the concentration of solutes is very low, the osmolality and osmolarity are similar. (differencebetween.net)
  • Interestingly, ADPKD patients had higher plasma and lower urine concentrations of urea after achieving the highest elevation of urine osmolality, suggesting that urea clearance was decreased in the ADPKD patients even though eGFR was not different between study patients and control subjects. (asnjournals.org)
  • Because urea distributes relatively freely in body water, it is unlikely that the small increase in plasma osmolality caused by increased urea concentration was responsible for the increased plasma concentrations of AVP and copeptin in the ADPKD patients. (asnjournals.org)
  • Begin Antizol (fomepizole) treatment immediately upon suspicion of ethylene glycol or methanol ingestion based on patient history and/or anion gap metabolic acidosis, increased osmolar gap, visual disturbances, or oxalate crystals in the urine, OR a documented serum ethylene glycol or methanol concentration greater than 20 mg/dL. (rxlist.com)
  • Hemodialysis efficiently lowers propylene glycol serum concentrations in a manner analogous to extracorporeal therapy for other small molecular weight alcohol intoxications. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated osmolar gaps may also be caused by methanol, isopropanol, propylene glycol, activated charcoal, mannitol administration, renal failure, and diabetic ketoacidosis, as well as by heavy ethanol consumption with high concentrations of ethanol metabolites (in some cases with little or no ethanol remaining) as may be seen in alcoholic ketoacidosis. (uiowa.edu)
  • The maximal plasma concentrations in humans occur within 1 hour after ingestion. (cdc.gov)
  • A hypotonic solution has a lower solute concentration than the inside of the red blood cells. (reference.com)
  • In contrast to hypotonic and isotonic solutions, a hypertonic solution has a higher solute concentration than inside the cell. (reference.com)
  • Monitor serum magnesium concentrations during treatment. (nih.gov)
  • In all cases, iodixanol (an iso-osmolar, nonionic contrast agent) was administered. (nih.gov)
  • Use nonionic, lower osmolar agents. (roanokechowan.edu)
  • The diagnosis of these poisonings may be difficult because ethylene glycol and methanol concentrations diminish in the blood as they are metabolized to their respective metabolites. (rxlist.com)
  • Hence, both ethylene glycol and methanol concentrations and acid base balance, as determined by serum electrolyte ( anion gap ) and/or arterial blood gas analysis, should be frequently monitored and used to guide treatment. (rxlist.com)
  • In patients with high ethylene glycol or methanol concentrations ( ≥ 50 mg/dL), significant metabolic acidosis, or renal failure, hemodialysis should be considered to remove ethylene glycol or methanol and the respective toxic metabolites of these alcohols. (rxlist.com)
  • Hemodialysis should be considered in addition to Antizol (fomepizole) in the case of renal failure, significant or worsening metabolic acidosis, or a measured ethylene glycol or methanol concentration of greater than or equal to 50 mg/dL. (rxlist.com)
  • Treatment with Antizol (fomepizole) may be discontinued when ethylene glycol or methanol concentrations are undetectable or have been reduced below 20 mg/dL, and the patient is asymptomatic with normal pH. (rxlist.com)
  • A loading dose of 15 mg/kg should be administered, followed by doses of 10 mg/kg every 12 hours for 4 doses, then 15 mg/kg every 12 hours thereafter until ethylene glycol or methanol concentrations are undetectable or have been reduced below 20 mg/dL, and the patient is asymptomatic with normal pH. (rxlist.com)
  • Serum methanol or ethylene glycol concentration of 20 mg/dL or higher. (mhmedical.com)
  • The reported "half-life" ranges from 2.5 to 87 hours, depending on methanol serum concentration (the higher the serum level, the longer the half-life) and whether metabolism is blocked (eg, by ethanol or fomepizole). (mhmedical.com)
  • Confocal microscopy in tracheal segments showed that adherent epithelium is refractory to low hyperosmolar concentrations that induce dispersed cell shrinkage and relaxation of IPT. (cdc.gov)
  • Osmolarity is the concentration of an osmotic solution. (differencebetween.net)
  • Specifically, the high osmolarity glycerol signaling pathway that is important for sensing and responding to increased salt concentrations is here compared between H. werneckii and W. ichthyophaga . (frontiersin.org)
  • The terms are different because osmolarity takes into account the total concentration of penetrating solutes and non-penetrating solutes, whereas tonicity takes into account the total concentration of non-freely penetrating solutes only . (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, tonicity is the relative concentration of solutes dissolved in solution which determine the direction and extent of diffusion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Solutes able to freely cross the membrane do not affect tonicity because they will always equilibrate with equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane without net solvent movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hypertonic solution has a greater concentration of solutes than another solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • a solution outside of a cell is called hypertonic if it has a greater concentration of solutes than the cytosol inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cell is immersed in a hypertonic solution, osmotic pressure tends to force water to flow out of the cell in order to balance the concentrations of the solutes on either side of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, a solution outside of a cell is called hypotonic if it has a lower concentration of solutes relative to the cytosol . (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, the solutions on either side of a cell membrane are isotonic if the concentration of solutes outside the cell is equal to the concentration of solutes inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] For example, the intracellular fluid and extracellular can be hyperosmotic, but isotonic - if the total concentration of solutes in one compartment is different from that of the other, but one of the ions can cross the membrane (in other words, a penetrating solute), drawing water with it, thus causing no net change in solution volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, a finding of a high serum or urine acetone level with an osmolar gap but without acidosis is suggestive of a recent isopropanol ingestion. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • A significant ethylene glycol ingestion may be inferred from an increased osmolar gap (in the early stages of intoxication) indicating a solute (glycol) load. (toxinz.com)
  • The test substance was diluted in ethanol to concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 10 mg/ml DOTE. (europa.eu)
  • In this case, we do not know the patient's baseline serum creatinine concentration and whether her kidney function was stable or acutely deteriorating. (ahrq.gov)
  • The intravenous administration of this solution (after appropriate dilution) can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of other serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. (nih.gov)
  • LDIVC can be delivered in iso-osmolar concentrations, creating little disturbance in fluid or electrolyte balance. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Patients should be dialyzed to correct metabolic abnormalities and to lower the ethylene glycol concentrations below 50 mg/dL. (rxlist.com)
  • Once the glycol is metabolized the osmolar gap will drop and may be replaced by an increased anion gap, indicating an increased organic acids (glycol metabolites) load, with an accompanying metabolic acidosis. (toxinz.com)
  • which in this case, a combination of a metabolic acidosis associated with a high anion gap and osmolar gap is considered the hallmark of toxic alcohol intoxication. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These studies demonstrate a reduction in UNaV associated with insulin administration that occurs in the absence of changes in the filtered load of glucose, glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and plasma aldosterone concentration. (jci.org)
  • gains useful concentrations in the renal production of aqueous humour, complexion (4), temperament, vitreous humour. (bigsurlandtrust.org)
  • Reversing the e ect o levodopa are important in concentration may lead to tolerance and contain conditionally essential amino acids essential fatty acid ethyl esters and triglycerides, and ratio of glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis mg orally four times daily sprays once daily mg days mg day renal failure or rupture, and ventricular depolarization with "aberration" of the dsm as clinically feasible. (roanokechowan.edu)
  • For example, an iso-osmolar urea solution is hypotonic to red blood cells, causing their lysis. (reference.com)
  • This is due to urea entering the cell down its concentration gradient, followed by water. (reference.com)
  • however, the similar baseline osmolar excretion rates make it unlikely that the urea excretion rates in the ADPKD patients were different from normal. (asnjournals.org)
  • High glucose concentrations have much less impact on growth and the phosphorylation of HOG. (mdpi.com)
  • Since viability of platelets in vitro is limited to a few hours, studies in vitro are designed only to evaluate whether acute increases in glucose concentrations influence platelet responses to aspirin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The high protein binding at low concentrations of erythritol suggested to the authors that a small portion is firmly bound to plasma protein, although the radiolabel could also have been derived from metabolites generated by gastrointestinal fermentation, and the authors indicated that the effect could reflect analytical uncertainties at very low concentrations of radiolabel. (inchem.org)
  • Concentrations vary from low to normal to high. (wikipedia.org)
  • High concentrations are used rarely in medicine but frequently in molecular biology . (wikipedia.org)
  • For those samples, if the ethylene glycol plasma concentration does not account for the high osmolar gap, the pathology resident on-call is contacted. (uiowa.edu)
  • Our studies have revealed the novel and intricate molecular mechanisms used by these fungi to combat high salt concentrations, which differ in many aspects between the extremely halotolerant H. werneckii and the halophilic W. ichthyophaga . (frontiersin.org)
  • The asexual stage is induced by a high salt concentration, which completely inhibits sexual development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 12-14 The latter is particularly intriguing given the high osmolar environment surrounding the IMCD cell. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16 Given the high concentrations of endothelin in this nephron segment, 4-6 we asked whether changes in endothelin gene expression might account for the alterations in NPR-A and eNOS gene expression noted above. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, hyperinsulinism is characterised by the presence of insulin concentrations that are inappropriately high for the concentration of blood glucose. (bmj.com)
  • This suggested first-order kinetics with respect to the concentration of the thermally denatured state. (dtu.dk)
  • 2008;70:704-714 https://web.archive.org/web/20160825063320/http://www.cosmobiousa.com/axis-shield-density-gradient-optiprep.html http://www3.gehealthcare.com/en/products/categories/contrast_media/visipaque https://web.archive.org/web/20110927141156/http://www.gehealthcare.com/caen/md/docs/visipaquepieng.pdf Iodixanol drug label/data at Daily Med from U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low- or iso-osmolar contrast media should be used for diagnostic and interventional angiographic procedures including phlebography. (epsscentral.info)
  • In this case the cell neither swells nor shrinks because there is no concentration gradient to induce the diffusion of large amounts of water across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In theory, the reduction of the osmolar gradient between the internal tissues and the surrounding environment would be beneficial to injured mucus and epidermal tissue. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • This reduction in the osmolar gradient, in theory, greatly reduces the loss of water from the fish to the surrounding environment. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • The osmolar concentration is 4 mOsmol/mL (calc). (nih.gov)
  • The disturbance in urine concentration was reversible after a seven days period without the drugs administration. (scielo.br)
  • 3 ) confirm that maximal urine concentration capacity is lost in ADPKD patients compared with normal controls. (asnjournals.org)
  • In other words, the ADPKD subjects did not manifest any outward signs of a urine concentration defect. (asnjournals.org)
  • A solution is isotonic when its effective osmole concentration is the same as that of another solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unit of osmotic concentration is the osmole . (wikipedia.org)
  • In chronic gastric fistula rats provided with a duodenal loop anastomosed to the jejunum (Roux-en-Y), maximal stimulation of acid secretion by continuous intravenous infusion of pentagastrin produced a 15-fold increase of gastric histidine decarboxylase activity. (curehunter.com)
  • Alteration of synaptic concentrations of catecholamines with either reserpine or tricyclic antidepressants does not alter the actions of dobutamine in animals, which indicates that the actions of dobutamine are not dependent on presynaptic mechanisms. (drugs.com)
  • It increases the concentrations and favors a concentrated urine formation. (brainscape.com)
  • Box 15.1 steps in the relative importance of iron cooking utensils increases the plasma concentration of sweat by showing an increase in gallstone formation. (bigsurlandtrust.org)
  • As the concentration of GAGs in the tissue increases, so does [Na+]. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • An iso-osmolar solution can be hypotonic if the solute is able to penetrate the cell membrane. (reference.com)
  • These abnormalities perturb the stimulus-secretion coupling mechanisms that normally ensure that the amount of insulin secreted is directly related to the ambient blood glucose concentration. (bmj.com)
  • There was no change in plasma aldosterone concentration, which was low throughout the studies, and a slight reduction was observed in plasma glucagon concentration. (jci.org)
  • There was also a statistically significant but small reduction in plasma phosphate concentration which was not considered sufficient alone to account for the large reduction in UPV. (jci.org)
  • In fact, the reduced basal concentrations of cyclic GMP resulting from the reduction in eNOS expression appears to account, at least in part, for the increase in NPR-A expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. (nih.gov)
  • It comprises more than 90% of total cations at its normal plasma concentration of approximately 140 mEq/liter. (nih.gov)
  • See full prescribing information for recommendations on initial or single dosing, repeated dosing, concentration and infusion rate. (nih.gov)
  • Monitor serum phosphorus and calcium concentrations during and following infusion. (nih.gov)
  • and 4) a decrease in systemic atrial pressure and vascular resistance does not occur at physiologic concentrations of atrial natriuretic factor. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, wet mounts were examined for signs of inflammation indicated by increased numbers of leukocytes.Both endotoxin and interleukin-1 alpha occurred in much higher concentrations (p (gu.se)
  • A correlation was found between the interleukin-1 alpha concentrations in the vaginal fluid and the number of leukocytes as judged by a semi-quantitative evaluation of wet mounts (p = 0.0365). (gu.se)
  • The mean plasma protein binding increased from 0.68% at 30 min to 86% at 24 h, when the plasma concentrations were very low. (inchem.org)
  • In studies on six water-loaded normal subjects in a steady state of water diuresis, insulin was administered i.v. to raise the plasma insulin concentration to between 98 and 193 muU/ml and infused at a constant rate of 2 mU/kg body weight per min over a total period of 120 min. (jci.org)
  • Samples with unexplained osmolar gap greater than 15 have "Ethylene glycol, plasma" (by immunoassay) run reflexively. (uiowa.edu)
  • The plasma membrane abundance of the Na+/K+ pump or Na+,K+-ATPase depends on the intracellular concentration of Na+ in almost all animal cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • This is what happens: since the cell is in the liquids in your body that has lower concentration. (reference.com)
  • [2] This value allows the measurement of the osmotic pressure of a solution and the determination of how the solvent will diffuse across a semipermeable membrane ( osmosis ) separating two solutions of different osmotic concentration. (wikipedia.org)