A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising tick-borne viruses occasionally infecting humans. Dhori and Thogoto viruses were formerly thought to be members of BUNYAVIRIDAE. Thogoto virus is the type species.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.

Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (1/2432)

Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7.  (+info)

Innate and acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are mediated by distinct arms of the immune system. (2/2432)

"Natural" Igs, mainly IgM, comprise part of the innate immune system present in healthy individuals, including antigen-free mice. These Igs are thought to delay pathogenicity of infecting agents until antigen-induced high affinity Igs of all isotypes are produced. Previous studies suggested that the acquired humoral response arises directly from the innate response, i.e., that B cells expressing natural IgM, upon antigen encounter, differentiate to give rise both to cells that secrete high amounts of IgM and to cells that undergo affinity maturation and isotype switching. However, by using a murine model of influenza virus infection, we demonstrate here that the B cells that produce natural antiviral IgM neither increase their IgM production nor undergo isotype switching to IgG2a in response to the infection. These cells are distinct from the B cells that produce the antiviral response after encounter with the pathogen. Our data therefore demonstrate that the innate and the acquired humoral immunities to influenza virus are separate effector arms of the immune system and that antigen exposure per se is not sufficient to increase natural antibody production.  (+info)

Cytotoxic T-cell responses in mice infected with influenza and vaccinia viruses vary in magnitude with H-2 genotype. (3/2432)

Secondary effector T-cell populations generated by cross-priming with heterologous influenza A viruses operate only in H-2K or H-2D compatible situations, when assayed on SV40-transformed target cells infected with a range of influenza A viruses. The H2-Kb allele is associated with a total failure in the generation of influenza-immune cytotoxic T cells, though this is not seen for the primary response to vaccinia virus. In both influenza and vaccinia development of effector T cells operating at H-2Db is greatly depressed in B10.A(2R) (kkkddb) and B10.A(4R) (kkbbbb), but not in B10 (bbbbbb), mice. However, there is no defect in viral antigen expression at either H-2Kk or H-2Db in B10.A(2R) target cells. This apparently reflects some inadequacy in the stimulator environment, as (A/J X B6) F1 T cells can be induced to respond at H-2Db when exposed to vaccinia virus in an irradiated B6 but not in a B10.A(4R) recipient. The present report, together with the accompanying paper by Zinkernagel and colleagues, records the first rigorous demonstration of both a nonresponder situation and a probable Ir-gene effect for conventional infectious viruses. Possible implications for the evolution of H-2 polymorphism and mechanisms of Ir gene function are discussed.  (+info)

Protection against influenza virus infection of mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064. (4/2432)

Mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064 and immunized orally with influenza virus were more strongly protected against influenza virus infection of the lower respiratory tract than ones immunized with influenza virus only. The number of mice with enhanced anti-influenza virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum upon oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 and oral immunization with influenza virus was significantly greater than that upon oral immunization with influenza virus only. These findings demonstrated that the oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 increased anti-influenza virus IgG antibodies in serum and protected against influenza virus infection. The oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 may enhance antigen-specific IgG against various pathogenic antigens taken orally and induce protection against various virus infections.  (+info)

Mucosal immunity to influenza without IgA: an IgA knockout mouse model. (5/2432)

IgA knockout mice (IgA-/-) were generated by gene targeting and were used to determine the role of IgA in protection against mucosal infection by influenza and the value of immunization for preferential induction of secretory IgA. Aerosol challenge of naive IgA-/- mice and their wild-type IgA+/+ littermates with sublethal and lethal doses of influenza virus resulted in similar levels of pulmonary virus infection and mortality. Intranasal and i.p. immunization with influenza vaccine plus cholera toxin/cholera toxin B induced significant mucosal and serum influenza hemagglutinin-specific IgA Abs in IgA+/+ (but not IgA-/-) mice as well as IgG and IgM Abs in both IgA-/- and IgA+/+ mice; both exhibited similar levels of pulmonary and nasal virus replication and mortality following a lethal influenza virus challenge. Monoclonal anti-hemagglutinin IgG1, IgG2a, IgM, and polymeric IgA Abs were equally effective in preventing influenza virus infection in IgA-/- mice. These results indicate that IgA is not required for prevention of influenza virus infection and disease. Indeed, while mucosal immunization for selective induction of IgA against influenza may constitute a useful approach for control of influenza and other respiratory viral infections, strategies that stimulate other Igs in addition may be more desirable.  (+info)

Isolation of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) from Atlantic salmon in New Brunswick, Canada. (6/2432)

Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) was isolated at a marine grow-out site in New Brunswick, Canada, from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar which experienced mortalities due to hemorrhagic kidney syndrome (HKS). Of 20 fish sampled in this study, 14 showed histologically various degrees of interstitial hemorrhaging, tubular epithelial degeneration and necrosis, and tubular casts in the posterior kidney, typical of HKS. Posterior kidney and spleen homogenates produced a cytopathic effect on chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells 10 to 14 d after inoculation. Pleomorphic virus particles in the size range 80 to 120 nm were seen by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed as ISAV using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This is a systematic diagnostic study of the isolation of ISAV on the North American continent and the first description of the growth of ISAV on the CHSE-214 cell line.  (+info)

First identification of infectious salmon anaemia virus in North America with haemorrhagic kidney syndrome. (7/2432)

Haemorrhagic kidney syndrome (HKS), a serious disease affecting Atlantic salmon on the east coast of Canada, was determined to be caused by infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) through the isolation of the pathogen on the SHK-1 (salmon head kidney) cell line and confirmation by ISAV-specific immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, the defining histopathology of HKS could be reproduced following the injection of material that rendered challenged fish ISAV-positive by cell culture in the absence of any other detectable pathogen. Preliminary nucleotide sequence comparison does not suggest any direct epidemiological connection between the Canadian and Norwegian isolates.  (+info)

Ortho- and paramyxoviruses from migrating feral ducks: characterization of a new group of influenza A viruses. (8/2432)

Ortho- and parainfluenza viruses isolated from the cloacas of migrating feral ducks shot on the Mississippi flyway included three strains of influenza. A virus (Hav6 Nav1, Hav6 Nl, Hav7 Neq2) as well as Newcastle disease virus. One influenza virus, A/duck/Memphis/546/74, possessed Hav3 haemagglutinin, but the neuraminidase was not inhibited by any of the known influenza reference antisera. The neuraminidase on this virus was related to the neuraminidases on A/duck/GDR/72 (H2 N?), A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (Hav 5 N?), A/duck/Ukraine/1/60 (Hav3 N?) and A/turkey/Wisconsin/68. We therefore propose that the neuraminidase on this group of influenza viruses be designated Nav6. The A/duck/Memphis/546/74 influenza virus caused an ocular discharge in 1 of 5 ducks and was shed in faeces for 10 days; it was stable in faecal samples for up to 3 days at 20 degrees C. These results suggest that ecological studies on influenza in avian species should include attempts to isolate virus from faeces. Faecal-oral transmission is an attractive explanation for the spread of influenza virus from feral birds to other animals.  (+info)

Pulmonary virus infection generates a distinct population of CD8 T cells that reside within the lungs following antigen clearance. Resident memory T cells (TRM) are critical mediators of host defense, however, their ability to provide protection wanes over time. The protective immunity provided directly corresponds to the number of antigen-specific CD8+ TRM within the lungs at the time of secondary infection. Mechanisms underlying the differential loss of CD8 lung TRM remain poorly understood. Recent work has highlighted the importance of cellular metabolism in relation to cellular function and survival, but little is known about the metabolic phenotype of lung TRM following influenza infection. We investigated whether metabolic differences could explain the differential loss of lung TRM compared to circulating TEM. Using fluorescently labeled glucose and palmitate, we compared the nutrient uptake capacity of nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8 T cells in bronchealveolar lavage (BAL), mediastinal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD4 T cell-mediated protection from lethal influenza. T2 - Perform and antibody-mediated mechanisms give a one-two punch. AU - Brown, Deborah M.. AU - Dilzer, Allison M.. AU - Meents, Dana L.. AU - Swain, Susan L.. PY - 2006/9/1. Y1 - 2006/9/1. N2 - The mechanisms whereby CD4 T cells contribute to the protective response against lethal influenza infection remain poorly characterized. To define the role of CD4 cells in protection against a highly pathogenic strain of influenza, virus-specific TCR transgenic CD4 effectors were generated in vitro and transferred into mice given lethal influenza infection. Primed CD4 effectors conferred protection against lethal infection over a broad range of viral dose. The protection mediated by CD4 effectors did not require IFN-γ or host T cells, but did result in increased anti-influenza Ab titers compared with untreated controls. Further studies indicated that CD4-mediated protection at high doses of influenza required B cells, and that ...
Outbreaks of influenza A viruses are a continued burden to society in terms of both human health and economic costs. Given the continuous evolution of the virus away from our limited antiviral therapies, new treatments are desperately needed. An alternative approach is through the identification of immune enhancement treatments. We show that mice chronically infected with the immune modulating protistian parasite Toxoplasma gondii survive lethal influenza infection. Because a non-infectious fraction of parasite extract elicits an immunologic response similar to live parasites, it was tested as a post-infection treatment for severe influenza virus. Extract administration two days post- lethal influenza infection enhanced survival, lowered viral titers, and reduced clinical disease. Examination of treated, influenza virus infected mice lacking lymphocytes showed that while the adaptive immune response is not absolutely required for enhanced survival, it is necessary for extract-mediated viral ...
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics resulting in significant levels of mortality and socio-economic costs worldwide. PB1-F2 is a small non-structural protein encoded by an alternate +1 open reading frame in the PB1 gene. PB1-F2 is considered to play important roles in primary influenza virus infection and post-influenza secondary bacterial pneumonia in mice. It is a multifunctional and enigmatic protein with diverse functions attributed to it and the precise contribution of PB1-F2 to the IAV life cycle in avian and mammalian hosts remains largely unknown. In the triple-reassortant H3N2 (TR H3N2) swine influenza virus (SIV) background, we found that PB1-F2 expression did not affect nasal shedding, lung viral load, immunophenotypes, and lung pathology in pigs. On the other hand, in turkeys, deletion of PB1-F2 resulted in early induction of clinical disease and effective transmission among the turkey poults. Interestingly, the virulence associated 66S ...
Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac) infected
Read Ribavirin attenuates the respiratory immune responses to influenza viral infection in mice, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Despite vaccination and improvements to health care infrastructure, respiratory infections, such as influenza viruses, remain a public health and economic burden. Several epidemiological studies show that developmental exposures to pollutants that bind to the AHR correlate with increased incidence or severity of respiratory infections later in life, but why this occurs is unknown (12, 13, 15, 20, 22, 38). There is a growing appreciation for the role of CD4+ T cells in the pulmonary response to primary influenza virus infection, particularly when the CD8+ T-cell response is blunted (7), as is the case after developmental exposure to TCDD (21, 41). In this study, we used a mouse model to examine if the pulmonary immune response to influenza virus is modified after developmental exposure to the signature AHR ligand TCDD. We present the novel finding that the CD4+ T-cell response to infection is enhanced in lungs of mice developmentally exposed to TCDD. These findings could likely be extended to ...
This study has, for the first time in recent years, provided insight into the seroepidemiology of swine influenza in the UK using a large sample set. Over half (52%) of the farms had evidence of ongoing virus circulation or recent virus introduction, with seropositivity in growing pigs to the H1N2 subtype most commonly identified (45% of all farms). No farms showed evidence of antibody to H3N2 in young pigs, which is consistent with passive surveillance, which has not identified this strain in the UK since 1998. There was strong evidence that farms visited in the summer months had a lower likelihood of seropositivity than those visited at other times. Regarding pig management characteristics, farms with large numbers of finishers per water space had a higher likelihood of positivity than those with fewer pigs per water space; farms containing pigs kept indoors had a higher likelihood of seropositivity than those which did not; and farms containing pigs in straw yards had a lower likelihood of ...
Energy restriction (ER) without malnutrition extends lifespan in mice and postpones age-related changes in immunity. However, we have previously shown that aged (22 mo old) ER mice exhibit increased mortality, impaired viral clearance, and reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity following influenza infection compared with aged mice that consumed food ad libitum (AL). To determine whether the detrimental effects of ER in response to influenza infection occur independently of advanced age, young adult (6 mo) male C57BL/6 mice consuming an AL or ER diet were infected with influenza A virus (H1N1, PR8). Young adult ER mice exhibited increased mortality (P < 0.05) and weight loss (P < 0.01) in response to infection. ER mice exhibited decreased total (P < 0.001) and NK1.1+ lymphocytes (P < 0.05) in lung and reduced influenza-induced NK cell cytotoxicity in both lung (P < 0.01) and spleen (P < 0.05). Importantly, the mRNA expression of interferon (IFN){alpha}/ß (P < 0.05) was also reduced in the ...
Energy restriction (ER) without malnutrition extends lifespan in mice and postpones age-related changes in immunity. However, we have previously shown that aged (22 mo old) ER mice exhibit increased mortality, impaired viral clearance, and reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity following influenza infection compared with aged mice that consumed food ad libitum (AL). To determine whether the detrimental effects of ER in response to influenza infection occur independently of advanced age, young adult (6 mo) male C57BL/6 mice consuming an AL or ER diet were infected with influenza A virus (H1N1, PR8). Young adult ER mice exhibited increased mortality (P < 0.05) and weight loss (P < 0.01) in response to infection. ER mice exhibited decreased total (P < 0.001) and NK1.1+ lymphocytes (P < 0.05) in lung and reduced influenza-induced NK cell cytotoxicity in both lung (P < 0.01) and spleen (P < 0.05). Importantly, the mRNA expression of interferon (IFN){alpha}/ß (P < 0.05) was also reduced in the ...
Abstract: It is well recognized that respiratory viruses, including influenza A virus infections (IAV) can enhance susceptibility to and severity of bacterialrespiratory infections, most notably those of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The majority of work in this field has focused on better understanding this viral-bacterial-host interaction in the lower respiratory tract. However, recent work from our lab, and others, has begun to describe the immunologic responses and microbial dynamics in the upper respiratory tract following influenza infection. This talk will discuss some of our recent findings concerning the effects of IAV infection on bacterial dynamics within the upper and lower respiratory tracts of mice, and the role of vaccines to prevent bacterial infections.. ...
Background The hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein is the principal target of protective humoral immune responses to influenza virus infections but such antibody responses only provide efficient protection against a narrow spectrum of HA antigenic variants within a given virus subtype. Avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 are currently panzootic and pose a pandemic threat. These viruses are antigenically diverse and protective strategies need to cross protect against diverse viral clades. Furthermore, there are 16 different HA subtypes and no certainty the next pandemic will be caused by an H5 subtype, thus it is important to develop prophylactic and therapeutic interventions that provide heterosubtypic protection. Methods and Findings Here we describe a panel of 13 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recovered from combinatorial display libraries that were constructed from human IgM+ memory B cells of recent (seasonal) influenza vaccinees. The mAbs have broad heterosubtypic neutralizing activity against
This volume focuses on the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its analogs in the induced sequestration of lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs or in the microenvironment of tissues involved in infection or autoimmune disease. Initial chapters define the pathways to understand S1P signaling. They cover the organization of signaling systems, the structural biology of the S1P1 receptor, and the chemical and genetic tools that are available and useful to explore this area of research and therapeutics. The later chapters highlight S1P and endothelial integrity, lymphocyte migration in the spleen, and S1P agonist in controlling immunopathologic manifestations of acute respiratory influenza virus infection (in the lung), and its accompanying cytokine storm as well as immunopathologic disease of the central nervous system, including the beginning of treatments in multiple sclerosis. One chapter reveals the possible involvement of other lipid molecules, their use for better understanding lipid ...
Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial communities in the human intestine are associated with enhanced susceptibility to multiple inflammatory diseases. Further, studies in murine model systems have demonstrated that signals derived from commensal bacteria can influence immune cell development, function and homeostatic regulation within the intestinal environment, leading to altered host susceptibility to infectious or inflammatory diseases. However, whether commensal bacteria-derived signals regulate protective immunity to viral pathogens that infect sites outside of the gastrointestinal microenvironment remain poorly understood. Chapter 2 of this thesis examines this question and demonstrates that disruption or absence of commensal bacterial communities results in impaired protective immunity to respiratory influenza virus. Antibiotic (ABX)-mediated disruption of intestinal commensal bacteria significantly impaired the innate and adaptive immune response, abrogated viral clearance and
In this report, we provide evidence that TLR7 is expressed in murine cortical neurons and regulates dendritic growth in response to ssRNA. It is reasonable to speculate that during neuronal development, the expression of TLR7 ensures that neurons have the ability to detect ssRNAs that represent danger signals, possibly preventing their growth into areas of viral infection and/or cell death. Interestingly, it has been suggested that prenatal infections, such as influenza viral infection, influence neural development and induce psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism (Brown et al., 2000; Patterson, 2002, 2009). Maternal cytokines have been suggested to play a critical role in mediating the effects of prenatal infection on neural development (Brown et al., 2000; Patterson, 2002, 2009). The evidence in this report also supports the possibility that the innate immunity of neurons is involved in the regulation of neural development. The response of neuronal TLR7 to ssRNAs may also be ...
Avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) has been the most common subtype in Korea and China since 2007. Here, we compared the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three H3N2 CIV strains [Chinese CIV (JS/10), Korean CIV (KR/07), and Korean recombinant CIV between the classic H3N2 CIV and the pandemic H1N1 virus (MV/12)] in BALB/c mouse and guinea pig models. The pandemic H1N1 (CA/09) strain served as the control. BALB/c mice infected with H1N1 had high mortality and obvious body weight loss, whereas no overt disease symptoms were observed in mice inoculated with H3N2 CIV strains. The viral titers were higher in the group MV/12 than those in groups JS/10 and KR/07, while the mice infected with JS/10 showed higher viral titers in all tissues (except for the lung) than the mice infected with KR/07. The data obtained in guinea pigs also demonstrated that group MV/12 presented the highest loads in most of the tissues, followed by group JS/10 and KR/07. Also, direct contact transmissions of all the
A multidisciplinary research team, including scholars from the Institute of Medical Virology at Justus Liebig University Giessen, has recently developed a tool, which is suitable to identify candidate pandemic influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts.. On the basis of a combined application of a computational technique (ISM) and experimental molecular virological methods, the research team from Germany and Serbia was able to develop and validate a new tool to predict possible biological effects resulting from naturally occurring mutations as they are found for example in H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Thus, the ISM technique can help to identify those influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts that could efficiently transmit to humans and therewith possess a possible pandemic potential.. The research team involves the Institute of Medical Virology (JLU), the Georg-Speyer-Haus - Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy (Frankfurt am Main), the Robert-Koch-Institute, Division for HIV ...
The enormous toll on human life during the 1918-1919 Spanish influenza pandemic is a constant reminder of the potential lethality of influenza viruses. With the declaration by the World Health Organization of a new H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, and with continued human cases of highly pathogenic H5 …
Canine influenza virus (CIV) was first detected in 2004 in racing greyhounds in Florida. Investigators learned that this new canine influenza developed when an equine influenza virus adapted to infect dogs. This was the first time that an equine influenza virus had been found to jump from horses to dogs. According to Dr. Cynda Crawford of the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, canine influenza does not infect people, and there is no documentation that cats have become infected by exposure to dogs with CIV.. Read More ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - How specific is too specific? B-cell responses to viral infections reveal the importance of breadth over depth. AU - Baumgarth, Nicole. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Influenza virus infection induces robust and highly protective B-cell responses. Knowledge gained from the analysis of such protective humoral responses can provide important clues for the design of successful vaccines and vaccination approaches and also provides a window into the regulation of fundamental aspects of B-cell responses that may not be at play when responses to non-replicating agents are studied. Here, I review features of the B-cell response to viruses, with emphasis on influenza virus infection, a highly localized infection of respiratory tract epithelial cells, and a response that is directed against a virus that continuously undergoes genetic changes to its surface spike protein, a major target of neutralizing antibodies. Two aspects of the B-cell response to influenza are discussed here, namely ...
Immunization with live influenza virus expands Th1 memory cells and facilitates more rapid recovery after heterosubtypic virus challenge. Immunization with inactivated virus generates a Th2 response and does not lead to heterosubtypic immunity. Creation of a Th1 priming environment by the inclusion …
The present invention provides system and methods for detecting an analyte indicative of an influenza viral infection in a sample of bodily fluid. The present invention also provides for systems and method for detection a plurality of analytes, at least two of which are indicative of an influenza viral infection in a sample of bodily fluid.
Dr. Anil R. Diwan, President and Chairman of the Company, will present a talk entitled Nanoviricides® as Anti-Influenza Agents at this Conference. This oral presentation is scheduled for 11:20 am on June 16, in the session entitled Bio Nano Materials: Novel bio nano materials and applications (http://www.techconnectworld.com/World2011/thursday.html). The Company has completed several anti-influenza animal efficacy studies to date. The Company has improved its FluCide™ candidates successfully with each study. In the most recent study, the Company has reported that post-infection treatment with its optimized FluCide™ drug candidates achieved 1,000-fold reduction in the levels of infectious virus in the lungs of animals with a lethal influenza virus infection. Of great clinical significance is the fact that 2 of the optimized FluCide™ drug candidates maintained this greatly reduced lung viral load throughout the duration of this 21 day study. Thus, treatment with FluCide drug candidates ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
Mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes died when they were force-fed. The pathogen load (bacterial numbers) and defensive/ response molecules secreted by the mouse were not different between the force-fed (test) mice and mice that were not force-fed (control). The authors of the study then used a model for bacterial infection to look at why the mice are dying. In this model, the mice were challenged with a component of the outer membrane of bacteria - this is known to result in a strong inflammatory reaction - and then looked at the effect on mice upon injection of glucose, casein and olive oil. Glucose was found to be the cause of death.. This however is only one part of the story. The researchers then looked at another infection model, of influenza-infected mice, which also display an anorexic response. Here they observed the opposite - that is, if the mice were stopped from using the glucose, they died. In fact, feeding mice made them better. Viruses invoke response pathways, which are ...
Mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes died when they were force-fed. The pathogen load (bacterial numbers) and defensive/ response molecules secreted by the mouse were not different between the force-fed (test) mice and mice that were not force-fed (control). The authors of the study then used a model for bacterial infection to look at why the mice are dying. In this model, the mice were challenged with a component of the outer membrane of bacteria - this is known to result in a strong inflammatory reaction - and then looked at the effect on mice upon injection of glucose, casein and olive oil. Glucose was found to be the cause of death.. This however is only one part of the story. The researchers then looked at another infection model, of influenza-infected mice, which also display an anorexic response. Here they observed the opposite - that is, if the mice were stopped from using the glucose, they died. In fact, feeding mice made them better. Viruses invoke response pathways, which are ...
NGIO has previously developed Ii-Key-H1 peptides for vaccines against epitopes to 2009 Swine Flu and 2004 Bird Flu with positive Phase I clinical safety and immunologic data for Ii-Key-H1 peptide vaccineIi-Key-H1 peptide sequence is 100% homologous ...
Protocols underpin each indicator in the guidelines and include definitions for key terms in the indicator, compilation methodologies, intended scope of the indicator, and other technical references. Unsubscribe from sanjeev kumar sharma studio dhariwal? The lymphocytes derived from the lung respiratory mucosa migrated into the intestinal mucosa during respiratory influenza infection via the cclccr9 chemokine axis and where to meet swedish disabled seniors in dallas destroyed the intestinal microbiota homeostasis in the small intestine, and the number of escherichia coli e. S2 screen size nintendo, note 8 cell phone no call how to configure motorola sb modem, note 8 refurbished tablet price in pakistan engineering. We will be using most rated seniors online dating site truly free an data file available on our github project page by default. You just wanted her jacksonville christian senior dating online site to keep away from men because you were rejected by men. Contestants top 24 the top 24 ...
If we go then to a truck wash that may be washing trucks that are returning from a packing plant in the U.S. theres a high likelihood that there is going to be PED in the water and a lot of the U.S. truck washes rely on re-circulated water and so theres a really good possibility that that re-circulated wash water will contain the PED virus.. We have to remember that western Canada has the repository for some of the high health breeding stock in North America.. Were moving pigs regularly and its just so important to the health of the North American swine herd to make sure that they remain safe.. Wagner is calling on affected producers to contact their Members of Parliament and ask them to encourage CFIA to have another look at this policy and make that exemption permanent.. ...
Neogen Corporation has become the distributor of Chr. Hansen's innovative probiotic feed supplements for the North American swine and poultry markets.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31583825#) 2019 Oct 3. doi: 10.1111/irv.12687. [Epub ahead of print] Improving immunological insights into the ferret model of human viral infectious disease. Wong J (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Wong%20J%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_
There are many causes of kennel cough, both bacterial and viral. Canine influenza virus (CIV) is one of the viral causes of kennel cough. This highly contagious respiratory disease has affected thousands of dogs in the United States. Because CIV is a relatively new virus, most dogs have not been exposed to it before. Dogs of any age, breed, and vaccine status are susceptible to this infection.. How Could My Dog Catch Canine Influenza Virus? ...
As we quickly approach Spring Break time we wanted to make you aware of the current outbreak of a new type of dog flu affecting pets across the country, even as close as Marion. This highly contagious and, for some dogs, potentially serious respiratory infection is caused by canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 or H3N8.. Chances are, if your dog is exposed to either CIV H3N2 or H3N8, he or she may become infected. Dogs that are frequently in contact with other dogs may be at high risk of infection with canine influenza. This includes dogs that are boarded, enrolled in day care, or often visit the local dog park. Below are some news links that show how this influenza can affect your pet.. http://fox4kc.com/2016/02/16/new-strain-of-dog-flu-sickening-pups-across-the-country/. http://www.cbs58.com/story/31235357/confirmed-dog-flu-cases-in-wisconsin. http://www.kctv5.com/story/31225290/deadly-dog-flu-reported-in-missouri. The good news is that our office now has a vaccine available to help control ...
Canine influenza H3N8 virus originated in horses, has spread to dogs, and can now spread between dogs. The H3N8 equine influenza (horse flu) virus has been known to exist in horses for more than 40 years. In 2004, however, cases of an unknown respiratory illness in dogs (initially greyhounds) were reported in the United States. An investigation showed that this respiratory illness was caused by the equine influenza A H3N8 virus. Scientists believe this virus jumped species (from horses to dogs) and has adapted to cause illness in dogs and spread among dogs, especially those housed in kennels and shelters. This is now considered a dog-specific H3N8 virus. In September 2005, this virus was identified by experts as a newly emerging pathogen in the dog population in the United States.. The H3N2 canine influenza virus is an avian flu virus that adapted to infect dogs. This virus is different from human seasonal H3N2 viruses. Canine influenza A H3N2 virus was first detected in dogs in South Korea in ...
Protective immunity against influenza virus infection is mediated by neutralizing antibodies, but the precise role of T cells in human influenza immunity is uncertain. We conducted influenza infection studies in healthy volunteers with no detectable antibodies to the challenge viruses H3N2 or H1N1. We mapped T cell responses to influenza before and during infection. We found a large increase in influenza-specific T cell responses by day 7, when virus was completely cleared from nasal samples and serum antibodies were still undetectable. Preexisting CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells responding to influenza internal proteins were associated with lower virus shedding and less severe illness. These CD4+ cells also responded to pandemic H1N1 (A/CA/07/2009) peptides and showed evidence of cytotoxic activity. These cells are an important statistical correlate of homotypic and heterotypic response and may limit severity of influenza infection by new strains in the absence of specific antibody responses. Our results
The H3N8 and now the H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus strain have been identified in the U.S. Learn more about these viruses and how you can protect your pets!
Heterosubtypic immunity, defined as cross-reactive immune responses to influenza virus of a different serotype than the virus initially encountered, was investigated in association with virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced in systemic and mucosa-associated lymph nodes after immunization via different routes. Mice immunized by the pulmonary route with live nonpathogenic influenza virus, strain Udorn (H3N2), survived challenge with mouse-adapted pathogenic influenza virus, strain PR/8/34 (H1N1). These mice developed strong heterosubtypic CTL responses in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLN), and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). Alternately, only 20% of mice immunized intravenously, intraperitoneally, or intranasally survived the challenge; all of these developed CTL responses in spleen and CLN, but not in MLN. Direct correlation between short-term and long-term memory heterosubtypic CTL responses induced in MLN and host recovery after lethal infection indicates that these CTL
We found that neutrophils from influenza-infected mice were not able to either phagocytose bacteria or produce ROS in response to incubation with S. pneumoniae as readily as those from uninfected mice. In addition, neutrophil-depleted mice infected with influenza for 6 days were more susceptible to S. pneumoniae infection than either uninfected depleted mice or depleted mice infected with influenza for 3 days. Lung cytokine levels, such as IL-10, were elevated in mice infected with influenza for 6 days followed by S. pneumoniae. These data indicate that influenza-induced changes in neutrophil-independent mechanisms increase susceptibility to a S. pneumoniae infection. We developed a novel ex vivo tracheal explant system to determine whether influenza-induced tissue damage increases adherence of S. pneumoniae. Using this system, we were able to model an influenza infection from the initial stages of infection to denudation and repair of the respiratory epithelium. We found that adherence was only ...
Canine influenza virus (CIV) is an infectious disease of dogs that causes respiratory symptoms. Discovered in 2004, the disease is extremely contagious from dog
This notice is being sent out to provide up-to-date and accurate information about the Canine Influenza Virus to help prevent the spread of the viru
Influenza virus M2 and PB1-F2 proteins have been proposed to activate the Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in macrophages by altering intracellular ionic balance or mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the precise mechanism by which these viral proteins trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains unclear. Here we show that influenza virus stimulates oxidized DNA release from macrophages. Ion channel activity of the M2 protein or mitochondrial localization of the PB1-F2 protein was required for oxidized DNA release. The oxidized DNA enhanced influenza virus-induced IL-1β secretion, whereas inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production by antioxidant Mito-TEMPO decreased the virus-induced IL-1β secretion. In addition, we show that influenza virus stimulates IL-1β secretion from macrophages in an AIM2-dependent manner. These results provide a missing link between influenza viral proteins and the NLRP3 inflammasome activation ...
Canine influenza virus (CIV) was first detected in 2004 in racing greyhounds in Florida. Investigators learned that this new canine influenza developed when an equine influenza virus adapted to infect dogs. This was the first time that an equine influenza virus had been found to jump from horses to dogs. According to Dr. Cynda Crawford of the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, canine influenza does not infect people, and there is no documentation that cats have become infected by exposure to dogs with CIV.. CIV has caused localized disease outbreaks around the country. According to veterinary experts, CIV has been reported in more than 30 states plus the District of Columbia. Ask your veterinarian whether the disease has been reported in your area; if it has, please take steps to prevent your dog from contracting it. (See Prevention and Vaccination below.). CIV is spread between dogs through direct contact (coughing, sneezing, facial licking) or indirect contact ...
Canine influenza virus (CIV) was first detected in 2004 in racing greyhounds in Florida. Investigators learned that this new canine influenza developed when an equine influenza virus adapted to infect dogs. This was the first time that an equine influenza virus had been found to jump from horses to dogs. According to Dr. Cynda Crawford of the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, canine influenza does not infect people, and there is no documentation that cats have become infected by exposure to dogs with CIV.. CIV has caused localized disease outbreaks around the country. According to veterinary experts, CIV has been reported in more than 30 states plus the District of Columbia. Ask your veterinarian whether the disease has been reported in your area; if it has, please take steps to prevent your dog from contracting it. (See Prevention and Vaccination below.). CIV is spread between dogs through direct contact (coughing, sneezing, facial licking) or indirect contact ...
Canine influenza virus (CIV) was first detected in 2004 in racing greyhounds in Florida. Investigators learned that this new canine influenza developed when an equine influenza virus adapted to infect dogs. This was the first time that an equine influenza virus had been found to jump from horses to dogs. According to Dr. Cynda Crawford of the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, canine influenza does not infect people, and there is no documentation that cats have become infected by exposure to dogs with CIV.. Read More ...
Canine influenza virus (CIV) was first detected in 2004 in racing greyhounds in Florida. Investigators learned that this new canine influenza developed when an equine influenza virus adapted to infect dogs. This was the first time that an equine influenza virus had been found to jump from horses to dogs. According to Dr. Cynda Crawford of the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, canine influenza does not infect people, and there is no documentation that cats have become infected by exposure to dogs with CIV.. Read More ...
Introduction: Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 1%. Maternal viral infection is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia in the offspring. Methods: Our laboratory has developed a mouse model of prenatal viral infection in which C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice have been infected with a mouse-adapted influenza virus [A/WSN/33 strain (H1N1)] at specific dates during pregnancy: embryonic day 7 (E7), E9, E16, and E18. Pregnant dams were allowed to give birth and brains were collected from offspring at postnatal (P) day zero (P0), P14, P35, and P56. At each postnatal time point we evaluated brain morphology, mRNA, and protein expression. We examined behavior of mice following infection at E9. Results: We observed altered volumes of specific brain regions including the ventricular system, cerebellum, neocortex and hippocampus following infection at E9, E16 or E18 as well as changes in volume of gray and white matter. While infection at E7 had no effect on ...
Author Summary To deliver their genomes into host cells during entry, enveloped viruses contain glycoproteins that bind to cellular receptors and cause fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The influenza virus HA protein is the archetypal viral fusion glycoprotein, promoting entry by undergoing irreversible structural changes that drive membrane merger. HA trimers on the surfaces of infectious influenza virions are trapped in a metastable, high-energy conformation and are triggered to refold and cause membrane fusion after the virus is internalized and exposed to low pH. Here, we provide biochemical and x-ray crystallographic evidence that naturally occurring amino-acid variations at the interface of the vestigial esterase and fusogenic stalk domains alter HA acid stability for highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza, resulting in a shift in the threshold pH required to activate HA protein structural changes that cause membrane fusion. Furthermore, our data reveals that an increased HA activation pH
According to a study published in Virology, researchers are on the path to creating a new vaccine that can be used in the battle against canine influenza.
PHILADELPHIA, March 11, 2013 /3BL Media/ - Once the initial episode of influenza has passed, the chronic effects tend to be overlooked. The results of a new study indicate that the cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays a critical role in normal lung repair following influenza infection. This study is published in the April 2013 issue of The American Journal of Pathology.. With the increasing prevalence of more infective and/or virulent strains of influenza, understanding the impact of virus on the host epithelium and the processes involved in lung repair are of great importance, says John F. Alcorn, PhD, an immunologist affiliated with the department of pediatrics at the Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC. He notes that the findings open up new possibilities for developing therapeutic agents that promote recovery of normal lung function and architecture after influenza infection and lessen the likelihood of secondary infections. A key finding is that even after the resolution of ...
Swine influenza virus was found to be regularly present in the turbinates, tracheal exudate and lungs of infected swine but not in the spleens, livers, kidneys, mesenteric lymph nodes, colon mucosae, brains or blood. It was present in low concentration in the bronchial lymph nodes of 2 out of 8 animals. This localization of the virus in swine accords with its classification as a pneumotropic virus.. ...
PubMed journal article Identification of four genotypes of H3N2 swine influenza virus in pigs from southern Chin were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Canine Influenza Symptoms and Treatments in Dogs - This respiratory virus was first isolated from racing Greyhounds in 2004. The virus appears to have mutated from the equine influenza virus. It has bee found in dogs of all breeds and mixes across North America.
Influenza vaccination programmes are assumed to have a herd effect and protect contacts of vaccinated persons from influenza virus infection. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Global Health and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to March 2014 for studies assessing the protective effect of influenza vaccination vs no vaccination on influenza virus infections in contacts. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model. Of 43,082 screened articles, nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and four observational studies were eligible. Among the RCTs, no statistically significant herd effect on the occurrence of influenza in contacts could be found (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.34-1.12). The one RCT conducted in a community setting, however, showed a significant effect (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.26-0.57), as did the observational studies (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.43-0.77).
DIAGNOSIS Influenza associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). DISCUSSION. The child had a rapidly fatal acute encephalopathy following influenza infection. The MRI showed characteristic features of ANE with bilateral and symmetrical lesions in the deep white matter and basal ganglia including the thalami and tegmentum of the brainstem. The pathological findings of necrosis and vasculopathy were also in keeping with ANE. The differential diagnoses would include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and its hyper-acute form acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (AHLE), primary or secondary forms of cerebral vasculitis and metabolic encephalopathy. ADEM and AHLE typically show asymmetrical involvement of the centrum semiovale with infrequent and asymmetrical involvements of the basal ganglia and thalamus. In the brainstem, they involve both the basal and tegmental area in contrast with the selective tegmental involvement in ANE. The necrosis in AHLE was perivascular with or without ...
The microbiota is known to modulate the host response to influenza infection through as-yet-unclear mechanisms. We hypothesized that components of the microbiota exert effects through type I interferon (IFN), a hypothesis supported by analysis of influenza in a gain-of-function genetic mouse model. Here we show that a microbially associated metabolite, desaminotyrosine (DAT), protects from influenza through augmentation of type I IFN signaling and diminution of lung immunopathology. A specific human-associated gut microbe, Clostridium orbiscindens, produced DAT and rescued antibiotic-treated influenza-infected mice. DAT protected the host by priming the amplification loop of type I IFN signaling. These findings show that specific components of the enteric microbiota have distal effects on responses to lethal infections through modulation of type I IFN. ...
T lymphocytes play a primary role in recovery from viral infections and in antiviral immunity. Although viral-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells have been shown to be able to lyse virally infected targets in vitro and promote recovery from lethal infection in vivo, the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes and their mechanism(s) of action in viral immunity are not well understood. The ability to further dissect the role that CD4+ T cells play in the immune response to a number of pathogens has been greatly enhanced by evidence for more extensive heterogeneity among the CD4+ T lymphocytes. To further examine the role of CD4+ T cells in the immune response to influenza infection, we have generated influenza virus-specific CD4+ T cell clones from influenza-primed BALB/c mice with differential cytokine secretion profiles that are defined as T helper type 1 (Th1) clones by the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), or as Th2 clones by the production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. Our ...
The risk of a dog being exposed to any strain of the Canine Influenza Virus (H3N2 and H3N8) depends on that dogs individual lifestyle.
About of Influenza | Definition of Influenza, Welcome to viralinfections.info, we recommend viral infections related blog articles and classify them by tag.
The results presented herein suggest that generation of an effective influenza-specific CD8 T cell response requires activated CD8 T cells to interact with pulmonary pDCs, CD8α+ DCs, or iDCs in a MHC class I-, viral epitope-dependent manner once they enter the lungs. This secondary interaction is in addition to the initial DC-T cell interactions that occur in the LN during activation of naive CD8 T cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study detailing a critical role for peripheral DC-CD8 T cell interactions after initial programming of primary effector T cells in the LN. This suggests that the influenza-specific CD8 T cell response may be regulated by a two-hit model of development and that the magnitude, and possibly phenotype, of the peripheral CD8 T cells generated may be related to both the initial programming that occurs in the LN, but also by secondary contacts with DC subsets at the site of the infection. Of note, we have observed differential magnitudes of recruitment into the ...
Aartjan te Velthuis Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford.Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge.Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews.The Influenza A virus is an infectious agent that usually causes a mild respiratory disease and induces innate immune responses through the activation of RNA sensor RIG-I. However, infections with highly pathogenic influenza viruses such as the H5N1 subtypes or the 1918 H1N1 virus, can lead to an innate immune dysregulation and severe disease. The genome of the virus is replicated and transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the context of viral RNA-nucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. The RNA polymerase is a complex enzyme that consists of a central core composed of the viral proteins PB1, PB2 and PA, and at least three auxiliary domains involved in viral transcription. Various mutations in the RNA polymerase have been linked to host adaptation and viral virulence, but it is presently unclear what
Aartjan te Velthuis Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford.Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge.Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews.The Influenza A virus is an infectious agent that usually causes a mild respiratory disease and induces innate immune responses through the activation of RNA sensor RIG-I. However, infections with highly pathogenic influenza viruses such as the H5N1 subtypes or the 1918 H1N1 virus, can lead to an innate immune dysregulation and severe disease. The genome of the virus is replicated and transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the context of viral RNA-nucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. The RNA polymerase is a complex enzyme that consists of a central core composed of the viral proteins PB1, PB2 and PA, and at least three auxiliary domains involved in viral transcription. Various mutations in the RNA polymerase have been linked to host adaptation and viral virulence, but it is presently unclear what
Many recent reports on the canine influenza virus have created a big stir among pet owners. Although the canine flu can be a serious illness, and pet owners should be cautious, there is no need to panic. OCAC goes to great lengths to provide our public with the facts and we hope that the information provided will be helpful as well as aid you in keeping your pets healthy and safe.. The canine influenza strain is caused by the h1N8 influenza virus, and is known to be a mutated form of the equine virus which can be found in horses. The canine flu virus is spread through the air from respiratory discharge, and from coming into contact with contaminated dog toys and water bowls. While canine flu is more likely to spread throughout kennels, parks, and shelters, it should be noted that humans can spread the disease to a healthy dog after contact with an infected dog. The overall incidence of death caused by the canine virus is low.. The symptoms of canine influenza include a persistent cough and nasal ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
The human lung harbors a large population of resident memory T cells (Trm cells). These cells are perfectly positioned to mediate rapid protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus, a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to be a major public health burden. Animal models show that influenza-specific lung CD8+ Trm cells are indispensable for crossprotection against pulmonary infection with different influenza virus strains. However, it is not known whether influenza-specific CD8+ Trm cells present within the human lung have the same critical role in modulating the course of the disease. Here, we showed that human lung contains a population of CD8+ Trm cells that are highly proliferative and have polyfunctional progeny. We observed that different influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell specificities differentiated into Trm cells with varying efficiencies and that the size of the influenza-specific CD8+ T cell population persisting in the lung directly correlated ...
Maternal Influenza Vaccination and Effect on Influenza Virus Infection in Young Infants Eick AA, Uyeki TM, Klimov A, et al Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165:104-111 Study Summary Infants younger than 6 months may experience higher morbidity and mortality rates from influenza than those 6-12 months old. The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)…
Triple-reassortant swine influenza viruses circulating in North American pigs contain the internal genes derived from swine (matrix, non-structural and nucleoprotein), human [polymerase basic 1 (PB1)] and avian (polymerase acidic and PB2) influenza viruses forming a constellation of genes that is well conserved and is called the triple-reassortant internal gene (TRIG) cassette. In contrast, the external genes [haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)] are less conserved, reflecting multiple reassortant events that have produced viruses with different combinations of HA and NA genes. This study hypothesized that maintenance of the TRIG cassette confers a selective advantage to the virus. To test this hypothesis, pigs were co-infected with the triple-reassortant H3N2 A/Swine/Texas/4199-2/98 (Tx/98) and the classical H1N1 A/Swine/Iowa/15/1930 viruses and co-housed with a group of sentinel animals. This direct contact group was subsequently moved into contact with a second group of naïve animals. Four
Silk Road Lanlan All Media News (Bayin Guoyi Daily reporter Li Ruihong) Winter is the season of high influenza, Bazhou influenza surveillance results show that Pakistan The flu in the state is also at a high level, which has aroused the attention of many people and hopes to learn more about the prevention and control of influenza. On January 16, the reporter learned from the Department of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control of the Bavarian Center for Disease Control and Prevention that in the high season of influenza, vaccination against influenza is one of the effective measures to prevent and control influenza, but it is mainly necessary to do personal prevention and control. According to the relevant person in charge of the Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Section of the Bavarian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, vaccination against influenza is one of the effective measures to prevent and control influenza, which can significantly reduce the flu and flu-related ...
To play devils advocate for a brief moment, I would like to point out that there is published work that attempts to present that cross-immunity (heterosubtypic) does occur from vaccination… however (1) they fail to compare the results in an unvaccinated population and (2) CD8+ T cells were not assessed (this is key because it is now understood that vaccination affects/hinders the induction of CD8+T cell responses which is crucial in the contribution of heterosubtypic immunity). [13] [2] ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of I-adamantanamine hydrochloride prophylaxis for experimentally induced A/equine 2 influenza virus infection. by J T Bryans et al.
Cytokines also activate these immune cells, and stimulate them to produce more cytokines. This positive feedback loop will attract more T-cells and macrophages to join the fight. Usually, the body is able to keep the feedback loop in check so that a cytokine storm (which is energy-consuming and harms the body) doesnt occur.. Sometimes the body is unable to control the loop, for reasons we dont fully understand and we end up with a CS. Its speculated that a CS might be triggered when the immune system is attacked by a new and highly pathogenic invader. The cytokine storm results in systemic symptoms, such as liver dysfunction, acute renal failure, and shock. In the nervous system, it leads to brain injury through alteration of vessel wall permeability without vessel wall disruption. According to this hypothesis, ANE is an encephalopathy concomitant with systemic immune imbalance.. ...
This is a new term for me but apparently I missed the memo that had to do with a cytokine storm and the flu. Actually the cytokine storm has more to do with (...)
A cytokine storm is an over-protective immune response that can actually be fatal. Cytokine storms occur when the body sends too...
The role of cytokine storm in COVID-19 severity and useful laboratory testing for COVID-19 patients at risk for or experiencing a cytokine storm
During the Leman Conference, I was asked to consider running for the office of the Vice President of the AASV. At first, I was unsure if I was qualified, for I was not confident that I possessed the proper set of skills to truly benefit the membership in this role. Prior to this discussion, I had thought that the best way for me to give back to our organization was by focusing all my time and effort on PRRS research. However, the more I considered the idea, the more appealing it became. As we all recognize, the North American swine industry is undergoing a dramatic paradigm shift in regards to its future with PRRS. New initiatives from the National Pork Board are calling for a cooperative effort among scientists, practitioners, industrial partners, and producers to explore the potential for widespread PRRS eradication. For the first time, governmental funding agencies such as the National Research Initiative are calling for cooperative proposals that focus on applied research in animal ...
A first clue that SPMs might affect B cell functions was the discovery that B cells express the ALX/FPR2 receptor that recognizes the D-series resolvins, RvD1 and RvD3 (79). 17-HDHA, RvD1, and PD1 are naturally produced within the spleen, a site where B cells commonly reside (35). PUFAs present in omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil (precursors for SPM production) were shown to affect B cell functions in mice by increasing antibody production and B cell activation (71, 72, 74). Similarly, mice fed a diet rich in DHA and EPA had a higher number of IgM-expressing splenic B cells following antigen stimulation compared with mice not receiving a PUFA-enriched diet (71). In a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, mice fed a high-fat (Western) diet containing primarily omega-6 fatty acids exhibited diminished antibody titers and increased mortality to influenza challenge relative to a normal diet. These effects could be rescued with dietary DHA (69). Dietary supplementation with PUFAs or PUFA-enriched fish ...
Residues within processed protein fragments bound to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) glycoproteins have been considered to function as a series of independent pegs that either anchor the peptide (p) to the MHC-I and/or interact with the spectrum of alphabeta-T-cell receptors (TCRs) specific for the pMHC-I epitope in question. Mining of the extensive pMHC-I structural database established that many self- and viral peptides show extensive and direct interresidue interactions, an unexpected finding that has led us to the idea of constrained peptides. Mutational analysis of two constrained peptides (the HLA B44 restricted self-peptide (B44DPalpha-EEFGRAFSF) and an H2-D(b) restricted influenza peptide (D(b)PA, SSLENFRAYV) demonstrated that the conformation of the prominently exposed arginine in both peptides was governed by interactions with MHC-I-orientated flanking residues from the peptide itself. Using reverse genetics in a murine influenza model, we revealed that mutation of ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
PLOS 26/12/14 European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14
... (DHOV) is a species of the genus Thogotovirus and a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Its hosts are ticks, ... infection of mice produces a disease and cytokine response pattern similar to that of highly virulent influenza A (H5N1) virus ... Li G, Wang N, Guzman H, Sbrana E, Yoshikawa T, Tseng CT, Tesh RB, Xiao SY (2008). "Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae: Thogotovirus ... virus infection. Batken virus (BKNV) is considered a subtype of DHOV. Serological cross-reactions between BKNV and DHOV ...
Orthomyxoviridae: Thogotovirus) infection in mice: a model of the pathogenesis of severe orthomyxovirus infection", American ... DHOV infection in mice resembles experimental influenza infection in mice and ferrets as well as fatal H5N1 influenza infection ... 2008), "[Isolation of influenza virus A (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus), Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus), ... In laboratory infections, it is pathogenic to mice. The virion is around 105 nm in diameter. The genome has six RNA segments. ...
Infections occur through contact with these bodily fluids or with contaminated surfaces. Out of a host, flu viruses can remain ... and the family Orthomyxoviridae. The genera-associated species and serotypes of Orthomyxoviridae are shown in the following ... Orthomyxoviridae viruses are one of two RNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus (the other being retroviridae). This is ... Orthomyxoviridae (ὀρθός, orthós, Greek for "straight"; μύξα, mýxa, Greek for "mucus") is a family of negative-sense RNA viruses ...
"Clinical features of influenza C virus infection in children". J Infect Dis. 193 (9): 1229-35. doi:10.1086/502973. PMID ... The Orthomyxoviridae (orthos, Greek for "straight"; myxa, Greek for "mucus")[1] are a family of RNA viruses. They include five ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Index of Viruses - Orthomyxoviridae (2006). In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus ... The only other animal known to be susceptible to influenza B infection is the seal.[12] This type of influenza mutates at a ...
Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome ... infections causing gastroenteritis are the second most common infection (after the common cold), and they result in between 200 ... "Infection and Drug Resistance. 6: 133-61. doi:10.2147/IDR.S12718. PMC 3815002 . PMID 24194646.. ... This infection is usually transmitted by contaminated water or food.[30] Toxigenic Clostridium difficile is an important cause ...
Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome ... the clinical spectrum of disease associated with infection varies depending on the site of infection; for example, infection ... and infection is usually acquired during childhood. Other types cause sporadic infection and occasional outbreaks; for example ... Adenovirus infections most commonly cause illness of the respiratory system; however, depending on the infecting serotype, they ...
This can reduce infection due to contact with contaminated surfaces, especially in crowded public places where coughing or ... Now we know that it is caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). In humans, common ... This huge death toll was caused by an extremely high infection rate of up to 50% and the extreme severity of the symptoms, ... In Phase 2 an animal influenza virus circulating among domesticated or wild animals is known to have caused infection in humans ...
Human metapneumovirus infection is very similar to the common cold; it is an upper respiratory infection. It will typically ... Pneumoviruses are intermediate in size between viruses of the families Paramyxoviridae and Orthomyxoviridae. Cytoplasmic ... This specific infection is most common in children, especially under the age of five. Common symptoms include runny nose, ... Respiratory tract infections are associated with member viruses such as human respiratory syncytial virus. There are five ...
Influenza virus infections have one of the highest preventable mortalities in many countries of the world. Influenza viruses, ... Influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza viruses A, B, C, and D represent the four antigenic ... Because of this, viruses continually cause infections. Influenza virus C is different from Types A and B in its growth ... The virus may lead to more severe infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. After an individual becomes infected, the immune ...
Influenzavirus D is less common than the other antigenic types, and it is not known to cause any human infections. No samples ... First isolated from pigs in 2011, the virus was categorized as a new genus of Orthomyxoviridae in 2016, distinct from the ... Because of this, viruses continually cause infections. Influenza viruses C and D are different from Types A and B in their ... However, those antibodies may have been produced after an infection by influenza C virus, the antibodies for which cross-react ...
For certain viruses, including the families Orthomyxoviridae and Papillomaviridae, alternative splicing acts as a way to ... strands are used for translation of structural and movement proteins needed during intermediate and late stages of infection. ... regulate early and late gene expression during different stages of infection. Herpesviruses use it as a potential anti-host ...
Orthomyxoviridae,viruse të influencës]] (10-15%),,ref name="Medscape",{{cite web,title=Rhinovirus Infection,url=http:// ... Viral Infections and Treatment,display-editors=etal,editor-first=Helga,editor-last=Rübsamen-Waigmann,first2=Frederick G.,last2= ... The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States,url=,journal=Arch. Intern. ... Common colds are defined as upper respiratory tract infections that affect the predominantly nasal part of the respiratory ...
in addition, experimental infection shows histologic lesions on the brain such as edema, focal hemorrhages in the leptomeninges ... Typical Orthomyxoviridae carry several surface glycoproteins that recognize and bind to sialic acid receptors on the target ... Cases of infection note syncytium formation, the fusion of infected neighboring cells to produce multi-nucleated cells. ... In India, naturally infected tilapia had skin erosions and loss of scales as a result of infection. Those infected with TiLV in ...
... nose with discharge and secondary bacterial infection are some of the clinical signs of Equine influenza virus infection. ... Equine influenza is caused by a type A influenza virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (genus Influenzavirus). Transmission of ... Such infections contribute to the spread of the disease. The time from when a horse gets exposed to the time when it gets sick ... A 1997 study found H3N8 was responsible for over one quarter of the influenza infections in wild ducks. H3N8 has been suggested ...
The bronchi infection resulted in severe gasping and swift death due to inability to eat food. It was also found that the ... Serological test indicated they were not myxoviruses (Orthomyxoviridae). They presented their discovery as "A new virus ... The infection was specifically among fattening pigs and sows. It was referred to as TOO (for "the other one") or TGE2 (for " ... The infection was believed to have been contained in China, but an infected individual carried it to Hong Kong on 21 February ...
Most cases are caused by a viral infection. Strep throat, a bacterial infection, is the cause in about 25% of children and 10% ... The family Orthomyxoviridae which cause influenza are present with rapid onset high temperature, headache, and generalized ache ... Antibiotics are useful if a bacterial infection is the cause of the sore throat. For viral infections, antibiotics have no ... submandibular space infection (Ludwig's angina), and epiglottitis. Some cases of pharyngitis are caused by fungal infection, ...
Unsurprisingly, sialic acids also play an important role in several human viral infections. The influenza viruses have ... Orthomyxoviridae) can use host-sialylated structures for binding to their target host cell. Sialic acids provide a good target ... Sialidosis Sialoglycoprotein Sialyltransferase Orthomyxoviridae Varki, Ajit; Roland Schauer (2008). "Sialic Acids". in ...
Purified RNA of a positive-sense virus can directly cause infection though it may be less infectious than the whole virus ... Recombination also occurs in the Reoviridae (dsRNA)(e.g. reovirus), Orthomyxoviridae ((-)ssRNA)(e.g. influenza virus) and ... Kondo H, Chiba S, Toyoda K, Suzuki N (January 2013). "Evidence for negative-strand RNA virus infection in fungi". Virology. 435 ... The resulting recombinant viruses may sometimes cause an outbreak of infection in humans. Classification of the RNA viruses is ...
"Influenza: Viral Infections".. *^ Eccles, R (2005). "Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza". The Lancet ... is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). In ... A vaccine probably would not be available in the initial stages of population infection.[83] A vaccine cannot be developed to ... This can reduce infection due to contact with contaminated surfaces, especially in crowded public places where coughing or ...
However, it was not fully known what part of the virus infection triggers RIG-I activation. Results of this study found that ... All three belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Viruses that belong to this family are single stranded (-) RNA viruses that ... Influenza type C virus causes mild respiratory infections and are not known to cause epidemics, unlike the other two. Barclay ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Barclay, Wendy S. (1988). The humoral immune response to rhinovirus infection. copac. ...
In June 2017 a 58-year-old female Missouri State Park employee died from an infection of the Bourbon virus after it had been ... Bourbon virus is an RNA virus in the genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which is similar to Dhori virus and ... Bourbon virus is a type of thogotovirus, which is in the RNA virus family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus particles show different ... Like other members of the Orthomyxoviridae, the Bourbon virus genome is single-stranded, negative-sense RNA, which is segmented ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection One of the Human papillomaviruses Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza ... Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome ... Infections associated with diseases. References[edit]. *^ Walsh TJ, Dixon DM (1996). Baron S, et al., eds. Spectrum of Mycoses ... Acinetobacter infections Acinetobacter baumannii Actinomycosis Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae and ...
Helminthiasis (worm infection), Ascariasis, and enterobiasis (pinworm infection) are few that are caused by various parasitic ... Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Papovaviridae, Polyomavirus, Poxviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Togaviridae. Some notable ... or yeast infections. Most antibiotics that function on bacterial pathogens cannot be used to treat fungal infections because ... Life-threatening fungal infections in humans most often occur in immunocompromised patients or vulnerable people with a ...
Yoon K, Cooper V, Schwartz K, Harmon K, Kim W, Janke B, Strohbehn J, Butts D, Troutman J (2005). "Influenza virus infection in ... Carter, G.R.; Flores, E.F.; Wise, D.J. (2006). "Orthomyxoviridae". A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology. Retrieved 2006-08- ... The presence of an upper respiratory tract infection in a dog that has been vaccinated for the other major causes of kennel ... Pneumonia in these dogs is not caused by the influenza virus, but by secondary bacterial infections. The fatality rate of dogs ...
Tick-borne viruses are found in six different virus families (Asfarviridae, Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, ... the infection of a two-day-old white experimental mice with the virus results in deaths occurring 8-12 days after infection. ... have reported with severe disease such as encephalitis and other large outbreaks of fever illness connected infection with the ...
... a bacterial infection which can cause respiratory infections and sepsis Influenza-like illness, a medical diagnosis of possible ... Flu is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae, the influenza viruses. ...
... chronic persistent infection, whereas BVD is an acute infection. Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an ... Influenza is caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae and affects birds and mammals. Wild aquatic birds are the ... ASFV is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and exists in the wild through a cycle of infection between ticks and wild pigs, bushpigs ... Some strains can cause death of animals within as little as a week after infection. In other species, the virus causes no ...
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus ... Segmented genomes: Bunyaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Arenaviridae, and Reoviridae (acronym BOAR). All are RNA viruses. Viruses ... "Orthomyxoviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03. "Paramyxoviridae". ViralZone. SIB ... "Babies Born with CMV (Congenital CMV Infection)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 13, 2017. Retrieved June 17 ...
Their work led to the understanding that both proteins are necessary for influenza A and B virus infection and replication. ... Molecular Cell (1999) Orthomyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. Fields Virology (2001) Structure of the uncleaved ...
... which can be caused by the primary viral infection or by a secondary bacterial infection. Other complications of infection ... "Orthomyxoviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 9 March 2021. Shim JM, Kim J, Tenson T, Min J, ... Middle ear infection and croup may occur, most commonly in children. Secondary S. aureus infection has been observed, primarily ... Illness during infection is primarily the result of lung inflammation and compromise caused by epithelial cell infection and ...
Infection and pathogenesis[edit]. The initial site of infection may be the tonsils,[4] or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[ ... Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes.[14] Analysis ... Although JC virus infection is classically associated with white matter demyelination and PML pathogenesis, recent literature ...
Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... At that point, the infection will persist indefinitely. In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is ... As a result, cells such as neurons are very resistant to infection and transduction by retroviruses. This gives rise to a ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of ...
The Hong Kong flu was the first known outbreak of the H3N2 strain, though there is serologic evidence of H3N? infections in the ... Orthomyxoviridae Genus: Alphainfluenzavirus Species: Influenza A virus Serotype: Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 ... of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a ...
However, seasonal changes in infection rates also occur in tropical regions, and in some countries these peaks of infection are ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... antibiotics have no effect on the infection; unless prescribed for secondary infections such as bacterial pneumonia. Antiviral ... a b Time Lines of Infection and Disease in Human Influenza: A Review of Volunteer Challenge Studies Archived 13 June 2012 at ...
The type-1 interferon response seems to play an important role in the host's response to chikungunya infection. Upon infection ... "Infection of myofibers contributes to increased pathogenicity during infection with an epidemic strain of chikungunya virus". ... Chikungunya is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV).[3] Symptoms include fever and joint pains.[2] These ... Cabié A, Ledrans M, Abel S (July 2015). "Chikungunya Virus Infections". The New England Journal of Medicine. 373 (1): 94. doi: ...
Hepatis B Virus (HBV) was identified as an infection distinct from Hepatitis A through its contamination of measles, mumps, and ... Diseases associated with this family include: liver infections, such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas (chronic ... cell to infect others or are immediately dismantled so the new viral genomes can enter the nucleus and magnify the infection. ...
Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome ... Untreated, median survival is only 2.5 months, sometimes due to concurrent opportunistic infections rather than the lymphoma ... infection (, 90%) in immunodeficient patients (such as those with AIDS and those immunosuppressed),[2] and does not have a ... of all cases of lymphomas in HIV infections (other types are Burkitt's lymphomas and immunoblastic lymphomas). Primary CNS ...
Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome ... Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. ...
Le grippe porcin o influenza porcin es un maladia infectiose causate per le virus pertinente al familia orthomyxoviridae e que ... Le excretion nasal del virus pote apparer al circa 24 horas del infection. Le tassas de morbiditate es alte e pote attinger al ...
The resulting recombinant viruses may sometimes cause an outbreak of infection in humans.[20] ... orthomyxoviridae ((-)ssRNA)(e.g. influenza virus)[19] and coronaviridae ((+)ssRNA) (e.g. SARS).[20] Recombination in RNA ... oxidizing environment associated with infection of a host. ... to the oxidizing environment produced during host infection.[11 ...
Urinary tract infection. V. *Victor Feldbrill. *Wikipedia:VideoWiki/Cancer. *Wikipedia:VideoWiki/Pneumonia ...
Other common fungal infections include infections by the yeast strain Candida albicans. Candida can cause infections of the ... Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Papovaviridae, Polyomavirus, Rhabdoviridae, and Togaviridae. HIV is a notable member of the ... For example, infection of mesenteric lymph glands of mice with Yersinia can clear the way for continuing infection of these ... Fungal infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm are infections of the skin and can be treated with topical ...
Breuil, G., Bonami, J.R., Pepin, J.F., and Pichot, Y. (1991). Viral infection (picorna-like virus) associated with mass ... Mechanisms of Capsid Assembly and Viral Infection. PLoS Pathogens 11(10), e1005203. ...
Infection with one genotype does not confer immunity against others, and concurrent infection with two strains is possible. In ... Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt ... Sarrazin C, Hézode C, Zeuzem S, Pawlotsky JM (2012). "Antiviral strategies in hepatitis C virus infection". J. Hepatol. 56 ( ... Claudin 1, which is a tight-junction protein, and CD81 link to create a complex, priming them for later HCV infection processes ...
May 17, 2007, Science Daily: Herpes infection might have an up side Citat: "...U.S. medical scientists say a herpes virus ... Orthomyxoviridae (influenza A, B og C). *Paramyxoviridae (Newcastle disease, fåresyge og mæslinger) ... infection has an unexpected up side, at least in mice, since it protects them against bacterial infections..." ... Hantaviral Proteins: Structure, Functions, and Role in Hantavirus Infection. Frontiers in Microbiology ...
With proper infection control and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), the chance for infection is low. Protecting the ... Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt ... a b c d e Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - China, WHO, Disease outbreak news, 17 January 2017. ... in order to create an infection that could shed aerosolized virus particles. Such an infection, however, must occur in the ...
The Age-Specific Cumulative Incidence of Infection with Pandemic Influenza H1N1 2009 Was Similar in Various Countries Prior to ... Orthomyxoviridae[*]​ Clasificare și resurse externe. ICD-11. ICD-9-CM. 487[1][2]. 487.8[2] ...
V, Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C (Influenza/Avian influenza). V, Paramyxovirus: Human parainfluenza viruses ( ... "WHO Nipah Virus (NiV) Infection"। www.who.int। ১৮ এপ্রিল ২০১৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২১ মে ২০১৮।. ... Luby, Stephen P.; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir (২০১২)। TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN INFECTION WITH NIPAH VIRUS (ইংরেজি ... Orthomyxoviridae (probable)(Encephalitis lethargica) · RV (Rabies) · Chandipura virus · Herpesviral meningitis · Ramsay Hunt ...
Without the virus infection, phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) will encapsulate and kill the wasp egg and larvae but the ... The infection does not lead to replication of new viruses, rather it affects the caterpillar's immune system. ...
... could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly pandemic infection. A vaccine that could prevent any illness at all ... A vaccine probably would not be available in the initial stages of population infection.[6] Once a potential virus is ... Peramivir is a pharmaceutical drug used to treat viral infections. Like zanamivir and oseltamivir, peramivir is a neuraminidase ... Lupfer, C; Stein DA; Mourich DV; Tepper SE; Iversen PL; Pastey M (2008). "Inhibition of influenza A H3N8 virus infections in ...
The presence of IgM in the blood of the host is used to test for acute infection, whereas IgG indicates an infection sometime ... Vaccination is a cheap and effective way of preventing infections by viruses. Vaccines were used to prevent viral infections ... Smallpox infections have been eradicated.[196] Vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen viral infections of humans,[197] ... Hepatitis viruses can develop into a chronic viral infection that leads to liver cancer.[179][180] Infection by human T- ...
H5N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus of the Influenzavirus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family. Like all other ... 2005). "Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans". N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (13): 1374-1385. doi:10.1056/NEJMra052211. PMID ... The earliest infections of humans by H5N1 coincided with an epizootic (an epidemic in nonhumans) of H5N1 influenza in Hong ... This was the first reported case of lethal influenza virus infection in wild aquatic birds since 1961.[64] Genotype Z emerged ...
The infection may be entirely asymptomatic and may go unrecognized.[17] Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus either may be ... Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome ... Acute hepatitis B infection does not usually require treatment and most adults clear the infection spontaneously.[77][78] Early ... However, early in an infection, this antigen may not be present and it may be undetectable later in the infection as it is ...
Infection in pregnancy[edit]. Pregnant women show a more severe course of infection than other populations. Liver failure with ... Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt ... positive HEV RNA then the person has HEV infection. *negative HEV RNA then there is no evidence of current or recent infection ... Public Health England, infection report. "Common animal associated infections quarterly report (England and Wales) - fourth ...
Murin S, Bilello K (2005). "Respiratory tract infections: another reason not to smoke". Cleve Clin J Med. 72 (10): 916-20. doi: ... Dalam klasifikasi virus, virus influenza termasuk virus RNA yang merupakan tiga dari lima genera dalam famili Orthomyxoviridae: ... "Influenza: Viral Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition". www.merck.com. Diakses tanggal 2008-03-15.. ... 2009). "Guillain-Barré syndrome and influenza virus infection". Clin. Infect. Dis. 48 (1): 48-56. doi:10.1086/594124. PMID ...
Infections occur through contact with these bodily fluids or with contaminated surfaces. Out of a host, flu viruses can remain ... Orthomyxoviridae (ὀρθός, orthós, Greek for "straight"; μύξα, mýxa, Greek for "mucus")[1] is a family of RNA viruses. It ... Orthomyxoviridae viruses are one of two RNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus (the other being retroviridae). This is ... Vaccines and drugs are available for the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza virus infections. Vaccines are composed of ...
HIV has a tremendous capacity to destroy the body's immune system and this makes one prone to not only viral infections but ... Individuals who acquire the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) are very prone to a variety of infections. ... which further suppresses the body's ability to fight off infections. Everyone with cancer is highly susceptible and is at risk ... preventing the body from effectively defending against respiratory virus infections.[2][3][4] ...
Publications about Experts and Doctors on orthomyxoviridae infections in Atlanta, Georgia, United States ... Experts and Doctors on orthomyxoviridae infections in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Summary. Locale: Atlanta, Georgia, ... You are here: Locale , United States , Georgia , Experts and Doctors on orthomyxoviridae infections in Atlanta, Georgia, United ... Human infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant virus in the United States, 2011-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57 Suppl 1:S4-S11 ...
... and realistic animal model for studies on the pathogenesis and management of H5N1 virus infection. ... or intraperitoneal infection with Dhori virus (DHOV), adult mice developed a fulminant and uniformly fatal illness with many of ... DHORI VIRUS (ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE: THOGOTOVIRUS) INFECTION IN MICE: A MODEL OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF SEVERE ORTHOMYXOVIRUS INFECTION ... f DHORI VIRUS (ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE: THOGOTOVIRUS) INFECTION IN MICE: A MODEL OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF SEVERE ORTHOMYXOVIRUS ...
Build: Sat Feb 17 08:59:16 EST 2018 (commit: 16064c5). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
What is Orthomyxoviridae? Meaning of Orthomyxoviridae medical term. What does Orthomyxoviridae mean? ... Looking for online definition of Orthomyxoviridae in the Medical Dictionary? Orthomyxoviridae explanation free. ... A snapshot of the global therapeutic scenario for Orthomyxoviridae Infections.. Research and Markets: Orthomyxoviridae ... Quaranfil, Johnston Atoll, and Lake Chad viruses are novel members of the family Orthomyxoviridae.. Experimental Infection of ...
Orthomyxoviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ... Contribution of Serologic Assays in the Evaluation of Influenza Virus Infection Rates and Vaccine Efficacy in Pregnant Women: ...
Orthomyxoviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ... Infection. 2009 Oct;37(5):390-400. doi: 10.1007/s15010-009-8467-y. Epub 2009 Sep 18. ... There is recent evidence that infection due to influenza may precipitate vascular events such as myocardial infarctions and ...
HIV Infections. Orthomyxoviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Respiratory ... Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Slow Virus ...
Orthomyxoviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ...
Orthomyxoviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ...
Orthomyxoviridae Infections / immunology * Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control* * Vaccines, Synthetic / ...
... produced a fever approximately 24 h in duration beginning about 29 h after infection. The origin of this fever has been ... Intranasal infection of ferrets with a virulent Clone (7a) of the recombinant influenza virus A/PR/8/34-A/England/939/69 (H,sub ... Orthomyxoviridae Infections / complications * Orthomyxoviridae Infections / immunology* * Orthomyxoviridae Infections / ... Intranasal infection of ferrets with a virulent Clone (7a) of the recombinant influenza virus A/PR/8/34-A/England/939/69 (H3N2 ...
BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS ... PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.. Meningitis, ... ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS ... HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS ...
... acute HIV infection is critical to understanding subtype-specific pathophysiologic differences, since u... ... BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS ... DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal ... PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.. Meningitis, ...
Orthomyxoviridae Infections. 1. 2020. 211. 0.200. Why? Inflammation. 2. 2016. 8904. 0.200. Why? ...
Categories: Orthomyxoviridae Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2021 Elsevier B.V. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. ...
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed or attenuated vaccines. ... Gullain-Barre occur in up to 1 per million doses (but likely much higher risk with Influenza infection) ...
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed or attenuated vaccines. ... Bacterial Infections Chapter Cardiovascular Medicine Chapter Dermatology Chapter Emerging Infections Chapter Examination ... Exercising with Infection Pediatric Heath Maintenance Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Management Nursing Home Care Infection in ... Gullain-Barre occur in up to 1 per million doses (but likely much higher risk with Influenza infection) ...
We analyzed the pathology of BRBV infection in mice and found a high sensitivity of the virus to the host interferon system. ... Our data suggest that persons having severe BRBV infection might have a deficiency in their innate immunity and could benefit ... Since 2014, zoonotic BRBV infections have been verified in several human cases of severe febrile illness, occasionally with ... Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae: Thogotovirus) infection in mice: a model of the pathogenesis of severe orthomyxovirus infection. ...
Notch ligands are expressed on APC during influenza infection. C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with A/HK×31 influenza ... Figure 2: Notch ligands are expressed on APC during influenza infection. C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with A/HK×31 ... a) Five days post infection (p.i.) expression of DLL1, DLL4, Jagged1 and Jagged2 expression on lung APC subsets was measured by ... Figure 2: Notch ligands are expressed on APC during influenza infection. C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with A/HK×31 ...
Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary/virology. *RNA, Viral/analysis/genetics. *Sensitivity and Specificity. *Sequence ...
A method of inhibiting viral infection in a mammal in need of same, includes administering an effective amount of at least one ... Orthomyxoviridae. Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B,. Enveloped. Helical. ss. Influenzavirus C, Isavirus,. Thogotovirus. ... for administration to a human or animal experiencing a viral infection or at risk of a viral infection. Such pharmaceutical ... The infection pathway and timing of RSV is well known, and is set forth in the lower right corner. As can be seen, at any time ...
MATRIPTASE INHIBITORS AND USES THEREOF AGAINST ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS. The present invention provides matriptase ... OPTIMIZED THIONIN PROTECTS PLANTS AGAINST BACTERIAL INFECTIONS. Two small proteins with anti-bacterial activity are generated ... The present Invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions useful in the treatment or prevention or cure of viral infections ... such as HCV infections, and... 2017/0314021. AGENT FOR TREATING FIBROSIS OF THE INTESTINE. The present invention relates to a ...
Matriptase inhibitors and uses thereof against orthomyxoviridae infections. The present invention provides matriptase ... treating and preventing orthomyxovirus infections such as flu infections. The present... ...
Orthomyxoviridae Infections Medicine & Life Sciences * swine leukocyte antigen Medicine & Life Sciences * T-Lymphocyte Subsets ...
Articles were previously indexed as "Orthomyxoviridae Infections" or "Poultry Diseases" between 1966 and 1969. The definition ... "The term description does not mention human infection, however: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with ... The CP Group, suffering huge losses from bird flu, is trying to contain the infection, but the cat is out of the bag, so to ... On the other hand, poultry-to-poultry and wild-bird-to-wild-bird-infections have been reported on an ever-expanding scale. It ...
ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS + SWINE. Since other viral subtypes besides H1N1 can cause swine flu in swine, index with other ...
Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology Phylogeny Swine Testis/virology ... Subject(s): Humans Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis Coronavirus Infections/therapy Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology ... Particularly in Pakistan, respiratory infections account for 20% to 30% of all deaths of children. Even though these infections ... Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary Animals Dogs HEK293 Cells Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary Humans Influenza ...
Orthomyxoviridae Infections (241) * Hospitalization (238) * Influenza B virus (233) * Communicable Disease Control (225) ... Subject(s): Humans Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control Coronavirus Infections/ ... Subject(s): Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control Coronavirus Infections/ ... Acute respiratory infection. Pneumonia. World situation of 2019-nCov (WHO) Regional situation of influenza and other ...
31.6 Family Orthomyxoviridae 591. 31.6.1 Thogoto virus 591. 31.6.2 Dhori virus 592 ... Predictive modeling for emerging viral infections. Viral Infections and Global Change is an indispensable resource for research ... 14.3 Challenges in diagnosis of emerging viral infections 259. 14.4 Approaches to the diagnosis of emerging viral infections ... Part II Specific Infections 353. 19 New, Emerging, And Reemerging Respiratory Viruses 355. Fleur M. Moesker, Pieter L.A. Fraaij ...
  • Protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract on the infections by H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses in mice. (labome.org)
  • This study provides evidence that intake of ginseng extract will have beneficial effects on preventing lethal infection with newly emerging influenza viruses. (labome.org)
  • Because of the relationship of DHOV to the influenza viruses, its biosafety level 2 status, and its similar pathology in mice, the DHOV-mouse model may offer a low-cost, relatively safe, and realistic animal model for studies on the pathogenesis and management of H5N1 virus infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • Representing a major addition to the world literature on the subject, Viral Infections and Global Change explores trends of paramount concern globally, regarding the emergence and reemergence of vector-borne and zoonotic viruses. (wiley.com)
  • Even more fortunately, since there are only about a dozen different flu viruses, vaccines have been developed that can be up to 90% effective in preventing infection in the first place. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • As all the enveloped viruses, the entry of influenza viruses includes a number of steps in host cell infection. (springer.com)
  • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Index of Viruses - Orthomyxoviridae (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • Index of Viruses - Orthomyxoviridae (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • MX1 confers a high degree of resistance to infection with viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family, including influenza A virus and Thogoto virus (THOV) ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Thogotovirus is a genus of enveloped RNA viruses, one of seven genera in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genus of "Thogoto-like viruses" within Orthomyxoviridae was proposed in 1995, and recognised by the ICTV under the name Thogotovirus the following year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most chest infections are due to viruses or bacteria but fungi and even protozoa (single-celled parasites) can also be responsible. (healthhype.com)
  • Although common viral infections like the flu may cause a mild chest infection, some viruses can cause severe and even deadly chest infections. (healthhype.com)
  • It is important to note that this is not a complete list of all the possible bacteria and viruses that may cause a chest infection. (healthhype.com)
  • Some uncommon viruses and bacteria may also cause rare chest infections. (healthhype.com)
  • In this review, we briefly introduce autophagy, viral xenophagy and the interaction among autophagy, virus and immune response, then focus on the interplay between NS-RNA viruses and autophagy during virus infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have selected some exemplary NS-RNA viruses and will describe how these NS-RNA viruses regulate autophagy and the role of autophagy in NS-RNA viral replication and in immune responses to virus infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Infections caused by influenza A and B viruses remain a major source of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, due to naturally evolving strains and to their potential use as man-made bio-weapons by terrorists. (bcm.edu)
  • View Department of Pathology profile » My main research interest is to better understand the mechanisms that enable emerging viruses to evade host immune responses and cause disease, and to identify cellular factors that contribute to viral infection. (utmb.edu)
  • Influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by one of three types of influenza viruses in the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. (mdguidelines.com)
  • Currently, there are approximately 200 known respiratory viruses that can be grouped into one family of DNA viruses (Adenoviridae) and four families of RNA viruses (Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Picornaviridae and Coronaviridae). (nih.gov)
  • This would require that viruses of both subtypes coinfect the same cells, generating a mixed infection, and then reassort. (asm.org)
  • Influenza viruses (family Orthomyxoviridae ) possess a negative-strand segmented RNA genome and enveloped virions. (asm.org)
  • Having previously shown that previous immunity to one virus can influence the host response to a subsequent unrelated virus, we questioned whether the outcome to a given virus infection would be altered in similar or different ways by previous immunity to different viruses, and whether immunity to a given virus would have similar effects on all subsequent infections. (umassmed.edu)
  • Heterologous immunity thus occurs between many viruses, resulting in altered protective immunity and lung immunopathology, and this is influenced by the specific virus infection sequence. (umassmed.edu)
  • highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the recently emerged H7N9 viruses cause severe infections in humans, often with fatal outcomes. (springernature.com)
  • Here we generate influenza viruses expressing fluorescent proteins of different colours ('Color-flu' viruses) to facilitate the study of viral infection in in vivo models. (springernature.com)
  • Collectively, Color-flu viruses are powerful tools to analyse virus infections at the cellular level in vivo to better understand influenza pathogenesis. (springernature.com)
  • There are three types of influenza viruses, identified as A, B, and C. Influenza A can infect a range of animal species, including humans, pigs, horses, and birds, but only humans are infected by types B and C. Influenza A is responsible for most flu cases, while infection with types B and C virus are less common and cause a milder illness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human pathogens in the Orthomyxoviridae and Coronaviridae families, especially pandemic H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza A viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), were investigated. (osti.gov)
  • Therefore, we were interested to determine whether viruses activate membrane receptors on myeloid cells induce cytokine storms, and how these receptors contribute to complex cell-cell interactions during acute viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Influenza type A viruses are negative-sense segmented RNA viruses that belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Among these subtypes, the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses have been intensively studied since the first report of lethal human infections in 1997 ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical significance and epidemiology of HMPV, standardized comparison of frequencies of infection, age profiles and disease associations were made with other respiratory viruses in Scotland. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For samples with information on clinical presentations, 26% of HMPV infections were from subjects with lower respiratory tract presentations, lower than recorded for HRSV, but similar to adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses and influenza viruses A and B. Around 13% of HMPV infections were associated with upper respiratory tract symptoms or disease, comparable with other respiratory virus infections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Belser J, Szretter K, Katz J, Tumpey T. Simvastatin and oseltamivir combination therapy does not improve the effectiveness of oseltamivir alone following highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice. (labome.org)
  • Modest reductions in lung cytokine production in H5N1 but not H1N1 virus-infected simvastatin-treated mice indicate a potential benefit for statin use in mitigating disease following severe virus infection. (labome.org)
  • After intranasal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal infection with Dhori virus (DHOV), adult mice developed a fulminant and uniformly fatal illness with many of the clinical and pathologic findings seen in mice infected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • We analyzed the pathology of BRBV infection in mice and found a high sensitivity of the virus to the host interferon system. (cdc.gov)
  • However, in laboratory mice, Thogotoviruses show an aggressive systemic infection affecting mainly the liver, lungs, and spleen, leading to a fatal acute hepatitis. (cdc.gov)
  • DHOV is lethal to mice, causing systemic pathologic changes similar to those reported in humans with virulent influenza A (H5N1) virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • To do this, we generate novel gene-knockout mice and evaluate their disease after influenza virus or vesicular stomatitis virus infection. (wustl.edu)
  • On day 14 after viral infection, mice received 10 4 CFU of S. pneumoniae (serotype 3) intranasally. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mice recovered from influenza infection were highly susceptible to subsequent pneumococcal pneumonia, as reflected by a 100% lethality on day 3 after bacterial infection, whereas control mice showed 17% lethality on day 3 and 83% lethality on day 6 after pneumococcal infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, 1000-fold higher bacterial counts at 48 h after infection with S. pneumoniae and, particularly, 50-fold higher pulmonary levels of IL-10 were observed in influenza-recovered mice than in control mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • In conclusion, mild self-limiting influenza A infection renders normal immunocompetent mice highly susceptible to pneumococcal pneumonia. (jimmunol.org)
  • On various days during the first month after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed and their lungs assessed for acute injury (lung lavage albumin, total and differential cell counts, wet/dry ratios, and morphometry). (elsevier.com)
  • At 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed for total and differential lavage cell counts, lung hydroxyproline content, and morphometric analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Influenza virus immunity enhanced the mild mononuclear responses usually observed during acute infections with MCMV or LCMV in nonimmune mice, but unique features such as enhanced bronchiolization and mononuclear consolidation occurred during MCMV infection of influenza virus-immune mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • We show that activation of iNKT cells with alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GC) during influenza virus infection transiently enhanced early innate immune response without affecting T cell immunity, and reduced early viral titres in lungs of C57BL/6 mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We showed that NK cells from aged mice were reduced and had impaired function and altered phenotype in lungs during influenza infection. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Thus, these defects in NK cell function could impair the ability of aged mice to induce a strong antiviral immune response during the early stages of the infection. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Using an influenza infection model in mice deficient in various immunoproteasome subunits, we observe that Ag presentation and T(CD8+) repertoire are altered in an epitope-specific and immunoproteasome subunit-dependent manner. (austin.org.au)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Amantadine-oseltamivir combination therapy for H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Viral Infections and Global Change is an indispensable resource for research scientists, epidemiologists, and medical and veterinary students working in ecology, environmental management, climatology, neurovirology, virology, and infectious disease. (wiley.com)
  • Pathogenesis of influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in a primate model. (ajtmh.org)
  • Pathology of fatal human infection associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • One RNA virus of concern is the Avian influenza virus, from the family Orthomyxoviridae , which has caused historic pandemics (strains H3N2 and H1N1) and is the virus most likely to cause the next global pandemic, specifically the highly pathogenic H5N1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is likely that the H5N1 infection among birds has become endemic in certain areas, meaning the disease has become constantly present. (infotoday.com)
  • Transmission and infection of H5N1 from infected avian sources to humans is a concern due to the global spread of H5N1 that constitutes a pandemic threat. (bionity.com)
  • H5N1 infections in humans are generally caused by bird to human transmission of the virus. (bionity.com)
  • These results suggest that the potential for HPAI (H5N1) viral shedding and the movement of infected birds may be species-dependent and can help explain observed deaths associated with HPAI (H5N1) infection in anseriforms in Eurasia. (elsevier.com)
  • Swayne, David E. / Experimental infection of swans and geese with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) of Asian lineage . (elsevier.com)
  • Brown, JD , Stallknecht, DE & Swayne, DE 2008, ' Experimental infection of swans and geese with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) of Asian lineage ', Emerging infectious diseases , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 136-142. (elsevier.com)
  • The clinical management of H5N1 influenza virus infection in humans remains unclear. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Combination treatment with amantadine (15 or 30 mg/kg/day) and oseltamivir (10 mg/kg/day) provided greater protection (60% and 90%, respectively) against lethal infection with amantadine-sensitive H5N1 virus than did monotherapy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These studies highlight the potential use of DPJY01 MAb as an intranasal antiviral treatment for H5N1 influenza virus infections. (asm.org)
  • Clade 2.1 is predominant in Indonesia, the country in which H5N1 has become endemic and in which the highest number of human infections and associated fatalities have been reported. (asm.org)
  • View Department of Pediatrics profile » With the use of motivational and action-based theories, Dr. Auslander's research aims to identify factors related to parental intentions and initiation of HPV vaccination, so that these factors can be targeted in interventions to increase HPV vaccination rates, thereby providing greater vaccination coverage and protection for all against HPV-infection associated illnesses, including cervical and anal cancers. (utmb.edu)
  • Vaccination is the method of choice for the prevention of influenza infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate (see AMOXICILLIN), an aminopenicillin, and potassium clavulanate (see CLAVULANIC ACID), a beta-lactamase inhibitor, used to treat a broad-spectrum of bacterial infections, especially resistant strains. (bioportfolio.com)
  • FACTS: The flu, a.k.a. influenza, is a respiratory infection caused by strains of orthomyxoviridae. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Reassortment of segments between strains has been observed in both ticks and mammals experimentally infected with more than one thogotovirus, but its significance in natural infections is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several strains of the flu virus, ranging for the self-limiting type (meaning the infection can be controlled by the body) to the severe type such as bird flu and SARS. (homeremedieslog.com)
  • Determining the nature and frequency of mixed infection with influenza virus is therefore central to understanding the emergence of pandemic, antigenic, and drug-resistant strains. (asm.org)
  • As a result, by comparing data from mutant versus wild-type virus and host strains, RNA versus protein differential expression, and infection with genetically similar strains, these data can be used to further investigate genetic and physiological determinants of host responses to viral infection. (osti.gov)
  • At present, two strains of canine influenza infection have actually been recognized in the United States: H3N8 and H3N2. (aetapet.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the mode of cell death during in vitro ISAV infection in different Atlantic salmon cell lines, using four ISAV strains causing different mortality in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pirtle, E. C. / Porcine fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia resulting from experimental swine influenza virus infection . (nebraska.edu)
  • Whatever the answer, scientists are working at a furious pace to develop commercially available vaccines to combat a human infection pandemic should one occur. (infotoday.com)
  • Influenza is caused by influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family and there are three serotypes of influenza virus (A, B, and C) (Figure 7-21). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since the disease caused by influenza virus infection occurs more often in winter seasons, it was thought in the ancient world to be caused by the influence of astrological movements. (springer.com)
  • Infection of influenza virus causes a disease in humans with symptoms including high fever, cough, body ache, and runny nose. (springer.com)
  • The infection is communicable to humans and caused a worldwide epidemic in 1918. (dictionary.com)
  • Influenza is one of the most common viral infections experienced by humans. (homeremedieslog.com)
  • With the emerging importance of high-pathogenicity influenza A virus infections in humans, we questioned whether iNKT cells contribute to immune defence against influenza A virus and whether activation of these cells influences outcome. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Dhori virus (DHOV) is a species of the genus Thogotovirus and a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concurrent 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in ferrets and in a community in Pennsylvania. (labome.org)
  • Este artículo tiene como objetivo revisar el virus causante de esta nueva pandemia COVID-19 que afecta al mundo, mayor aún que la de influenza A H1N1 en 2009, la cual significó la muerte de cientos de miles de personas en todo el mundo. (bvsalud.org)
  • During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the United States, monovalent inactivated influenza vaccine (MIV) availability coincided with high rates of wildtype influenza infections. (jove.com)
  • Severe influenza A virus (H1N1) infection is associated with risk factors such as pregnancy, immunosuppression and obesity. (rroij.com)
  • The case is here presented of a patient with AML where pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to H1N1 infection during chemotherapy led to death on the 3rd day of treatment. (rroij.com)
  • H1N1 influenza A virus is a member of the orthomyxoviridae family. (rroij.com)
  • Infection with H1N1 influenza is also known as swine flu. (rroij.com)
  • In immunocompromised patients, the risk of death due to H1N1 infection is increased [ 1 ]. (rroij.com)
  • Mortality due to infection with Influenza A (H1N1) has been observed more frequently, especially in immunocompromised cases such as patients with underlying chronic diseases. (rroij.com)
  • Influenza A (H1N1) can also lead to more serious and prolonged infections in immunosuppressed patients such as those with AML [ 1 , 2 ]. (rroij.com)
  • The patient was considered to have pneumonia due to H1N1 influenza (swine flu) infection. (rroij.com)
  • Although influenza alone may lead to pneumonia, secondary bacterial infections during and shortly after recovery from influenza infections are much more common causes of pneumonia ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • During combined viral/bacterial infections, the severity of the infection can increase due to enhanced virulence of the influenza virus facilitated by bacterial proteases ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the host remains more susceptible to bacterial infections for several weeks after clearance of the influenza virus, which indicates that the enhanced susceptibility is not only due to an increased viral virulence ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • [19] Some bacterial infections cause severe abdominal pain and may persist for several weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both viral and bacterial infections are spread in similar ways: Coughing and sneezing. (madefortheboard.com)
  • and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. (harvard.edu)
  • Our data suggest that persons having severe BRBV infection might have a deficiency in their innate immunity and could benefit from an already approved antiviral treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Members of the Institute for Human Infections & Immunity are University of Texas Medical Branch faculty actively engaged in the study of infectious diseases and immunity. (utmb.edu)
  • View DIVA Project profile » By using my experience in network visualization and analysis, I collaborate with researchers at the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity and the Galveston National Laboratory to analyze complex data related to infectious diseases, in addition to developing new methods that accelerate the translation of discoveries into effective treatments. (utmb.edu)
  • In mouse models of respiratory viral infections, immunity to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), or influenza A virus enhanced both Th1-type cytokine responses and viral clearance in the lung on vaccinia virus infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • Immunity to influenza virus influenced subsequent infections diversely, inhibiting vaccinia virus but enhancing LCMV and MCMV titers and completely altering cytokine profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Heterologous immunity induced two patterns of disease outcome dependent on the specific virus infection sequence: improved, if the acute response switched from a neutrophilic to a lymphocytic response or worsened, if it switched from a mild to a severe lymphocytic response. (umassmed.edu)
  • We conclude that activation of iNKT cells enhances early innate immune response in the lungs and contribute to antiviral immunity and improved disease course in influenza A virus infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • NS1-ARF21-8 is presented from unspliced NS mRNA, likely from downstream initiation on a Met residue that comprises the P1 position of NS1-ARF21-8 Derived from a 14-residue peptide with no apparent biological function and negligible impacts on IAV infection, infectivity, and pathogenicity, NS1-ARF21-8 provides a clear demonstration of how immunosurveillance exploits natural errors in protein translation to provide antiviral immunity. (edu.au)
  • In this review article, we illustrate the critical roles of C-type lectin receptors in innate immunity and discuss the potential of targeting these cell surface receptors in the treatment of acute viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tick-borne infections and co-infections in patients with non-specific symptoms in Poland: Tick-borne infections and co-infections. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of the study was the evaluation of the frequency of infections and co-infections among patients hospitalized because of non-specific symptoms after a tick bite. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Symptoms arrive usually 24 hours after infection and last from 5-7 days in the average adult. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • In severe or prolonged infections there may also be symptoms like unintentional weight loss. (healthhype.com)
  • Symptoms of flu usually appear 24-48 hours after the infection. (homeremedieslog.com)
  • Once you have an infection and symptoms begin to be felt, it may last for 5-7 days (approximately one week). (homeremedieslog.com)
  • Factors that affect the length of disability include the age of the individual, any underlying chronic medical conditions, the individual's immune response, the severity of the symptoms, the type of influenza virus causing the infection, the number and severity of complications, the individual's compliance with medical treatment, the stage of illness at which medical intervention was begun, and the type of work to which the individual must return. (mdguidelines.com)
  • Approximately one to four days after infection with the influenza virus, the victim is hit with an array of symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • You should always go to see a doctor for a chest infection if you: In order to diagnose your condition, the doctor will evaluate your symptoms and perform a physical examination, during which they'll use a stethoscope to listen to your heart and lungs as you breathe. (madefortheboard.com)
  • Try these tips: Most chest infection symptoms typically go away within 7 to 10 days, although a cough can last up to three weeks. (madefortheboard.com)
  • The symptoms of a chest infection can include: A chest infection can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection. (madefortheboard.com)
  • Although roughly 90% of polio infections are asymptomatic, affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream. (listverse.com)
  • Viral infection of different cell types induces a unique spectrum of host defence genes, including interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes encoding other proteins with antiviral potential. (mdpi.com)
  • Canine influenza is a Type A influenza infection and is even more identified based upon the composition of two specific proteins in the lipid external layer of the capsid: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (aetapet.com)
  • This study will compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of intravenous ertapenem versus another intravenous antibiotic in the treatment of moderate to severe diabetic foot infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Since 2014, zoonotic BRBV infections have been verified in several human cases of severe febrile illness, occasionally with fatal outcomes, indicating a possible public health threat. (cdc.gov)
  • Primary infection with this pathogen is usually less severe than secondary infection ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, most people with healthy immune systems do not have a severe lower respiratory tract infection with the flu. (healthhype.com)
  • This does not mean that every severe chest infection in people who are immune compromised will lead to fatal outcomes. (healthhype.com)
  • As a general rule, every chest infection even in healthy individuals should be assessed and treated by a medical professional, particularly if it is severe, persisting or worsening. (healthhype.com)
  • It is often thought that bacterial chest infections are more severe. (healthhype.com)
  • Aids bacterial pneumonia multiple bacteria bacteroides infection bacteroides genus blastomycosis blastomyces dermatitidis bolivian hemorrhagic fever machupo virus trypanosoma cruzi cholera vibrio cholerae acute coryza cytomegalovirus infection cytomegalovirus gonorrhea neisseria gonorrhoeae hepatitis d hepatitis d virus human papillomavirus flu legionella pneumophila pcp severe acute respiratory syndrome sepsis multiple vzv variola minor malassezia genus toxocara canis. (washington.edu)
  • [20] However, in poor countries treatment for severe infections is often out of reach and persistent diarrhea is common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1 January and 31 December 2013, we used surveillance data on patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory infection in three Egyptian government hospitals in Damanhour district to estimate the incidence rate of laboratory -confirmed seasonal influenza . (bvsalud.org)
  • abstract = "Influenza virus infection induces a potent initial innate immune response, which serves to limit the extent of viral replication and virus spread. (elsevier.com)
  • ewingii ehrlichiosis ehrlichia ewingii human metapneumovirus infection human metapneumovirus leishmaniasis leishmania genus mycoplasma pneumonia mycoplasma pneumoniae creutzfeldt-jakob disease rickettsialpox rickettsia akari shingles toxocara canis toxocara cati. (washington.edu)
  • View Sealy Center for Molecular Medicine profile » Dr. Bao's research focuses on host-virus interaction, particularly in the infection of RSF and hMPV, with the goal of generating suitable vaccine candidates to prevent paramyxovirus infection. (utmb.edu)
  • hepatica ev71 helicobacter pylori infection helicobacter pylori hepatitis e hepatitis e virus hmpv orthomyxoviridae meningococcal disease neisseria meningitidis molluscum contagiosum chlamydia trachomatis crab lice pneumonia multiple q fever coxiella burnetii trichophyton genus pityriasis versicolor toxocariasis trichomoniasis trichomonas vaginalis entomophthorales.Propionibacterium propionicus trypanosoma brucei arcanobacterium haemolyticum infection arcanobacterium haemolyticum bacterial pneumonia multiple bacteria colorado tick fever dracunculiasis dracunculus medinensis fifth disease group a streptococcal infection streptococcus. (washington.edu)
  • In the 2006-2007 respiratory season, 70% of HMPV isolates were genotype A, but a switch to predominantly type B infections occurred next winter. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Secondary bacterial infection (pneumonia) is the most common and results from weakened immune system. (google.com)
  • Secondary pneumococcal pneumonia is a serious complication during and shortly after influenza infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • We established a mouse model to study postinfluenza pneumococcal pneumonia and evaluated the role of IL-10 in host defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae after recovery from influenza infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • The severity of secondary bacterial pneumonia during or shortly after influenza infection is determined by a complex interaction among virus, bacteria, and host. (jimmunol.org)
  • Therefore a chest infection should be understood to refer to a lower respiratory tract infection (tracheitis and/or bronchitis) and/or pneumonia (lungs). (healthhype.com)
  • Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) can be associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from self-limited upper respiratory tract infections to more devastating conditions, such as pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • Acute bronchitis is most often caused by a viral infection, and pneumonia most often has a bacterial culprit. (madefortheboard.com)
  • a) Five days post infection (p.i.) expression of DLL1, DLL4, Jagged1 and Jagged2 expression on lung APC subsets was measured by flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
  • One of the most frequent complications is the development of new infections. (bioportfolio.com)
  • For example, elderly people are at a greater risk of serious complications and even death from a chest infection, as are people who have a weakened immune system such as people with AIDS or those on certain immune-suppressing treatments. (healthhype.com)
  • Immunosuppressed patients, such as those with AML, are more susceptible to infection with influenza and infection-associated complications. (rroij.com)
  • Yet, Notch ligands were virtually undetectable on other populations of MHCII+ cells present in lungs, even upon infection with influenza (Supplementary Fig. 3c). (nih.gov)
  • A chest infection usually refers to an infection of the lower respiratory tract (trachea, bronchi) and/or lungs. (healthhype.com)
  • It may also sometimes be used to the describe an infection of the lining around the lungs (pleura ~ pleuritis). (healthhype.com)
  • The flu (seasonal influenza) is a viral infection that can affect the entire respiratory tract, from the nose all the way down to the lungs. (healthhype.com)
  • When the trachea, bronchi and/or lungs are involved then the flu is technically a chest infection. (healthhype.com)
  • It is therefore not a chest infection although secondary infections can follow the cold and affect the trachea, bronchi and/or lungs. (healthhype.com)
  • A chest infection is an infection that affects your lower large airways (bronchi) and your lungs. (madefortheboard.com)
  • The Danish Study Group of Infections of the Brain is a collaboration between all departments of infectious diseases in Denmark. (bioportfolio.com)
  • When known, we describe how these virus-associated effects influence replication of the virus and contribute to diseases associated with infection by that specific virus. (springer.com)
  • Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. (bvsalud.org)
  • WHO estimates that 131 million new cases of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections occur globally every year. (bioportfolio.com)
  • [19] Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) may occur due to infection with Shiga toxin -producing Escherichia coli or Shigella species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza outbreaks occur suddenly, and infection spreads rapidly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It also provides up-to-date coverage of both the clinical aspects and basic science behind an array of specific emerging and reemerging infections, including everything from West Nile fever and Rift Valley fever to zoonotic hepatitis E and human bunyavirus. (wiley.com)
  • The viral load, immune and stress response were determined in individual fish by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) on the blood cells, as well as the haematocrit used as an indicator of haemolysis, a clinical consequence of ISAV infection. (uliege.be)
  • Describe the clinical manifestations of parainfluenza virus infection? (cueflash.com)
  • According to the guideline, a sinus infection is bacterial rather than a viral if any of the three following conditions are present: Bacterial Sinus Infection lasts for at least ten days without any evidence of clinical improvement. (madefortheboard.com)
  • Some dogs can be exposed to the infection and fight off infection without showing clinical signs. (aetapet.com)
  • The mildy virulent clinical group results from infection by low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus with low mortality and mild respiratory disease or drops in egg production. (barnhealth.com)
  • We treated Huh7 cells with recombinant human IFN-α2a (PBL Assay Science, https://www.pblassaysci.com ) or recombinant human IFN-γ (R&D Systems, https://www.rndsystems.com ) 16 h before and 2 h after infection. (cdc.gov)
  • To test antivirals, we treated Huh7 cells with ribavirin (Sigma-Aldrich, https://www.sigmaaldrich.com ) or favipiravir/T-705 (BioVision, https://www.biovision.com ) 2 h after infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, expression of Notch ligands is induced by influenza infection on the APC that prime naive CD8+ T cells, positioning these molecules for a potential role in differentiation of virus specific CD8+ T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Each of our cells contains antiviral factors that work to inhibit infection. (plos.org)
  • Irg1 expression in myeloid cells prevents immunopathology during M. tuberculosis infection. (wustl.edu)
  • Activation of invariant NKT cells enhances the innate immune response and improves the disease course in influenza A virus infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Aged NK cells demonstrated decreased IFN-γ production, but not degranulation, after influenza infection. (qub.ac.uk)
  • SIV infection in PK-15 and HeLa cells was shown to decrease the cellular levels of Bcl-2 protein compared to that of mock-infected control cells at 24 h post-infection, whereas expression levels of Bax protein increased in the PK-15 cells, but did not increase in HeLa cells by SIV infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, SIV infection increased the cellular levels of TAJ, an activator of the JNK- stressing pathway, and the c-Jun protein in the PK-15 and HeLa cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that the mitochondrial pathway should be implicated in the apoptosis of PK-15 cells induced by SIV infection. (elsevier.com)
  • In vitro , ISAV infection causes cytophatic effect (CPE) in cell lines from Atlantic salmon, leading to rounding and finally detachment of the cells from the substratum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Serum ferritin, transferrin, iron and haptoglobin have been investigated in a longitudinal study in 18 patients hospitalized for various acute infections. (madefortheboard.com)
  • This study will establish whether the patient population of the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic is suitable for the study of early, acute infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Notch promoted the differentiation of immediately protective TECs and was correspondingly required for the clearance of acute infection with influenza virus. (nih.gov)
  • Influenza infection is known to increase adherence of and subsequent colonization with bacterial respiratory pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
  • Some of the pathogens have responsible for a chest infection have been listed below. (healthhype.com)
  • exceptions include dengue , yellow fever , Zika virus infection , and chikungunya disease , which can be transmitted from person to person via mosquitoes. (merckmanuals.com)
  • en] Monitoring the immune response in fish over the progression of a disease is traditionally carried out by experimental infection whereby animals are killed at regular intervals and samples taken. (uliege.be)
  • Sometimes patients can present with recurrent infections due to a secondary cause such as anatomic differences, or some other systemic illness such as an immune disease or defect. (madefortheboard.com)
  • Individual Monitoring of Immune Response in Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar following Experimental Infection with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV). (uliege.be)
  • It depends on the causative infectious agent, severity of the infection, immune defenses and any pre-existing conditions. (healthhype.com)
  • In these cases the secondary infection would be referred to as a chest infection. (healthhype.com)
  • Influenza victims are also susceptible to potentially life-threatening secondary infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antibiotics might be used if there is a secondary bacterial infection. (aetapet.com)
  • From 1998 to 2018, more than 630 cases of NiV human infections were reported. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Influenza infections belong to the household Orthomyxoviridae. (aetapet.com)
  • Treatment of respiratory virus infections. (nih.gov)
  • El brote de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), causado por el virus del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo tipo-2 (SARS-CoV-2), fue decla-rado como una pandemia en marzo de 2020. (bvsalud.org)