A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising tick-borne viruses occasionally infecting humans. Dhori and Thogoto viruses were formerly thought to be members of BUNYAVIRIDAE. Thogoto virus is the type species.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NOVA SCOTIA; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Fredericton. It was named in honor of King George III, of the House of Hanover, also called Brunswick. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p828 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.

Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. (1/2148)

The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses. Others have attempted to examine the requirement of PKR in these roles by targeted disruption at the amino terminal-encoding region of the Pkr gene. By using a strategy that aims at disruption of the catalytic domain of PKR, we have generated mice that are genetically ablated for functional PKR. Similar to the other mouse model of Pkr disruption, we have observed no consequences of loss of PKR on tumor suppression. Anti-viral response to influenza and vaccinia also appeared to be normal in mice and in cells lacking PKR. Cytokine signaling in the type I interferon pathway is normal but may be compromised in the erythropoietin pathway in erythroid bone marrow precursors. Contrary to the amino-terminal targeted Pkr mouse, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and the anti-viral apoptosis response to influenza is not impaired in catalytic domain-targeted Pkr-null cells. The observation of intact eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha phosphorylation in these Pkr-null cells provides proof of rescue by another eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase(s).  (+info)

Maturation, activation, and protection of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA. (2/2148)

The initiation of an immune response is critically dependent on the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). This process is triggered by surface receptors specific for inflammatory cytokines or for conserved patterns characteristic of infectious agents. Here we show that human DCs are activated by influenza virus infection and by double-stranded (ds)RNA. This activation results not only in increased antigen presentation and T cell stimulatory capacity, but also in resistance to the cytopathic effect of the virus, mediated by the production of type I interferon, and upregulation of MxA. Because dsRNA stimulates both maturation and resistance, DCs can serve as altruistic antigen-presenting cells capable of sustaining viral antigen production while acquiring the capacity to trigger naive T cells and drive polarized T helper cell type 1 responses.  (+info)

Induction of CD8+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi. (3/2148)

Trypanosoma cruzi was transformed with the Plasmodium yoelii gene encoding the circum-sporozoite (CS) protein, which contains the well-characterized CD8+ T cell epitope, SYVPSAEQI. In vivo and in vitro assays indicated that cells infected with the transformed T. cruzi could process and present this malaria parasite-derived class I MHC-restricted epitope. Immunization of mice with recombinant influenza and vaccinia viruses expressing the SYVPSAEQI epitope induced a large number of specific CD8+ T cells that strongly suppressed parasitemia and conferred complete protection against the acute T. cruzi lethal infection. CD8+ T cells mediated this immunity as indicated by the unrelenting parasitemia and high mortality observed in immunized mice treated with anti-CD8 antibody. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that vaccination of mice with vectors designed to induce CD8+ T cells is effective against T. cruzi infection.  (+info)

Protection of mice against a lethal influenza virus challenge after immunization with yeast-derived secreted influenza virus hemagglutinin. (4/2148)

The A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2-subtype) hemagglutinin (HA) gene was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted molecule. The HA cDNA lacking the C-terminal transmembrane anchor-coding sequence was fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor secretion signal and placed under control of the methanol-inducible P. pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. Growth of transformants on methanol-containing medium resulted in the secretion of recombinant non-cleaved soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s). Remarkably, the pH of the induction medium had an important effect on the expression level, the highest level being obtained at pH 8.0. The gel filtration profile and the reactivity against a panel of different HA-conformation specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that HA0s was monomeric. Analysis of the N-linked glycans revealed a typical P. pastoris type of glycosylation, consisting of glycans with 10-12 glycosyl residues. Mice immunized with purified soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s) showed complete protection against a challenge with 10 LD50 of mouse-adapted homologous virus (X47), whereas all control mice succumbed. Heterologous challenge with X31 virus [A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2-subtype)], resulted in significantly higher survival rates in the immunized group compared with the control group. These results, together with the safety, reliability and economic potential of P. pastoris, as well as the flexibility and fast adaptation of the expression system may allow development of an effective recombinant influenza vaccine.  (+info)

Isolation of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) from Atlantic salmon in New Brunswick, Canada. (5/2148)

Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) was isolated at a marine grow-out site in New Brunswick, Canada, from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar which experienced mortalities due to hemorrhagic kidney syndrome (HKS). Of 20 fish sampled in this study, 14 showed histologically various degrees of interstitial hemorrhaging, tubular epithelial degeneration and necrosis, and tubular casts in the posterior kidney, typical of HKS. Posterior kidney and spleen homogenates produced a cytopathic effect on chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells 10 to 14 d after inoculation. Pleomorphic virus particles in the size range 80 to 120 nm were seen by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed as ISAV using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This is a systematic diagnostic study of the isolation of ISAV on the North American continent and the first description of the growth of ISAV on the CHSE-214 cell line.  (+info)

Genomic relationships of the North American isolate of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) to the Norwegian strain of ISAV. (6/2148)

Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were determined for a 436 bp reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cDNA fragment from genome segment 8 and a 1151 bp RT-PCR cDNA fragment from genome segment 2 of the North American isolate of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) and compared to the published sequences of Norwegian isolates of ISAV. The North American ISAV isolate exhibited 82.9% identity with the Sotra 92/93 ISAV isolate from Norway in the partial cDNA sequence of genome segment 2, which encodes a polymerase component protein (PB1). The North American ISAV exhibited 88 and 89% identity with 2 partial cDNA sequences of genome segment 8 (nonstructural, NS, gene) reported for the Glesvaer/2/90 isolate from Norway. The North American ISAV exhibited 96.6% similarity with the Sotra 92/93 ISAV isolate from Norway in the deduced amino acid sequences of the PB1 protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of the protein encoded in the partial cDNA fragment of open reading frame (ORF) 1 of genome segment 8 of the North American ISAV exhibited only 71.2 and 66.7% similarity with the 2 sequences of the Norwegian Glesvaer/2/90 isolate. However, the North American ISAV isolate exhibited 96.2 and 87.2% similarity with the 2 sequences of the Norwegian Glesvaer/2/90 isolate in the deduced amino acid sequences of the protein encoded in the partial cDNA of ORF 2. Comparison of these partial cDNA nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences confirmed that the North American isolate is ISAV. However, the differences observed in these genomic sequences suggest that the North American isolate may represent a distinct genomic variant from the previously described Norwegian strains.  (+info)

First identification of infectious salmon anaemia virus in North America with haemorrhagic kidney syndrome. (7/2148)

Haemorrhagic kidney syndrome (HKS), a serious disease affecting Atlantic salmon on the east coast of Canada, was determined to be caused by infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) through the isolation of the pathogen on the SHK-1 (salmon head kidney) cell line and confirmation by ISAV-specific immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, the defining histopathology of HKS could be reproduced following the injection of material that rendered challenged fish ISAV-positive by cell culture in the absence of any other detectable pathogen. Preliminary nucleotide sequence comparison does not suggest any direct epidemiological connection between the Canadian and Norwegian isolates.  (+info)

Ortho- and paramyxoviruses from migrating feral ducks: characterization of a new group of influenza A viruses. (8/2148)

Ortho- and parainfluenza viruses isolated from the cloacas of migrating feral ducks shot on the Mississippi flyway included three strains of influenza. A virus (Hav6 Nav1, Hav6 Nl, Hav7 Neq2) as well as Newcastle disease virus. One influenza virus, A/duck/Memphis/546/74, possessed Hav3 haemagglutinin, but the neuraminidase was not inhibited by any of the known influenza reference antisera. The neuraminidase on this virus was related to the neuraminidases on A/duck/GDR/72 (H2 N?), A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (Hav 5 N?), A/duck/Ukraine/1/60 (Hav3 N?) and A/turkey/Wisconsin/68. We therefore propose that the neuraminidase on this group of influenza viruses be designated Nav6. The A/duck/Memphis/546/74 influenza virus caused an ocular discharge in 1 of 5 ducks and was shed in faeces for 10 days; it was stable in faecal samples for up to 3 days at 20 degrees C. These results suggest that ecological studies on influenza in avian species should include attempts to isolate virus from faeces. Faecal-oral transmission is an attractive explanation for the spread of influenza virus from feral birds to other animals.  (+info)

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Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Brown DW, Cheung F, Proctor RH, Butchko RA, Zheng L, Lee Y, Utterback T, Smith S, Feldblyum T, Glenn AE, Plattner RD, Kendra DF, Town CD, Whitelaw CA ...
Poznamo dve vrsti kostnega mozga: rdeči in rumeni kostni mozeg. Rdeči sestoji zlasti iz krvotvornega tkiva, rumeni pa iz maščobnih celic. Krvne celice (rdeče krvničke, krvne ploščice in bele krvničke) nastajajo v rdečem kostnem mozgu. V obeh vrstah kostnega mozga so prisotne številne žile in kapilare. Ob rojstvu je ves kostni mozeg rdeč. Z odraščanjem se ga čedalje več spreminja v rumenega in pri odraslem je le še okoli polovica vsega kostnega mozga rdečega.[2] Rdeči kostni mozeg se nahaja pri odraslih zlasti v ploščatih kosteh, kot so medenica, prsnica, lobanja, rebra, hrbtenica in lopatica, in v gobastem tkivu okrajkov (epifiz) dolgih kosti (stegnenica, nadlahtnica ...). Rumeni kostni mozeg se nahaja v kostnih votlinah v srednjem predelu dolgih kosti. Rumeni kostni mozeg se lahko v primeru povečanih potreb, na primer pri obilnih krvavitvah, pretvori zopet v rdečega in s tem se poveča krvotvorna zmožnost organizma. ...
Throughout an RDE test, the RDE CoDriver app calculates and visualizes real-time information based on the data from a wirelessly connected PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement System), such as the OBS-ONE. The app immediately informs the driver in case of a failure, reducing wasted test time and resources to a minimum ...
NARAVNE BARVE V PRAHU IN BARVE ZA MILA. NARAVNE BARVE V PRAHU IN BARVE ZA MILA. TRGOVINA. Rdeča pesa v prahu. Rdeča pesa je s svojo sestavo več kot odlična pri izdelavi balzamov za usta, kopeli, kopalnih bomb...
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Arbete och människovärde: Recension av Lena Erikssons avhandling - Arbete till varje pris. Arbetslinjen i 1920-talets arbetslöshetspolitik. Acta Universitatis Stockholmniensis, Stockholm Studies in History, nr 75, Stockholm 2004. ...
Eozinofilik gastroenterit gastrointestinal sistemin eozinofilik infiltrasyonu ile karakterize nadir bir hastal kt r. En s k tutulan organ midedir ve takiben ince barsak ve kolon tutulur. Ancak, eozinofilik gastroenteritte mesane tutulumu ok nadirdir. Literat rde u ana kadar yaln zca eozinofilik sistit ile ili kili eozinofilik gastroenterit tan s konulan 6 vaka yay nlanm t r. Periferal hipereozinofili, kar n a r s , diyare ve assit ile ba vuran bu vakalar n hipereozinofili yapan di er hastal klar d land ktan sonra steroid ile efektif olarak tedavi edildi i bildirilmi tir. ...
KERACNYL SERUM je namenjen koži nagnjeni k nastanku aken in z zgodnjimi znaki staranja: nepravilnosti, mozolji, trajne rdeče brazgotine in rjavi madeži, prve gube.
Braciale, T J., Immunologic recognition of influenza virus-infected cells. II. Expression of influenza a matrix protein on the infected cell surface and its role in recognition by cross-reactive cytotoxic t cells. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1114 ...
Although influenza is usually a self-limited disease with rare sequelae, it can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality in older persons or those with chronic diseases. Influenza vaccines produce long-lasting immunity. However, antigenic shifts, primarily in type A rather than type B influenza virus, require yearly reformulation of the vaccine to contain the antigens of strains considered most likely to cause disease. Protection is correlated with the development of antihemagglutinin and antineuraminidase antibodies, which decrease the patients susceptibility and the severity of the disease. The influenza vaccine is as effective in HIV-seropositive patients as it is in HIV-seronegative patients, regardless of the individuals CD4+ T-cell counts. In the United States, annual vaccination is recommended for all adults and for children older than 6 months. The influenza vaccine is well tolerated, and there has been no increased risk of neurologic complications with the vaccines ...
Hemagglutinin (HA) is the receptor-binding and membrane fusion glycoprotein of influenza virus and the target for infectivity-neutralizing antibodies. The structures of three conformations of the ectodomain of the 1968 Hong Kong influenza virus HA have been determined by X-ray crystallography: the single-chain precursor, HA0; the metastable neutral-pH conformation found on virus, and the fusion pH-induced conformation. These structures provide a framework for designing and interpreting the results of experiments on the activity of HA in receptor binding, the generation of emerging and reemerging epidemics, and membrane fusion during viral entry. Structures of HA in complex with sialic acid receptor analogs, together with binding experiments, provide details of these low-affinity interactions in terms of the sialic acid substituents recognized and the HA residues involved in recognition. Neutralizing antibody-binding sites surround the receptor-binding pocket on the membrane-distal surface of HA, ...
Seroconversion for A/England/42/72 (H3N2) virus occurred in a child in Calcutta in August 1971, one month after the virus was first isolated in India. During the following 5 months a small increase was observed in the geometric mean titres (GMT). In
Influenza virus infection of the lungs causes a contagious acute respiratory disease that may result in severe complications such as pneumonia. Despite the acti...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Innate Immune Response to Influenza Virus at Single-Cell Resolution in Human Epithelial Cells Revealed Paracrine Induction of Interferon Lambda 1 ...
Description flu Influenza is an acute infectious disease of the respiratory system that is spread by droplet path. The cause of it is an RNA virus (family of orthomyxoviruses, genus Influenzavirus) that can be propagated and penetrating through the airway mucosa. The incubation period is 1-3 days.
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Influenza atau flu adalah penyakit menular burung dan mamalia yang disebabkan oleh virus RNA dari famili Orthomyxoviridae yang menyerang saluran napas.Virus flu menyerang sel-sel permukaan saluran napas. Jaringan menjadi bengkak dan meradang.Namun,meskipun rusak jaringan ini akan sembuh dalam beberapa minggu. … Continue reading →. ...
Befolkningshistoriska materials underrapportering av kvinnors yrken är känd blandhistoriker men dess omfattning och natur har varit svår att klargöra. För att belysa dennaproblematik och diskutera dess orsaker undersöker studien hur kyrkböcker beskriverkvinnors arbete i Sundsvall 1870-1890 jämfört med andra källor. Även om resultatenförstärker det tvivel som forskare har rest över befolkningshistoriska materials dokumentationav kvinnors yrken, lämnar de viktig information om både kvinnors arbeteoch familj som måste analyseras närmare för att avgöra deras position i historien.. ...
The AWRIs Research, Development and Extension Plan 2017-2025 presents projects organised under five key themes and twenty-one subthemes
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Koncentrirana emulzija, ki cilja na znake preobčutljivosti, nelagodja in razdraženosti. Serum odpravlja rdečico, srbečico in razdraženost, hkrati pa lajša žgoč občutek na koži. Formula je prijazna do integritete kože ter podpira vlaženje, kožno bariero ter splošno dermalno obnovo. AKTIVNE TEHNOLOGIJE Bioaktivni glukozi
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Testbiotech verfolgt kontinuierlich die EU Zulassungen gentechnisch veränderter Organismen. In einer Datenbank kann der Stand der Zulassungen eingesehen werden, zudem finden Sie Stellungnahmen von Testbiotech. Über aktuelle Zulassungsverfahren und die Arbeit der Europäischen Lebensmittelbehörde EFSA informiert der Infodienst Testbiotech-EU-Nachrichten.Testbiotech hat zusammen
Antisera to the type-specific internal influenza virus matrix (M) protein of a type A influenza virus were produced in goats. In the presence of complement, anti-M serum was cytotoxic for target cells which were infected with a variety of serologically distinct type A influenza viruses, but did not react with type B influenza virus-infected cells. Absorption experiments indicated that anti-M serum detected a common antigen(s) on the surface of type A-infected cells. This serological cross-reactivity parallels the cross-reactivity observed for the cytotoxic T-cell response to type A viruses. ...
Influenza virus NS2 is well known for its role in vRNP (viral RNP) nuclear export; however, its function has not been fully understood. A recent study showed that NS2 might interact with HIST1H1C (H1C, H1.2). Histones have been found to affect influenza virus replication, such as the H2A, H2B, H3 and H4, but H1 has not been detected. Here, we found that H1C interacts with NS2 via its C-terminal in the nucleus and that H1C affects influenza virus replication. The H1N1 influenza virus replicates better in H1C knockout A549 cells compared to wild-type A549 cells, primarily because of the regulation of H1C on IFN-β. Further studies showed that the H1C phosphorylation mutant (T146A) decreases IFN-β, while H1C methylation mutants (K34A, K187A) increases IFN-β by releasing the nucleosome and promoting IRF3 binding to the IFN-β promoter. Interestingly, NS2 interacts with H1C, which reduces H1C-IRF3 interaction and results in the inhibition of IFN-β enhanced by H1C. In summary, our study reveals a novel
The presence of sulphate groups on various saccharide residues of N-linked carbohydrate units has now been observed in a number of glycoproteins. To explore the cell specificity of this post-translational modification, we evaluated sulphate incorporation into virus envelope glycoproteins by a variety of cells, since it is believed that assembly of their N-linked oligosaccharides is to a large extent dependent on the enzymic machinery of the host. Employing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) envelope glycoprotein (G protein) as a model, we noted that the addition of [35S]sulphate substituents into its complex carbohydrate units occurred in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), Madin-Darby bovine kidney, LLC-PK1 and BHK-21 cell lines but was not detectable in BRL 3A, BW5147.3, Chinese hamster ovary, HepG2, NRK-49F, IEC-18, PtK1 or 3T3 cells. The sulphate groups were exclusively located on C-3 of galactose [Gal(3-SO4)] and/or C-6 of N-acetylglucosamine [GlcNAc(6-SO4)] residues in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of action of the suppression of influenza virus replication by Ko-Ken Tang through inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway and viral RNP nuclear export. AU - Wu, Ming Sian. AU - Yen, Hung Rong. AU - Chang, Chia Wen. AU - Peng, Tsui Yi. AU - Hsieh, Chung Fan. AU - Chen, Chi Jene. AU - Lin, Tzou Yien. AU - Horng, Jim Tong. PY - 2011/4/12. Y1 - 2011/4/12. N2 - Aims of the study: Ko-Ken Tang (KKT, aka kakkon-to), a conventional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for the treatment of the common cold, fever and influenza virus infection. However, the underlying mechanism of its activity against influenza virus infection remains elusive. In this study, the antiviral effect and its underlying mechanism was evaluated, including the investigation of anti-influenza virus activity of KKT on MDCK cells and corresponding mechanism related to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and its consecutive viral RNP nuclear export. ...
10 things to remember about Orthomyxoviridae. 1. Orthomyxomeans true mucous. a. Influenza is the Italian form of latin influential which means influence. 2. Similar to Paramyxoviridae. a. Similar envelope glycoproteins. b. For Orthomyxoviruses, HA functions as tropogen binding and fusion. Neuraminidase has an enzymatic function.. For Paramyxoviruses, HN functions as tropogen binding and enzymatic function. F serves the fusion function.. 3. 5 genera. a. Influenza A - most common in humans. b. Influenza B - can also infect humans. A and B are the principal pathogens that infect humans. c. Influenza C - not usually pathogenic in humans d. Thogotovirus - found in ticks but can be transmitted to humans. e. Isavirus - found in salmon and fish. Non-human. 4. Causes Influenza. a. Influenza or flu is known as a syndrome, and many other illnesses are described as flu-like symptoms. Symptoms of influenza are rapid onset, high fever, respiratory symptoms, and generalized muscular aches (myalgias). ...
Shop Influenza virus NS1A-binding protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Influenza virus NS1A-binding protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Influenza virus NS1 protein stimulates translation of the M1 protein.: The influenza virus NS1 protein was shown to stimulate translation of the M1 protein. M-C
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Membrane protein transfer from influenza virus-infected cells to liposomes was examined in several experimental conditions using gel-filtration, SDS PAGE and fluorescent microscopy. In gel-filtration it was found that membrane protein spontaneously transferred from cell membrane to liposomal membrane during incubation of liposomes with cells, accompanied by some leaks of non-membrane protein.The amount of membrane protein incorporated into liposomal membrane was proportional to that of total protein released from cells. SDS PAGE experiment after immunoprecipitation confirmed the transfer of influenza antigenic protein from influenza virus-infected cells membrane to liposomal membrane. Fluorescent image was observed all around liposome surface in microscopy using fluorescence antibody, suggesting the transferred antigenic protein was incorporated throughout into liposomal membrane.. ...
The segmented genome of an influenza virus is encapsidated into ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). Unusually among RNA viruses, influenza viruses replicate in the nucleus of an infected cell, and their RNPs must therefore recruit host factors to ensure transport across a number of cellular compartments during the course of an infection. Recent studies have shed new light on many of these processes, including the regulation of nuclear export, genome packaging, mechanisms of virion assembly and viral entry and, in particular, the identification of Rab11 on recycling endosomes as a key mediator of RNP transport and genome assembly. This review uses these recent gains in understanding to describe in detail the journey of an influenza A virus RNP from its synthesis in the nucleus through to its entry into the nucleus of a new host cell.
The segmented genome of an influenza virus is encapsidated into ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). Unusually among RNA viruses, influenza viruses replicate in the nucleus of an infected cell, and their RNPs must therefore recruit host factors to ensure transport across a number of cellular compartments during the course of an infection. Recent studies have shed new light on many of these processes, including the regulation of nuclear export, genome packaging, mechanisms of virion assembly and viral entry and, in particular, the identification of Rab11 on recycling endosomes as a key mediator of RNP transport and genome assembly. This review uses these recent gains in understanding to describe in detail the journey of an influenza A virus RNP from its synthesis in the nucleus through to its entry into the nucleus of a new host cell.
Influenza viruses have been identified with NA molecules that serve as receptor binding proteins, a function usually reserved for the HA glycoprotein.
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(CIDRAP News) In an effort to overcome the difficult problem of predicting which influenza B strain will circulate in any given season, MedImmune has filed for US approval of a quadrivalent (four-strain) flu vaccine containing two influenza B strains.The idea of a quadrivalent flu vaccine has been discussed for several years, but MedImmunes application apparently is the first attempt to license such a vaccine in the United States.
Compare influenza virus NS1A binding protein ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Summary A new procedure for the separation of influenza virus particle ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) by electrophoresis on a slab of polyacrylamide gel resolves five discrete bands. The largest is a triplet containing the three largest RNAs (1 to 3), the intermediate sized RNP is a doublet containing RNAs 5 and 6 and the others each contain a single RNA. In addition, each RNP is composed of NP protein and an amount of M which is independent of the size of the RNP. This suggests that some virus particle M is specifically associated with influenza ribonucleoprotein.
in Journal of virology (2016), 90(4), 2039-51. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their ... [more ▼]. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their profit different pathways of glycan synthesis. Thus, the Bo17 gene of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 protein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M), which is a key player for the synthesis of complex O-glycans. Surprisingly, we show in this study that, as opposed to what is observed for the cellular enzyme, two different mRNAs are encoded by the Bo17 gene of all available BoHV-4 strains. While the first one corresponds to the entire coding sequence of the Bo17 gene, the ...
Nguyen Quang N, Goudey S, Ségéral E, Mohammad A, Lemoine S, Blugeon C, Versapuech M, Paillart JC, Berlioz-Torrent C, Emiliani S, Gallois-Montbrun S. Dynamic nanopore long-read sequencing analysis of HIV-1 splicing events during the early steps of infection. Retrovirology. 2020 Aug 17;17(1):25.. Leymarie O, Lepont L, Versapuech M, Abelanet S, Judith D, Janvier K and Berlioz-Torrent C. Contribution of the cytoplasmic determinants of Vpu to the expansion of virus containing compartments in HIV-1 infected macrophages. J Virol. 2019 May 15;93(11).. Bonnard D, Le Rouzic E, Eiler S, Amadori C, Orlov I, Bruneau JM, Brias J, Barbion J, Chevreuil F, Spehner D, Chasset S, Ledoussal B, Moreau F, Saïb A, Klaholz BP, Emiliani S, Ruff M, Zamborlini A, Benarous R. Structure-function analyses unravel distinct effects of allosteric inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase on viral maturation and integration. J Biol Chem. 2018 Apr 20;293(16):6172-6186.. Dejarnac O, Hafirassou ML, Chazal M, Versapuech M, Gaillard J, ...
Zanamivir is used for the treatment and prevention of type A and type B influenza in adults and children. This eMedTV segment offers more detailed information on zanamivir uses, including how the medication works and how it is used in children.
Role of Influenza Virus Polymerase in Host Adaptation: We participate in the virology research team of the New York Influenza Center of Excellence (NYICE), which is part of the NIH Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) network. Our focus is on the influenza virus RNA polymerase, and understanding how it contributes to host adaptation. We characterize the polymerase activities of avian and human strains, and identify residues and subunits of the polymerase complex important for the enhanced activity in mammalian hosts in vitro and in vivo. URSMD Collaborators = David Topham, John Treanor, Steve Dewhurst, Baek Kim. ...
With the remarkable increase of microbial and viral sequence data obtained from high-throughput DNA sequencers, novel tools are needed for comprehensive analysis of the big sequence data. We have developed
Once the (-) strand influenza viral RNAs enter the nucleus, they serve as templates for the synthesis of mRNAs. These molecules are then transported back to the cytoplasm, where they direct the synthesis of viral proteins. However, the mRNAs are not complete copies of the viral (-) strand RNAs - they are missing sequen
Description: Influenzavirus B Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the Influenzavirus B Infections (Oncology) pipeline landscape.
The latest research in preventing deaths from the flu and its connection to socks, and Storm, the most kick ass of all X-Men. Ok, so this is perhaps a fairly…... ...
The influenza virus, a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae (Greek myxa, means mucus), is one of the worlds most important and dangerous respiratory pathogens.
As flu-watchers like to say, you can always count on influenza virus to surprise. The latest revelation is that scientists have apparently been wrong about
The first antibiotic, Penicillin, was discovered in 1928 by a Scottish biologist named Sir Alexander Fleming while he was experimenting on influenza virus. He
Callstack: at Proteins/NESGC/2rde at Template:Protein at template MindTouch.Deki.Script.Runtime.DekiScriptUndefinedNameException: reference to undefined name note Exception of type MindTouch.Deki.Script.Runtime.DekiScriptUndefinedNameException was thrown. at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Visit (MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptVar expr, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptVar.VisitWith[DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState,Range] (IDekiScriptExpressionVisitor`2 visitor, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Evaluate (MindTouch.Deki.Script.Expr.DekiScriptAccess expr, DekiScriptExpressionEvaluationState state, Boolean evaluateProperties) [0x00000] in ,filename unknown,:0 at MindTouch.Deki.Script.Compiler.DekiScriptExpressionEvaluation.Visit ...
Entwicklung von molekularen Werkzeugen zur Untersuchung einer Funktion der Proteinkinase D in der Organisation des Golgi Komplexes Von der Fakultät für Energie-, Verfahrensund Biotechnik der Universität Stuttgart zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) genehmigte Abhandlung Vorgelegt von Stephan Alexander Eisler aus Karlsruhe Hauptberichter: Prof. Dr. Klaus Pfizenmaier Mitberichterin: Prof. Dr. Monilola Olayioye Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 01.08.2012
Bargstall (Rendsburg-Eckernförde, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) with population statistics, charts, map, location, weather and web information.
Der fallende Dollar entwickelt sich weltweit zu einer Quelle profunder makroökonomischer Drangsal. Die Frage ist nun, wie schlimm diese Drangsal wird. Ist die Weltwirtschaft in Gefahr? Es gibt zwei Möglichkeiten. Falls Sparer und Investoren weltweit von einer weiteren Abwertung des Dollars ausgehen, werden sie die Währung abstoßen, sofern man sie nicht angemessen dafür entschädigt, dass sie ihr Geld weiter in den USA und ihren Anlagewerten investieren - was impliziert, dass sich die Kluft zwischen den Zinsen in den USA und der übrigen Welt vertiefen würde. Infolgedessen würden die Kapitalkosten in den USA steil ansteigen, was von Investitionen abschrecken und den privaten Verbrauch verringern würde, da hohe Zinsen die wichtigsten Anlagewerte der privaten Haushalte belasten: ihre Häuser. Die hieraus resultierende Rezession könnte den Pessimismus vertiefen und weitere Ausgabesenkungen schüren, was den Abschwung verstärken würde. Ein Amerika in der Rezession würde der Welt nicht ...
Gripe - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.La gripe, gripa o influenza es una enfermedad infecciosa de mamíferos causada por un tipo de virus de ARN de la familia Orthomyxoviridae. Las palabras gripe y gripa ...
Yu, M., Wang, Y., Tian, L., Wang, Y., Wang, X., Liang, W., . . . Fang, X. (2015). Safflomin A inhibits neuraminidase activity and influenza virus replication. RSC Adv., 5(114), 94053-94066. doi:10.1039/c5ra17336a ...
In the frame of a collaboration with Stephen Cusack (EMBL Grenoble) we showed that the direct interaction of the influenza virus polymerase (FluPol) PA
http://www.handybits.com/vsi.htm I have always wonder why couldnt someone make something like that. In a fully protected system. I never really...
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I believe I mentioned before that my wife Angela often says that my head is full of useless information. She claims that the data takes up important gigabytes of storage in my mental CPU meant for meaningful and useful content. She also says that I tend to vilify her in my blogs and she might…
Nr. 2 ist falsch. Nr 1 ist richtig (obwphl ich gefühlsmäßig eher: Victoria wants all kinds of fights to be stopped ... sagen würde.
Tolles Magazin und mein Löwenkunstwerk ist gleich auf dem Titel! Die Redaktion des Magazin „Spielfeld hat eine tolle Reportage über meine Arbeit im neuen Magazin veröffentlicht. Sehr lesenswert! Hier könnt Ihr das Magazin bestellen.. Also, ich würde sagen „5:0 für die TSG Hoffenheim…... ...
Gliva se razvija kot parazit na plodnicah rži. V njenem razvojnem krogu ločimo tri faze. Spomladi poženejo iz rženega rožička, ki je prezimil na tleh, svežnji hif, na katerih se oblikujejo glavice škrlatno rdeče barve. V glavici nastanejo številni trosi (askospore), ki jih veter zanese na cvetove rži in tako pride do primarne infekcije. V drugi fazi askospore kalijo v hife, ki prodirajo v tkiva plodnic in oblikujejo rahel micelij. V tej fazi razvoja tvori gliva številne trose, ki so nanizani drug na drugem in jih imenujemo konidiji. Zreli konidiji se odcepljajo, vendar pa ostajajo v lepljivem, medu podobnem sekretu, ki ga izloča micelij. Ko žuželke sesajo ta izloček, prenašajo konidijske trose na druge, še neokužene cvetove rži. Tako pride do sekundarne infekcije. V tretji fazi, ki poteka v času, ko začne rž dozorevati, se hife rahlega micelija vse bolj razraščajo in prepletajo in oblikuje se trda masa-rženi rožiček, ki predstavlja trajno obliko v razvoju glive. ...
Historically, chikungunya has been present mostly in the developing world. The disease causes an estimated 3 million infections each year.[68] Epidemics in the Indian Ocean, Pacific Islands, and in the Americas, continue to change the distribution of the disease.[69] In Africa, chikungunya is spread by a sylvatic cycle in which the virus largely cycles between other non-human primates, small mammals, and mosquitos between human outbreaks.[10] During outbreaks, due to the high concentration of virus in the blood of those in the acute phase of infection, the virus can circulate from humans to mosquitoes and back to humans.[10] The transmission of the pathogen between humans and mosquitoes that exist in urban environments was established on multiple occasions from strains occurring on the eastern half of Africa in non-human primate hosts.[12] This emergence and spread beyond Africa may have started as early as the 18th century.[12] Currently, available data does not indicate whether the ...
The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in 1942 and described by Smithburn and Haddow.[2] It is known to cause disease in animals including humans. It is an alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine proteins.[3] The 5' two thirds of the genome encode four non-structural proteins concerned with RNA synthesis and the structural proteins are encoded in the 3' third. Of the structural proteins, the C proteins makes up the icosahedral capsid which is enveloped by a lipid bilayer, derived from the host cell. The outermost surface of the virus is almost entirely covered by heterodimers of glycoproteins E1 and E2, arranged in interconnective trimers, which form an outer shell. Trimers are anchored in the membrane by an E2 cytoplasmic domain that associates with the ...
Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt ...
Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt ... Species Profile- Avian Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae Influenza Type A, subtype H5N1), National Invasive Species Information ...
m Orthomyxoviridae‎; 09:45 . . (+13)‎ . . ‎. Tom.Reding. (talk , contribs)‎ (Add from=Q287246 to {{Taxonbar}}; WP:GenFixes on, ...
Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura virus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome ...
Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt ...
Orthomyxoviridae (probable) Encephalitis lethargica. RV Rabies. Chandipura vesiculovirus. Herpesviral meningitis. Ramsay Hunt ...
Familie Orthomyxoviridae. *Genus Alphainfluenzavirus, mit einziger Species: Influenzavirus A. *Genus Betainfluenzavirus, mit ...
Mononegavirales adalah ordo virus RNA yang berada dalam filum Negarnaviricota dan kelas Monjiviricetes.[1] Nama Mononegavirales berasa dari bahasa Yunani μóνος [monos] yang merujuk pada genom untai tunggal pada sebagian besar ordo ini, bahasa Latin negare yang merujuk pada sifat sense-negatif genom virus, serta akhiran -virales yang menunjukkan ordo virus.[2] Anggota ordo ini yang dikenal di antaranya virus rabies dan virus Ebola yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit, baik pada manusia maupun hewan. ...
Orthomyxoviridae. *Influenza. Kategori tersembunyi: *Semua artikel rintisan. *Rintisan bertopik virus. *Semua artikel rintisan ...
Orthomyxoviridae (influenza A, B og C). *Paramyxoviridae (Newcastle disease, fåresyge og mæslinger) ...
Orthomyxoviridae Genus: Alphainfluenzavirus Species: Influenza A virus Serotype: Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 ...
7. Orthomyxoviridae Influenzavirus A, influenzavirus B, influenzavirus C, isavirus, thogotovirus Enveloped Helical ss(-) V ...
腸道病毒(Enterovirus)又稱腸病毒,是一種主要寄生於腸道的正股單股RNA病毒,和人類及哺乳類的疾病有關。雖然名為腸病毒,在人類卻很少出現腸道的病狀。在病毒分類中,屬於第IV類的RNA病毒。腸道病毒的命名主要以它的英文名稱"Enterovirus"的
中東呼吸綜合症(英文縮寫:MERS)是一種由中東呼吸綜合症冠狀病毒(前稱「2012年新型冠狀病毒」)所引起的新型人畜共患的呼吸系統傳染病[6]。患者常見的症狀為
"Orthomyxoviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 9 March 2021. Shim JM, Kim J, Tenson T, Min J, ... and the four influenza genera comprise four of the seven genera in the family Orthomyxoviridae. They are: Influenza A virus ( ...
Carter, G.R.; Flores, E.F.; Wise, D.J. (2006). "Orthomyxoviridae". A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology. Retrieved 2006-08- ...
Segmented genomes: Bunyaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Arenaviridae, and Reoviridae (acronym BOAR). All are RNA viruses. Viruses ... "Orthomyxoviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03. "Paramyxoviridae". ViralZone. SIB ... Negative single-stranded RNA families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae and ...
ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE) , Molecular Biology". Encyclopedia of Virology. pp. 830-836. doi:10.1006/rwvi.1999.0157. ISBN 9780122270307. ...
Typical Orthomyxoviridae carry several surface glycoproteins that recognize and bind to sialic acid receptors on the target ... There is limited information of the replication cycle specific to TiLV, but it is known to be in the family Orthomyxoviridae ... "Medical Definition of ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2019-03-12. Surachetpong W, Janetanakit T, ... this is common among all Orthomyxoviridae. The nucleocapsid of an orthomyxovirus is transported to the nucleus where it is ...
எச்1.என்1 சளிக்காய்ச்சல் அல்லது பன்றிக் காய்ச்சல் என்பது ஆர்த்தோமிக்சோவிரிடே (Orthomyxoviridae)[2] குடும்பத்தை சேர்ந்த ... ஆர்த்தோமிக்சோவிரிடே (Orthomyxoviridae) என்னும் பெயர் கிரேக்க மூன்று மொழிச்சொற்களால் ஆனது. orthos = சரியான, சீரான ('standard, ...
Orthomyxoviridae) can use host-sialylated structures for binding to their target host cell. Sialic acids provide a good target ... Sialidosis Sialoglycoprotein Sialyltransferase Orthomyxoviridae Varki, Ajit; Roland Schauer (2008). "Sialic Acids". in ...
Orthomyxoviridae,viruse të influencës]] (10-15%),,ref name="Medscape",{{cite web,title=Rhinovirus Infection,url=http:// ...
Serological test indicated they were not myxoviruses (Orthomyxoviridae). They presented their discovery as "A new virus ...
Influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza viruses A, B, C, and D represent the four antigenic ... Influenza C virus is the species in the genus Gammainfluenzavirus, in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, which like other ... Influenza viruses, like all viruses in the family Orthomyxoviridae, are enveloped RNA viruses with single stranded genomes. The ...
Danas znanstvenici znaju da članovi porodice Orthomyxoviridae, grupe virusa koji napada kralježnjake, uzrokuju gripu. Virus se ...
First isolated from pigs in 2011, the virus was categorized as a new genus of Orthomyxoviridae in 2016, distinct from the ... The influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza viruses A, B, C, and D represent the four antigenic ... Influenza D virus is a species in the virus genus Deltainfluenzavirus, in the family Orthomyxoviridae, that causes influenza. ... Influenza viruses, like all viruses in the family Orthomyxoviridae, are enveloped RNA viruses with single stranded genomes. The ...
Molecular Cell (1999) Orthomyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. Fields Virology (2001) Structure of the uncleaved ...
... is the only species in the genus Betainfluenzavirus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza B virus ... 8 June 2017). "Changing individual genus and species names in the family Orthomyxoviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy ...
10 things to remember about Orthomyxoviridae. 1. "Orthomyxo"means true mucous. a. Influenza is the Italian form of latin "influential" which means influence. 2. Similar to Paramyxoviridae. a. Similar envelope glycoproteins. b. For Orthomyxoviruses, HA functions as tropogen binding and fusion. Neuraminidase has an enzymatic function.. For Paramyxoviruses, HN functions as tropogen binding and enzymatic function. F serves the fusion function.. 3. 5 genera. a. Influenza A - most common in humans. b. Influenza B - can also infect humans. A and B are the principal pathogens that infect humans. c. Influenza C - not usually pathogenic in humans d. Thogotovirus - found in ticks but can be transmitted to humans. e. Isavirus - found in salmon and fish. Non-human. 4. Causes Influenza. a. Influenza or flu is known as a syndrome, and many other illnesses are described as "flu-like symptoms." Symptoms of influenza are rapid onset, high fever, respiratory symptoms, and generalized muscular aches (myalgias). ...
... and the family Orthomyxoviridae. The genera-associated species and serotypes of Orthomyxoviridae are shown in the following ... Orthomyxoviridae viruses are one of two RNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus (the other being retroviridae). This is ... Orthomyxoviridae (ὀρθός, orthós, Greek for "straight"; μύξα, mýxa, Greek for "mucus") is a family of negative-sense RNA viruses ... Viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae contain six to eight segments of linear negative-sense single stranded RNA. They have a ...
Orthomyxoviridae (ὀρθός, orthós, Greek for "straight"; μύξα, mýxa, Greek for "mucus")[1] is a family of RNA viruses. It ... Orthomyxoviridae viruses are one of two RNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus (the other being retroviridae). This is ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses descriptions of: Orthomyxoviridae Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Orthomyxoviridae&oldid=917318304" ...
The Orthomyxoviridae (orthos, Greek for "straight"; myxa, Greek for "mucus")[1] are a family of RNA viruses. They include five ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Index of Viruses - Orthomyxoviridae (2006). In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus ... "Index of Viruses - Orthomyxoviridae (2006). In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4". Columbia University, New ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Orthomyxoviridae&oldid=7233312" ...
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What is Orthomyxoviridae? Meaning of Orthomyxoviridae medical term. What does Orthomyxoviridae mean? ... Looking for online definition of Orthomyxoviridae in the Medical Dictionary? Orthomyxoviridae explanation free. ... A snapshot of the global therapeutic scenario for Orthomyxoviridae Infections.. Research and Markets: Orthomyxoviridae ... Orthomyxoviridae. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Or·tho·myx·o·vir·i·dae. (ōrthō-miksō-viri- ...
Viruses; ssRNA negative-strand viruses; Orthomyxoviridae Genera. Influenza A virus, Influenza B virus, Influenza C virus, ... Image:8430_lores.jpg,thumb,right,Influenza virus; a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. From CDC/ Dr. E. L. Palmer; Dr. M. L ... Image:8430_lores.jpg,thumb,right,Influenza virus; a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. From CDC/ Dr. E. L. Palmer; Dr. M. L ... Influenza virus; a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. From CDC/ Dr. E. L. Palmer; Dr. M. L. Martin ...
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Family Orthomyxoviridae. Virus taxonomy. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, eds. Classification and ... DHORI VIRUS (ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE: THOGOTOVIRUS) INFECTION IN MICE: A MODEL OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF SEVERE ORTHOMYXOVIRUS INFECTION ... Araguari virus, a new member of the family Orthomyxoviridae: serologic, ultrastructural, and molecular characterization. Am J ... f DHORI VIRUS (ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE: THOGOTOVIRUS) INFECTION IN MICE: A MODEL OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF SEVERE ORTHOMYXOVIRUS ...
Generally describe the orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses?|Ortho - think ordinary flu: the influenza virusesPara - think parade of distinctly different diseases: parainfluenza, measles, mumps, RSVDescribe the glycoprotein spikes on orthomyxoviruses and their role in viral infection?|Neuraminidase Activity (NA)which cleaves the cell mucin barrier, while Hemagglutinin Activity (HA) fuses to the sialic acid residues, enabling viral adsorption and penetration.
Orthomyxoviridae: , , , , Orthomyxovirus , , , ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online ... Orthomyxoviridae viruses are one of two RNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus (the other being retroviridae). This is ... Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, Influenza, 2009 Flu Pandemic, Avian influenza ... Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, Influenza, 2009 Flu Pandemic, Avian influenza ...
Build: Sat Feb 17 08:59:16 EST 2018 (commit: 16064c5). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
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This virus is a Orthomyxoviridae virus family member, and was responsible for the flu pandemic of 1968-1969, which infected an ...
Orthomyxoviridae (Influenza Virus) is a family of Viruses.. Known occurrences, collected specimens and observations of ...
... Biblos-e Archivo/Manakin Repository. Repositorio de Datos de ...
Orthomyxoviridae. In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology Author(s):. Carter G.R. and ...
Orthomyxoviridae. In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology Author(s):. Carter G.R. and ...
Anemia infecciosa del salmón, Virus de la ..., (Infectious Salmon Anemia -ISA-) (Orthomyxoviridae, Isavirus) - Diagnóstico ... Anemia infecciosa del salmón, Virus de la ..., (Infectious Salmon Anemia virus -ISA-) (Orthomyxoviridae, Isavirus) - ...
Book; Format: print Publisher: Geneva : World Health Organization, 2011Title translated: Cadre de préparation en cas de grippe pandémique pour léchange des virus grippaux et laccès aux vaccins et autres avantages; Preparación para una gripe pandémica: marco para el intercambio de virus gripales y el acceso a las vacunas y otros beneficios..Online access: Full text now in IRIS , Full text now in IRIS , Full text now in IRIS , Full text now in IRIS Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: WC 515 2011PA] (2). ...
Historically, chikungunya has been present mostly in the developing world. The disease causes an estimated 3 million infections each year.[68] Epidemics in the Indian Ocean, Pacific Islands, and in the Americas, continue to change the distribution of the disease.[69] In Africa, chikungunya is spread by a sylvatic cycle in which the virus largely cycles between other non-human primates, small mammals, and mosquitos between human outbreaks.[10] During outbreaks, due to the high concentration of virus in the blood of those in the acute phase of infection, the virus can circulate from humans to mosquitoes and back to humans.[10] The transmission of the pathogen between humans and mosquitoes that exist in urban environments was established on multiple occasions from strains occurring on the eastern half of Africa in non-human primate hosts.[12] This emergence and spread beyond Africa may have started as early as the 18th century.[12] Currently, available data does not indicate whether the ...
1. The retrovirus responsible for causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a member of the family A. Orthomyxoviridae B. ... 2. The influenza viruses, A, B, and C, are the only members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. 3. Orthomyxoviruses have ...
The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in 1942 and described by Smithburn and Haddow.[2] It is known to cause disease in animals including humans. It is an alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine proteins.[3] The 5 two thirds of the genome encode four non-structural proteins concerned with RNA synthesis and the structural proteins are encoded in the 3 third. Of the structural proteins, the C proteins makes up the icosahedral capsid which is enveloped by a lipid bilayer, derived from the host cell. The outermost surface of the virus is almost entirely covered by heterodimers of glycoproteins E1 and E2, arranged in interconnective trimers, which form an outer shell. Trimers are anchored in the membrane by an E2 cytoplasmic domain that associates with the ...
ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. Quaranjavirus. *Johnston Atoll virus. *Quaranfil virus. *Tyulek virus. Thogotovirus. *Araguari virus ...
Orthomyxoviridae family. *3 types: A,B,C. *Subtypes of type A determined by hemagglutinin and neuraminidase ...
Orthomyxoviridae Genus. Not listed Information From. J.P. Woodall Address. YARU, Yale University Sch. Med., New Haven, ...
Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Arenaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Coronaviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Retroviridae. For example, it ...
Orthomyxoviridae. (redirected from orthokeratinized). Also found in: Medical. Orthomyxoviridae. [‚ȯr·thə‚mik·sə′vir·ə‚dī] ( ...
Familie Orthomyxoviridae. *Genus Alphainfluenzavirus, mit einziger Species: Influenzavirus A. *Genus Betainfluenzavirus, mit ...
  • Viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae contain six to eight segments of linear negative-sense single stranded RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Index of Viruses - Orthomyxoviridae (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • Index of Viruses - Orthomyxoviridae (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthomyxoviridae (Influenza Virus) is a family of Viruses . (eol.org)
  • Influenza (or as it is commonly known, the flu) is a contagious disease caused by an RNA virus of the orthomyxoviridae family (The orthomyxoviridae is a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrate). (news-medical.net)
  • It is found on the surface of the Orthomyxoviridae 1 family of viruses , where it helps to break the bond between the new-born viruses and the host cells. (everything2.com)
  • Influenza viruses are enveloped viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae and contain segmented negative sense single-stranded RNA genomes. (health.gov.au)
  • Etiology Avian Influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. (usda.gov)
  • Influenza viruses are enveloped, segmented negative-strand RNA viruses belonging to the Orthomyxoviridae family ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Each of the four species is the sole member of its own genus, and the four influenza genera comprise four of the seven genera in the family Orthomyxoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genus Tequatrovirus ( T4virus , T4-ähnliche Viren , en. (wikipedia.org)
  • One RNA virus of concern is the Avian influenza virus, from the family Orthomyxoviridae , which has caused historic pandemics (strains H3N2 and H1N1) and is the virus most likely to cause the next global pandemic, specifically the highly pathogenic H5N1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Predicting whole genome sequencing success for archived avian influenza virus (Orthomyxoviridae) samples using real-time and droplet PCRs. (cdc.gov)
  • 3. Orthomyxoviridae - isolation and purification. (who.int)
  • Influenza is caused by influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family and there are three serotypes of influenza virus (A, B, and C) (Figure 7-21). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cadre de préparation en cas de grippe pandémique pour l'échange des virus grippaux et l'accès aux vaccins et autres avantages. (who.int)
  • Infectious Salmon Anemia virus -ISA-) ( Orthomyxoviridae, Isavirus ) - Diagnóstico molecular (RT-PCR). (ivami.com)
  • En biologisk virus består af et genom af DNA eller RNA og et antal enzymer, der er indlejret i en proteinkappe (kaldet en kapsid ), eventuelt omkrandset af membrankappe . (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus kan ikke formere sig alene, men overtager i stedet for en værtscelle og underkaster værtscellens molekylære maskineri for at fremstille kopier af sig selv og således producere den næste generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derfor bliver virus typisk ikke betragtet som levende organismer, fordi de alene ikke kan formere sig eller lave stofskifte , men kræver en vært . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dog har nye genetiske undersøgelser ændret på denne opfattelse, da det har vist sig at virus nedstammer fra en fælles stamform med moderne celler og har været en faktor, der har præget evolutionen . (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus består af et genom og nogle gange et par enzymer , der er indlejret i en proteinkappe (kaldet en kapsid ), eventuelt omkranset af membrankappe (en lipid-membran, eng. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus kan ikke formere sig alene, men overtager i stedet for en værtscelle, dvs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza virus belongs to the family of Orthomyxoviridae . (springer.com)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Orthomyxoviridae. (who.int)
  • TiLV belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, which is also the same family to which the Infectious Salmon Anaemia virus belongs, which wrought great damage on the salmon farming industry. (fao.org)