Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.
The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.
Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).
Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
An orthodontic method used for correcting narrow or collapsed maxillary arches and functional cross-bite. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry),
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A malocclusion in which maxillary incisor and canine teeth project over the mandiblar teeth excessively. The overlap is measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane and is also called vertical overlap. When the overlap is measured parallel to the occlusal plane it is referred to as overjet.
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
Contact between opposing teeth during a person's habitual bite.
Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)
The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The process of growth and differentiation of the jaws and face.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
Migration of the teeth toward the midline or forward in the DENTAL ARCH. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Malocclusion in which the mandible is anterior to the maxilla as reflected by the first relationship of the first permanent molar (mesioclusion).
Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.

Palatal bone support for orthodontic implant anchorage--a clinical and radiological study. (1/277)

When maximal anchorage is required during orthodontic treatment, additional aids are often needed to support the anchoring teeth. While intra-oral aids may be limited in their anchorage potential, extra-oral anchoring aids are often rejected by the patients. Endosseous implants may therefore be a valuable alternative for stable intra-oral anchorage. However, the possibility of using conventional implants is insufficient, e.g. for treating purely orthodontic patients with full dentition or where extraction sites are to be closed. Therefore, the mid-sagittal area of the palate is an alternative insertion site for the placement of implants for orthodontic anchorage. The limited bone height in this area inspired this comparison between bone thickness in the implantation site as verified by probing during the implantation of Straumann Ortho-system implants, and thickness as measured on the lateral cephalogram. The results suggest that vertical bone support is at least 2 mm higher than apparent on the cephalogram. In none of 12 patients was a perforation to the nasal cavity found. However, in five subjects the implant projected into the nasal cavity on the post-operative cephalogram. These results were supported by the study of the projections of palate and wires in wire-marked skulls where the wires were placed bilaterally on the nasal floor and on the nasal crest. It is therefore concluded that the mid-sagittal area of the palate lends sufficient bony support for the implantation of small implants (4-6 mm endosseous length, diameter 3.3 mm).  (+info)

Motivation for and satisfaction with orthodontic-surgical treatment: a retrospective study of 28 patients. (2/277)

Motivation for starting treatment and satisfaction with treatment results were evaluated on the basis of replies to a 14-item questionnaire and clinical examination of 28 orthognathic patients from 6 months to 2 years after treatment. The most common reasons for seeking professional help were problems in biting and chewing (68 per cent). Another major reason was dissatisfaction with facial appearance (36 per cent). Many patients also complained of temporomandibular joint symptoms (32 per cent) and headache (32 per cent). Women (8/19) were more often dissatisfied with their facial appearance than men (2/9), but the difference was not statistically significant. In agreement with earlier studies, the results of orthognathic treatment fulfilled the expectations of almost every patient. Nearly 100 per cent of the patients (27/28) were satisfied with treatment results, although 40 per cent experienced some degree of numbness in the lips and/or jaw 1 year post-operatively. The most satisfied patients were those who stated temporomandibular disorders as the main reason for seeking treatment and whose PAR-index had improved greatly. The majority of the patients experienced the orthodontic treatment as painful and as the most unpleasant part of the whole treatment, but all the patients were satisfied with the pre-treatment information they were given on orthodontics. Orthodontic-surgical therapy should be of a high professional standard technically, but the psychological aspects are equally important in the treatment protocol. The professionals should make efforts to understand the patient's motivations for and expectations of treatment. Patients should be well prepared for surgery and supported for a long time after to help them to adjust to post-surgical changes.  (+info)

The crystal growth technique--a laboratory evaluation of bond strengths. (3/277)

An ex vivo study was carried out to determine differences in the bond strengths achieved with brackets placed using a crystal growth technique compared with a conventional acid-etch technique. A solution of 37 per cent phosphoric acid was used for acid-etching and a commercially available polyacrylic acid gel, Crystal-lok for crystal growth. A heavily-filled composite resin was used for all samples to bond brackets to healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Polycrystalline ceramic and stainless steel brackets were used and tested to both tensile and shear failure using an Instron Universal Testing machine. The tensile and shear bond strengths were recorded in kgF. In view of difficulties experienced with previous authors using different units to describe their findings, the data were subsequently converted to a range of units in order to facilitate direct comparison. The crystal growth technique produced significantly lower bond strengths than the acid-etch technique for ceramic and stainless steel brackets, both in tensile and shear mode. The tensile bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 2.2 kg compared with 6.01 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the tensile bond strengths were 3.9 kg for crystal growth and 5.55 kg for acid-etch. The mean shear bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 12.61 kg compared with 21.55 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the shear bond strengths were 7.93 kg with crystal growth compared with 16.55 kg for acid-tech. These bond strengths were below those previously suggested as clinically acceptable.  (+info)

Multi-bracket appliance in management of mandibular reconstruction with vascularized bone graft. (4/277)

BACKGROUND: The most commonly used tool for maxillo-mandibular fixation to the patient who underwent reconstruction using a vascularized bone graft after mandibular resection is a dental arch-bar. However, the occlusal relationship achieved by this method is not ideal. Different from the dental arch-bar, the multi-bracket appliance which is frequently used in orthodontic treatment can control the position of each individual tooth three dimensionally. Thus, this appliance was applied for maxillo-mandibular fixation to patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction using a vascularized bone graft. METHODS: A multi-bracket appliance was applied to three patients. Prior to the surgery, standard edgewise brackets were bonded to the teeth in the maxilla and in the remaining mandible. After mandibular resection, wires for maxillo-mandibular fixation were applied. The harvested bone was then carefully fixed with miniplates to maintain the occlusion. The multi-bracket appliance was worn for 3 months when the wound contraction became mild. RESULTS: All three cases demonstrated stable and good occlusion. They also demonstrated satisfactory post-surgical facial appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional dental arch-bars, a multi-bracket appliance offers improved management of mandibular reconstruction. Firstly, its properties are helpful in maintaining occlusion of the remaining dentition accurately in bone grafting procedure as well as protecting against postsurgical wound contraction. Secondly, the multi-bracket appliance keeps the oral cavity clean without periodontal injury. As a result, stable occlusion of the residual teeth and good facial appearance were obtained.  (+info)

A comparison of sagittal and vertical effects between bonded rapid and slow maxillary expansion procedures. (5/277)

The purpose of this study was to determine the vertical and sagittal effects of bonded rapid maxillary expansion (RME), and bonded slow maxillary expansion (SME) procedures, and to compare these effects between the groups. Subjects with maxillary bilateral crossbites were selected and two treatment groups with 12 patients in each were constructed. The Hyrax screw in the RME treatment group and the spring of the Minne-Expander in the SME treatment group were embedded in the posterior bite planes, which had a thickness of 1 mm. At the end of active treatment these appliances were worn for retention for an additional 3 months. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at the beginning and end of treatment, and at the end of the retention period. The maxilla showed anterior displacement in both groups. The mandible significantly rotated downward and backward only in the RME group. The inter-incisal angle and overjet increased in both groups. No significant differences were observed for the net changes between the two groups.  (+info)

Rare earth magnets in orthodontics: an overview. (6/277)

Magnets have been used in dentistry for many years. They can be made to push or pull teeth. The force they deliver can be directed, and they can exert their force through mucosa and bone, as well as within the mouth. In orthodontics they are used for intrusion of teeth, tooth movement along archwires, expansion, retention, in functional appliances, and in the treatment of impacted teeth. New 'high energy' magnets are capable of producing very high forces relative to their size. Although magnets are potentially very useful there are a number of problems that severely affect their performance; the force produced between any two magnets falls dramatically with distance, significant irreversible loss in force is seen if the magnets are heated and a dramatic reduction in force is seen if the magnets are not ideally aligned to one another. In addition, magnets corrode badly in the mouth and a robust coating is required to protect them. This paper outlines the background to high energy magnets used in orthodontics, discusses the relevant physical and biological properties of them, and reviews their applications.  (+info)

Patients' anticipation of pain and pain-related side effects, and their perception of pain as a result of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. (7/277)

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between (i) the pain and its side effects, anticipated by patients before orthodontic therapy, and (ii) the reported pain and its effects after the placement of initial archwires. Before treatment, 50 adolescent patients (median age 13.6 years, range 8.9-39.3 years, 28 female, 22 male) completed a questionnaire concerning their facial and dental appearance, and their expectations regarding pain, its influence on their daily lives, and changes in their facial and dental appearance as a result of orthodontic treatment. In the week following insertion of the initial archwires the patients completed a series of eight questionnaires, where they reported the level of pain experienced and its influence on their daily lives. In the week after archwire insertion, the maximum pain levels reported did not differ statistically from the anticipated pain levels. Patients significantly under-estimated the changes they would have to make in their diet as a response to pain after archwire insertion. Patients who anticipated a greater effect of pain on their leisure activities and those who had a history of frequent headaches reported higher levels of pain and more disruption of their daily lives as a result of pain. This pattern of response is consistent with a medical model where anxious patients and those with a history of chronic pain reported more pain after surgery.  (+info)

Sensory and motor changes of the human jaw muscles during induced orthodontic pain. (8/277)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of orthodontic pain on the pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles, and on their electromyographic (EMG) activity during clenching and chewing. Orthodontic pain was induced in 14 healthy subjects (mean age 26.6, SEM 1.1) by placing orthodontic separators. The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental and to a control session in a double-blind crossover study. PPT was significantly reduced (Student's t-test; P < 0.001) after experimental sessions for both the masseter and the anterior temporalis muscles, whereas no significant differences were found during control sessions (P > 0.05). EMG activity during clenching and chewing was significantly reduced (0.001 < or = P < 0.05) after experimental sessions for both masseter and anterior temporalis muscles, whereas no significant differences were found during control sessions (P > 0.05). The decrease of PPT found in this study can be related to the occurrence of muscle pain and headache reported by patients during orthodontic or other dental treatment. The decrease of EMG activity of the jaw muscles associated with orthodontic pain is consistent with the pain adaptation model and should be considered as a potential factor for loss of occlusal anchorage during orthodontic treatment.  (+info)

Orthodontic appliances are devices used in orthodontics, a branch of dentistry focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. These appliances can be fixed or removable and are used to align teeth, correct jaw relationships, or modify dental forces. They can include braces, aligners, palatal expanders, space maintainers, and headgear, among others. The specific type of appliance used depends on the individual patient's needs and the treatment plan developed by the orthodontist.

Orthodontic appliances, removable, are dental devices that can be removed and inserted by the patient as needed or directed. These appliances are designed to align and straighten teeth, correct bite issues, and improve the function and appearance of the teeth and jaws. They are typically made from materials such as plastic, metal, or acrylic and may include components like wires, springs, or screws. Examples of removable orthodontic appliances include aligners, retainers, and space maintainers. The specific type and design of the appliance will depend on the individual patient's orthodontic needs and treatment goals.

Orthodontic appliance design refers to the creation and development of medical devices used in orthodontics, which is a branch of dentistry focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and correction of dental and facial irregularities. The design process involves creating a customized treatment plan for each patient, based on their specific needs and goals.

Orthodontic appliances can be removable or fixed and are used to move teeth into proper alignment, improve jaw function, and enhance the overall appearance of the smile. Some common types of orthodontic appliances include braces, aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.

The design of an orthodontic appliance typically involves several factors, including:

1. The specific dental or facial problem being addressed
2. The patient's age, overall health, and oral hygiene habits
3. The patient's lifestyle and personal preferences
4. The estimated treatment time and cost
5. The potential risks and benefits of the appliance

Orthodontic appliance design is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of dental anatomy, biomechanics, and materials science. It is typically performed by an orthodontist or a dental technician with specialized training in this area. The goal of orthodontic appliance design is to create a device that is both effective and comfortable for the patient, while also ensuring that it is safe and easy to use.

Tooth movement, in a dental and orthodontic context, refers to the physical change in position or alignment of one or more teeth within the jaw bone as a result of controlled forces applied through various orthodontic appliances such as braces, aligners, or other orthodontic devices. The purposeful manipulation of these forces encourages the periodontal ligament (the tissue that connects the tooth to the bone) to remodel, allowing the tooth to move gradually over time into the desired position. This process is crucial in achieving proper bite alignment, correcting malocclusions, and enhancing overall oral function and aesthetics.

Functional Orthodontic Appliances are removable or fixed devices used in orthodontics to correct the alignment and/or positioning of jaw bones and/or teeth. They work by harnessing the power of muscle function and growth to achieve desired changes in the dental arches and jaws. These appliances are typically used in growing children and adolescents, but can also be used in adults in certain cases. Examples of functional orthodontic appliances include activators, bionators, twin blocks, and Herbst appliances. The specific type of appliance used will depend on the individual patient's needs and treatment goals.

Orthodontic wires are typically made of stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy, or other shape memory alloys, and are used in orthodontics to move teeth into the desired position. They are attached to brackets bonded to the teeth and exert a continuous force to align the teeth and correct malocclusions (bites that do not fit together correctly). The wires come in various sizes, shapes, and materials, each with specific properties that make them suitable for different stages of treatment. Some wires are flexible and used during the initial alignment phase, while others are more rigid and used during the finishing phase to achieve precise tooth movements.

The dental plaque index (DPI) is a clinical measurement used in dentistry to assess the amount of dental plaque accumulation on a person's teeth. It was first introduced by Silness and Löe in 1964 as a method to standardize the assessment of oral hygiene and the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions.

The DPI is based on a visual examination of the amount of plaque present on four surfaces of the teeth, including the buccal (cheek-facing) and lingual (tongue-facing) surfaces of both upper and lower first molars and upper and lower incisors. The examiner assigns a score from 0 to 3 for each surface, with higher scores indicating greater plaque accumulation:

* Score 0: No plaque detected, even after probing the area with a dental explorer.
* Score 1: Plaque detected by visual examination and/or probing but is not visible when the area is gently dried with air.
* Score 2: Moderate accumulation of soft deposits that are visible upon visual examination before air drying, but which can be removed by scraping with a dental explorer.
* Score 3: Abundant soft matter, visible upon visual examination before air drying and not easily removable with a dental explorer.

The DPI is calculated as the average score of all surfaces examined, providing an overall measure of plaque accumulation in the mouth. It can be used to monitor changes in oral hygiene over time or to evaluate the effectiveness of different oral hygiene interventions. However, it should be noted that the DPI has limitations and may not accurately reflect the presence of bacterial biofilms or the risk of dental caries and gum disease.

Root resorption is a process that occurs when the body's own cells, called odontoclasts, break down and destroy the hard tissue of the tooth root. This can occur as a result of various factors such as trauma, infection, or orthodontic treatment. In some cases, it may be a normal part of the tooth development and eruption process in children. However, excessive or pathological root resorption can lead to weakening and loss of the tooth. It is often asymptomatic and discovered during routine dental x-rays.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

Orthodontics is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. The term "corrective" in this context refers to the use of appliances (such as braces, aligners, or other devices) to move teeth into their proper position and correct malocclusion (bad bite). This not only improves the appearance of the teeth but also helps to ensure better function, improved oral health, and overall dental well-being.

The goal of corrective orthodontics is to create a balanced and harmonious relationship between the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. Treatment may be recommended for children, adolescents, or adults and can help address various issues such as crowding, spacing, overbites, underbites, crossbites, open bites, and jaw growth discrepancies. A combination of techniques, including fixed or removable appliances, may be used to achieve the desired outcome. Regular follow-up appointments are necessary throughout treatment to monitor progress and make any necessary adjustments.

Orthodontic brackets are small square attachments that are bonded to the teeth or bands that are attached to the back molars. They have a slot in which the orthodontic archwire fits and is held in place. The bracket can be made of stainless steel, ceramic, plastic or a combination of these materials. They play an essential role in moving the teeth into the desired position during orthodontic treatment.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

Tooth mobility, also known as loose teeth, refers to the degree of movement or displacement of a tooth in its socket when lateral forces are applied. It is often described in terms of grades:

* Grade 1: Tooth can be moved slightly (up to 1 mm) with finger pressure.
* Grade 2: Tooth can be moved up to 2 mm with finger pressure.
* Grade 3: Tooth can be moved more than 2 mm or can be removed from its socket with manual pressure.

Increased tooth mobility can be a sign of periodontal disease, trauma, or other dental conditions and should be evaluated by a dentist. Treatment may include deep cleaning, splinting, or surgery to restore stability to the affected teeth.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

Extraoral traction appliances are orthodontic devices used to correct significant dental and skeletal discrepancies, typically in cases of severe malocclusion. These appliances are worn externally on the face or head, and they work by applying gentle force to the teeth and jaws to guide them into proper alignment.

Extraoral traction appliances can be used to treat a variety of orthodontic problems, including:

* Protruding front teeth (overjet)
* Severe crowding or spacing
* Class II or Class III malocclusions (where the upper and lower jaws do not align properly)
* Jaw growth abnormalities

There are several types of extraoral traction appliances, including:

1. **Headgear:** This is the most common type of extraoral appliance. It consists of a metal frame that attaches to braces on the back teeth and a strap that fits around the head or neck. The strap applies pressure to the teeth and jaws, helping to correct alignment issues.
2. **Facemask:** A facemask is used to treat Class III malocclusions, where the lower jaw protrudes forward. It consists of a metal frame that attaches to braces on the upper teeth and a strap that fits around the head. The strap pulls the upper jaw forward, helping to align it with the lower jaw.
3. **Reverse pull headgear:** This type of appliance is used to treat patients with a receding chin or small lower jaw. It works by applying pressure to the back of the head, which encourages the growth and development of the lower jaw.
4. **Jaw separators:** These are used in cases where the jaws need to be separated to allow for proper alignment. They consist of two metal bars that fit over the upper and lower teeth, with a screw mechanism that gradually increases the space between them.

Extraoral traction appliances can be uncomfortable to wear at first, but most patients adjust to them over time. It is important to follow the orthodontist's instructions carefully when wearing these appliances to ensure proper alignment and prevent damage to the teeth and jaws.

Halitosis is a medical term that refers to noticeably unpleasant breath. It's also commonly known as bad breath. This condition can result from several factors, including poor oral hygiene, certain foods, smoking, alcohol use, dry mouth, and various medical conditions (such as gastrointestinal issues, respiratory infections, or liver and kidney problems). Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, like brushing twice a day and flossing daily, can help prevent halitosis. In some cases, mouthwashes, sugar-free gums, or mints may provide temporary relief. However, if bad breath persists, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or dentist for further evaluation and appropriate treatment.

Elastomers are a type of polymeric material that exhibit elastic behavior when subjected to deforming forces. They have the ability to return to their original shape and size after being stretched or compressed, making them ideal for use in applications where flexibility, resilience, and durability are required.

Elastomers are composed of long chains of repeating molecular units called monomers, which are cross-linked together to form a three-dimensional network. This cross-linking gives elastomers their unique properties, such as high elasticity, low compression set, and resistance to heat, chemicals, and weathering.

Some common examples of elastomers include natural rubber, silicone rubber, neoprene, nitrile rubber, and polyurethane. These materials are used in a wide range of applications, from automotive parts and medical devices to footwear and clothing.

In medical terms, a "lip" refers to the thin edge or border of an organ or other biological structure. However, when people commonly refer to "the lip," they are usually talking about the lips on the face, which are part of the oral cavity. The lips are a pair of soft, fleshy tissues that surround the mouth and play a crucial role in various functions such as speaking, eating, drinking, and expressing emotions.

The lips are made up of several layers, including skin, muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and mucous membrane. The outer surface of the lips is covered by skin, while the inner surface is lined with a moist mucous membrane. The muscles that make up the lips allow for movements such as pursing, puckering, and smiling.

The lips also contain numerous sensory receptors that help detect touch, temperature, pain, and other stimuli. Additionally, they play a vital role in protecting the oral cavity from external irritants and pathogens, helping to keep the mouth clean and healthy.

Malocclusion is a term used in dentistry and orthodontics to describe a misalignment or misrelation between the upper and lower teeth when they come together, also known as the bite. It is derived from the Latin words "mal" meaning bad or wrong, and "occludere" meaning to close.

There are different types of malocclusions, including:

1. Class I malocclusion: The most common type, where the upper teeth slightly overlap the lower teeth, but the bite is otherwise aligned.
2. Class II malocclusion (overbite): The upper teeth significantly overlap the lower teeth, causing a horizontal or vertical discrepancy between the dental arches.
3. Class III malocclusion (underbite): The lower teeth protrude beyond the upper teeth, resulting in a crossbite or underbite.

Malocclusions can be caused by various factors such as genetics, thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, premature loss of primary or permanent teeth, and jaw injuries or disorders. They may lead to several oral health issues, including tooth decay, gum disease, difficulty chewing or speaking, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. Treatment for malocclusions typically involves orthodontic appliances like braces, aligners, or retainers to realign the teeth and correct the bite. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

In the context of dentistry, a molar is a type of tooth found in the back of the mouth. They are larger and wider than other types of teeth, such as incisors or canines, and have a flat biting surface with multiple cusps. Molars are primarily used for grinding and chewing food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Humans typically have twelve molars in total, including the four wisdom teeth.

In medical terminology outside of dentistry, "molar" can also refer to a unit of mass in the apothecaries' system of measurement, which is equivalent to 4.08 grams. However, this usage is less common and not related to dental or medical anatomy.

A bicuspid valve, also known as a mitral valve in the heart, is a heart valve that has two leaflets or cusps. It lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle and helps to regulate blood flow between these two chambers of the heart. In a healthy heart, the bicuspid valve opens to allow blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle and closes tightly to prevent blood from flowing back into the left atrium during contraction of the ventricle.

A congenital heart defect known as a bicuspid aortic valve occurs when the aortic valve, which normally has three leaflets or cusps, only has two. This can lead to narrowing of the valve (aortic stenosis) or leakage of the valve (aortic regurgitation), which can cause symptoms and may require medical treatment.

Dental esthetics refers to the branch of dentistry concerned with the aesthetic appearance of teeth and smile. It involves the use of various dental treatments and procedures to improve the color, shape, alignment, and position of teeth, thereby enhancing the overall facial appearance and self-confidence of a person. Some common dental esthetic treatments include tooth whitening, dental veneers, composite bonding, orthodontic treatment (braces), and dental implants. It is important to note that dental esthetics not only focuses on improving the appearance but also maintaining or improving oral health and function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Dental debonding is a dental procedure that involves the removal or separation of orthodontic appliances, such as brackets and bands, from the surface of teeth. This process is typically performed by an orthodontist or dentist using specialized tools to carefully remove the bonding material that attaches the appliance to the tooth without causing damage to the tooth enamel. Debonding is usually done after the completion of orthodontic treatment, such as when braces are removed. It may also be necessary in cases where an appliance becomes loose or damaged and needs to be replaced.

The alveolar process is the curved part of the jawbone (mandible or maxilla) that contains sockets or hollow spaces (alveoli) for the teeth to be embedded. These processes are covered with a specialized mucous membrane called the gingiva, which forms a tight seal around the teeth to help protect the periodontal tissues and maintain oral health.

The alveolar process is composed of both compact and spongy bone tissue. The compact bone forms the outer layer, while the spongy bone is found inside the alveoli and provides support for the teeth. When a tooth is lost or extracted, the alveolar process begins to resorb over time due to the lack of mechanical stimulation from the tooth's chewing forces. This can lead to changes in the shape and size of the jawbone, which may require bone grafting procedures before dental implant placement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nickel" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Nickel is a hard, silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. It is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic and is used as a common component in various alloys due to its properties such as resistance to corrosion and heat.

However, in a medical context, nickel may refer to:

* Nickel allergy: A type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an immune system response to the presence of nickel in jewelry, clothing fasteners, or other items that come into contact with the skin. Symptoms can include redness, itching, and rash at the site of exposure.
* Nickel carbonyl: A highly toxic chemical compound (Ni(CO)4) that can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled. It is produced during some industrial processes involving nickel and carbon monoxide and poses a health risk to workers if proper safety measures are not taken.

If you have any concerns about exposure to nickel or symptoms related to nickel allergy, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

The Periodontal Index (PI) is not a current or widely used medical/dental term. However, in the past, it was used to describe a method for assessing and measuring the severity of periodontal disease, also known as gum disease.

Developed by Henry H. Klein and colleagues in 1978, the Periodontal Index was a scoring system that evaluated four parameters: gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, calculus (tartar) presence, and periodontal pocket depths. The scores for each parameter ranged from 0 to 3, with higher scores indicating worse periodontal health. The overall PI score was the sum of the individual parameter scores, ranging from 0 to 12.

However, due to its limited ability to predict future disease progression and the introduction of more comprehensive assessment methods like the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), the use of the Periodontal Index has become less common in dental practice and research.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

Toothbrushing is the act of cleaning teeth and gums using a toothbrush to remove plaque, food debris, and dental calculus (tartar) from the surfaces of the teeth and gums. It is typically performed using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste, with gentle circular or back-and-forth motions along the gumline and on all surfaces of the teeth. Toothbrushing should be done at least twice a day, preferably after every meal and before bedtime, for two minutes each time, to maintain good oral hygiene and prevent dental diseases such as tooth decay and gum disease. It is also recommended to brush the tongue to remove bacteria and freshen breath.

Malocclusion, Angle Class II is a type of dental malocclusion where the relationship between the maxilla (upper jaw) and mandible (lower jaw) is such that the lower molar teeth are positioned posteriorly relative to the upper molar teeth. This results in an overbite, which means that the upper front teeth overlap the lower front teeth excessively. The classification was proposed by Edward Angle, an American orthodontist who is considered the father of modern orthodontics. In this classification system, Class II malocclusion is further divided into three subclasses (I, II, and III) based on the position of the lower incisors relative to the upper incisors.

Mandibular advancement is a treatment approach used in dentistry and sleep medicine, which involves the surgical or non-surgical forward movement of the mandible (lower jaw) to address certain medical conditions. The most common use of mandibular advancement is in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), where the tongue and soft tissues at the back of the throat can collapse into the airway during sleep, causing obstruction and breathing difficulties.

Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are often used in non-surgical treatments. These custom-made oral appliances look similar to mouthguards or sports guards and are worn during sleep. They work by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, which helps to keep the airway open and prevents the tongue and soft tissues from collapsing into it.

Surgical mandibular advancement is another option for patients with severe OSA who cannot tolerate or do not respond well to MADs or other treatments like continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In this procedure, the jaw is surgically moved forward and stabilized in that position using plates, screws, or wires. This creates more space in the airway and reduces the risk of obstruction during sleep.

In summary, mandibular advancement refers to the movement of the lower jaw forward, either through non-surgical means like MADs or surgical interventions, with the primary goal of treating obstructive sleep apnea by maintaining a patent airway during sleep.

"Social desirability bias" is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept that's relevant in the fields of psychology, social sciences, and research methodology. It refers to the tendency of individuals to provide responses that they believe are socially acceptable or desirable, rather than their true feelings, thoughts, or behaviors, during surveys, interviews, or other forms of assessment. This bias can lead to inaccurate or skewed data, as it may not reflect the actual experiences or attitudes of the respondents. It's important for researchers to be aware of and control for social desirability bias to ensure the validity and reliability of their findings.

Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease (periodontal disease) that causes irritation, redness, swelling and bleeding of the gingiva, or gums. It's important to note that it is reversible with good oral hygiene and professional dental treatment. If left untreated, however, gingivitis can progress to a more severe form of gum disease known as periodontitis, which can result in tissue damage and eventual tooth loss.

Gingivitis is most commonly caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. When not removed regularly through brushing and flossing, this plaque can harden into tartar, which is more difficult to remove and contributes to gum inflammation. Other factors like hormonal changes, poor nutrition, certain medications, smoking or a weakened immune system may also increase the risk of developing gingivitis.

The periodontal ligament, also known as the "PDL," is the soft tissue that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone within the dental alveolus (socket). It consists of collagen fibers organized into groups called principal fibers and accessory fibers. These fibers are embedded into both the cementum of the tooth root and the alveolar bone, providing shock absorption during biting and chewing forces, allowing for slight tooth movement, and maintaining the tooth in its position within the socket.

The periodontal ligament plays a crucial role in the health and maintenance of the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), cementum, alveolar bone, and the periodontal ligament itself. Inflammation or infection of the periodontal ligament can lead to periodontal disease, potentially causing tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Gingiva is the medical term for the soft tissue that surrounds the teeth and forms the margin of the dental groove, also known as the gum. It extends from the mucogingival junction to the base of the cervical third of the tooth root. The gingiva plays a crucial role in protecting and supporting the teeth and maintaining oral health by providing a barrier against microbial invasion and mechanical injury.

Occlusal splints, also known as bite guards or night guards, are removable dental appliances that are used to provide protection and stabilization for the teeth and jaw joint (temporomandibular joint or TMJ). They are typically made of hard acrylic or soft materials and are custom-fit to a patient's mouth.

Occlusal splints work by covering and separating the upper and lower teeth, preventing them from coming into contact with each other. This can help to reduce tooth grinding and clenching (bruxism), which can cause tooth wear, sensitivity, and TMJ disorders. They may also be used to help stabilize the jaw joint and muscles in patients with TMJ disorders or to provide protection for teeth that have undergone restorative dental work.

It is important to note that occlusal splints should only be worn under the guidance of a dentist, as improper use can lead to further dental problems.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

Cephalometry is a medical term that refers to the measurement and analysis of the skull, particularly the head face relations. It is commonly used in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery to assess and plan treatment for abnormalities related to the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. The process typically involves taking X-ray images called cephalograms, which provide a lateral view of the head, and then using various landmarks and reference lines to make measurements and evaluate skeletal and dental relationships. This information can help clinicians diagnose problems, plan treatment, and assess treatment outcomes.

Palatal expansion technique is a dental or orthodontic treatment procedure that aims to widen the upper jaw (maxilla) by expanding the palate. This is typically done using a device called a palatal expander, which is attached to the upper molars and applies pressure to gradually separate the two bones that form the palate (the maxillary bones). As the appliance is activated (usually through turning a screw or key), it gently expands the palatal suture, allowing for an increase in the width of the upper dental arch. This procedure can help correct crossbites, crowding, and other jaw alignment issues. It's commonly used in children and adolescents but may also be employed in adults with certain conditions.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

Retrognathia is a dental and maxillofacial term that refers to a condition where the mandible (lower jaw) is positioned further back than normal, relative to the maxilla (upper jaw). This results in the chin appearing recessed or set back, and can lead to various functional and aesthetic problems. In severe cases, retrognathia can interfere with speaking, chewing, and breathing, and may require orthodontic or surgical intervention for correction.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

An overbite, also known as "malocclusion of class II division 1" in dental terminology, is an orthodontic condition where the upper front teeth excessively overlap the lower front teeth when biting down. This means that the upper incisors are positioned too far forward or the lower incisors are too far back. A slight overbite is considered normal and healthy, as it allows the front teeth to perform their functions properly, such as biting and tearing food. However, a significant overbite can lead to various problems like difficulty in chewing, speaking, and maintaining good oral hygiene. It may also cause wear and tear on the teeth, jaw pain, or even contribute to temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). Orthodontic treatment, such as braces or aligners, is often recommended to correct a severe overbite and restore proper bite alignment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Household Articles" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to items or goods used in a household for everyday activities, such as cleaning supplies, dishes, furniture, and personal care products. However, in a medical context, it may refer to items that are commonly found in a household and could potentially pose a risk for injury or illness, such as medications, sharp objects, or cleaning products. It's always important to keep these items out of reach of children and pets, and to follow proper safety guidelines when using them.

The term "vertical dimension" is used in dentistry, specifically in the field of prosthodontics, to refer to the measurement of the distance between two specific points in the vertical direction when the jaw is closed. The most common measurement is the "vertical dimension of occlusion," which is the distance between the upper and lower teeth when the jaw is in a balanced and comfortable position during resting closure.

The vertical dimension is an important consideration in the design and fabrication of dental restorations, such as dentures or dental crowns, to ensure proper function, comfort, and aesthetics. Changes in the vertical dimension can occur due to various factors, including tooth loss, jaw joint disorders, or muscle imbalances, which may require correction through dental treatment.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

Dental occlusion, centric refers to the alignment and contact of the opposing teeth when the jaw is closed in a neutral position, specifically with the mandible (lower jaw) positioned in maximum intercuspation. This means that all teeth are in full contact with their corresponding teeth in the opposite jaw, and the condyles of the mandible are seated in the most posterior portion of the glenoid fossae (the sockets in the skull where the mandible articulates). Centric occlusion is an important concept in dentistry as it serves as a reference point for establishing proper bite relationships during restorative dental treatment.

Orthodontic retainers are dental appliances that are custom-made and used after orthodontic treatment (such as braces) to help maintain the new position of teeth. They can be fixed or removable and are designed to keep the teeth in place while the surrounding gums and bones stabilize in their new positions. Retainers play a crucial role in preserving the investment made during orthodontic treatment, preventing the teeth from shifting back to their original positions.

Mixed dentition is a stage of dental development in which both primary (deciduous) teeth and permanent teeth are present in the mouth. This phase typically begins when the first permanent molars erupt, around the age of 6, and continues until all of the primary teeth have been replaced by permanent teeth, usually around the age of 12-13.

During this stage, a person will have a mix of smaller, temporary teeth and larger, more durable permanent teeth. Proper care and management of mixed dentition is essential for maintaining good oral health, as it can help to prevent issues such as crowding, misalignment, and decay. Regular dental check-ups and proper brushing and flossing techniques are crucial during this stage to ensure the best possible outcomes for long-term oral health.

Maxillofacial development refers to the growth and formation of the bones, muscles, and soft tissues that make up the face and jaw (maxillofacial region). This process begins in utero and continues throughout childhood and adolescence. It involves the coordinated growth and development of multiple structures, including the upper and lower jaws (maxilla and mandible), facial bones, teeth, muscles, and nerves.

Abnormalities in maxillofacial development can result in a range of conditions, such as cleft lip and palate, jaw deformities, and craniofacial syndromes. These conditions may affect a person's appearance, speech, chewing, and breathing, and may require medical or surgical intervention to correct.

Healthcare professionals involved in the diagnosis and treatment of maxillofacial developmental disorders include oral and maxillofacial surgeons, orthodontists, pediatricians, geneticists, and other specialists.

The dental arch refers to the curved shape formed by the upper or lower teeth when they come together. The dental arch follows the curve of the jaw and is important for proper bite alignment and overall oral health. The dental arches are typically described as having a U-shaped appearance, with the front teeth forming a narrower section and the back teeth forming a wider section. The shape and size of the dental arch can vary from person to person, and any significant deviations from the typical shape or size may indicate an underlying orthodontic issue that requires treatment.

Interceptive orthodontics refers to a branch of orthodontics that focuses on the early interception and treatment of dental or oral issues in children, typically between the ages of 6 and 10. The goal of interceptive orthodontics is to correct developing problems before they become more serious and require extensive treatment in the future.

Interceptive orthodontic treatments may include the use of appliances such as space maintainers, palatal expanders, or partial braces to guide the growth and development of the teeth and jaws. These treatments can help to:

* Create more space for crowded teeth
* Correct bite problems
* Improve facial symmetry
* Guide jaw growth and development
* Reduce the risk of tooth damage due to thumb sucking or tongue thrusting habits

By addressing these issues early on, interceptive orthodontics can help to prevent more extensive and costly treatments later in life. It is important to note that not all children will require interceptive orthodontic treatment, and a thorough evaluation by an orthodontist is necessary to determine the most appropriate course of action for each individual case.

The facial bones, also known as the facial skeleton, are a series of bones that make up the framework of the face. They include:

1. Frontal bone: This bone forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets.
2. Nasal bones: These two thin bones form the bridge of the nose.
3. Maxilla bones: These are the largest bones in the facial skeleton, forming the upper jaw, the bottom of the eye sockets, and the sides of the nose. They also contain the upper teeth.
4. Zygomatic bones (cheekbones): These bones form the cheekbones and the outer part of the eye sockets.
5. Palatine bones: These bones form the back part of the roof of the mouth, the side walls of the nasal cavity, and contribute to the formation of the eye socket.
6. Inferior nasal conchae: These are thin, curved bones that form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and help to filter and humidify air as it passes through the nose.
7. Lacrimal bones: These are the smallest bones in the skull, located at the inner corner of the eye socket, and help to form the tear duct.
8. Mandible (lower jaw): This is the only bone in the facial skeleton that can move. It holds the lower teeth and forms the chin.

These bones work together to protect vital structures such as the eyes, brain, and nasal passages, while also providing attachment points for muscles that control chewing, expression, and other facial movements.

"Mesial movement of teeth" is a dental term that refers to the natural drifting or shifting of teeth in a forward direction towards the front of the mouth. This movement typically occurs over time and can be influenced by various factors such as:

* The loss of adjacent teeth, which can create space for other teeth to move into
* Oral habits like thumb sucking or tongue thrusting
* Periodontal disease that weakens the supporting structures of the teeth
* Malocclusion or misalignment of teeth

It is essential to monitor and manage mesial movement of teeth to prevent dental issues such as crowding, malocclusion, and periodontal problems. Dental professionals may use various treatments, including orthodontic appliances, space maintainers, or restorations, to address this issue.

Malocclusion, Angle Class III is a type of orthodontic problem characterized by a misalignment of the teeth and jaws. This classification was first described by Edward Angle, an American dentist who is considered the father of modern orthodontics. In Class III malocclusion, the lower jaw (mandible) protrudes forward beyond the upper jaw (maxilla), resulting in a misaligned bite.

In this condition, the lower front teeth are positioned in front of the upper front teeth when the jaws are closed. This can lead to various dental and skeletal problems, such as abnormal tooth wear, difficulty in chewing and speaking, and aesthetic concerns. Class III malocclusion can be mild, moderate, or severe and may require orthodontic treatment, including braces, appliances, or even surgery, to correct the problem.

Malocclusion, Angle Class I is a type of dental malocclusion where the misalignment of teeth is not severe enough to affect the overall function or appearance of the bite significantly. Named after Edward Angle, the founder of modern orthodontics, this classification indicates that the mesiobuccal cusp of the upper first molar is aligned with the buccal groove of the lower first molar. Although the bite appears normal, there might be crowding, spacing, or rotations present in the teeth, which can lead to aesthetic concerns and potential periodontal issues if left untreated.

Twin-Block Appliance Frankel II Mono-Bloc Appliance Rickonator Dynamax Appliance R-Appliance Anterior Inclined Bite Plate (AIBP ... Orthodontic Functional Appliances: Theory and Practice." "Luther, F. A. & Nelson-Moon, Z. A. Removable orthodontic appliances ... In the 1950s, Wilhem Balters modified Andersen's Activator appliance and gave the new appliance the name Bionator Appliance, ... Intruder Mesial Jet T Bar Appliance Thurow Appliance Modified Thurow Appliance Some of the components of removal appliances are ...
Hans Peter Bimler List of Orthodontic Functional Appliances Ahlin, Jeffrey H. (2003-12-01). Maxillofacial Orthopedics. Xulon ... The appliance was split horizontally into an upper and lower part and a screw connect the two pieces of appliance. The occlusal ... This appliance had latex tubing between the upper and lower parts to stimulate function. This appliance was again modified for ... Activator Appliance is an Orthodontics appliance that was developed by Viggo Andresen in 1908. This was one of the first ...
List of Orthodontic Functional Appliances List of palatal expanders Molar distalization Pendulum appliance Herbert I. Margolis ... This appliance is a removable type of appliance which was developed by Herbert I. Margolis. This appliance is intended to be ... Management of appliance includes measuring overjet every appointment to measure the anchorage loss of the appliance. Patient ... As the ACCO appliance will move the crown of molar distally, headgear will act to move the molar roots distally. In order to ...
... or Frankel Functional Regulator is an orthodontic functional appliance which was developed by Rolf Fränkel in ... The appliance was opposite to the Bionator appliance and Activator appliance. It was developed by Rolf Fränkel in Germany in ... In his practice, Fränkel had used the activator functional appliance and experienced mixed results with this appliance. He ... He achieved that through development of functional regulator appliances. These appliances allowed him to train and reprogram ...
Braun, Thomas (February 25, 2014). "Static Self Ligating Orthodontic Bracket". 2009 Chapter 7: Orthodontic Appliances Jeryl D. ... In 1970s, a new system called SPEED appliance was introduced into the market. This was introduced by Dr. G. Herbert Hanson of ... stated that their analysis showed treatment time being longer when self ligated orthodontic brackets are used compared to ... 2014). "Clinical effects of pre-adjusted edgewise orthodontic brackets: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Eur. J. Orthod ...
Palate surgery, Orthodontic appliances). ... If the orthodontic wire clasp terminated at its approximation ... the placement of orthodontic bands that harbor large buccal orthodontic brackets can serve as an alternative to the placement ... Thus, the orthodontic wire clasps used to retain interim palatal lift prostheses are sometimes extended in a mesial direction ... The orthodontic wire extends from the polymethylmethacrylate to engage the gingival aspect of the composite resin or ...
CS1: long volume value, Orthodontic appliances). ... A lingual arch is an orthodontic device which connects two ... TPA can also be used to stabilize molar position in the attempt to avoid side effects that can take place during orthodontic ...
Orthodontic company Ormcro manufactured the first Kurz Lingual Appliance. The slot size for the first bracket was 0.018 inches ... Kurz was the founding president of the American Lingual Orthodontic Association. He died on April 6, 1998, in Marina del Rey. ... Specialty Appliances. "Dr. Craven Kurz; Orthodontist Invented 'Invisible' Braces". Los Angeles Times. 1998-04-09. ISSN 0458- ... He was also the founding president of the American Lingual Orthodontic Association. Kurz was born in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, ...
Chen J, Wan J, You L (January 2018). "Speech and orthodontic appliances: a systematic literature review". European Journal of ... Cerroni S, Pasquantonio G, Condò R, Cerroni L (2018-09-28). "Orthodontic Fixed Appliance and Periodontal Status: An Updated ... "Safety Considerations for Thermoplastic-Type Appliances Used as Orthodontic Aligners or Retainers. A Systematic Review and Meta ... They provide orthodontic retention when worn and they can be taken in and out of the mouth. They can be worn part-time or full- ...
"A severe reaction to ni-containing orthodontic appliances". The Angle Orthodontist. 79 (1): 186-92. doi:10.2319/111507-531.1. ... Motivation on the patient's part is necessary if they are going to undergo lengthy orthodontic treatment and major surgery. In ... In most cases, the orthodontist will first align the teeth with braces or other appliances, which may worsen the occlusion ... This process may involve more than a single discipline of Dentistry - in addition to orthodontic and surgical needs, some ...
He held over 50 patents related to orthodontic appliances. Kesling was born in La Porte, Indiana, the son of Dr. Harold Kesling ... Peter C. Kesling (born 1932) was an American orthodontist known for the development of the tip-edge orthodontic appliance in ... Kesling developed the tip-edge appliance in 1986. The brackets of this appliance are made by removing the diagonally opposed ... After graduating from the orthodontic program[clarification needed] in 1958, Kesling joined the orthodontic clinic run by his ...
The patient is willing to wear fixed orthodontic appliances. The patient is well motivated and have good dental health. ... However, due to the higher dose of ionising radiation, the current British Orthodontic Society Orthodontic Radiographs ... or quadhelix appliances Anteroposterior expansion using headgear Combination using fixed appliances Pre-op assessments ( ... Orthodontic alignment isn't made impractical by the position of the canine (e.g. it's not too close to the midline, isn't above ...
Orthodontic technicians make removable orthodontic appliances with wires, springs, and screws on prescription from an ... A technician can then use this cast for the construction of custom appliances. A fixed dental restoration is an appliance ... including orthodontic appliances and mouthguards. The dentist communicates with the dental technician with prescriptions, ... Removable restorations are dental appliances to replace one or more teeth that have been completely lost. These restorations ...
... is a type of orthodontic appliance typically attached to the patient's head with a strap or number of ... The appliance is very effective in correcting Class III orthodontic problems in younger or adolescent patients that are still ... Teenagers prescribed orthodontic headgear often face social stigma and bullying if seen wearing these appliances. Because of ... Facemask or reverse-pull headgear is an orthodontic appliance typically used in growing patients to correct underbites ( ...
Adams, C. Philip; Kerr, W. John S. (1991). The Design, Construction and Use of Removable Orthodontic Appliances (5th ed.). ... Orton, Harry S. (1990). Functional Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment: An Atlas of Clinical Prescription and Laboratory ... Orthodontic appliances, Prosthetics, Prosthodontology, Restorative dentistry, Stainless steel, University of Liverpool). ... Adams, C. Philip (1954). "The retention of removable appliances with the modified arrowhead clasp". Transactions of the ...
"Initial arch wires used in orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 7: ... "The Orthoevolution of Orthodontic Archwires - Orthodontic Products". Orthodontic Products. Retrieved 2016-10-30. Singh G (2015- ... as European Orthodontists believed in using functional appliances such as Activator appliance with patient's malocclusions.[ ... Orthodontic archwires may be fabricated from several alloys, most commonly stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi), and ...
The Herbst appliance is an orthodontic appliance used by orthodontists to correct class 2 retrognathic mandible in a growing ... including cast Herbst appliance and acrylic splint Herbst appliance. The Herbst appliance is indicated for the noncompliance ... The Herbst appliance; Hans U. Paulsen, Moschos A. Papadopoulos, in Orthodontic Treatment of the Class II Noncompliant Patient, ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Orthodontic appliances). ...
Other orthodontics for appliances are available. The British Orthodontic Society recommends the same advice as ADA. A Cochrane ... Fixed intraoral appliances have been known to create problems during eating as children when removing their appliances may have ... The study showed that orthodontic appliances and psychological interventions (positive and negative reinforcement) were ... Other appliances are available, such as fabric thumb guards, each having their own benefits and features depending on the ...
Mahaffy's orthodontic appliance was instrumental in identifying her. Homolka was released from prison on July 4, 2005. Several ...
Mahaffy's orthodontic appliance was instrumental in identifying her. Several days before Homolka's release from prison in July ...
"Application of the positioner appliance in orthodontic treatment". American Journal of Orthodontics. 58 (4): 351-366. doi: ... Kesling is known for developing the Positioner appliance. He developed this appliance during his work in the La Porte office in ... In 1929, he opened his orthodontic practice in Hammond, Indiana after receiving his orthodontic degree from Loyola University. ... was an American orthodontist who is known for developing the tooth positioning appliance called "Positioner". This appliance is ...
Forced tooth eruption requires a fixed orthodontic appliance. This poses problems in patients with reduced dentitions; in such ... Alternatively, orthodontic extrusion can be used to achieve crown lengthening. Using brackets, light forces can be used to pull ... Difficult procedure for patients to tolerate, increased post-operative pain Orthodontic tooth movement can be used to erupt ... instances alternative crown lengthening procedures must be considered[citation needed] Orthodontic brackets are bonded to the ...
"Changes in oral microbiota due to orthodontic appliances: a systematic review". Journal of Oral Microbiology. 10 (1): 1476645. ... denticola in patients with orthodontic appliances, particularly the fixed type. Treponema denticola is a potential etiological ...
"Inhalation of aerosols produced during the removal of fixed orthodontic appliances: a comparison of 4 enamel cleanup methods". ... "Airborne particles produced during enamel cleanup after removal of orthodontic appliances". American Journal of Orthodontics ... and phosphorus can also be found in the dental aerosols produced during the procedures like debonding of orthodontic appliances ...
Goldberg, Jon; Burstone, Charles J. (1979). "An Evaluation of Beta Titanium Alloys for Use in Orthodontic Appliances". Journal ... Beta titanium is nowadays largely utilized in the orthodontic field and was adopted for orthodontics use in the 1980s. This ... and reduced force per unit displacement 2.2 times below those of stainless steel appliances. Some of the beta titanium alloys ...
Zietsman, S. T.; Visagé, W.; Coetzee, W. J. (2000-11-01). "Palatal finger springs in removable orthodontic appliances--an in ... This type of spring can be attached to a removable appliance which is used by patient every day to correct the tooth position. ... Nielsen, H. J.; Bakke, M.; Blixencrone-Møller, T. (1991-12-01). "[Functional and orthodontic treatment of a patient with an ... Ulusoy, Ayca Tuba; Bodrumlu, Ebru Hazar (2013-01-01). "Management of anterior dental crossbite with removable appliances". ...
Rigid splints are made with composite and rigid wires or Erinch bars and orthodontic appliances. The variations in these ... Orthodontic treatment can cause increased tooth mobility as well. One of the risks of orthodontic treatment, as a result of ... Another risk of orthodontic treatment that can lead to an increase in mobility is root resorption. The risk of this is thought ... This is most likely to be seen in patients with fixed appliances. Some loss of connective tissue attachment and alveolar bone ...
An orthodontic appliance may uncommonly produce a similar result. However, mucosal trauma is thought increase the ability of C ... Wearing dental appliances such as dentures alters the oral microbiota. A microbial plaque composed of bacteria and/or yeasts ... which may over time corrode metal components of dental appliances), acids (e.g. benzoic acid), yeast lytic enzymes and ...
A quad helix (or quadhelix) is an orthodontic appliance for the upper teeth that is cemented in the mouth. It is attached to ... v t e (Orthodontic appliances, Dental equipment, All stub articles, Dentistry stubs). ... A variety of this appliance is inserted into attachments that are welded to the bands. In this way the orthodontist can adjust ... the appliance without removing the bands. The precursor to the quad-helix was the coffin spring. Similar devices known as tri- ...
Kerr, W. J. S (June 2000). "Orthodontic Treatment with Fixed Appliances in the General Dental Service in Scotland". Journal of ... was helping out a study which looked at the significance of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The SDPB shared 128 ...
Twin-Block Appliance Frankel II Mono-Bloc Appliance Rickonator Dynamax Appliance R-Appliance Anterior Inclined Bite Plate (AIBP ... Orthodontic Functional Appliances: Theory and Practice." "Luther, F. A. & Nelson-Moon, Z. A. Removable orthodontic appliances ... In the 1950s, Wilhem Balters modified Andersens Activator appliance and gave the new appliance the name Bionator Appliance, ... Intruder Mesial Jet T Bar Appliance Thurow Appliance Modified Thurow Appliance Some of the components of removal appliances are ...
An orthodontist demonstrates the value of a novel appliance that uniquely comprises the category of "Independent Mover." ...
But how familiar are you with some of the other orthodontic appliances available? There are quite a few of them, and they all ... No two orthodontic patients are the same, which means that no two treatment plans are the same. When you come to our practice, ... we will develop a treatment plan to give you the best result in the most effective timeline, and we will use the appliances ...
Removable appliance the lingual arch retainer can be used as a holding appliance or to assist in active treatment. It can be ... Orthodontic Models * Orthodontic Manikin Training Simulator * Orthodontic Models Retainers Braces Appliances for Education ... Removable appliance the lingual arch can be used as a holding appliance or to assist in active treatment. It can be bent in an ... Orthodontic Retainer & Model features excellent demonstration and teaching tool for Orthodontic Dental Schools and Students who ...
Dental Retainer Box Orthodontic Appliance Guard Snap Closure, Glitter 1,5\ ... Dental Retainer Box Orthodontic Appliance Guard Snap Closure, Glitter 1,5 Deep For Sale When you click on links to various ... Dental Retainer Box Orthodontic Appliance Guard Snap Closure, Glitter 1,5 Deep: $7.35. ...
Orthodontic appliances are a necessary part of orthodontic treatment. Learn more from Drs. Roberts & de Marsche at Philadelphia ... The Importance of Orthodontic Appliances. Many orthodontic appliances do the critical job of prepping teeth and mouth for ... Herbst appliance: Kids are great orthodontic patients because their jaws are still growing, a key that the Herbst appliance is ... Types of Orthodontic Appliances. Orthodontists understand that you dont want more gear in your mouth than necessary. Thats ...
... after orthodontic treatment. Some teeth are more prone to demineralization ... Treatment of "White Spot Lesions" after Removal of Fixed Orthodontic Appliances. Share svg{fill:#ffffff}. Tweet Pinit Email ... after Removal of Fixed Orthodontic Appliances. Demineralised white spot lesions occur frequently, after orthodontic treatment. ... Dental News March 2012 , Orthodontics , removal of fixed orthodontic appliances , treatment , white spot lesions ...
... and additional orthodontic equipment used to straighten teeth. Learn more about headgear at ... Learn about orthodontic headgear, what it's used for, ... Other Types of Orthodontic Appliances. Though all types of ... Sometimes your orthodontist may recommend additional orthodontic treatments, such as elastic bands and orthodontic headgear, ... Some additional orthodontic treatments involves placing small springs between brackets to help adjust spaces between teeth, and ...
Bringing Teeth into Alignment with Orthodontic Treatment. Understand how teeth become crooked and your corrective options. ...
for All your Orthodontic & Sleep Appliance Needs An Inexpensive, Alternative System to Traditional Braces! Learn More We will ... WELCOME TO RICOH ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES. Over 25 years of experience in the manufacturing of orthodontic, functional and ... The quality of their appliances is truly awesome. As an I-Tero user I submit my cases to ROA using the digital .STL file format ... Our professional experience allows us to assist you by making out of each appliance a commitment between you and R.O.A. because ...
Orthodontic Appliances Common Orthodontic AppliancesThere are many different types and purposes of orthodontic appliances. The ... Common Orthodontic Appliances. There are many different types and purposes of orthodontic appliances. The two main purposes are ... Orthodontic appliances help us achieve that goal! Dr. Stan Cox will create a unique treatment plan for each specific case. Here ... Expanders are orthodontic appliances that are most commonly used in younger patients. Often, these patients have a very narrow ...
Submenu: What is LM-Activator™ ...
A shell-like orthodontic appliance includes a shell-like body provided with a cavity accommodating a plurality of maxillary ... a further orthodontic appliance set is provided, the orthodontic appliance set including a maxillary orthodontic appliance and ... The orthodontic system includes a plurality of orthodontic appliance sets that include at least one orthodontic appliance set ... By wearing the shell-like orthodontic appliance, the orthodontic appliance set, the orthodontic system or a correction system, ...
Orthodontic Appliances Your Child Might Need. As orthodontic technology has improved throughout the years, so have the ... and these appliances fulfill an important function in your childs overall treatment. Orthodontic appliances change the way ... Any of these appliances can be used in your childs orthodontic treatment, so if you have questions about how they function or ... These orthodontic appliances are used to maintain space in the mouth and allow for proper tooth eruption and movement. Find out ...
Our orthodontists may recommend an orthodontic appliance in Pataskala, Ohio, to help straighten your teeth. Call today to ... Orthodontic Appliances Dr. Jeff, Dr. Soo and Dr. Betina may recommend an orthodontic appliance as part of your treatment plan. ... Orthodontic appliances help move your teeth into their proper positions, and you may be surprised at just how many appliances ... Common orthodontic appliances include:. *Clear aligners - Clear aligners are a more discreet alternative to traditional braces ...
DENTAL APPLIANCES CAN PREVENT YOUR TEETH FROM SHIFTING AFTER ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT. June 30, 2014 ... What are the Benefits of Wearing a Retainer After Orthodontic Treatment?. February 15, 2016 ...
Orthodontic Courses *10905NAT Graduate Diploma of Digital Orthodontic Treatments. *UK accredited Postgraduate Diploma in ... Orthodontic Courses *10905NAT Graduate Diploma of Digital Orthodontic Treatments. *UK accredited Postgraduate Diploma in ... How do you adjust a twin block? What is the best timing for it? What is a good clinical protocol for functional appliances? ... I completed the AU course at the end of last year and can honestly say BOSS (now Digital Orthodontic College) has completely ...
Caring for this appliance is as easy as practicing your regular oral hygiene routine! This routine should include proper ... Caring for this appliance is as easy as practicing your regular oral hygiene routine! This routine should include proper ... What is an Orthodontic Herbst Appliance. A+ A- A Main Content There are always new devices and advancements in the field of ... Herbst Appliance for Orthodontics. Most people are familiar with the headgear used in orthodontic treatment. These days an ...
... learn more about the orthodontic appliances used to address early orthodontic concerns. ... Orthodontic Appliances in Irving, TX. Orthodontic appliances are often recommended to patients who are undergoing two-phase ... Orthodontic Appliances *Retainer Care *Two Phase Orthodontic Treatment *Types Of Dental Braces ... With personalized orthodontic appliances to aid in the proper development of your childs smile, we can set them up for ...
Accutech Orthodontic Lab, Inc.. 3345 Bridge Road, Suite 904. Suffolk, VA 23435. , Fax: 757.488.7340 ... Accutech has been serving the orthodontic market since 1979 and is certified by the National Association of Dental Laboratories ...
Removable Appliances:. Wear your appliance as directed, even while sleeping, and avoid flipping it with your tongue to prevent ... Appliance Care & Use. Braces:. Check your braces daily while brushing your teeth, and contact us if you have a loose or broken ... Clean your appliance daily, and store it in its plastic case when not in use. ... appliance.. If a tie wire is bothering you, use a blunt object to push it aside gently. ...
Your personal data will be used to support your experience throughout this website, to manage access to your account, and for other purposes described in our privacy policy.. ...
A better look at us as a company and who we are as Specialty Appliances. Our management, mission, and information about all of ... Specialty Appliances™ is the largest orthodontic lab in the USA offering the best quality customizable orthodontic appliances ... Jessica Rothrock is Director of Orthodontic Treatment at Specialty Appliances™. She joined Specialty Appliances™ April 2022. ... Prior to Specialty Appliances™, Jessica spent 21 years working in an orthodontic practice. During those 21 years, she worked as ...
... we will begin the retention stage of your treatment with various types of appliances necessary to achieve a perfect smile ... Your final orthodontic result depends on your retainers, so follow through with the hard work youve put in so far. Remember to ... Orthodontic Associates of Westchester. 1740 Central Park Avenue. Yonkers, NY 10710. Phone , 914-961-1620. Fax , 914-961-4165 ... Attached to the upper molars through bonding or by cemented bands, the Rapid Palatal Expander is an orthodontic device used to ...
Pressure is built into the appliance for the desired movement, thus requiring little or no adjustment and minimal chair time. ... The Spring Retainer is a pre-adjusted appliance intended to improve minor anterior rotations. ... Featured Appliance Spring Aligner Spring Aligned appliances are excellent for improving minor anterior rotations and require ... The appliance should then seat properly. However, when difficulty persists in seating the appliance or the appliance is ...
The use of the appliance corrects and aligns sagittal and vertical relationships simultaneously. No separate phases are needed. ... The use of LM™ orthodontic appliances during the growth. PINK LM-Trainer , YELLOW, ORANGE LM-Activator Short , BLUE, GREEN LM- ... The appliances are combinations of these features.. The choice of model should always be based on an examination and diagnosis ... The use of the appliance corrects and aligns sagittal and vertical relationships simultaneously. No separate phases are needed. ...
... you may wear any of these orthodontic appliances before, during, or after your braces or Invisalign treatment! Check them out. ... What do orthodontic appliances do?. Orthodontic appliances have a variety of uses. Theyre effective for facilitating more ... Palatal expanders are a common appliance used in early orthodontic treatment for children whose jaw bones are still developing ... Once the appliance is in place, it takes the place of rubber bands. Its important that you keep this appliance as clean as ...
  • This is a comprehensive list of functional appliances that are used in the field of orthodontics. (
  • The Monobloc was developed by Pierre Robin (surgeon) in 1902 and is considered to be one of the first functional appliances in Orthodontics. (
  • This appliance became the "Norwegian" system of treatment in Orthodontics in the early 1900s. (
  • Quite often, appliances are used as part of interceptive orthodontics - treatments that begin in childhood, often before all the baby teeth have been lost - to prep the mouth for less complex orthodontic treatment when the patient is a tween or teen. (
  • Here are some of the common orthodontic appliances used at Brookhaven Orthodontics. (
  • The American Association of Orthodontics recommends that children have their first orthodontic visit between the ages of 7 and 8 to prevent the progression of any orthodontic issues that may already be developing. (
  • Child orthodontics includes other appliances than just braces, though, and these appliances fulfill an important function in your child's overall treatment. (
  • There are other orthodontic appliances that aren't as well known but are used quite often in child orthodontics. (
  • If you have any questions about orthodontic appliances in Pataskala, New Albany, Westerville, Newark and Powell, Ohio, or would like to schedule a consultation with our orthodontists, contact Shirck Orthodontics today. (
  • At Define Orthodontics, we welcome patients of all ages, including children to visit our orthodontic office in Irving, TX. (
  • He is a sought-after speaker at orthodontic meetings who is at the forefront of innovation in orthodontics. (
  • The Markham Orthodontics team provides superior orthodontic treatment and top-notch customer service to patients of all ages. (
  • What is forsus spring appliance in orthodontics? (
  • Furthermore, patients should know how to care invisible orthodontics and keep the oral environment clean in order for the successfully completion of the orthodontic treatment. (
  • After any orthodontic treatment, the patients are taught about caring of orthodontics. (
  • During invisible orthodontic treatment , some considerations regarding maintaining orthodontics should also be taken into account. (
  • For young patients, braces are common orthodontic appliances that they can receive to straighten their teeth and correct any dental issues. (
  • Retainers are the one thing that every orthodontic patient has in common. (
  • Your final orthodontic result depends on your retainers, so follow through with the hard work you've put in so far. (
  • After you complete your orthodontic journey and you are delighted with your brand new straight smile, you will still have a step to complete, and it involves the use of retainers. (
  • This is especially true when cleaning retainers, braces, and other removable orthodontic devices. (
  • The fixed functional appliances have to be bonded to the teeth by an orthodontist. (
  • An orthodontist demonstrates the value of a novel appliance that uniquely comprises the category of "Independent Mover. (
  • That's why it's important for patients to understand that their orthodontist only recommends an appliance when it will be of the greatest good to you and your oral health. (
  • If your orthodontist says you need an orthodontic appliance, you just do. (
  • Sometimes your orthodontist may recommend additional orthodontic treatments, such as elastic bands and orthodontic headgear, but these items are not always used for the full length of time that you wear the braces . (
  • Expanders are permanent appliances that stay in the mouth until the orthodontist removes them. (
  • Your orthodontist will monitor the appliance and will remove it once you no longer need it. (
  • Even if one's teeth doesn't show any kind of orthodontic issues, it is advantageous that patients, especially children, visit with an orthodontist to maintain good oral health. (
  • Any of these appliances can be used in your child's orthodontic treatment, so if you have questions about how they function or which one would be best to implement, make sure to ask your orthodontist. (
  • Two-phase treatment allows the orthodontist to address your child's orthodontic concerns sooner rather than later, saving you time and money in the long run. (
  • To achieve the desired results from braces or Invisalign® treatment at our Melbourne, Viera, or Merritt Island orthodontist office , you may wear an orthodontic appliance before, during or after treatment! (
  • Request your free orthodontic exam at our conveniently located orthodontist offices in Melbourne , Merritt Island , or Viera today! (
  • Discuss with your dentist or orthodontist what type of floss or floss appliance is the best for you and your type of orthodontic appliance. (
  • Our orthodontist provides our patients with orthodontic appliances in Minnesota. (
  • It will cover the use of soft-bristled toothbrushes, orthodontic cleaners, avoiding harsh chemicals, using a water pick, and visiting one's orthodontist regularly for check-ups. (
  • Orthodontic Retainer & Model features excellent demonstration and teaching tool for Orthodontic Dental Schools and Students who desired to learn, practice Orthodontic Techniques in Dental School, at home, on the go. (
  • What are the Benefits of Wearing a Retainer After Orthodontic Treatment? (
  • The Spring Retainer is a pre-adjusted appliance intended to improve minor anterior rotations. (
  • Another advantage of the Spring Retainer is that the active appliance can also serve as a post-treatment retainer, thus making this approach more economical for the patient. (
  • Once movement is complete, the appliance can then be used as a retainer for nine months and is reinserted approximately once each month thereafter, as a "check guide" against relapse, if it is difficult to seat, indefinite nighttime retainer wear is usually indicated. (
  • Expanders are orthodontic appliances that are most commonly used in younger patients. (
  • Palatal expanders are a common appliance used in early orthodontic treatment for children whose jaw bones are still developing or in teens that need more room for erupting teeth. (
  • Orthodontic expanders accomplish this by optimizing the shape and size of the mouth, jaws and nasal passageways for better airflow during inhalation and exhalation. (
  • Some additional orthodontic treatments involves placing small springs between brackets to help adjust spaces between teeth, and small elastic bands are sometimes worn between the top and bottom teeth. (
  • A Forsus spring is a fixed appliance that attaches to the brackets of braces. (
  • If one of your brackets has broken or come away from your tooth, use some orthodontic wax to try and hold it in place and give us a ring to book an emergency appointment. (
  • These appliances utilize brackets made from a variety of materials, including metal and tooth-colored ceramic, which are bonded to individual teeth and linked by an archwire. (
  • The subjects were 330 patients who had been under fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months. (
  • A palatal expander is used to help the upper jaw grow to the appropriate width, typically before full orthodontic treatment begins. (
  • Attached to the upper molars through bonding or by cemented bands, the Rapid Palatal Expander is an orthodontic device used to create a wider space in the upper jaw. (
  • The rapid palatal expander (the most common type of palatal expander) is bonded to the upper molars on both sides of the top jaw, with a screw located in the center of the appliance. (
  • A palatal expander is an appliance placed in the roof of the mouth to widen the upper dental arch, which allows the arch to be painlessly separated and spread. (
  • A palatal expander is an appliance used to widen the upper jaw, or maxilla, in growing patients It can be indicated to alleviate future crowding, correct a crossbite or improve the airway. (
  • Active components of removable appliances include springs which provides light forces on a tooth to move it orthodontically. (
  • These orthodontic appliances are used to maintain space in the mouth and allow for proper tooth eruption and movement. (
  • Functional appliances enable normal jaw and tooth development by addressing thumb sucking and tongue thrusting. (
  • Sagittal appliances allow for normal tooth development where crowding may occur by slowly widening your child's upper jaw arch. (
  • Positioners complete the final tooth movements in your orthodontic treatment. (
  • After completing orthodontic therapy, it is not uncommon to still need a little fine tuning of tooth alignment. (
  • Generally, when the orthodontic treatment starts, more attention should be paid to dental hygiene than before, because of an increase in the risk of tooth decay and discoloration as well as gum inflammation due to the presence of a foreign object in the mouth during this period. (
  • During treatment it's extremely important to keep your teeth clean as plaque can build up around your appliance and cause tooth decay. (
  • Generally speaking, it should be used at least once per day in order to keep the appliance clean and free from bacteria that can cause plaque buildup or tooth decay. (
  • The appliance is attached to the outside of the first permanent molars and canine teeth and has elastics that connect it to a tooth on the opposing arch. (
  • While many of these dental devices look similar, we use a wide variety of orthodontic appliances to straighten your teeth and repair jaw problems. (
  • Most people are familiar with the headgear used in orthodontic treatment. (
  • These days an Herbst appliance can be used in place of headgear, eliminating problems with patient compliance. (
  • Headgear is an orthodontic appliance attached to dental braces that aid in correcting severe bite problems. (
  • Headgear - Headgear is a dental appliance attached to a metal framework and is most commonly used to correct growth and developmental problems. (
  • This cutting-edge orthodontic appliance is a sleek, comfortable alternative to headgear and other bulky devices. (
  • As you can remove your aligners, your dietary restrictions are not going to be as drastic as with fixed orthodontic treatments. (
  • Depending on the specific case, patients may get an appliance as part of a Phase I treatment plan or along with their braces or aligners during comprehensive treatment. (
  • Dr. Durschlag typically uses the PowerScope appliance with braces or aligners, so he can straighten the teeth, while simultaneously improving the bite. (
  • A removable appliance is usually used by patients who have high degree of compliance with their orthodontic treatment. (
  • No two orthodontic patients are the same, which means that no two treatment plans are the same. (
  • Plenty of orthodontic patients have experienced a broken bracket or two in their treatment time. (
  • Kids are great orthodontic patients because their jaws are still growing, a key that the Herbst appliance is designed to take advantage of. (
  • A Forsus spring appliance is also usually used with younger patients who are currently in braces (specifically with an overbite ) as a way to shorten treatment time. (
  • The Herbst appliance is also suggested for younger, growing patients. (
  • Among most patients of malocclusion, correction to deep overbite may be a first step in an entire orthodontic treatment procedure, while to open occlusion is key to correcting deep overbite. (
  • Many, if not most, dental patients will receive some form of orthodontic treatment during their lifetime. (
  • She can help younger patients and their parents address orthodontic concerns sooner rather than later to avoid the need for extensive orthodontic work later on. (
  • Learn more about the oral appliances used to address younger patients' orthodontic concerns below. (
  • Orthodontic appliances are often recommended to patients who are undergoing two-phase treatment. (
  • Patients must wear their appliances as instructed to ensure the teeth and jaws move into proper alignment. (
  • This is particularly true in patients who have undergone extensive orthodontic therapy and are simply 'burned out. (
  • We offer different types of appliances to meet our patients' unique orthodontic needs! (
  • As the appliance comfortably aligns the jaw, patients are able to open and close their mouth like they normally do. (
  • Once we achieve the desired amount of expansion, patients continue to wear the appliance for a few more months. (
  • Evidence comparing periodontal conditions in orthodontic patients who regularly use or do not use dental floss is scarce. (
  • Orthodontic patients who use dental floss regularly have somewhat better gingival conditions than those who do not use floss. (
  • It can reduce the need for appliances, the treatment time, the cost of treatment, discomfort for the patients and potential iatrogenic sequelae. (
  • The development of new methods such as Lingual braces 4 and the Invisalign System 6 are examples of approaches which focus on the aesthetic aspect of orthodontic appliances. (
  • The type of appliance prescribed to you will depend on your specific orthodontic needs and treatment goals. (
  • Separators are temporary appliances, removed by your next appointment within 1 to 2 weeks depending on your specific orthodontic condition. (
  • The result of using a twin block appliance is a broad, beautiful smile, proper jaw function, improved profile, and a stable and healthy temporomandibular joint. (
  • When presented with minor crowding and a "V" arch form in the adult dentition, many doctors prescribe an upper Removable Expansion Appliance with a Hinge-Gear. (
  • In those schools the students who agreed to participate and matched the following criteria were selected: (1) aged 7-9 years, (2) having no proximal caries, restorations or early extraction of deciduous teeth, (3) receiving no orthodontic treatment, (4) healthy and (5) showing good cooperation during examination. (
  • Adams clasps are used for retention of these removable appliances and are usually fabricated in the molar areas. (
  • Orthodontic devices that correct irregularities are generally divided into two categories: fixed and removable appliances. (
  • I completed the AU course at the end of last year and can honestly say BOSS (now Digital Orthodontic College) has completely changed my approach to clear aligner treatments and increased my confidence with treatment planning immensely. (
  • Jaw alignment can be improved with the application of orthodontic treatments. (
  • In the 1950s, Wilhem Balters modified Andersen's Activator appliance and gave the new appliance the name Bionator Appliance, which was designed to produce forward positioning of the mandible. (
  • This compact appliance fits discreetly inside the cheeks to encourage development of the lower jaw to move it forward into alignment with the upper jaw. (
  • Depending on their jaw and bone structure, your child may need an orthodontic device to help guide their teeth and jaw into proper alignment. (
  • These appliances serve to widen the upper jaw to create the necessary space for teeth to erupt in a healthy alignment. (
  • Used to hold the necessary space in the mouth for premolars to grow, the lower lingual arch appliance establishes the proper foundation that shapes the lower arch in a healthy alignment. (
  • Typically used for younger, growing mouths , this appliance is comprised of stainless steel bands wrapped around the molars to enforce a healthy jaw alignment. (
  • At every orthodontic adjustment appointment, the elastic bands and wires are gently tightened until the teeth have moved into ideal alignment. (
  • Orthodontic appliances are an effective way to correct misalignment and crowding of teeth, but they must be properly maintained to ensure that treatment is successful. (
  • Our orthodontists will discuss your smile goals and treatment plan with you as well as reviewing your orthodontic appliance options to find the type of appliance that will work best for your smile. (
  • Learn about basics and history of Class II functional appliance with an interactive webinar by Dr Vandana Katyal and Dr Mohammed Almuzian, Specialist Orthodontists. (
  • Removable appliance the lingual arch can be used as a holding appliance or to assist in active treatment. (
  • The widening of the upper and lower jaws will help avoid many orthodontic problems like a crossbite, crowding or impacted teeth. (
  • Each of the appliances has a bite ramp that interlocks when closing to help guide your jaws into a more forward bite position. (
  • The CS4 appliance is designed to improve the relationship between the upper and lower jaws to correct overbites and underbites. (
  • When you get orthodontic treatment with braces, you experience pain and discomfort in different stages of treatment. (
  • The Positioner Appliance was developed by Harold Kesling in 1944 in order to aid the orthodontic treatment during the finishing stage. (
  • With your full cooperation, you should only need to wear the positioner appliance for four to eight weeks. (
  • The teeth positioner appliance is a custom-made aligner used as the final step following a treatment, such as braces . (
  • Many appliances are so powerful they can enhance jaw growth, straighten teeth, and create facial balance where there was none. (
  • Another less-known appliance is the lower lingual holding arch, which does the same thing as the Nance but for the lower teeth. (
  • A lower arch space maintainer, also called a lower lingual holding arch, is an appliance that's bonded to the bottom molars on either side of a child's mouth. (
  • Separators are little rubber doughnuts that may be placed between your teeth to push them apart so that orthodontic bands may be placed during your next appointment. (
  • Fixed appliances are able to produce very accurate movement in the teeth Both fixed and removable functional appliances can be used to correct a malocclusion in three planes: Anterior-Posterior, Vertical and Transverse. (
  • The dentist will then decide which type of appliance would work best for your child and what instructions they will need to follow to get the best results out of their treatment. (
  • We will work with you and your child to find the type of appliance that is right for your needs. (
  • There are many different types and purposes of orthodontic appliances. (
  • Find out what types of appliances are available and which is best for your child's needs through these tips! (
  • Have questions about types of orthodontic appliances? (
  • Several types of appliances are used for the duration of your treatment and are either fixed or removable. (
  • You get different types of springs and wires during orthodontic treatment. (
  • Like the other types of appliances we use, the state-of-the-art tool provides the optimal amount of steady force. (
  • RÉSUMÉ La présente étude a évalué les types de malocclusions, l'encombrement très sévère et le besoin d'extraction en série dans un échantillon aléatoire d'enfants âgés de 7 à 9 ans à Chiraz (République islamique d'Iran). (
  • Orthodontic appliances apply a gentle force which can cause some initial discomfort but remember, this means the teeth are moving into place. (
  • The functional appliances can be divided into fixed and removable. (
  • Components such as Palatal Finger Springs, Buccal Canine Retractor, Z-Spring, T-Spring, Coffin Spring, Active Labial Bows (Mill's Bow or Roberts retractor), Screws and Elastics are all considered to be active components of the removable functional appliances. (
  • What is a good clinical protocol for functional appliances? (
  • The twin block appliance is unique from other functional appliances, as it involves two separate appliances (one for the upper arch and one for the lower arch) working together to create an advanced lower jaw position. (
  • Orthodontic elastic bands may also be applied to the braces to add additional pressure to specific teeth. (
  • Socioeconomic background, time with orthodontic appliances, and use of dental floss were assessed in interviews. (
  • It is also more comfortable than other jaw-correcting appliances, as it is made out of smooth acrylic and utilizes fewer wires. (
  • Pressure is built into the appliance for the desired movement, thus requiring little or no adjustment and minimal chair time. (
  • If part of your archwire has broken, first try placing some orthodontic wax over the end of the archwire. (
  • Fruit Flavor Sour Soft Chews Orthodontic Invisible Braces Dental Aligner Chewies Features: 1. (
  • why Choose sino ortho Orthodontic colorful elastics? (
  • 2. Fun and Playful: Our colorful elastics inject an element of fun into your orthodontic journey. (
  • As you wear the elastics, the Carriere Motion appliance exerts gentle pressure to align the bite. (
  • W-arch appliances widen the upper jaw with metal bands around the top molars and active arms lining the inside of the upper teeth. (
  • an appliance used to widen the upper jaw. (
  • Orthodontic appliances help move your teeth into their proper positions, and you may be surprised at just how many appliances there are! (
  • Orthodontic appliances are devices that move your teeth, change the position of your jaw, or hold your teeth in their finished positions after your braces are removed. (
  • Designed for full-time wear, each time you bite, swallow, or talk, the sagittal appliance is activated and exerts gentle pressure on the teeth and dental arches, which also gives stability to the jaw joints. (
  • Wear your appliance as directed, even while sleeping, and avoid flipping it with your tongue to prevent damage or breakage. (
  • When you achieve the desired expansion, you will wear the appliance for several months to solidify the expansion and to prevent regression. (
  • William Clark also developed Twin Block Appliance in 1978 which resembled Artur Martin Schwarz double plates that he developed in the 1950s. (
  • The twin block appliance may be just for you. (
  • Voted best Orthodontic lab at 2023 AAO, Specialty Appliances™ gives you the best quality and reliable delivery that you can count on. (
  • Once the Herbst appliance is put in place, it will get to work correcting the patient's bite pattern! (
  • The appliance is constructed to the 'ideal' setting and the patient's teeth adapt to their new position. (
  • Patient's demand for aesthetics during orthodontic treatment has increased over the years. (
  • this is a fixed appliance that is used when the upper teeth and jaw protrude forward. (
  • An Herbst appliance is attached to the molars by a series of bands. (
  • A Nance appliance or transpalatal arch (TPA) is used to hold the upper molars in place, to prevent them from rotating or shifting forward. (
  • With this appliance, two metal bands are cemented around the first molars and a wire connects the back molars. (
  • The Herbst® appliance reduces overbite by encouraging the lower jaw forward and the upper molars backward. (
  • The appliance is attached to the top and bottom first molars on either side of the mouth. (
  • The appliance holds space in the lower arch and stops the bottom molars from shifting forward and blocking permanent teeth from erupting. (
  • He has a passion for the orthodontic laboratory business and working with doctors and their staff to deliver the best treatment outcomes. (
  • If you have a case you are considering for treatment, send models for an appliance outline, detailed correspondence and laboratory cost estimate at no obligation. (
  • Plaque also accumulates in faulty fillings and around the teeth next to poorly cleaned partial dentures, bridges, and orthodontic appliances. (
  • The success of any orthodontic treatment depends on the orthodontist's skill and patient compliance. (
  • A wire "spring" connects these strips of acrylic to the remainder of the appliance and provides the flexibility needed to allow the appliance to seat properly. (
  • The Herbst® appliance is effective for correcting an overbite condition by shifting the lower jaw forward and the upper jaw backward. (