Orotic acid, also known as pyrophosphoric acid dihydrate, is a organic compound that plays a role in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, and elevated levels of orotic acid in urine can indicate certain genetic disorders or liver dysfunction.
The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.
Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC 4.1.1.23.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
A rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. It is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme ARGINASE. Arginine is elevated in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and periodic HYPERAMMONEMIA may occur. Disease onset is usually in infancy or early childhood. Clinical manifestations include seizures, microcephaly, progressive mental impairment, hypotonia, ataxia, spastic diplegia, and quadriparesis. (From Hum Genet 1993 Mar;91(1):1-5; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p51)
An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as an X-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
Uridine is a nucleoside, specifically a derivative of pyrimidine, that is composed of a uracil molecule joined to a ribose sugar molecule through a β-N1 glycosidic bond, and has significant roles in RNA synthesis, energy transfer, and cell signaling.
A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Uracil nucleotides are chemical compounds that consist of a uracil base, a sugar molecule called ribose, and one or more phosphate groups, which play crucial roles in DNA replication, repair, and gene expression as well as in RNA synthesis.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.
A triazine nucleoside used as an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with pyrimidine biosynthesis thereby preventing formation of cellular nucleic acids. As the triacetate, it is also effective as an antipsoriatic.
Inborn errors of purine-pyrimidine metabolism refer to genetic disorders resulting from defects in the enzymes responsible for the metabolic breakdown and synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, leading to the accumulation of toxic metabolites or deficiency of necessary nucleotides, causing various clinical manifestations such as neurological impairment, kidney problems, and developmental delays.

Hmo1p, a high mobility group 1/2 homolog, genetically and physically interacts with the yeast FKBP12 prolyl isomerase. (1/380)

The immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and rapamycin bind to the cellular protein FKBP12, and the resulting FKBP12-drug complexes inhibit signal transduction. FKBP12 is a ubiquitous, highly conserved, abundant enzyme that catalyzes a rate-limiting step in protein folding: peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerization. However, FKBP12 is dispensible for viability in both yeast and mice, and therefore does not play an essential role in protein folding. The functions of FKBP12 may involve interactions with a number of partner proteins, and a few proteins that interact with FKBP12 in the absence of FK506 or rapamycin have been identified, including the ryanodine receptor, aspartokinase, and the type II TGF-beta receptor; however, none of these are conserved from yeast to humans. To identify other targets and functions of FKBP12, we have screened for mutations that are synthetically lethal with an FKBP12 mutation in yeast. We find that mutations in HMO1, which encodes a high mobility group 1/2 homolog, are synthetically lethal with mutations in the yeast FPR1 gene encoding FKBP12. Deltahmo1 and Deltafpr1 mutants share two phenotypes: an increased rate of plasmid loss and slow growth. In addition, Hmo1p and FKBP12 physically interact in FKBP12 affinity chromatography experiments, and two-hybrid experiments suggest that FKBP12 regulates Hmo1p-Hmo1p or Hmo1p-DNA interactions. Because HMG1/2 proteins are conserved from yeast to humans, our findings suggest that FKBP12-HMG1/2 interactions could represent the first conserved function of FKBP12 other than mediating FK506 and rapamycin actions.  (+info)

Preventive effects of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate on the fatty liver induced by orotic acid in male rats. (2/380)

Preventive effects of dehydroepiandrosteone acetate (DHEA-A) and clofibrate (positive control substance) on the fatty liver induced by orotic acid (OA) were examined on the male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high sucrose based diet containing 1% OA and this diet further mixed with 0.5% DHEA-A or 0.5% clofibrate for 2 weeks. Numerous lipid droplets were observed in the hepatocytes of the rats treated with OA alone, but not in those treated with DHEA-A or clofibrate. In comparison to the group with OA alone, the DHEA-A or clofibrate treated rats showed a larger relative liver weight (to body weight) which was accompanied by increased peroxisomes in the hepatocytes. These results indicate that DHEA-A, as well as clofibrate, may prevent OA-induced fatty liver.  (+info)

Orotate decreases the inhibitory effect of ethanol on galactose elimination in the perfused rat liver. (3/380)

1. The galactose-elimination rate in perfused livers from starved rats was decreased in the presence of ethanol (2-28mM) to one-third of the control values. Orotate injections partly reversed the effect of ethanol, so that the galactose-elimination rate was about two-thirds of the control values. Orotate alone had no effect on the galactose-elimination rate. 2. Ethanol increased [galactose 1-phosphate] and [UDP-galactose], and decreased (UDP-glucose] and [UTP], both with and without orotate. Orotate increased [UTP], [UDP-galactose], both with and without ethanol. The increase of [galactose 1-phosphate] in the presence of ethanol was inhibited by orotate. Orotate alone had no appreciable effect on [galactose 1-phosphate]. 3. Both the effect of ethanol and that of orotate on the galactose-elimination rate can be accounted for by assuming inhibition of galactokinase by galactose 1-phosphate with Ki about 0.2mM, the inhibition being either non-competitive or uncompetitive. 4. The primary effect of ethanol seems to be inhibition of UDP-glucose epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2), followed by accumulation of UDP-galactose, trapping of UDP-glucose and increase of [galactose 1-phosphate]. Orotate decreased the effect of ethanol, probably by increasing [UDP-glucose].  (+info)

Optimization of allopurinol challenge: sample purification, protein intake control, and the use of orotidine response as a discriminative variable improve performance of the test for diagnosing ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency. (4/380)

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of heterozygosity for X-linked ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) deficiency has usually been based on measurement of the increase of orotate and orotidine excretion after an allopurinol load. We examined the choices of analyte, cutoff, and test conditions to obtain maximal test accuracy. METHODS: Urine orotate/orotidine responses to allopurinol load in 37 children (13 OCT-deficient and 24 non-OCT-deficient) and 24 women (7 at risk for carrier status and 17 not related to OCT-deficient children) were analyzed by liquid chromatography after sample purification by anion-exchange chromatography. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by nonparametric ROC curves. RESULTS: Sample purification was necessary to prevent interferences. Orotate and orotidine excretion increased with increased protein intake during the test. At a cutoff of 8 mmol orotidine/mol creatinine, sensitivity was 1.0 and specificity was 0. 92 in mild forms of OCT deficiency. Results in monoplex carrier women may differ greatly from those expected because of the genetics of this deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Standardization of protein intake is required in the allopurinol loading test. A negative response in the face of clinical suspicion should be followed with a repeat test during a protein intake not <2.5 g x kg-1 x day-1. Measurements of orotidine provide better clinical sensitivity than measurements of orotate.  (+info)

Development of resistance during the early stages of experimental liver carcinogenesis. (5/380)

The present study was designed to determine whether the resistant phenotype is acquired at the initiated cell stage itself or requires further exposure to a promoting regimen to express resistance. Male Fischer 344 rats were initiated with diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg i.p.) and were subjected to either no further treatment or to the resistant hepatocyte (RH) model of liver tumor promotion. Six weeks later, the resistance of the focal lesions generated in these two groups to the mitoinhibitory effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) was determined by subjecting the rats to two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) in the presence of a mitoinhibitory dose of 2-AAF (5 mg/kg i.p.) given at the time of PH. Labeling index was determined by administering multiple injections of [(3)H]thymidine. All rats were killed 48 h post-PH. While only a small percentage (23%) of the glutathione S-transferase-positive foci generated by DENA in the absence of an exogenous liver tumor promoting regimen were resistant to the mitoinhibitory effects of 2-AAF, a majority (85%) of the foci became resistant to 2-AAF following exposure to the RH model of liver tumor promotion. Further, initiated rats exposed to either 2-AAF or to CCl(4) alone, the two components of the RH model, resulted in 71% of the foci being resistant to the mitoinhibitory effects of 2-AAF. Similar patterns of results were obtained when the resistance of the foci to the mitoinhibitory effects of orotic acid, a liver tumor promoter and an inhibitor of DNA synthesis in normal hepatocytes, was monitored. These results suggest that the majority of initiated hepatocytes are not of resistant phenotype, however, they have acquired a unique ability to express resistance upon exposure to certain agents such as 2-AAF and CCl(4) or to a promoting regimen such as the RH model of liver tumor promotion.  (+info)

Slk19p is a centromere protein that functions to stabilize mitotic spindles. (6/380)

We have identified a novel centromere-associated gene product from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that plays a role in spindle assembly and stability. Strains with a deletion of SLK19 (synthetic lethal Kar3p gene) exhibit abnormally short mitotic spindles, increased numbers of astral microtubules, and require the presence of the kinesin motor Kar3p for viability. When cells are deprived of both Slk19p and Kar3p, rapid spindle breakdown and mitotic arrest is observed. A functional fusion of Slk19p to green fluorescent protein (GFP) localizes to kinetochores and, during anaphase, to the spindle midzone, whereas Kar3p-GFP was found at the nuclear side of the spindle pole body. Thus, these proteins seem to play overlapping roles in stabilizing spindle structure while acting from opposite ends of the microtubules.  (+info)

Genetic control of telomere integrity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: rad3(+) and tel1(+) are parts of two regulatory networks independent of the downstream protein kinases chk1(+) and cds1(+). (7/380)

The Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint gene named rad3(+) encodes an ATM-homologous protein kinase that shares a highly conserved motif with proteins involved in DNA metabolism. Previous studies have shown that Rad3 fulfills its function via the regulation of the Chk1 and Cds1 protein kinases. Here we describe a novel role for Rad3 in the control of telomere integrity. Mutations in the rad3(+) gene alleviated telomeric silencing and produced shortened lengths in the telomere repeat tracts. Genetic analysis revealed that the other checkpoint rad mutations rad1, rad17, and rad26 belong to the same phenotypic class with rad3 with regard to control of the telomere length. Of these mutations, rad3 and rad26 have a drastic effect on telomere shortening. tel1(+), another ATM homologue in S. pombe, carries out its telomere maintenance function in parallel with the checkpoint rad genes. Furthermore, either a single or double disruption of cds1(+) and chk1(+) caused no obvious changes in the telomeric DNA structure. Our results demonstrate a novel role of the S. pombe ATM homologues that is independent of chk1(+) and cds1(+).  (+info)

Down-regulation of rat hepatic microsomal cytochromes P-450 in microvesicular steatosis induced by orotic acid. (8/380)

Microvesicular steatosis is an important component of the overall pathogenesis of drug-mediated liver injury. Although mitochondrial damage has a role in the development of microvesicular steatosis, the consequences of fatty change for hepatic gene function are unclear. The present study was undertaken to evaluate hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) function in a rat model of microvesicular steatosis produced by the intake of diets containing 1% orotic acid (OA) that were administered for 5, 10, or 21 days. Hepatic triglyceride levels were increased to 3-fold of control after 5 days and were elevated further at 10 and 21 days. Cholesterol and phospholipid contents were increased after 10 and 21 days but not by 5 days of feeding. Microsomal androst-4-ene-3,17-dione hydroxylation activities mediated by CYP2C11 (16alpha-hydroxylation) and CYP3A2 (6beta-hydroxylation) were decreased in liver from OA-fed rats for only 5 days, whereas CYP2A1/2-mediated steroid 7alpha-hydroxylation was decreased after 10 days; these observations were complemented by immunoblot analysis that demonstrated the impaired expression of the corresponding CYP proteins. CYP2C11 mRNA, the major CYP in male rat liver, was down-regulated in steatotic liver to 52 +/- 4% of control. Thus, microvesicular steatosis induced by short-term intake of OA-containing diets is histologically similar to that produced by hepatotoxic drugs and produces the rapid down-regulation of constitutive CYPs in rat liver. Analogous processes of lipid deposition in human liver after drug- or disease-related injury could precipitate adverse effects during subsequent drug therapy.  (+info)

Orotic acid, also known as pyrmidine carboxylic acid, is a organic compound that plays a role in the metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, which are nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides and nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Orotic acid is not considered to be a vitamin, but it is sometimes referred to as vitamin B13 or B15, although these designations are not widely recognized by the scientific community.

In the body, orotic acid is converted into orotidine monophosphate (OMP) by the enzyme orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. OMP is then further metabolized to form uridine monophosphate (UMP), a pyrimidine nucleotide that is an important precursor for the synthesis of RNA and other molecules.

Elevated levels of orotic acid in the urine, known as orotic aciduria, can be a sign of certain genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of pyrimidines. These conditions can lead to an accumulation of orotic acid and other pyrimidine precursors in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including developmental delays, neurological problems, and kidney stones. Treatment for these disorders typically involves dietary restrictions and supplementation with nucleotides or nucleosides to help support normal pyrimidine metabolism.

Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of orotate to oximine monophosphate (OMP), which is a key step in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, a type of nucleotide. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nucleic acids, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

The reaction catalyzed by OPRT is as follows:

orotate + phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) -> oximine monophosphate (OMP) + pyrophosphate

Defects in the gene that encodes for OPRT can lead to orotic aciduria, a rare genetic disorder characterized by an accumulation of orotic acid and other pyrimidines in the urine and other body fluids. Symptoms of this condition may include developmental delay, mental retardation, seizures, and megaloblastic anemia.

Orotidine-5’-phosphate decarboxylase (ODC) is an enzyme that is involved in the synthesis of pyrimidines, which are essential nucleotides required for the production of DNA and RNA. The gene that encodes this enzyme is called UMPS.

ODC catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidine-5’-phosphate (OMP) to form uridine monophosphate (UMP), which is a precursor to other pyrimidines such as cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and thymidine triphosphate (TTP). This reaction is the fifth step in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidines.

Defects in the ODC enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called orotic aciduria, which is characterized by an accumulation of orotic acid and orotidine in the urine, as well as neurological symptoms such as developmental delay, seizures, and ataxia. Treatment for this condition typically involves supplementation with uridine and a low-protein diet to reduce the production of excess orotic acid.

Carbamyl Phosphate is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in the biochemical process of nitrogen metabolism, particularly in the urea cycle. It is synthesized in the liver and serves as an important intermediate in the conversion of ammonia to urea, which is then excreted by the kidneys.

In medical terms, Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase I (CPS I) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects the production of Carbamyl Phosphate. This deficiency can lead to hyperammonemia, which is an excess of ammonia in the bloodstream, and can cause severe neurological symptoms and brain damage if left untreated.

It's important to note that while Carbamyl Phosphate is a critical component of the urea cycle, it is not typically used as a medication or therapeutic agent in clinical practice.

Hyperargininemia is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an excess of arginine in the blood. Arginine is an amino acid, which are the building blocks of proteins. In hyperargininemia, there is a deficiency or dysfunction of the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase, leading to an accumulation of arginine and related compounds in the body. This can cause various symptoms such as intellectual disability, seizures, spasticity, and feeding difficulties. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must receive two copies of the defective gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition.

Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase (OCT) Deficiency Disease, also known as Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency, is a rare inherited urea cycle disorder. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme ornithine carbamoyltransferase, which is responsible for one of the steps in the urea cycle that helps to rid the body of excess nitrogen (in the form of ammonia).

When OCT function is impaired, nitrogen accumulates and forms ammonia, leading to hyperammonemia (elevated blood ammonia levels), which can cause neurological symptoms such as lethargy, vomiting, irritability, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Symptoms of OCT deficiency can range from mild to severe and may include developmental delay, seizures, behavioral changes, and movement disorders. The diagnosis is typically made through newborn screening tests, enzyme assays, and genetic testing. Treatment usually involves a combination of dietary restrictions, medications that help remove nitrogen from the body, and in some cases, liver transplantation.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

Pyrimidine nucleotides are organic compounds that play crucial roles in various biological processes, particularly in the field of genetics and molecular biology. They are the building blocks of nucleic acids, which include DNA and RNA, and are essential for the storage, transmission, and expression of genetic information within cells.

Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. Pyrimidine nucleotides are derivatives of pyrimidine, which contain a phosphate group, a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and one of three pyrimidine bases: cytosine (C), thymine (T), or uracil (U).

* Cytosine is present in both DNA and RNA. It pairs with guanine via hydrogen bonding during DNA replication and transcription.
* Thymine is exclusively found in DNA, where it pairs with adenine through two hydrogen bonds.
* Uracil is a pyrimidine base that replaces thymine in RNA molecules and pairs with adenine via two hydrogen bonds during RNA transcription.

Pyrimidine nucleotides, along with purine nucleotides (adenine, guanine, and their derivatives), form the fundamental units of nucleic acids, contributing to the structure, function, and regulation of genetic material in living organisms.

Uridine Monophosphate (UMP) is a nucleotide that is a constituent of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid). It consists of a nitrogenous base called Uridine, linked to a sugar molecule (ribose) and a phosphate group. UMP plays a crucial role in various biochemical reactions within the body, including energy transfer and cellular metabolism. It is also involved in the synthesis of other nucleotides and serves as an important precursor in the production of genetic material during cell division.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate (PRPP) is defined as a key intracellular nucleotide metabolite that plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. PRPP is synthesized from ribose 5-phosphate and ATP by the enzyme PRPP synthase. It contributes a phosphoribosyl group in the conversion of purines and pyrimidines to their corresponding nucleotides, which are critical for various cellular processes such as DNA replication, repair, and gene expression. Abnormal levels of PRPP have been implicated in several genetic disorders, including Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and PRPP synthetase superactivity.

Uridine is a nucleoside that consists of a pyrimidine base (uracil) linked to a pentose sugar (ribose). It is a component of RNA, where it pairs with adenine. Uridine can also be found in various foods such as beer, broccoli, yeast, and meat. In the body, uridine can be synthesized from orotate or from the breakdown of RNA. It has several functions, including acting as a building block for RNA, contributing to energy metabolism, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. Uridine is also available as a dietary supplement and has been studied for its potential benefits in various health conditions.

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2N-NH2. It is a colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor. It is used in research and industry as a reducing agent and a rocket fuel component. It is also a potent carcinogen and is harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin. Long-term exposure can lead to cancer, particularly of the liver and digestive system.

Arginine is an α-amino acid that is classified as a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. The adult human body can normally synthesize sufficient amounts of arginine to meet its needs, but there are certain circumstances, such as periods of rapid growth or injury, where the dietary intake of arginine may become necessary.

The chemical formula for arginine is C6H14N4O2. It has a molecular weight of 174.20 g/mol and a pKa value of 12.48. Arginine is a basic amino acid, which means that it contains a side chain with a positive charge at physiological pH levels. The side chain of arginine is composed of a guanidino group, which is a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to three methyl groups.

In the body, arginine plays several important roles. It is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps regulate blood flow and immune function. Arginine is also involved in the detoxification of ammonia, a waste product produced by the breakdown of proteins. Additionally, arginine can be converted into other amino acids, such as ornithine and citrulline, which are involved in various metabolic processes.

Foods that are good sources of arginine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Arginine supplements are available and may be used for a variety of purposes, such as improving exercise performance, enhancing wound healing, and boosting immune function. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking arginine supplements, as they can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects.

Uracil nucleotides are chemical compounds that play a crucial role in the synthesis, repair, and replication of DNA and RNA. Specifically, uracil nucleotides refer to the group of molecules that contain the nitrogenous base uracil, which is linked to a ribose sugar through a beta-glycosidic bond. This forms the nucleoside uridine, which can then be phosphorylated to create the uracil nucleotide.

Uracil nucleotides are important in the formation of RNA, where uracil base pairs with adenine through two hydrogen bonds during transcription. However, uracil is not typically found in DNA, and its presence in DNA can indicate damage or mutation. When uracil is found in DNA, it is usually the result of a process called deamination, where the nitrogenous base cytosine is spontaneously converted to uracil. This can lead to errors during replication, as uracil will pair with adenine instead of guanine, leading to a C-to-T or G-to-A mutation.

To prevent this type of mutation, cells have enzymes called uracil DNA glycosylases that recognize and remove uracil from DNA. This initiates the base excision repair pathway, which removes the damaged nucleotide and replaces it with a correct one. Overall, uracil nucleotides are essential for proper cellular function, but their misincorporation into DNA can have serious consequences for genome stability.

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It is a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water and can be produced by combining ammonia (NH3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Ammonium chloride is commonly used as a source of hydrogen ions in chemical reactions, and it has a variety of industrial and medical applications.

In the medical field, ammonium chloride is sometimes used as a expectorant to help thin and loosen mucus in the respiratory tract, making it easier to cough up and clear from the lungs. It may also be used to treat conditions such as metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excess of base in the body that can lead to symptoms such as confusion, muscle twitching, and irregular heartbeat.

However, it is important to note that ammonium chloride can have side effects, including stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and should not be taken in large amounts or for extended periods of time without medical supervision.

Methylhydrazines are a class of organic compounds that contain a hydrazine functional group with one or more methyl substituents. Hydrazine is a simple inorganic compound with the formula N2H4, and it consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to four hydrogen atoms through nitrogen-hydrogen covalent bonds. When one or more of these hydrogens are replaced by a methyl group (CH3), we get methylhydrazines.

The most common methylhydrazine is monomethylhydrazine (MMH), which has the molecular formula CH6N2. It is an colorless, oily liquid with an ammonia-like odor and is highly toxic and reactive. MMH is used as a rocket propellant due to its high specific impulse and density.

Another example of methylhydrazine is unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), which has the molecular formula C2H8N2. UDMH is also a colorless, oily liquid with an ammonia-like odor and is used as a rocket propellant.

It's important to note that methylhydrazines are highly toxic and reactive compounds, and they require careful handling and storage. They can cause harm to the skin, eyes, respiratory system, and nervous system, and prolonged exposure can lead to serious health effects or death.

The abomasum is the fourth and final stomach chamber in ruminant animals, such as cows, sheep, and goats. It is often referred to as the "true" stomach because its structure and function are most similar to the stomachs of non-ruminant animals, including humans.

In the abomasum, gastric juices containing hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes are secreted, which help to break down proteins and fats in the ingested feed. The abomasum also serves as a site for nutrient absorption and further mechanical breakdown of food particles before they enter the small intestine.

The term "abomasum" is derived from Latin, where "ab-" means "away from," and "omassum" refers to the "stomach." This name reflects its location away from the other three stomach chambers in ruminants.

Cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) is a biomolecule that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a major component of cellular membranes. It is formed from the reaction between cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and choline, catalyzed by the enzyme CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. CDP-choline serves as an essential intermediate in the Kennedy pathway of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. This molecule is also involved in various cellular processes, including signal transduction and neurotransmitter synthesis. CDP-choline has been studied for its potential therapeutic benefits in several neurological disorders due to its role in supporting membrane integrity and promoting neuronal health.

Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT or OAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the urea cycle, which is the biochemical pathway responsible for the removal of excess nitrogen from the body. Specifically, ornithine carbamoyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a carbamoyl group from carbamoyl phosphate to ornithine, forming citrulline and releasing phosphate in the process. This reaction is essential for the production of urea, which can then be excreted by the kidneys.

Deficiency in ornithine carbamoyltransferase can lead to a genetic disorder called ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), which is characterized by hyperammonemia (elevated blood ammonia levels) and neurological symptoms. OTCD is one of the most common urea cycle disorders, and it primarily affects females due to its X-linked inheritance pattern.

Pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. They are one of the two types of nucleobases found in nucleic acids, the other being purines. The pyrimidine bases include cytosine (C) and thymine (T) in DNA, and uracil (U) in RNA, which pair with guanine (G) and adenine (A), respectively, through hydrogen bonding to form the double helix structure of nucleic acids. Pyrimidines are also found in many other biomolecules and have various roles in cellular metabolism and genetic regulation.

Dimethylhydrazines are organic compounds that consist of two methyl groups (-CH3) bonded to a hydrazine molecule (N2H4). The most common dimethylhydrazine is 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, which is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant odor. It is used as a rocket fuel and in the synthesis of other chemicals.

Dimethylhydrazines are highly reactive and can be hazardous to handle. They can cause skin and eye irritation, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects such as damage to the respiratory system, liver, and kidneys. Ingestion or inhalation of large amounts of dimethylhydrazines can be fatal.

It is important to handle dimethylhydrazines with care and follow proper safety precautions when working with them. This may include wearing protective clothing, gloves, and eye protection, as well as using appropriate ventilation and storage methods.

Azacitidine is a chemotherapeutic agent that is used in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome, a type of cancer where the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits DNA methylation and RNA synthesis, which can help to restore normal cell function and reduce the production of abnormal cells in the bone marrow. Azacitidine is administered by injection or infusion and is typically given in cycles, with treatment repeated every 4 weeks. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and fatigue.

Inborn errors of purine-pyrimidine metabolism refer to genetic disorders that result in dysfunctional enzymes involved in the metabolic pathways of purines and pyrimidines. These are essential components of nucleotides, which in turn are building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Inherited as autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive traits, these disorders can lead to an accumulation of toxic metabolites, a deficiency of necessary compounds, or both. Clinical features vary widely depending on the specific enzyme defect but may include neurologic symptoms, kidney problems, gout, and/or immunodeficiency.

Examples of such disorders include Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase), adenosine deaminase deficiency (leading to severe combined immunodeficiency), and orotic aciduria (due to defects in pyrimidine metabolism). Early diagnosis and management are crucial to improve outcomes.

... is a precursor to a RNA base, uracil. The Breast milk of smokers has a higher concentration of orotic acid than ... A modified orotic acid (5-fluoroorotic acid) is toxic to yeast. The mutant yeasts which are resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid ... This also leads to an increased urinary orotic acid excretion, because the orotic acid is not being properly utilized and must ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Orotic acid. Orotic+Acid at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
Plasma amino acid analysis will show elevated ornithine levels, and urine amino acids will detect homocitrulline. Orotic acid ... Amino acid metabolism disorders, Autosomal recessive disorders, Rare diseases). ...
Derivative of folate ("pteroylmonoglutamic acid" in this nomenclature). Vitamin B13: orotic acid. Vitamin B14: cell proliferant ... pteroyldiglutamic acid, pteroyltriglutamic acid and pteroylheptaglutamic acid (Bc conjugate)". Internationale Zeitschrift fur ... 457.100 Pangamic Acid and Pangamic Acid Products Unsafe for Food and Drug Use". Compliance Policy Guidance Manual. US Food and ... Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Schnepp, Zoe (2002). "Pantothenic Acid". ...
... (C5H3LiN2O4) is a salt of orotic acid and lithium. It is available as the monohydrate, LiC5H3N2O4·H2O. In this ... "Material Safety Data Sheet - Orotic Acid, anhydrous MSDS". ScienceLab.com. 2013-05-21. Archived from the original on 2018-01-20 ... Orotic acid can be mutagenic in very high doses of 50 mg/kg in mammalian somatic cells. It is also mutagenic for bacteria and ...
Orotic acid is a product of this pathway. Increased levels of orotic acid in urine can be an indicator that a patient is ... SMG stands for the conserved amino acid motif of Ser-Met-Gly. Upon closure, these residues interact with L-ornithine. The ... Postranscriptional modification leaves the mature peptide with 322 amino acids and a weight of 36.1 kD. The protein is located ... Anabolic OTC facilitates the sixth step in the biosynthesis of the amino acid arginine in prokaryotes. In contrast, mammalian ...
LIEBERMAN I, KORNBERG A (1953). "Enzymic synthesis and breakdown of a pyrimidine, orotic acid. I Dihydro-orotic dehydrogenase ... FRIEDMANN HC, VENNESLAND B (1958). "Purification and properties of dihydro-orotic dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 233 (6): 1398- ...
LIEBERMAN I, KORNBERG A (1955). "Enzymatic synthesis and breakdown of a pyrimidine, orotic acid. III Ureidosuccinase". J. Biol ...
... orotic acid. I Dihydroortic acid, ureidosuccinic acid, and 5-carboxymethylhydantoin". J. Biol. Chem. 207 (2): 911-24. PMID ...
... orotic acid. I. Dihydroortic acid, ureidosuccinic acid, and 5-carboxymethylhydantoin" (PDF). The Journal of Biological ... is an enzyme which converts carbamoyl aspartic acid into 4,5-dihydroorotic acid in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. It forms a ...
Jovanovic, Bratislav; Assaleh, Fathi; Marinkovic, Aleksandar (2004). "Kinetics of the reaction of 5-substituted orotic acids ... It can be used to synthesise (diphenyl)methyl esters and ethers with carboxylic acids and alcohols respectively. It can also ...
OTC deficiency is also accompanied by hyperammonemia and high orotic acid levels. BUN (urea-N) is mg/dL in the United States, ...
... and increased orotic acid. The increased orotic acid concentrations result from the buildup of carbamoyl phosphate. This ... urine organic acid analysis (to identify the presence or absence of orotic acid, as well as rule out an organic acidemia) and ... the elevation of orotic acid could be used to differentiate heterozygotes from unaffected individuals. This test was not ... low citrulline and increased orotic acid) is classic for OTC deficiency, but can also be seen in neonatal presentations of ...
... , the magnesium salt of orotic acid, is a mineral supplement. It can be used in treating extracellular ... as well as in mitigating magnesium depletion that inhibits the binding of adenosine triphosphate via orotic acid, which ...
Orotic aciduria was first reported in 1959 when excess orotic acid was found in the urine of an infant. When individuals have a ... Orotic acid and PRPP are stabilized in the active site mostly by hydrogen bonding with stabilizing interactions from Lys 26, ... Orotic acid buildup can lead to precipitation in the kidney and eventually renal failure. Similarly, in Holstein cattle, UMPS ... In this step, orotic acid is converted into orotidylate using PRPP (phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate) as a cosubstrate. This ...
... is characterized by excessive excretion of orotic acid in urine because of the inability to convert orotic acid ... Elevated urinary orotic acid levels can also arise secondary to blockage of the urea cycle, particularly in ornithine ... Patients typically present with excessive orotic acid in the urine, failure to thrive, developmental delay, and megaloblastic ... In orotic aciduria, the urea cycle is not affected. Orotic aciduria can be diagnosed through genetic sequencing of the UMPS ...
IMC has also proven effective in accomplishing enzymatic assays for orotic acid in milk (Anastasi et al. 2000) and malic acid ... Anastasi, G; Antonelli ML; Biondi B; Vinci G (2000). "Orotic acid: a milk constituent Enzymatic determination by means of a new ... Antonelli, ML; Spadaro C; Tornelli RF (2008). "A microcalorimetric sensor for food and cosmetic analyses: L-malic acid ...
... (5FOA) is a fluorinated derivative of the pyrimidine precursor orotic acid. It is used in yeast genetics to ... 2-FA Boeke, J. D.; Trueheart, J.; Natsoulis, G.; Fink, G. R. (1987). 5-Fluoroorotic acid as a selective agent in yeast ... Fluorinated carboxylic acids, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ... select for the absence of the URA3 gene, which encodes the enzyme for the decarboxylation of 5-fluoroorotic acid to 5- ...
These individuals present with hyperammonemia, poor feeding, failure to thrive and increased excretion of orotic acid. OAT ... Upon clinical suspicion, diagnostic testing will often consist of measurement of amino acid concentrations in plasma, in search ... Measurement of urine amino acid concentrations is sometimes necessary, particularly in neonatal onset cases to identify the ... Amino acid metabolism disorders, Autosomal recessive disorders). ...
... orotic acid and homocitrulline may be elevated as well. In people with hyperammonemia orotic acid and homocitrulline appear to ... Both amino acids can be detected in urine. Amino acid analysis allows for the quantitative analysis of these amino acid ... L-Homocitrulline is an amino acid and a metabolite of ornithine in mammalian (including human) metabolism. The amino acid can ... These amino acids are found in many protein-rich foods. Since in this disorder the human body cannot effectively break down ...
5-fluoro-orotic acid resistance". Mol Gen Genet. 197 (2): 345-346. doi:10.1007/BF00330984. PMID 6394957. Portal: Biology (EC ... a barbituric acid derivative), within the active site, to identify which essential amino acid residues are directly involved ... The catalysis relies on a handful of charged amino acid residues positioned within the active site of the enzyme. The exact ... In addition, a function OMP decarboxylase renders yeast strains sensitive to the molecule 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). The ...
5-fluoro-orotic acid resistance". Mol. Gen. Genet. 197 (2): 345-6. doi:10.1007/bf00330984. PMID 6394957. S2CID 28881589. ... The enzyme URA3 also converts 5-fluoroorotic acid (5FOA) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil, so any cells carrying the URA3 ...
... is a derivative of orotic acid which serves as an intermediate in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Francois ...
Traut TW, Jones ME (1996). Uracil metabolism--UMP synthesis from orotic acid or uridine and conversion of uracil to beta- ... A UMP synthase deficiency can result in a metabolic disorder called orotic aciduria. Deficiency of this enzyme is an inherited ... In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, two of the most promising inhibitors are 2,6-dihydroxipyridine-4-carboxylic acid and 3- ... 2010) performed reactions on 2-ethoxiethanselenic acid using electron-rich aromatic substrates to produce (2-ethoxiethyl)seleno ...
... forming UMP from orotic acid in the presence of PRPP. It is from UMP that other pyrimidine nucleotides are derived. UMP is ... They serve as monomeric units of the nucleic acid polymers - deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of ... Instead of uric acid secretion, guanine and IMP can be used for recycling purposes and nucleic acid synthesis in the presence ... Nucleic acids then are polymeric macromolecules assembled from nucleotides, the monomer-units of nucleic acids. The purine ...
... is a nucleoside formed by attaching orotic acid to a ribose ring via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. It is found in bacteria ... that are found in nucleic acids. Orotidine itself is not a component of nucleic acid. Large amounts of orotidine are excreted ... In humans, orotidine occurs as its 5'-phosphate (orotidylic acid), which is an intermediate in pyrimidine nucleotide ...
... in pyrimidine synthesis can lead to the genetic disease Orotic aciduria which causes excessive excretion of orotic acid in the ... Nucleic Acids Book (free online book on the chemistry and biology of nucleic acids) Interactive overview of nucleic acid ... Nucleic acid metabolism is a collective term that refers to the variety of chemical reactions by which nucleic acids (DNA and/ ... Uric acid is then excreted from the body in different forms depending on the animal. Free purine and pyrimidine bases that are ...
... arginine and ornithine in urine and low concentrations of these amino acids in plasma, elevation of urinary orotic acid ... In LPI, urinary excretion of cationic amino acids (ornithine, arginine and lysine) is increased and these amino acids are ... Citrulline is a neutral amino acid that improves the function of the urea cycle and allows sufficient protein intake without ... Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting amino acid transport. About 140 ...
... orotic acid MeSH D03.383.742.698.875.700 - pentoxyl MeSH D03.383.742.698.875.842 - thiouracil MeSH D03.383.742.698.875.842.455 ... pipemidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.383.725.547.900 - 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6- ... niflumic acid MeSH D03.066.515.635 - pipemidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.650 - piromidic acid MeSH D03.066.515.950 - xanthinol ... nalidixic acid MeSH D03.438.810.835.055.550 - nedocromil MeSH D03.438.810.835.055.580 - oxolinic acid MeSH D03.438.810.835.188 ...
... from its postcode Orotic acid, formerly known as Vitamin B13 Boron-13 (B-13 or 13B), an isotope of boron A chassis of the ...
... orotic acid (INN) orotirelin (INN) orpanoxin (INN) orphenadrine (INN) Orphengesic ortetamine (INN) Ortho Cyclen Ortho Evra ...
Orotic acid is a precursor to a RNA base, uracil. The Breast milk of smokers has a higher concentration of orotic acid than ... A modified orotic acid (5-fluoroorotic acid) is toxic to yeast. The mutant yeasts which are resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid ... This also leads to an increased urinary orotic acid excretion, because the orotic acid is not being properly utilized and must ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Orotic acid. Orotic+Acid at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
Orotic acid, anhydrous 65-86-1 from AK Scientific, in San Francisco, California ... Orotic acid, anhydrous. Current as of April 18, 2024 Download SDS Request COA All products are stocked and shipped from San ... Heterocyclic Building Blocks > Pyrimidines, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids. Nucleobases > Pyrimidines. Nucleobases > Pyrimidines. ...
Orotic acid excretion and arginine metabolism. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 2):1656S-1661S. doi: 10.1093/jn/137.6.1656S. ... In subsequent steps, other enzymes modify orotic acid to produce pyrimidines.. Miller syndrome disrupts the development of ... Specifically, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase converts a molecule called dihydroorotate to a molecule called orotic acid. ...
Carglumic acid approved to treat genetic hyperammonemia. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010 May 1. 67(9):690. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Valproic acid-induced hyperammonemia: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004 Oct. 24(5):521-6. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Valproic acid-induced hyperammonemia in mentally retarded adults. Neurology. 1984 Apr. 34(4):550-3. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Albrecht J. Roles of neuroactive amino acids in ammonia neurotoxicity. J Neurosci Res. 1998 Jan 15. 51(2):133-8. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
In this study, fatty acids-treated HepG2 cells and orotic acid-treated rats were used to investigate the lipid-lowering effects ... Possible mechanisms mainly included enhancement of fatty acids ß-oxidation and cholesterol catabolism through bile acids ... Saponins Derivatives Alleviate Hepatic Lipid Accumulation Effectively in Fatty Acids-Induced HepG2 Cells and Orotic Acid- ...
Palabras clave : Sciatic nerve; regeneration; vitamins; Compvit B; orotic acid. · resumen en Español · texto en Español · ... Using this method we assessed the effect of post-injury administration of Compvit B® (vitamin compound) and orotic acid (a ...
... overproduction of orotic acid is reduced by feedback inhibition, so that urinary excretion of orotic acid is also reduced. ... orotic aciduria. Orotic acid crystals in the urine can cause episodes of obstructive uropathy. ... Second, orotic acid from the de novo pyrimidine pathway that cannot be converted to UMP is excreted in the urine, accounting ... Levels of orotic acid in urine remain above normal or increase above the usual or expected range for the patient ...
Quantitative Orotic Acid. Useful For. Evaluating the differential diagnosis of hyperammonemia and hereditary orotic aciduria. ... tetracosanoic acid (C24), hexacosanoic acid (C26) and branch-chain fatty acids such as phytanic acid and pristanic acid. ... The value of the orotic acid concentration is reported. ​Specimen Requirements. 3 to 10 ml fresh urine, no preservative ( ... Phytanic acid and pristanic acid are both markers for peroxisome biogenesis disorders as well as specific isolated defects ...
Traut TW, Jones ME (1996). Uracil metabolism--UMP synthesis from orotic acid or uridine and conversion of uracil to beta- ... A UMP synthase deficiency can result in a metabolic disorder called orotic aciduria. Deficiency of this enzyme is an inherited ... In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, two of the most promising inhibitors are 2,6-dihydroxipyridine-4-carboxylic acid and 3- ... 2010) performed reactions on 2-ethoxiethanselenic acid using electron-rich aromatic substrates to produce (2-ethoxiethyl)seleno ...
... although the orotic acid mechanism is different) and carnosine from beta-alanine With betaO it has beta-alanine with orotic ... BetaO - beta-alanine and orotic acid. Now youll be used to seeing beta-alanine and I think we will have all referred to it as ... But chances are you will not have heard of orotic acid, its a super cool ingredient with potentials you will have heard of.. It ... acid so you get to reap the rewards but with MUCH less itching, I say much less, I got very little to none but I know someone ...
This results in orotic acid, which is a normal intermediate in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Pyrimidine biosynthesis is regulated ... Compound 3 is aspartic acid, which is combined with citrulline to form argininosuccinic acid (ASA) (4); the reaction is ... Compound 3 is aspartic acid, which is combined with citrulline to form argininosuccinic acid (ASA) (4); the reaction is ... Compound 3 is aspartic acid, which is combined with citrulline to form argininosuccinic acid (ASA) (4); the reaction is ...
Lithium orotate is a combination of lithium salt and orotic acid. Another commonly used type of lithium is lithium carbonate ( ...
Carvalho, N., Coelho, E., Gales, L., Costa, V., et al. (2016). Production of orotic acid by a Klura3δ mutant of Kluyveromyces ... Prompanya, C., Dethoup, T., Gales, L., Lee, M., et al. (2016). New polyketides and new benzoic acid derivatives from the marine ...
... contributors to drug resistance and demonstrated that transposon mutagenesis drives the development of 5-fluoroorotic acid ( ...
... sodium calcium magnesium and orotic) are psychotropic drugs that are widely used in neurology and psychiatry. The long-term use ... Acids. Uric Acid. Uric acid is the end product of cleavage of purine catabolism in the human body. Purines are nitrogenous ... Amino Acids. 4.2.1. Aromatic Amino Acids. Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) include phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. So, AAAs ... Organic Acids. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic Acid. As is known, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (4-HPPA) is an intermediate in tyrosine ...
mutants of these strains were first selected on plates supplemented with 5-fluoro-orotic acid (FOA, 50 mg per liter) and uracil ... R. D. Finn, J. Mistry, J. Tate et al., "The Pfam protein families database," Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. D211- ...
... responsible for the conversion of orotic acid to uridine-5′-monophosphate. Inhibition of this pathway in vivo is followed in 1- ... Metabolism of steroid and amino acid moieties of conjugated bile acids in man: II. Glycine-conjugated dihydroxy bile acids. ... Metabolism of steroid and amino acid moieties of conjugated bile acids in man: II. Glycine-conjugated dihydroxy bile acids. ... One 14C-labeled metabolite was identified as thyroacetic acid or 4-phenoxy-(4′-hydroxy) phenyl-acetic acid. Another one was ...
Crafted from Lithium Orotate - a naturally occurring mineral compounded with orotic acid - our product offers an unparalleled ... Citric Acid, Cellulose, Magnesium Stearate, Sorbitol, Polysaccharides (from non-GMO soy), Silica and Stevia (leaf extract).. ...
Modulation of the uptake of orotic acid into ribonucleic acids in regenerating rat liver. 1973, Vol. 38, Issue 12, pp. 3944- ... Amino acids and peptides. XCVII. [8-α,β-Diaminopropionic acid]-, [8-D-α,β-diaminopropionic acid]-, and [8-D-ornithine]- ... V. The effect of adenosine, adenylic acid, adenosinetriphosphoric acid and guanylic acid on the growth of Rous sarcoma. 1955, ... The accumulation of orotic acid, uracil and hypoxanthine by Escherichia coli in the presence of 6-azauracil and the ...
Orotic aciduria is characterized by megaloblastic anemia that is unresponsive to vitamin B12 and folic acid.. ... Molecular cloning of the human UMP synthase gene and characterization of point mutations in two hereditary orotic aciduria ...
MAGNEROT, o combinatie unica, perfecta de magneziu si acid orotic. Produse 19 aprilie 2014. ...
Magnesium orotate is salt-combining magnesium with orotic acid. Orotates are magnificent at transporting minerals, delivering ... Magnesium orotate is salt-combining magnesium with orotic acid. Orotates are magnificent at transporting minerals, delivering ... But whats lesser known is how malic acid can help with generally sore muscles. Heres why: Like magnesium, malic acid helps ... But malic acid levels also seem to trigger when the body switches to anaerobic (without oxygen) energy production. When malic ...
Orotic Acid. Orotic acid, also known as pyrophosphoric acid dihydrate, is a organic compound that plays a role in the ... An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid ... The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1- ... Aspartic Acid. One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, ...
Glyoxylic Acid is mainly used in straightening products as the carboxylic and aldehyde groups of glyoxylic acid react with the ... Orotic acid. DATA SHEET Download DS_GLYOXYLIC ACID.pdf. Also you may like .. ... Other Names : Oxoethanoic acid, Oxoacetic acid, Acetic acid, Oxo-, Glyoxalic acid. Trade Name. CAS Number. EINECS Number. INCI ... GLYOXYLIC ACID 50. /shop/glyoxylic-acid-50-123 Glyoxylic Acid is mainly used in straightening products as the carboxylic and ...
... orotic acid, aroma, L-histidine HCL monohydrate, vitamins (L -Ascorbic acid, tocopheryl acetate, nicotinic acid amide), ... 65,20 Eur / KG) Srs Cell Blast 800g Can Creatine Creatine Amino Acids Aminos. ... 65,20 Eur / KG) Srs Cell Blast 800g Can Creatine Creatine Amino Acids Aminos. The description of this item has been ... Creatine monohydrate (Creapure ), L-glutamine, L-arginine HCL, beta alanine, acidifier citric acid, L-tyrosine, minerals ( ...
OROOROTIC ACID L - 1154. 1mkz_A_28. 1mkz. A. MSESELENOMETHIONINE L - 33. ...
... synthesised from aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate in the cytoplasm to the typical precursor ring structure of orotic acid to ... They act as monomeric units of nucleic acid polymers, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), all of which are ... Nucleotides are the base units of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA). While nucleoside monophosphates contained in nucleic acids, ... Nucleotides in nucleic acids include either a purine or pyrimidine base-the nucleobase molecule, also termed as a nitrogenous ...
There are Significant safety concerns due to tumor-promoting effects of orotic acid (59). ... Creatine is a product of 3 amino acids. Amino acids in concentrated form will draw water into the intestine. This can also ... which results in a low margin of safety of around 3 regarding tumor promoting effects of orotic acid. Thus, the use of creatine ... Even orange juice (with a pH of 2.8) is not as acidic as stomach acid (1.5) and we know that creatine is not destroyed when it ...
VITMAIN B13 (Orotic Acid). Possibly prevent certain liver problems and premature aging.. Metabolizes folic acid and vitamin B12 ... Part of a coenzyme used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. Helps convert the amino acid; trytophan to niacin and helps ... Part of a coenzyme used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. Helps convert the amino acid; trytophan to niacin and helps ... Makes the amino acid tyrosine usable, allowing it to work as the pigmenting factor for the hair and skin. Keep your energy up ...
  • XURIDEN is a pyrimidine analog for uridine replacement indicated in adult and pediatric patients for the treatment of hereditary orotic aciduria. (drugs.com)
  • No adverse reactions were reported in clinical trials with XURIDEN in patients with hereditary orotic aciduria. (drugs.com)
  • XURIDEN ® is indicated in adult and pediatric patients for the treatment of hereditary orotic aciduria. (drugs.com)
  • Molecular cloning of the human UMP synthase gene and characterization of point mutations in two hereditary orotic aciduria families. (kegg.jp)
  • A buildup of orotic acid can lead to orotic aciduria and acidemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orotic aciduria is a cause of megaloblastic anaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orotic aciduria is characterized by megaloblastic anemia that is unresponsive to vitamin B12 and folic acid. (kegg.jp)
  • Confirmation of a genetic disorder requires testing plasma amino acids. (healthmatters.io)
  • This is consistent with elevated branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine). (healthmatters.io)
  • Roles of neuroactive amino acids in ammonia neurotoxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • This leads to an increased serum ammonia level, increased serum and urinary orotic acid levels and a decreased serum blood urea nitrogen level. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also leads to an increased urinary orotic acid excretion, because the orotic acid is not being properly utilized and must be eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is reasoned that the smoking causes the pyrimidine biosynthesis process in the mother to be altered thus causing the orotic acid concentration to increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this method we assessed the effect of post-injury administration of Compvit B® (vitamin compound) and orotic acid (a pyrimidine-nucleotide precursor) on the recovery of injured nerve. (sld.cu)
  • Lithium orotate is a combination of lithium salt and orotic acid. (addictionintervention.com)
  • Crafted from Lithium Orotate - a naturally occurring mineral compounded with orotic acid - our product offers an unparalleled boost to your mental performance while being gentle on your system. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Possible mechanisms mainly included enhancement of fatty acids ß- oxidation and cholesterol catabolism through bile acids synthesis and excretion, suppression of lipogenesis and cholesterol uptake. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dihydroorotate is synthesized to orotic acid by the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, where it later combines with phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) to form orotidine-5'-monophosphate (OMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • In subsequent steps, other enzymes modify orotic acid to produce pyrimidines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Orotic acid is a precursor to a RNA base, uracil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orotic Acid is a sensitive marker of your liver's capacity to convert toxic ammonia to non-toxic urea that you can excrete. (healthmatters.io)
  • Ammonia toxicity can also be reduced by supplementation with α-ketoglutarate, magnesium, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. (healthmatters.io)
  • Low orotic acid in the presence of high ammonia indicates magnesium deficiency. (healthmatters.io)
  • Sources of ammonia include bacterial hydrolysis of urea and other nitrogenous compounds in the intestine, the purine-nucleotide cycle and amino acid transamination in skeletal muscle, and other metabolic processes in the kidneys and liver. (medscape.com)
  • 1987. Ammonia emissions and their role in acid deposition. (cdc.gov)
  • Orotic acid, the second active ingredient of magnesium orotate, is an intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of pyrimidines and is shown to improve the energy status of injured myocardium by stimulating, a.o., the synthesis of glycogen and ATP. (raysahelian.com)
  • The catabolism of pyrimidines produces citric acid cycle intermediates. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Detecting a variety of inherited metabolic disorders, including the classical organic acidaemias, fatty acid oxidation disorders, urea cycle defects and some amino acidopathies. (kkh.com.sg)
  • The pentahydrate nickel orotate coordination complex converts into a polymeric trihydrate upon heating in water at 100 °C. Crystals of the trihydrate can be obtained by hydrothermal treatment of nickel(II) acetate and orotic acid, when the reactions are run with bidentate nitrogen ligands such as 2,2'-bipyridine present other solids can be obtained. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mannitol Starch Complex (from non-GMO corn), Natural Lemon Lime Flavor with Other Natural Flavors, Citric Acid, Cellulose, Magnesium Stearate, Sorbitol, Polysaccharides (from non-GMO soy), Silica and Stevia (leaf extract). (vitanetonline.com)
  • In ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, an X-linked inherited and the most common urea cycle disorder, excess carbamoyl phosphate is converted into orotic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hepatic urea cycle is the major route for waste nitrogen disposal, which is chiefly generated by protein and amino acid metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • The role of orotic acid measurement in routine newborn screening for urea cycle disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Sea Cucumber Saponins Derivatives Alleviate Hepatic Lipid Accumulation Effectively in Fatty Acids-Induced HepG2 Cells and Orotic Acid-Induced Rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, fatty acids -treated HepG2 cells and orotic acid -treated rats were used to investigate the lipid -lowering effects of sea cucumber saponin derivatives. (bvsalud.org)
  • Detecting fatty acid oxidation disorders and several organic acidurias. (kkh.com.sg)
  • Evaluating and monitoring patients with fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. (kkh.com.sg)
  • Compound 5 is fumaric acid generated in the reaction that converts ASA to arginine (6), which is mediated by ASA lyase. (medscape.com)
  • It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results showed that supplementation of the organic forms of magnesium (citrate and amino-acid chelate) showed greater absorption at 60 days than oxide. (raysahelian.com)
  • Low orotic acid together with low urea levels suggests your cells are not burning protein for fuel at a very high rate. (healthmatters.io)
  • 2016). New polyketides and new benzoic acid derivatives from the marine sponge-associated fungus Neosartorya quadricincta KUFA 0081 . (up.pt)
  • The mutant yeasts which are resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid require a supply of uracil. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016). Production of orotic acid by a Klura3δ mutant of Kluyveromyces lactis . (up.pt)
  • The hyperammonemia depletes alpha-ketoglutarate leading to the inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) decreasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase converts a molecule called dihydroorotate to a molecule called orotic acid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The drug is intended for patients who cannot be managed by a protein-restricted diet or amino acid supplements alone, and it must be used in conjunction with a protein-restricted diet and, in some cases, dietary supplements. (medscape.com)
  • Magnesium orotate dihydrate is poorly soluble in water and hence does not bind gastric acid nor does it exhibit noteworthy laxative effects upon oral administration in contrast to easily dissociable magnesium salts. (raysahelian.com)
  • Orotic acid is a Bronsted acid and its conjugate base, the orotate anion, is able to bind to metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using Cryptococcus deneoformans in a murine model of infection, we examined contributors to drug resistance and demonstrated that transposon mutagenesis drives the development of 5-fluoroorotic acid (5FOA) resistance. (duke.edu)
  • Studies on the physiological effects of sulfamic acid and ammonium sulfamate. (cdc.gov)