Pattern Recognition, Visual
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Protein Structure, Secondary
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Evoked Potentials, Visual
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Ocular Physiological Phenomena
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Reproducibility of Results
Analysis of Variance
Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
DNA Transposable Elements
Optics and Photonics
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Protein Structure, Quaternary
DNA Restriction Enzymes
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Signal Detection, Psychological
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Enhancer Elements, Genetic
Subjective perception of body sway. (1/3615)OBJECTIVES AND METHOD: The relation between body sway recorded through a stabilometric platform and the subjective report of steadiness was studied in 20 young and 20 elderly subjects and 20 neuropathic and 20 parkinsonian patients standing upright. The trials were performed under two stances (feet apart, feet together) and two visual conditions (eyes open, eyes closed). At the end of each trial, subjects scored their performance on a scale from 10 (complete steadiness) to 0 (fall). RESULTS: In all subjects, independently of the stance conditions, the larger the body sway the smaller the reported score. The function best fitting this relation was linear when sway was expressed on a logarithmic scale. The scoring reproducibility proved high both within and across subjects. Despite the different body sways and scores recorded under the different visual and postural conditions (eyes closed>eyes open, feet together>feet apart) in all groups of subjects and patients, the slopes of the relations between sway and score were broadly superimposable. In the normal subjects, the scores were slightly higher during eyes open than eyes closed trials for corresponding body sways. This was interpreted as a sign of perception of greater stability when vision was allowed. Parkinsonian patients swayed to a similar extent as normal subjects, and their scores were accordingly similar, both with eyes open and eyes closed. Neuropathic patients swayed to a larger extent than normal subjects, and their scores were matched appropriately. Although the slope of their relation with eyes closed was not different from that of normal subjects, with eyes open it was steeper and similar to that with eyes closed, suggesting that these patients did not feel more stable when they could take advantage of vision. CONCLUSIONS: The subjective evaluation of body sway, irrespective of stance condition, age, neuropathy, and basal ganglia disease, reflects the actual sway, and is inversely proportional to the logarithm of the sway value. The remarkable similarity of the relation between score and sway across the various groups of subjects with eyes closed indicates a common mode of sway evaluation, possibly based on integration of several sensory inputs. All groups except neuropathic patients seem to take advantage of the redundancy of the inputs. Basal ganglia integrity does not seem to have a role in the evaluation of sway. (+info)
Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. (2/3615)As demonstrated by anatomical and physiological studies, the cerebral cortex consists of groups of cortical modules, each comprising populations of neurons with similar functional properties. This functional modularity exists in both sensory and association neocortices. However, the role of such cortical modules in perceptual and cognitive behavior is unknown. To aid in the examination of this issue we have applied the high spatial resolution optical imaging methodology to the study of awake, behaving animals. In this paper, we report the optical imaging of orientation domains and blob structures, approximately 100-200 micrometer in size, in visual cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. By overcoming the spatial limitations of other existing imaging methods, optical imaging will permit the study of a wide variety of cortical functions at the columnar level, including motor and cognitive functions traditionally studied with positron-emission tomography or functional MRI techniques. (+info)
A theory of geometric constraints on neural activity for natural three-dimensional movement. (3/3615)Although the orientation of an arm in space or the static view of an object may be represented by a population of neurons in complex ways, how these variables change with movement often follows simple linear rules, reflecting the underlying geometric constraints in the physical world. A theoretical analysis is presented for how such constraints affect the average firing rates of sensory and motor neurons during natural movements with low degrees of freedom, such as a limb movement and rigid object motion. When applied to nonrigid reaching arm movements, the linear theory accounts for cosine directional tuning with linear speed modulation, predicts a curl-free spatial distribution of preferred directions, and also explains why the instantaneous motion of the hand can be recovered from the neural population activity. For three-dimensional motion of a rigid object, the theory predicts that, to a first approximation, the response of a sensory neuron should have a preferred translational direction and a preferred rotation axis in space, both with cosine tuning functions modulated multiplicatively by speed and angular speed, respectively. Some known tuning properties of motion-sensitive neurons follow as special cases. Acceleration tuning and nonlinear speed modulation are considered in an extension of the linear theory. This general approach provides a principled method to derive mechanism-insensitive neuronal properties by exploiting the inherently low dimensionality of natural movements. (+info)
Ultrasonic vocalizations elicit orienting and associative reactions in preweanling mice. (4/3615)On postnatal days (PND) 12 and 13, 90 male Swiss CD-1 mice were tested for orientation to 3 intensities of recorded ultrasounds while climbing an inclined wire grid surface. Motor responses and vocalization to replayed ultrasounds (55-75 kHz) of 20-, 40-, and 60-dB SPL indicated an intensity dependence. In Experiment 2, 138 pups were exposed to either contingent or noncontingent pairings of recorded ultrasounds of 55-75 kHz, averaging 40 dB, and mild inescapable footshocks, or taped vocalizations or footshocks only on PND 12, 14, or 16. At PND 18, subjects were tested for passive avoidance following exposure to the taped ultrasounds only upon entry into the dark side of a black-white compartment. Results suggested only overall, nonspecific effects of pretreatment to elicit responses antagonistic to motor activity. In Experiment 3, 36 pups at PND 15 were tested for passive avoidance with the ultrasound recordings of 40- or 80-dB onset upon entry to the dark compartment; a third group had no ultrasound exposure. A significant intensity effect confirmed that the ultrasounds had prepotent properties. (+info)
The physiological effects of monocular deprivation and their reversal in the monkey's visual cortex. (5/3615)1. 1127 single units were recorded during oblique penetrations in area 17 of one normal, three monocularly deprived and four reverse sutured monkeys. 2. In all animals most cells outside layer IV c were orientation-selective, and preferred orientation usually shifted from cell to cell in a regular progressive sequence. 3. The presence in layer IV c of non-oriented, monocularly driven units, organized in alternating right-eye and left-eye 'stripes' (LeVay, Hubel & Wiesel, 1975) was confirmed. 4. Early monocular deprivation (2--5 1/2 weeks) caused a strong shift of ocular dominance towards the non-deprived eye. However, even outside layer IV c, neural background and some isolated cells could still be driven from the deprived eye in regularly spaced, narrow columnar regions. In layer IV c the non-deprived eye's stripes were almost three times wider, on average, than the deprived. 5. Later monocular deprivation (11--16 months) had no detectable influence on layer IV c but seemed to cause a small shift in ocular dominance outside IV c. Deprivation for 6 1/4 months in an adult had no such effect. 6. After early reverse suturing (at 5 1/2 weeks) the originally deprived eye gained dominance over cells outside layer IV c just as complete as that originally exercised by the eye that was first non-deprived. 7. The later reverse suturing was delayed, the less effective was recapture by the originally deprived eye. Reversal at 8 weeks led to roughly equal numbers of cells being dominated by each eye; fewer cells became dominated by the newly open eye after reverse suturing at 9 weeks and most of them were non-oriented; reversal at 38 1/2 weeks had no effect. 8. Binocular cells, though rare in reverse sutured animals, always had very similar preferred orientations in the two eyes. The columnar sequences of preferred orientation were not interrupted at the borders of ocular dominance columns. 9. Even within layer IV c there was evidence for re-expansion of physiologically determined ocular dominance stripes. After early reverse suture, stripes for the two eyes became roughly equal in width. Possible mechanisms for these changes are discussed. (+info)
Macaque SEF neurons encode object-centered directions of eye movements regardless of the visual attributes of instructional cues. (6/3615)Macaque SEF neurons encode object-centered directions of eye movements regardless of the visual attributes of instructional cues. Neurons in the supplementary eye field (SEF) of the macaque monkey exhibit object-centered direction selectivity in the context of a task in which a spot flashed on the right or left end of a sample bar instructs a monkey to make an eye movement to the right or left end of a target bar. To determine whether SEF neurons are selective for the location of the cue, as defined relative to the sample bar, or, alternatively, for the location of the target, as defined relative to the target bar, we carried out recording while monkeys performed a new task. In this task, the color of a cue-spot instructed the monkey to which end of the target bar an eye movement should be made (blue for the left end and yellow for the right end). Object-centered direction selectivity persisted under this condition, indicating that neurons are selective for the location of the target relative to the target bar. However, object-centered signals developed at a longer latency (by approximately 200 ms) when the instruction was conveyed by color than when it was conveyed by the location of a spot on a sample bar. (+info)
Averaging and summation of influences on visually perceived eye level between two long lines differing in pitch or roll-tilt. (7/3615)The presence of one or two long, dim, eccentrically-placed, parallel, pitched-from-vertical lines in darkness generates a systematic influence on the physical elevation that appears to correspond to eye level (VPEL). The influence of the line(s) in darkness is nearly as large as that produced by a complexly-structured, well-illuminated visual field (Matin L, Li W. Vis Res, 1994;34:311-330); oblique lines in a frontoparallel plane that strike the same projected orientations generate the same influences as those generated by pitched-from-vertical lines (Li W, Matin L. Perception, 1996;25:831-852). The two experiments described here examined the influence on the physical elevation of VPEL due to simultaneous viewing of two long lines of different pitch (Experiment 1) or two long lines of different obliquity in a frontoparallel plane (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 employed two long (66 degrees), simultaneously-presented, pitched-from-vertical lines in darkness on bilaterally symmetric locations at 25 degrees horizontal eccentricity, with each line at one of seven pitches in the range from -30 degrees to +30 degrees; VPELs were measured for all 49 possible pitch combinations. Experiment 2 was identically constructed, but employed oblique 2-line stimuli from a frontoparallel plane that struck the same projected orientations as did the pitched-from-vertical lines in Experiment 1. VPELs measured on four subjects in the two experiments were indistinguishable for corresponding conditions of pitch and obliquity. For a given pitch (obliquity) of one of the lines the elevation of VPEL increased linearly with the pitch (obliquity) of the second line. The VPEL for any 2-line combination is very close to the average of the VPELs for the two individual lines; a small amount of additive summation between the influences of the two lines was also found. Parallel and nonparallel 2-line stimuli appear to follow the same rules of combination. The results are clear in showing that the visual influence on VPEL is controlled by an opponent-process mechanism. (+info)
The role of orientation flights on homing performance in honeybees. (8/3615)Honeybees have long served as a model organism for investigating insect navigation. Bees, like many other nesting animals, primarily use learned visual features of the environment to guide their movement between the nest and foraging sites. Although much is known about the spatial information encoded in memory by experienced bees, the development of large-scale spatial memory in naive bees is not clearly understood. Past studies suggest that learning occurs during orientation flights taken before the start of foraging. We investigated what honeybees learn during their initial experience in a new landscape by examining the homing of bees displaced after a single orientation flight lasting only 5-10 min. Homing ability was assessed using vanishing bearings and homing speed. At release sites with a view of the landmarks immediately surrounding the hive, 'first-flight' bees, tested after their very first orientation flight, had faster homing rates than 'reorienting foragers', which had previous experience in a different site prior to their orientation flight in the test landscape. First-flight bees also had faster homing rates from these sites than did 'resident' bees with full experience of the terrain. At distant sites, resident bees returned to the hive more rapidly than reorienting or first-flight bees; however, in some cases, the reorienting bees were as successful as the resident bees. Vanishing bearings indicated that all three types of bees were oriented homewards when in the vicinity of landmarks near the hive. When bees were released out of sight of these landmarks, hence forcing them to rely on a route memory, the 'first-flight' bees were confused, the 'reorienting' bees chose the homeward direction except at the most distant site and the 'resident' bees were consistently oriented homewards. (+info)
In the medical field, lipid bilayers refer to the two layers of phospholipid molecules that form the basic structure of cell membranes. The lipid bilayer is composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail. The hydrophilic heads face outward, towards the aqueous environment of the cell, while the hydrophobic tails face inward, towards each other. This arrangement creates a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment, while also allowing for the selective passage of molecules in and out of the cell. The lipid bilayer is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of cells, and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and transport.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a type of phospholipid, which is a molecule that is essential for the structure and function of cell membranes. It is composed of two fatty acid chains, each containing 16 carbon atoms, and a phosphate group attached to a choline molecule. DMPC is a common component of biological membranes and is often used in scientific research to study the properties of cell membranes and the behavior of membrane proteins. It is also used in the production of liposomes, which are small, spherical structures that can be used to deliver drugs and other molecules into cells.
Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.
Fibrillar collagens are a type of collagen protein that are found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues throughout the body. They are the most abundant protein in the human body and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of tissues such as skin, tendons, ligaments, and bones. Fibrillar collagens are characterized by their long, fibrous structure and are composed of three protein subunits, called alpha chains, that are coiled together to form a triple helix. There are several different types of fibrillar collagens, including types I, II, III, IV, V, and VI, each of which has a unique structure and function. Type I fibrillar collagen is the most common type and is found in the skin, bones, tendons, and ligaments. It provides strength and flexibility to these tissues and is essential for maintaining their structural integrity. Type II fibrillar collagen is found in the cartilage of joints and is responsible for its elasticity and ability to withstand compression. Type III fibrillar collagen is found in the skin, blood vessels, and other connective tissues and plays a role in wound healing and tissue repair.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
In the medical field, the term "illusions" refers to false perceptions or beliefs that are not based on reality. Illusions can occur in various forms, including visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile illusions. Visual illusions are the most common type of illusion and can involve misperceptions of shapes, colors, sizes, distances, and movement. For example, the famous "Mondrian Illusion" shows a grid of squares that appears to be tilted, even though it is not. Auditory illusions involve misperceptions of sound, such as hearing a sound that is not actually present or perceiving a sound differently than it was produced. Olfactory illusions involve misperceptions of smell, such as perceiving a scent that is not actually present or perceiving a scent differently than it was produced. Gustatory illusions involve misperceptions of taste, such as perceiving a flavor that is not actually present or perceiving a flavor differently than it was produced. Tactile illusions involve misperceptions of touch, such as perceiving a texture that is not actually present or perceiving a texture differently than it was produced. Illusions can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, medication side effects, and psychological conditions. In some cases, illusions may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons, are segments of DNA that can move or transpose from one location in the genome to another. They are found in the genomes of many organisms, including plants, animals, and bacteria. In the medical field, DNA transposable elements are of interest because they can play a role in the evolution of genomes and the development of diseases. For example, some transposable elements can cause mutations in genes, which can lead to genetic disorders or cancer. Additionally, transposable elements can contribute to the evolution of new genes and the adaptation of organisms to changing environments. Transposable elements can also be used as tools in genetic research and biotechnology. For example, scientists can use transposable elements to insert genes into cells or organisms, allowing them to study the function of those genes or to create genetically modified organisms for various purposes.
Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, is a condition in which one eye fails to develop normal vision while the other eye develops normal vision. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including strabismus (crossed eyes), anisometropia (unequal refractive errors), or a lack of visual input from one eye due to a cataract or other ocular condition. In amblyopia, the brain may not properly integrate the visual information from the affected eye, leading to reduced visual acuity and a decreased ability to see details. Amblyopia can be treated with a combination of glasses or contact lenses, patching the healthy eye, and vision therapy. If left untreated, amblyopia can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye.
In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.
DNA restriction enzymes are a class of enzymes that are naturally produced by bacteria and archaea to protect their DNA from foreign invaders. These enzymes recognize specific sequences of DNA and cut the strands at specific points, creating a double-stranded break. This allows the bacteria or archaea to destroy the foreign DNA and prevent it from replicating within their cells. In the medical field, DNA restriction enzymes are commonly used in molecular biology techniques such as DNA cloning, genetic engineering, and DNA fingerprinting. They are also used in the diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases, as well as in the study of viral infections and cancer. By cutting DNA at specific sites, researchers can manipulate and analyze the genetic material to gain insights into the function and regulation of genes, and to develop new therapies for genetic diseases.
Actins are a family of globular, cytoskeletal proteins that are essential for the maintenance of cell shape and motility. They are found in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, muscle contraction, and intracellular transport. Actins are composed of two globular domains, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, which are connected by a flexible linker region. They are capable of polymerizing into long, filamentous structures called actin filaments, which are the main component of the cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are dynamic structures that can be rapidly assembled and disassembled in response to changes in the cellular environment. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the formation of cellular structures such as the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic cortex, and the contractile ring during cell division. In addition to their role in maintaining cell shape and motility, actins are also involved in a number of other cellular processes, including the regulation of cell signaling, the organization of the cytoplasm, and the movement of organelles within the cell.
Rhodamines are a class of fluorescent dyes that are commonly used in various medical applications, including diagnostic imaging, drug delivery, and cell labeling. They are highly fluorescent and can be excited by ultraviolet or blue light, emitting bright red or orange fluorescence. In medical imaging, rhodamines are used as contrast agents to visualize specific structures or cells within tissues. They can be conjugated to antibodies or other targeting molecules to selectively bind to specific cells or tissues, allowing for targeted imaging. Rhodamines can also be used as reporters in biosensors to detect specific analytes or biomarkers in biological samples. In drug delivery, rhodamines can be used as fluorescent probes to track the distribution and uptake of drugs within cells or tissues. They can also be used to monitor the release of drugs from drug carriers or nanoparticles. Overall, rhodamines are valuable tools in the medical field due to their high fluorescence, versatility, and ability to be tailored for specific applications.
RNA, antisense is a type of RNA molecule that is complementary to a specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. It is also known as antisense RNA or AS-RNA. Antisense RNA molecules are synthesized in the nucleus of a cell and are exported to the cytoplasm, where they bind to the complementary mRNA molecule and prevent it from being translated into protein. This process is known as RNA interference (RNAi) and is a natural mechanism that cells use to regulate gene expression. Antisense RNA molecules can be used as a therapeutic tool to target specific genes and inhibit their expression, which has potential applications in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders.
In the medical field, spin labels are a type of molecular probe that are used to study the dynamics of molecules in living systems. Spin labels are small molecules that contain a nucleus with an odd number of protons, such as carbon-13 or nitrogen-15, which gives rise to a magnetic moment. When a spin label is introduced into a sample, it can be detected using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spin labels are often used to study the movement of molecules within cells or tissues, as well as the interactions between molecules. They can be attached to specific molecules of interest, such as proteins or lipids, and their motion can be tracked over time using NMR spectroscopy. This information can provide insights into the function and behavior of these molecules, as well as the underlying mechanisms of various diseases. Overall, spin labels are a valuable tool in the medical field for studying the dynamics of molecules in living systems, and they have a wide range of applications in areas such as drug discovery, cell biology, and neuroscience.
Heme is a complex organic molecule that contains iron and is a vital component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other proteins involved in oxygen transport and storage in living organisms. It is also a component of various enzymes involved in metabolism and detoxification processes. In the medical field, heme is often used as a diagnostic tool to detect and monitor certain medical conditions, such as anemia (a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin), liver disease (which can affect heme synthesis), and certain types of cancer (which can produce abnormal heme molecules). Heme is also used in the production of certain medications, such as heme-based oxygen carriers for use in patients with sickle cell disease or other conditions that affect oxygen transport. Additionally, heme is a component of some dietary supplements and is sometimes used to treat certain types of anemia.
Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are a type of phospholipid, which are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group, with a choline molecule attached to the phosphate group. In the medical field, phosphatidylcholines are often used as a dietary supplement or in various medical treatments. They have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including improving liver function, reducing inflammation, and improving cognitive function. Phosphatidylcholines are also used in some medical treatments, such as liposuction, where they are injected into the fat cells to help break them down and remove them from the body. They are also used in some types of chemotherapy to help reduce side effects and improve treatment outcomes.
Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
Collagen is a protein that is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues throughout the body. It is the most abundant protein in the human body and is responsible for providing strength and support to tissues such as skin, bones, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. In the medical field, collagen is often used in various medical treatments and therapies. For example, it is used in dermal fillers to plump up wrinkles and improve skin texture, and it is also used in wound healing to promote tissue regeneration and reduce scarring. Collagen-based products are also used in orthopedic and dental applications, such as in the production of artificial joints and dental implants. In addition, collagen is an important biomarker for various medical conditions, including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and liver disease. It is also used in research to study the mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration, as well as to develop new treatments for various diseases and conditions.
In the medical field, a chromosome inversion is a genetic rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome breaks and reattaches in a different order. This can result in a change in the length and structure of the chromosome, as well as the order of the genes located on it. Chromosome inversions can occur naturally during the process of meiosis, or they can be caused by exposure to mutagens such as radiation or certain chemicals. In some cases, chromosome inversions may have no noticeable effects on an individual's health, while in other cases they can lead to genetic disorders or increase the risk of certain types of cancer. Chromosome inversions can be detected through genetic testing, such as karyotyping, which involves analyzing a sample of an individual's cells to identify any abnormalities in their chromosomes.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
In the medical field, macromolecular substances refer to large molecules that are composed of repeating units, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. These molecules are essential for many biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and structural support. Macromolecular substances are typically composed of thousands or even millions of atoms, and they can range in size from a few nanometers to several micrometers. They are often found in the form of fibers, sheets, or other complex structures, and they can be found in a variety of biological tissues and fluids. Examples of macromolecular substances in the medical field include: - Proteins: These are large molecules composed of amino acids that are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including enzyme catalysis, structural support, and immune response. - Carbohydrates: These are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are involved in energy storage, cell signaling, and structural support. - Lipids: These are molecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol that are involved in energy storage, cell membrane structure, and signaling. - Nucleic acids: These are molecules composed of nucleotides that are involved in genetic information storage and transfer. Macromolecular substances are important for many medical applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and gene therapy. Understanding the structure and function of these molecules is essential for developing new treatments and therapies for a wide range of diseases and conditions.
In the medical field, "DNA, Recombinant" refers to a type of DNA that has been artificially synthesized or modified to contain specific genes or genetic sequences. This is achieved through a process called genetic engineering, which involves inserting foreign DNA into a host organism's genome. Recombinant DNA technology has revolutionized the field of medicine, allowing scientists to create new drugs, vaccines, and other therapeutic agents. For example, recombinant DNA technology has been used to create insulin for the treatment of diabetes, human growth hormone for the treatment of growth disorders, and vaccines for a variety of infectious diseases. Recombinant DNA technology also has important applications in basic research, allowing scientists to study the function of specific genes and genetic sequences, and to investigate the mechanisms of diseases.
Dyneins are a family of large molecular motors that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and the maintenance of cell shape. They are composed of multiple protein subunits and use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, which are important structural components of the cell. Dyneins are found in most eukaryotic cells and are responsible for a variety of important functions. For example, dynein is involved in the transport of organelles and vesicles within the cell, and it plays a key role in the movement of cilia and flagella, which are hair-like structures that protrude from the surface of some cells and are involved in movement and sensory functions. Dyneins are also involved in the process of cell division, where they help to move the chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell during mitosis. In addition, dyneins are involved in the maintenance of cell shape and the organization of the cytoskeleton, which is the network of protein fibers that provides support and structure to the cell. Dyneins are important for many cellular processes and are the subject of ongoing research in the field of cell biology.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a type of bacteria that is commonly found in the human gut. E. coli proteins are proteins that are produced by E. coli bacteria. These proteins can have a variety of functions, including helping the bacteria to survive and thrive in the gut, as well as potentially causing illness in humans. In the medical field, E. coli proteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new treatments for bacterial infections. For example, some E. coli proteins are involved in the bacteria's ability to produce toxins that can cause illness in humans, and researchers are working to develop drugs that can block the activity of these proteins in order to prevent or treat E. coli infections. E. coli proteins are also used in research to study the biology of the bacteria and to understand how it interacts with the human body. For example, researchers may use E. coli proteins as markers to track the growth and spread of the bacteria in the gut, or they may use them to study the mechanisms by which the bacteria causes illness. Overall, E. coli proteins are an important area of study in the medical field, as they can provide valuable insights into the biology of this important bacterium and may have potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections.
DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.
Gramicidin is a type of antibiotic that is derived from a soil bacterium called Bacillus brevis. It is a polypeptide antibiotic that is effective against a wide range of gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus anthracis. Gramicidin works by disrupting the cell membrane of bacteria, causing it to leak and eventually leading to cell death. It is often used topically to treat skin infections, such as impetigo and cellulitis, and is also used to treat certain types of pneumonia and meningitis. However, gramicidin is not effective against gram-negative bacteria and can cause side effects such as allergic reactions and kidney damage when used in high doses.
1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, also known as DPPC, is a type of phospholipid that is commonly found in cell membranes. It is a phospholipid that consists of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains (palmitic acid), and a phosphate group attached to a choline headgroup. In the medical field, DPPC is often used as a component of liposomes, which are small, spherical vesicles that can encapsulate drugs and other molecules. Liposomes made with DPPC have been used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery, gene therapy, and imaging. DPPC has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Some research has suggested that DPPC may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, and it is being investigated as a potential treatment for these conditions.
Antisense DNA is a type of DNA that is complementary to a specific sense strand of DNA. It is often used in medical research and therapy to specifically target and regulate the expression of specific genes. Antisense DNA can be designed to bind to a specific sense strand of DNA, preventing it from being transcribed into RNA or from being translated into protein. This can be used to either silence or activate the expression of a specific gene, depending on the desired effect. Antisense DNA is also being studied as a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders.
Alamethicin is a synthetic peptide that was first synthesized in the 1960s. It is a 26-amino acid peptide that was derived from the antibiotic alamycin, which was isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. In the medical field, alamethicin is primarily used as a research tool to study the structure and function of ion channels, particularly those involved in the transport of ions across cell membranes. Alamethicin is a potent ion channel blocker that selectively inhibits the flow of cations, such as potassium and sodium, through the membrane. Alamethicin has also been used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, particularly those that are resistant to traditional chemotherapy. It works by disrupting the integrity of the cell membrane, leading to cell death. However, its use in cancer treatment is limited due to its toxicity and potential side effects. Overall, alamethicin is an important tool in the study of ion channels and has potential applications in the treatment of certain types of cancer.
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is required for the production of proteins in the body. It is also a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep. In the medical field, tryptophan is often used to treat conditions such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. It is also used to help manage symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and to improve athletic performance. Tryptophan supplements are available over-the-counter, but it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking them, as they can interact with certain medications and may have side effects.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
Cysteine is an amino acid that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is involved in the formation of disulfide bonds, which are important for the structure and function of many proteins. Cysteine is also involved in the detoxification of harmful substances in the body, and it plays a role in the production of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant. In the medical field, cysteine is used to treat a variety of conditions, including respiratory infections, kidney stones, and cataracts. It is also used as a dietary supplement to support overall health and wellness.
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Oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) are short chains of DNA or RNA that are synthesized in the laboratory. They are typically used as tools in molecular biology research, as well as in therapeutic applications such as gene therapy. ODNs can be designed to bind to specific DNA or RNA sequences, and can be used to modulate gene expression or to introduce genetic changes into cells. They can also be used as primers in PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to amplify specific DNA sequences. In the medical field, ODNs are being studied for their potential use in treating a variety of diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. For example, ODNs can be used to silence specific genes that are involved in disease progression, or to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells.
In the medical field, "DNA, Viral" refers to the genetic material of viruses, which is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Viruses are infectious agents that can only replicate inside living cells of organisms, including humans. The genetic material of viruses is different from that of cells, as viruses do not have a cellular structure and cannot carry out metabolic processes on their own. Instead, they rely on the host cell's machinery to replicate and produce new viral particles. Understanding the genetic material of viruses is important for developing treatments and vaccines against viral infections. By studying the DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid) of viruses, researchers can identify potential targets for antiviral drugs and design vaccines that stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight off viral infections.
DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.
Drosophila proteins are proteins that are found in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which is a widely used model organism in genetics and molecular biology research. These proteins have been studied extensively because they share many similarities with human proteins, making them useful for understanding the function and regulation of human genes and proteins. In the medical field, Drosophila proteins are often used as a model for studying human diseases, particularly those that are caused by genetic mutations. By studying the effects of these mutations on Drosophila proteins, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and potentially identify new therapeutic targets. Drosophila proteins have also been used to study a wide range of biological processes, including development, aging, and neurobiology. For example, researchers have used Drosophila to study the role of specific genes and proteins in the development of the nervous system, as well as the mechanisms underlying age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
Histidine is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body. It is a building block of proteins and is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. In the medical field, histidine is often used as a diagnostic tool to help diagnose certain medical conditions. For example, high levels of histidine in the blood can be a sign of a genetic disorder called histidinemia, which can cause a range of symptoms including intellectual disability, seizures, and liver problems. Histidine is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as acidosis, which is a condition in which the body's pH balance is disrupted.
Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) are a class of proteins that emit green light when excited by blue or ultraviolet light. They were first discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and have since been widely used as a tool in the field of molecular biology and bioimaging. In the medical field, GFPs are often used as a marker to track the movement and behavior of cells and proteins within living organisms. For example, scientists can insert a gene for GFP into a cell or organism, allowing them to visualize the cell or protein in real-time using a fluorescent microscope. This can be particularly useful in studying the development and function of cells, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. GFPs have also been used to develop biosensors, which can detect the presence of specific molecules or changes in cellular environment. For example, researchers have developed GFP-based sensors that can detect the presence of certain drugs or toxins, or changes in pH or calcium levels within cells. Overall, GFPs have become a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to study cellular processes and diseases in new and innovative ways.
Phosphatidylglycerols are a type of phospholipid, which are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group. Phosphatidylglycerols are found in all types of cells, but are particularly abundant in the membranes of certain organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. In the medical field, phosphatidylglycerols have been studied for their potential role in various diseases and conditions. For example, changes in the levels of phosphatidylglycerols have been observed in certain types of cancer, and they may play a role in the development and progression of these diseases. Additionally, phosphatidylglycerols have been studied for their potential use as a diagnostic tool, as changes in their levels may indicate the presence of certain diseases or conditions.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). It is primarily found in the red blood cells, where it helps to regulate the pH of the blood by converting CO2 into bicarbonate and protons (H+). This process is essential for maintaining the proper balance of acids and bases in the body, which is necessary for the proper functioning of many physiological processes. In addition to its role in regulating blood pH, CA II also plays a role in the transport of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs, where it is exhaled. It does this by converting bicarbonate back into CO2, which can then be transported in the blood to the lungs and exhaled. CA II is also involved in the regulation of fluid balance in the body, as bicarbonate is an important ion that helps to maintain the proper concentration of electrolytes in the blood. It is also involved in the metabolism of other substances, such as ammonia and sulfates. In the medical field, CA II is often studied as a potential target for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, and certain types of cancer. It is also used as a diagnostic marker for certain diseases, such as renal disease and liver disease.
Deuterium is a stable isotope of hydrogen that has one extra neutron in its nucleus compared to the most common isotope of hydrogen, protium. In the medical field, deuterium is sometimes used as a tracer in nuclear medicine imaging studies. For example, deuterium oxide (heavy water) can be used to label certain molecules, such as glucose or amino acids, which can then be injected into the body and imaged using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This can help doctors to visualize the uptake and metabolism of these molecules in different tissues and organs, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions. Deuterium is also used in some types of radiation therapy, where it is used to replace hydrogen atoms in certain molecules to make them more radioactive, allowing them to be targeted to specific cancer cells.
Membrane lipids are a type of lipid molecule that are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of fatty acids and glycerol, and are responsible for maintaining the structure and function of cell membranes. There are several types of membrane lipids, including phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Phospholipids are the most abundant type of membrane lipid and are responsible for forming the basic structure of cell membranes. They consist of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and two hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails, which allow them to spontaneously form a bilayer in an aqueous environment. Glycolipids are another type of membrane lipid that are composed of a fatty acid chain and a carbohydrate group. They are found on the surface of cell membranes and play a role in cell recognition and signaling. Cholesterol is a third type of membrane lipid that is important for maintaining the fluidity and stability of cell membranes. It is also involved in the regulation of membrane protein function. Membrane lipids play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including cell signaling, nutrient transport, and cell division. They are also important for maintaining the integrity and function of cell membranes, which are essential for the survival of cells.
Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. It is a long, fibrous polysaccharide made up of glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds. In the medical field, cellulose is used in a variety of ways. For example, it is often used as a thickening agent in medications, such as tablets and capsules, to help them maintain their shape and prevent them from dissolving too quickly in the stomach. It is also used as a binding agent in some medications to help them stick together and form a solid mass. In addition, cellulose is used in wound dressings and other medical products to help absorb excess fluid and promote healing. It is also used in some dietary supplements to help slow down the absorption of other ingredients, such as vitamins and minerals. Overall, cellulose is an important component of many medical products and plays a crucial role in their function and effectiveness.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
In the medical field, a peptide fragment refers to a short chain of amino acids that are derived from a larger peptide or protein molecule. Peptide fragments can be generated through various techniques, such as enzymatic digestion or chemical cleavage, and are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Peptide fragments can be used as biomarkers for various diseases, as they may be present in the body at elevated levels in response to specific conditions. For example, certain peptide fragments have been identified as potential biomarkers for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, peptide fragments can be used as therapeutic agents themselves. For example, some peptide fragments have been shown to have anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for various diseases. Overall, peptide fragments play an important role in the medical field, both as diagnostic tools and as potential therapeutic agents.
Myosins are a family of motor proteins that are responsible for muscle contraction in animals. They are found in almost all eukaryotic cells, including muscle cells, and play a crucial role in the movement of intracellular organelles and vesicles. In muscle cells, myosins interact with actin filaments to generate force and movement. The process of muscle contraction involves the binding of myosin heads to actin filaments, followed by the movement of the myosin head along the actin filament, pulling the actin filament towards the center of the sarcomere. This sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each other generates the force required for muscle contraction. There are many different types of myosins, each with its own specific function and localization within the cell. Some myosins are involved in the movement of organelles and vesicles within the cytoplasm, while others are involved in the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Myosins are also involved in a variety of other cellular processes, including cell migration, cytokinesis, and the formation of cell junctions.
In the medical field, immobilized proteins refer to proteins that have been chemically or physically bound to a solid support, such as a membrane or a bead. This immobilization allows the proteins to be used in a variety of applications, including enzyme assays, protein purification, and drug discovery. One common use of immobilized proteins is in enzyme assays, where the enzyme is attached to a solid support and the substrate is added to the mixture. The substrate binds to the enzyme, which then catalyzes the reaction, and the product is detected. This allows for the measurement of enzyme activity and can be used to study enzyme kinetics and inhibition. Immobilized proteins can also be used in protein purification, where the protein of interest is selectively bound to a solid support and then eluted with a buffer or solvent to recover the purified protein. This technique is commonly used in the production of therapeutic proteins for use in medicine. In drug discovery, immobilized proteins can be used to screen large libraries of compounds for their ability to bind to a specific protein target. This can help identify potential drug candidates for further development. Overall, immobilized proteins are a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to study protein function and develop new drugs and diagnostic tests.
In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.
In the medical field, a torsion abnormality refers to a condition in which a structure, such as a testicle or ovary, twists on its own axis. This can cause a blockage of blood flow to the affected organ, leading to pain, swelling, and potentially serious complications if left untreated. Torsion abnormalities are typically diagnosed through physical examination and imaging studies, and may require surgical intervention to correct. They can occur in both males and females, and are more common in children and young adults.
Phospholipids are a type of lipid molecule that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and two hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails, which together form a bilayer structure that separates the interior of the cell from the external environment. Phospholipids are important for maintaining the integrity and fluidity of cell membranes, and they also play a role in cell signaling and the transport of molecules across the membrane. They are found in all types of cells, including animal, plant, and bacterial cells, and are also present in many types of lipoproteins, which are particles that transport lipids in the bloodstream. In the medical field, phospholipids are used in a variety of applications, including as components of artificial cell membranes for research purposes, as components of liposomes (small vesicles that can deliver drugs to specific cells), and as ingredients in dietary supplements and other health products. They are also the subject of ongoing research in the fields of nutrition, metabolism, and disease prevention.
Strabismus is a medical condition in which the eyes are not aligned properly, causing them to point in different directions. This can result in double vision, difficulty seeing in depth, and other visual problems. Strabismus can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle weakness or paralysis, nerve damage, or problems with the brain's visual processing centers. Treatment for strabismus may include glasses, patches, eye exercises, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.
Micelles are small, spherical structures that form when surfactant molecules, such as phospholipids, are dissolved in water. In the medical field, micelles are often used as drug delivery systems to transport drugs across cell membranes and into cells. This is because the hydrophobic core of the micelle can encapsulate hydrophobic drugs, while the hydrophilic shell of the micelle can interact with water and other polar molecules. This allows the drug to be transported through the bloodstream and into cells, where it can be released and exert its therapeutic effect. Micelles are also used in various medical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to enhance the contrast between different tissues in the body.
Magainins are a group of antimicrobial peptides that are produced by the innate immune system of certain insects, including mosquitoes and fruit flies. These peptides are known for their ability to kill a wide range of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, and have been the subject of extensive research in the medical field due to their potential as a new class of antibiotics. Magainins are small, cationic peptides that are composed of 20-30 amino acids. They are synthesized in the fat body of insects and are released into the hemolymph (the insect equivalent of blood) in response to infection. Magainins have a broad spectrum of activity against a variety of microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. In addition to their antimicrobial properties, magainins have also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. They have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of a variety of infectious diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, as well as for their potential use in cancer therapy. Overall, magainins represent a promising new class of antimicrobial agents that may have important applications in the medical field.
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are a group of proteins that bind to microtubules, which are important components of the cytoskeleton in cells. These proteins play a crucial role in regulating the dynamics of microtubules, including their assembly, disassembly, and stability. MAPs are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, intracellular transport, and the maintenance of cell shape. They can also play a role in the development of diseases such as cancer, where the abnormal regulation of microtubules and MAPs can contribute to the growth and spread of tumors. There are many different types of MAPs, each with its own specific functions and mechanisms of action. Some MAPs are involved in regulating the dynamics of microtubules, while others are involved in the transport of molecules along microtubules. Some MAPs are also involved in the organization and function of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for the proper segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Overall, MAPs are important regulators of microtubule dynamics and play a crucial role in many cellular processes. Understanding the function of these proteins is important for developing new treatments for diseases that are associated with abnormal microtubule regulation.
In the medical field, nitrogen isotopes refer to different forms of the element nitrogen that have different atomic masses due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most commonly used nitrogen isotopes in medical applications are nitrogen-13 (13N) and nitrogen-15 (15N). Nitrogen-13 is a radioactive isotope that is commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to study the function of various organs and tissues in the body. It is produced by bombarding a target material with high-energy protons, and the resulting radioactive nitrogen-13 is then used to create radiotracers that can be injected into the body and imaged using PET. Nitrogen-15, on the other hand, is a stable isotope that is used in various medical applications, including the study of metabolism and the measurement of blood flow. It is often used in combination with other stable isotopes, such as oxygen-15, to create radiotracers that can be used in PET scans. Overall, nitrogen isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and research, allowing doctors and scientists to study the function of various organs and tissues in the body and to diagnose and treat a wide range of medical conditions.
Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase (COT) is an enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. It is found in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In the medical field, COT is often studied as a potential target for the development of new antibiotics, as it plays a key role in the resistance of certain bacteria to chloramphenicol. Additionally, COT has been shown to have a number of other functions, including the detoxification of harmful compounds and the regulation of gene expression.
Coxa Valga is a medical condition that refers to a deformity of the hip joint, characterized by a widening of the angle between the thigh bone (femur) and the pelvis (acetabulum). This condition is also known as "coxa vara" or "varus hip." Coxa Valga can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, developmental disorders, and injuries to the hip joint. It can also be a complication of other medical conditions, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and developmental dysplasia of the hip. Symptoms of Coxa Valga may include pain in the hip or groin, difficulty walking or standing, and limited range of motion in the hip joint. Treatment options for Coxa Valga may include physical therapy, bracing, and in severe cases, surgery to correct the deformity.
In the medical field, a cadaver refers to a dead human body that has been donated for the purpose of medical education, research, or training. Cadavers are often used in anatomy classes, surgical training, and other medical education programs to help students and professionals learn about the human body and its structures. The process of donating a body for medical use is known as body donation or anatomical donation. It involves signing a consent form and making arrangements with a medical school or other organization that accepts body donations. The body is then prepared for use through a process called embalming, which involves preserving the body with chemicals to prevent decay and decomposition. Cadavers are an important resource in medical education and research, as they provide a way for students and professionals to study the human body in detail and gain hands-on experience with surgical procedures and other medical techniques.
Bacteriorhodopsins are a family of light-sensitive proteins found in the membranes of certain bacteria, such as Halobacterium salinarum. They are also known as light-driven proton pumps because they use the energy from light to pump protons across the membrane, creating a proton gradient that can be used to power various cellular processes. In the medical field, bacteriorhodopsins have been studied for their potential use in a variety of applications, including as optogenetic tools for controlling the activity of neurons in the brain, as sensors for detecting environmental pollutants, and as components of biofuel cells that can convert light energy into electrical energy. Bacteriorhodopsins have also been used in the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, researchers have developed a bacteriorhodopsin-based drug that can be used to treat glaucoma by increasing the production of aqueous humor in the eye. Additionally, bacteriorhodopsins have been used to develop new types of solar cells that can convert light energy into electrical energy more efficiently than traditional solar cells.
Proteolipids are a type of lipid-protein complex that are found in the cell membrane of many organisms, including animals, plants, and bacteria. They are composed of a hydrophobic lipid tail and a hydrophilic protein head, which allows them to interact with both the interior and exterior of the cell membrane. In the medical field, proteolipids are of particular interest because they play important roles in the function of the nervous system. For example, proteolipids are a major component of the myelin sheath, which is a layer of fatty substance that surrounds and insulates nerve fibers. The myelin sheath helps to speed up the transmission of nerve impulses and is essential for normal brain function. Proteolipids are also involved in the development and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, which is a barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and spinal cord. This barrier helps to protect the brain from harmful substances in the blood and maintain a stable environment for nerve cells. In addition to their roles in the nervous system, proteolipids have also been implicated in a number of other medical conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.
Myoglobin is a protein found in muscle tissue that plays a crucial role in oxygen storage and delivery. It is responsible for storing oxygen in muscle cells and releasing it when needed during periods of high physical activity. Myoglobin is also involved in the regulation of muscle metabolism and the removal of waste products from muscle cells. In the medical field, myoglobin levels are often measured in blood tests to diagnose and monitor various conditions, including muscle injuries, heart attacks, and kidney disease. High levels of myoglobin in the blood can indicate muscle damage or injury, while low levels may suggest a problem with muscle metabolism or oxygen delivery. Myoglobinuria, a condition characterized by the presence of myoglobin in the urine, can also be a sign of muscle injury or disease.
Phalloidin is a toxic compound found in certain species of mushrooms, including the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides). It is a potent inhibitor of actin polymerization, which is a key process in cell movement and division. In the medical field, phalloidin is used as a research tool to study the cytoskeleton and its role in various cellular processes. It is also used as an antimitotic agent in cancer therapy, as it can inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by disrupting their cytoskeleton. However, phalloidin is highly toxic and can cause serious illness or death if ingested, so it is important to handle it with caution and follow proper safety protocols.
Tubulin is a protein that is essential for the formation and maintenance of microtubules, which are structural components of cells. Microtubules play a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes, including cell division, intracellular transport, and the maintenance of cell shape. In the medical field, tubulin is of particular interest because it is a key target for many anti-cancer drugs. These drugs, known as tubulin inhibitors, work by disrupting the formation of microtubules, which can lead to cell death. Examples of tubulin inhibitors include paclitaxel (Taxol) and vinblastine. Tubulin is also involved in the development of other diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In these conditions, abnormal tubulin dynamics have been implicated in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and other pathological hallmarks of the diseases. Overall, tubulin is a critical protein in cell biology and has important implications for the development of new treatments for a variety of diseases.
Polystyrenes are a class of synthetic polymers that are commonly used in the medical field due to their unique properties, such as their lightweight, durability, and ability to be molded into a variety of shapes and sizes. In the medical field, polystyrenes are used in a variety of applications, including as components of medical devices, such as syringes, catheters, and test tubes, as well as in packaging materials for medical equipment and supplies. Polystyrene is also used in the production of medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, and as a component of dental prosthetics. Polystyrenes are also used in the production of medical laboratory equipment, such as centrifuges and microtiter plates, and in the manufacturing of medical instruments, such as scalpels and forceps. Additionally, polystyrene is used in the production of medical packaging materials, such as trays and bags, to protect medical equipment and supplies during transportation and storage.
Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific are a group of enzymes that specifically target and cleave DNA at specific sites within the molecule. These enzymes are also known as restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases. They are commonly used in molecular biology for a variety of applications, including DNA cloning, genetic engineering, and the study of gene expression. These enzymes recognize specific DNA sequences and cut the DNA at specific locations, releasing short DNA fragments that can be used for further analysis or manipulation. They are important tools in the field of molecular biology and have a wide range of applications in research and medicine.
Nuclear proteins are proteins that are found within the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, where genetic material is stored and regulated. Nuclear proteins play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, and gene regulation. There are many different types of nuclear proteins, each with its own specific function. Some nuclear proteins are involved in the structure and organization of the nucleus itself, while others are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Nuclear proteins can also interact with other proteins, DNA, and RNA molecules to carry out their functions. In the medical field, nuclear proteins are often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, where changes in the expression or function of nuclear proteins can contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Additionally, nuclear proteins are important targets for drug development, as they can be targeted to treat a variety of diseases.
CDC Library | Orientation & Training
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- Save the dates for Orientation and Move-In Weekend 2023! (clarkson.edu)
- Campus students are invited to attend our 2023 Fall B Campus Orientation on Saturday, October 21, from 11:15am-1:45pm. (rmcad.edu)
- Please RSVP here by Wednesday, October 19, 2023 to attend the Fall B Orientation. (rmcad.edu)
- The 2023 Orientation schedules will be made available closer to the beginning of summer session. (bradley.edu)
- New for Fall 2023, Postdoctoral Fellows will be invited to attend the 2023-2024 orientation program offered to New Faculty and Instructors. (mun.ca)
- NFIO Schedule 2023 September to view the full orientation schedule. (mun.ca)
- Why an IHR Orientation Programme? (who.int)
- The IHR Orientation Programme aims to contribute to effective implementation of the IHR in respective countries by ensuring a consistent understanding of the State Party rights and obligations of persons who perform IHR functions within 3 months of their assignment. (who.int)
- The IHR Orientation Programme is also meant for professionals already fulfilling these functions to consolidate their knowledge on selected areas based on their specific needs. (who.int)
- Andrew joined CMU in 2016 as a coordinator in SLICE and joined the First-Year Orientation and Family Engagement team in summer 2022 as the assistant director supporting incoming undergraduate students in their transition to campus and their parents and family members. (cmu.edu)
- The Global Engagement Center (GEC) holds international student orientation each semester for incoming students. (shsu.edu)
- New International Student Orientation is mandatory for all incoming international students. (shsu.edu)
- Students retrieve their residence hall room key, student ID, and printed orientation schedule. (clarkson.edu)
- Excitement filled the air as thousands of first-year students, together with their parents and family members, made their way to the University of the Western Cape (UWC) for the start of Orientation 2015. (uwc.ac.za)
- All Duquesne students have access to Essentials in Online Learning at Duquesne , an informative orientation experience designed to help prepare students to be effective online learners. (duq.edu)
- The Office of First-Year Orientation supports new students with their intellectual, social, emotional, and cultural transition to campus. (cmu.edu)
- The university's best-in-class Orientation program is supported by a team of professional staff and upper-class student leadership, including Head Orientation Counselors (HOCs) , Orientation Leaders (OLs) and Orientation Counselors (OCs) , and partner with Residential Education staff, including Housefellows , Community Advisors (CAs) and Resident Assistants (RAs) , to support students' transition to CMU. (cmu.edu)
- Each Head Orientation Counselor works with a specific housing community to support students in that residential community through the Orientation program. (cmu.edu)
- OCs are assigned to a specific housing community and floor and serve as a main point of contact for first-year students during the Orientation program. (cmu.edu)
- Community Immersion Orientation Trips, along with orientation trips organized by the Bowdoin Outing Club , provide first-year students with an introduction to the Bowdoin community that challenges them and engages them in existing and emerging areas of interest. (bowdoin.edu)
- Many students who have taken part in the Community Immersion Orientation Trips program often go on to become Orientation Trip leaders and help first-year students begin to navigate college life and the local community. (bowdoin.edu)
- This session, for all new students, will provide information about expectations during Orientation, an overview of the Family Welcome Session, and details about Opening Convocation. (gettysburg.edu)
- Students will assemble in Orientation Groups to meet their Orientation Leader & Resident Assistant. (gettysburg.edu)
- Commuter students should check their Gettysburg email for their Orientation Group assignment. (gettysburg.edu)
- There will be snacks, board games and crafts for siblings as parents will be attending an information session, and new students will be meeting with their orientation group. (gettysburg.edu)
- Online students are invited to attend a Virtual Orientation on Saturday, October 21, from 10:00am-11:15am (MST). (rmcad.edu)
- Prior to attending the campus orientation, all students are required to complete their online orientation, RMCAD Launch/Pre-Orientation. (rmcad.edu)
- The Campus Orientation is for on campus students taking classes on ground. (rmcad.edu)
- Online students taking classes strictly online do not need to attend the Campus Orientation, but can attend the Virtual Orientation and do need to complete their RMCAD Launch before starting classes. (rmcad.edu)
- Orientation is meant for students who will be taking on-campus classes during their time at RMCAD. (rmcad.edu)
- New Student Orientation, a mandatory program for all new students, will help smooth your transition to college life and New York Tech. We'll introduce you to the larger New York Tech community and show you how to navigate the campus resources and services that will help you to succeed in your college career. (nyit.edu)
- All students must complete the math assessment one to two days prior to your scheduled orientation session. (bradley.edu)
- Who should attend the New Student Campus Orientation? (rmcad.edu)
- Why is it important for me to attend Orientation? (rmcad.edu)
- Attend the virtual New Student Orientation Kick-off Event on June 28. (nyit.edu)
- Attend an in-person event to get to know your Orientation Leaders and future classmates. (nyit.edu)
- This report describes research designed to evaluate sexual behavior and orientation questions for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). (cdc.gov)
- Questions for Kevin Heslin, Health Statistician and Lead Author of "Sexual Orientation Differences in Access to Care and Health Status, Behaviors, and Beliefs: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Survey of Family Growth, and National Health Interview Survey. (cdc.gov)
- These orientation s are offered through the Bearkat Orientation Program, not Global Engagement Center. (shsu.edu)
- Your academic program may feature additional orientation processes and support resources to help you get started. (duq.edu)
- HOCs play a significant student leadership role in the First-Year Orientation program and support the professional staff team in planning and implementing the program. (cmu.edu)
- Head Orientation Counselors have significant student leadership experience on campus and most have served the Orientation program for several years in preparation for the role. (cmu.edu)
- Orientation Leaders have typically served the Orientation program as an Orientation Counselor prior to assuming this position. (cmu.edu)
- Sexual orientation is the emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction that a person feels toward another person. (kidshealth.org)
- OLs provide support to the Head Orientation Counselors in the planning and implementation of signature Orientation programs and provide guidance and mentorship to several Orientation Counselors on their teams. (cmu.edu)
- Orientation is an important event that will connect you with key staff members and prepare you for your first week of classes. (rmcad.edu)
- Automated identification of leukocyte subsets improves standardization of database-guided expert-supervised diagnostic orientation in acute leukemia: a EuroFlow study. (bvsalud.org)
- 0.75 in BM) and resulted in highly concordant classification of leukemic cells by our previously published automated database-guided expert-supervised orientation tool for immunophenotypic diagnosis and classification of acute leukemia (Compass tool). (bvsalud.org)
- and the presence of a homosexual orientation does not result in a homosexual behavior. (bvsalud.org)
- Orientation registration is now open and the sessions listed below are available to register for. (bradley.edu)
- For future versions it is planned to add support for other drivers, allowing for PDF orientation to be set in (x)dvipdfmx and pdfmode pdf T e X using the same commands from the user perspective. (ctan.org)
- Fears of prejudice, rejection, or bullying can lead people who aren't straight to keep their sexual orientation secret, even from friends and family who might support them. (kidshealth.org)
- Before registering for an orientation session, talk with the up to four guests who can come with you, and discuss the dates that works best for everyone. (bradley.edu)
- Members of the incoming class of The Clarkson School can find their orientation schedule on the TCS webpage . (clarkson.edu)
- Head Orientation Counselors provide supervision and mentorship to teams of Orientation Leaders and Orientation Counselors within their housing community. (cmu.edu)
- The orientation registration link will appear on your Bradley Bound Page within 24 hours of activating your BUnetID. (bradley.edu)
- Biological theories regarding GLB sexuality attempt to link sexual orientation with DNA markers on the X chromosome or to demonstrate that in utero maternal hormones have an effect on sexual orientation. (medscape.com)
- This package provides commands for manual (per-page and per-document) orientation of pages in a PDF created with dvips / Ghostscript (ps2pdf). (ctan.org)
- Within two weeks, you will need to contact the orientation office for any changes. (bradley.edu)
- Watch this video to learn more about the Online Learning Orientation Experience that you will have access to as a member of the Duquesne community. (duq.edu)
- Affiliate Summit co-founder Shawn Collins will lead an orientation session for first time attendees at Affiliate Summit West 2013. (slideshare.net)
- Once you begin the registration process, we will ask you to select an orientation session. (bradley.edu)
- A 72-hour cancellation notice BEFORE the assigned Orientation session begins is required for a refund. (bradley.edu)
- When are the Fall A Virtual Orientations? (rmcad.edu)
- Those with an "intrinsic religious" orientation dedicated their life to God or a higher power and reported they were less afraid of death and experienced greater feelings of well-being than people who fit into the "extrinsic religious" category of using religion for external ends, such as a way to make friends or increase community social standing, Ardelt said. (news-medical.net)
- College is an exciting time, and Eagle View Orientation (EVO, as we call it) provides the gateway to making the most of your FGCU experience. (fgcu.edu)
- I've designed quite a few orientation programs and in my view responsibility for the first day and the first week on the job are too important to delegate to human resources or to devote to "reading the manual. (ere.net)
- The study underscores the need to distinguish between "intrinsic" and "extrinsic" religious orientations when looking at the effects of religiosity on people's attitudes toward death and feelings of well-being, Ardelt said. (news-medical.net)
- In 1990, Ramafedi et al conducted the Demography of Sexual Orientation in Adolescents study. (medscape.com)
- The present study investigated the effect of a warning sound on the speed of response to a subsequent target sound (Experiment 1) and a possible influence of this type of cue sound on the auditory orientation of attention (Experiment 2). (bvsalud.org)
- Head Orientation Counselors provide leadership, logistics and planning for specific programs during Orientation week. (cmu.edu)
- To begin with it is important for you, as a manager, to know why the orientation has so much impact. (ere.net)
- Campus Orientation will be on Saturday, October 21, from 11:15am-1:45pm. (rmcad.edu)
- Goals of Great Orientation Programs Most orientation programs entail little more than putting a tape in the VCR. (ere.net)
- Programmatic Details which has information on orientation roommates, programmatic start and finish times and more. (bradley.edu)
- The CDC Library offers library orientation and tours for individuals or groups, both internal and external to CDC. (cdc.gov)
- Every manager needs to approach orientation using his or her own style but there are some things that most managers should include. (ere.net)
- Do People Choose Their Sexual Orientation? (kidshealth.org)
- This research deals with the male homosexuality as seen from the aspects behavior, orientation and identity, showing that these aspects are not necessarily altogether present in all manifestations of the male homosexuality. (bvsalud.org)